# INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH

Int. J. Energy Res. 2016; 40:100–111
Published online 23 January 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/er.3286

Modeling and simulation of diesel, biodiesel and biogas
mixtures driven compression ignition internal
combustion engines
Vilmar Graciano1, Jose Viriato C. Vargas1,*,† and Juan C. Ordonez2
1
Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica (PGMEC) e Núcleo de Pesquisa e
Desenvolvimento em Energia Auto–Sustentável (NPDEAS), UFPR – Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR 81531-980, Brazil
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy and Sustainability Center and Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State
University, Tallahassee, FL 32310-6046, USA

SUMMARY
This paper introduces a general mathematical model for compression ignition internal combustion engines driven by diesel,
biodiesel, and/or biogas. The model is written for dynamic and steady state operation and combines principles of classical
thermodynamics and heat transfer, with the use of empirical and theoretical correlations for simplicity, in order to quickly
assess the potential of new fuel mixtures such as microalgae-derived biodiesel and biogas to feed the compression ignition
internal combustion engines. Geometric and operating parameters (e.g., rpm, piston and cylinder diameter, stroke, engine
operating temperature, engine compression ratio, and air-to-fuel ratio) are the basis for the model equations, which are ca-
pable of calculating the engine mean indicated pressure, indicated power, and indicated torque with respect to crank speed.
Friction losses are quantiﬁed based on existing empirical correlations for engines with direct fuel injection, so that engine
net power and torque are also assessed. The model was adjusted and experimentally validated by direct comparison of the
obtained results to previously published experimental data, and engine nominal curves. The simulations show the follow-
ing: (i) using only biodiesel, the engine power reduces about 1.0%, and the fuel consumption rises about 12.0% with re-
spect to fossil diesel; (ii) using only natural gas, the engine power reduces about 2.0%, and the fuel consumption
reduces about 13.0% with respect to fossil diesel; and (iii) fuel mixtures using 50% of biodiesel and/or 50.0% of natural
gas produce power values within 1.0% when compared to each other. The obtained numerical results demonstrate that
the model is expected to be an important and simple tool for design, control, and optimization of compression ignition en-
gines driven by diesel, biodiesel, and biogas fuel mixtures, due to the combination of accuracy with low computational

KEY WORDS
mathematical model; biofuel mixtures; engine parametric analysis; model experimental validation

Correspondence
*Jose Viriato C. Vargas, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica (PGMEC)
e Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Auto–Sustentável (NPDEAS), UFPR – Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP
19011, 81531–980, Curitiba, PR, Brasil.

E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

Received 31 August 2014; Revised 27 October 2014; Accepted 23 November 2014

1. INTRODUCTION projects, due to their high production capacity of vegetable
oils. They present high growth rate, even at low solar light
The search for alternative and possibly clean energy sources and CO2 levels, and thus are more photosynthetically efﬁ-
has deﬁnitely gained momentum all over the world since the cient than oil crops [1].
past decade. The increasing energy demands, predicted fossil Figure 1 shows the ﬂowchart of one of such projects,
fuels shortage in the near future, and environmental concerns which is under development at the Center for Sustainable
due to the production of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide on Energy Research and Development, Federal University of
their combustion are the main reasons for such global effort. Parana, Curitiba, Brazil. The proposed sustainable energy
Among several sun driven energy sources, microalgae plant consists of the integration of several engineering sub-
are currently the basis of many alternative energy ongoing systems. The main objective is to demonstrate that a mid-

ters for maximum efﬁciency. and the engine cooling water for ambient high density microalgae biomass production is attained. and followed by experimental validation. adequacy of trigeneration systems for remote locations In such context. Energy Res. heating. V. biodiesel. respectively. for the tri and simple from the PBR. and used the exhaust gases to power an absorp- ethanol. However. In the photobioreactors (PBR). tion refrigerator. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation V. The produced biodiesel and biogas are then used emissions of the CI-ICE in simple and trigeneration opera- to fuel a trigenset (electricity. Microalgae derived sustainable energy plant ﬂowchart. that is. [3] analyzed a trigeneration system powered by a natural General Motors has used KIVA in the development of Int. The experimental work reported optimal parame- followed by a sequence of unit operations. Graciano. For example. and the possi- microalgae-derived biodiesel and biogas. that is. an generation systems. using indirect biophotolysis. to-high energy demand industrial facility could operate with gas internal combustion engines (ICE). and the nitrates/phosphate rich efﬂuents are used haust gases heat for the manufacturing process in which as microalgae nutrients in the PBR. The extracted oil undergoes a and economical gains were obtained. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. and CO2 emission level was 0. Temir and Bilge more fuel efﬁcient and cleaner burning. However. in all such studies. based trigenset using new fuel mixtures. and cooling) whose tion.1211 kg CO2 growth. Katri et al. is the so called KIVA. analysis of a 25 MW turbo and intercooled CI-ICE cogen- due is currently directed to a biodigester for biogas pro. J. Ltd. and biohydrogen). LANL [6]. C. the cogeneration Alamos National Laboratory. J. heating. The study introduced a mathematical model residue could be used for ethanol. the most famous and widely used ICE development code tion (CI) engines is herein conducted.Diesel. that is. 2016. which was developed by Los Aiming at better use of energy sources. the performance of the diesel cycle and sustainable applications. Ordonez Figure 1.1002/er .6% and emissions are then used as CO2 source for microalgae 33. food supplements. Signiﬁcant efﬁciency animal feed production. a brief review on the current main Considering ICE modeling and simulation. C. KIVA is an ICE and trigeneration-based CI engines strategy has been modeling tool designed to help make automotive engines proposed in several studies. 101 DOI: 10. Similarly. Therefore. The results conﬁrm the aerobic/anaerobic intermittent cycle strategy [2].308 kg CO2 kWh-1. eration system that generates electricity and uses the ex- duction. signed and experimentally investigated performance and esters). Abusoglu and separation by centrifugation.. The net efﬁciency with full load reached 82. and solvent-based lipid Kanoglu [4] developed an exergetic and thermoeconomic extraction. The nonfat and carbohydrate/protein rich resi. [5] de- transesteriﬁcation reaction for biodiesel production (ethyl.7%. needs to be ble use of alternative fuels was not addressed. the only steady state operation was investigated. possibly. Vargas and J.g. harvesting. trends in research and development of compression igni. electricity. Biohydrogen production is also possible directly kWh-1 and 0. For example. assessed. which generated locally produced microalgae-derived biofuels (e. the nonfat it is installed. drying.

ef is the cylinder FC ¼ 3600 N cyl (35) Δt ec mean effective pressure.p N cyl _ ef ¼ W (32) complementary algebraic equations. J. (4). C. fr is the cylinder mean friction pressure. f r (30) Finally. and efﬁciency delivered by the engine are pm. kN m. Energy Res. 75.03 0. and by the engine. kW. C. together with W _ ef .000 N m2 [16].i  pm.ef V d A computational code for solving a system of ODEs was _ ef .04 experiments real t [s] 2 104 1500 2000 2500 3000 (b) N [rpm] (b) Figure 3. pumping) in the form of a pressure drop: 48N where W _ ef . τ ef net engine torque.01 0.1002/er . Note that a BVP is _ ef W ηef ¼ (34) what results from the formulation.2 25 x = 1 y = 0. Vargas and J.adm C1 is constant. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. aiming at obtaining a pressure-volume diagram of the CI-ICE. of the Lintec 4LD 2500 compression ignition internal combus- tion engine. Δtec = 2 × 60/N engine cycle 1000 duration time. (3). an initial _Qcomb thermodynamic state must be guessed to start the engine Int. and the net 3.02 0. the hourly fuel consumption (FC) is given by where pm. W _ ef represents net power delivered by one cyl- 2 pm.p ¼ W (31) Δt ec implemented in Fortran language to solve the problem for- mulated by Eqs. ηef net engine efﬁciency. mf . V. (9). Therefore. Simulation example of compression ignition internal combustion engines dynamic response diagrams: (a) Pcyl × Vcyl Figure 4. s. Graciano. NUMERICAL METHOD power. The net power delivered by one cylinder. and (27).ef ¼ pm.5 N 3000 rpm 4 104 1500 T [K] cyl Wef [W] 1000 3 104 500 0 model modelo 0 0. Ordonez 30 11 50o 1. and Ncyl number of engine cylinders. using an adaptive time step 4th/5th order 2πN Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method [17]. 2016.Diesel. The system is 60W_ ef integrated in time from a given set of initial conditions τ ef ¼ (33) explicitly. (19). torque.0008 0. and pm. 105 DOI: 10.0012 5 V [bar] 1500 2000 2500 3000 cyl N [rpm] (a) (a) 2500 50o 1. pm. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation V.0004 0. N m2.5 10 N 3000 rpm 20 9 p [bar] 15 cyl FC [kg h -1] 8 10 7 5 6 model modelo 0 experiments real 0 0. f r ¼ C1 þ þ 0:4Sp (29) inder. used for model adjustment.p. N m2.2 2000 x = 1 y = 0. Hourly fuel consumption (a) and net power output (b) and (b) Tcyl × t. J.

The four strokes (admission. dadm = 0. C.012 m (admission and exhaust the crankshaft in a four-stroke engine. the values cv.15 K. mf. The procedure is K .0 = p0Vc/R/Tw. thermodynamic cycle simulation. cp. 0.06 m. the point in the beginning of the admission is achieved.7 kJ kg.67 × 10. J. for two crankshaft spins. otherwise.diesel ¼ 293:494 kJ kmol-1 K 1 . u = mair. In mated for the ﬁve unknowns are mair.9. Tcyl.air = 1 kJ kg .125 kg m. the top dead The solution procedure started with p0 = 101. The initial values esti.0 = 0. Δψ = 50o.5 × 10 5 m2 s. C.01 or 1%). In case there is good agreement. numer- for convergence (in this study.1K  1.1002/er . Hourly fuel consumption (a) and net power output (b) Figure 5. Ordonez Diesel. the analysis starts 106 Int. R = 287 J kg. Cd = 0.air = 0. σ = 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION in which. compression. stroke was selected as the starting point. used for model experimental validation. Ltd.026 W m- 1 1 order to start the second iteration. kgas = 0. pcyl or mprod. that is. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. As a result.0 = p0. repeated until convergence is attained.300 N m2.2K  4.f .0 = 0. tol is a tolerance limit In order to indicate the validity of the assumptions. Tw = 373. ROD = 0. and exhaust) occur in two spins of tions. according to the criterion of Eq. T0 = 298. V. used for model adjustment. Energy Res. valve diameters for calculating the valve minimum opening the integration is conducted from the estimated initial values area).15 K. Net torque (a) and efﬁciency output (b) of the Lintec of the Agrale M790 compression ignition internal combustion 4LD 2500 compression ignition internal combustion engine. and so on.f . the fuel molecular formulae are assumed to be Tcyl.1 K.1K  1 . being a special process iteration counter. the correct thermodynamic state is checked through respectively.0 = Tw. center.V. are correct.1. that is.8 Wm. pcyl. The convergence to C12H23 [18] and C20H36O2 [8] for fossil diesel and biodiesel. cp. and j ≥ 0 is the ical procedure and engine characteristics.207 m. J. then the values at the end and start CS = 0. and mprod. Graciano.102 m. Vargas and J. 2016. Vc = 6.2. the previous initial values are replaced by the newly calculated ones at the end of the ﬁrst iteration in cp.3. λ = 1. this study. mf. All ﬁve unknowns need to be tested that starts and ends at the same thermodynamic state.1. and ρair = 1.biodiesel ¼ 455:18 kJ kmol-1 K 1 . 720o. are compared. in which subscript 0 refers to ambient condi- combustion/expansion. νgas = 1. engine. Pd = 0.   ujþ1  uj  εcycle ¼ ≤ tol (36) uj 4. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation Figure 6. so that convergence In this study. (36). DOI: 10.128 × 10 5 m3.