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**Int. J. Energy Res. 2016; 40:100–111
**

Published online 23 January 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/er.3286

**Modeling and simulation of diesel, biodiesel and biogas
**

mixtures driven compression ignition internal

combustion engines

Vilmar Graciano1, Jose Viriato C. Vargas1,*,† and Juan C. Ordonez2

1

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica (PGMEC) e Núcleo de Pesquisa e

Desenvolvimento em Energia Auto–Sustentável (NPDEAS), UFPR – Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR 81531-980, Brazil

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy and Sustainability Center and Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State

University, Tallahassee, FL 32310-6046, USA

SUMMARY

This paper introduces a general mathematical model for compression ignition internal combustion engines driven by diesel,

biodiesel, and/or biogas. The model is written for dynamic and steady state operation and combines principles of classical

thermodynamics and heat transfer, with the use of empirical and theoretical correlations for simplicity, in order to quickly

assess the potential of new fuel mixtures such as microalgae-derived biodiesel and biogas to feed the compression ignition

internal combustion engines. Geometric and operating parameters (e.g., rpm, piston and cylinder diameter, stroke, engine

operating temperature, engine compression ratio, and air-to-fuel ratio) are the basis for the model equations, which are ca-

pable of calculating the engine mean indicated pressure, indicated power, and indicated torque with respect to crank speed.

Friction losses are quantiﬁed based on existing empirical correlations for engines with direct fuel injection, so that engine

net power and torque are also assessed. The model was adjusted and experimentally validated by direct comparison of the

obtained results to previously published experimental data, and engine nominal curves. The simulations show the follow-

ing: (i) using only biodiesel, the engine power reduces about 1.0%, and the fuel consumption rises about 12.0% with re-

spect to fossil diesel; (ii) using only natural gas, the engine power reduces about 2.0%, and the fuel consumption

reduces about 13.0% with respect to fossil diesel; and (iii) fuel mixtures using 50% of biodiesel and/or 50.0% of natural

gas produce power values within 1.0% when compared to each other. The obtained numerical results demonstrate that

the model is expected to be an important and simple tool for design, control, and optimization of compression ignition en-

gines driven by diesel, biodiesel, and biogas fuel mixtures, due to the combination of accuracy with low computational

time. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEY WORDS

mathematical model; biofuel mixtures; engine parametric analysis; model experimental validation

Correspondence

*Jose Viriato C. Vargas, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica (PGMEC)

e Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Auto–Sustentável (NPDEAS), UFPR – Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP

19011, 81531–980, Curitiba, PR, Brasil.

†

E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

Received 31 August 2014; Revised 27 October 2014; Accepted 23 November 2014

**1. INTRODUCTION projects, due to their high production capacity of vegetable
**

oils. They present high growth rate, even at low solar light

The search for alternative and possibly clean energy sources and CO2 levels, and thus are more photosynthetically efﬁ-

has deﬁnitely gained momentum all over the world since the cient than oil crops [1].

past decade. The increasing energy demands, predicted fossil Figure 1 shows the ﬂowchart of one of such projects,

fuels shortage in the near future, and environmental concerns which is under development at the Center for Sustainable

due to the production of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide on Energy Research and Development, Federal University of

their combustion are the main reasons for such global effort. Parana, Curitiba, Brazil. The proposed sustainable energy

Among several sun driven energy sources, microalgae plant consists of the integration of several engineering sub-

are currently the basis of many alternative energy ongoing systems. The main objective is to demonstrate that a mid-

100 Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

ters for maximum efﬁciency. and the engine cooling water for ambient high density microalgae biomass production is attained. and followed by experimental validation. adequacy of trigeneration systems for remote locations In such context. Energy Res. heating. V. biodiesel. respectively. for the tri and simple from the PBR. and used the exhaust gases to power an absorp- ethanol. However. In the photobioreactors (PBR). tion refrigerator. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation V. The produced biodiesel and biogas are then used emissions of the CI-ICE in simple and trigeneration opera- to fuel a trigenset (electricity. Microalgae derived sustainable energy plant ﬂowchart. that is. [3] analyzed a trigeneration system powered by a natural General Motors has used KIVA in the development of Int. The experimental work reported optimal parame- followed by a sequence of unit operations. Graciano. For example. and the possi- microalgae-derived biodiesel and biogas. that is. an generation systems. using indirect biophotolysis. to-high energy demand industrial facility could operate with gas internal combustion engines (ICE). and the nitrates/phosphate rich efﬂuents are used haust gases heat for the manufacturing process in which as microalgae nutrients in the PBR. The extracted oil undergoes a and economical gains were obtained. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. and CO2 emission level was 0. Temir and Bilge more fuel efﬁcient and cleaner burning. However. in all such studies. based trigenset using new fuel mixtures. and cooling) whose tion.1211 kg CO2 growth. Katri et al. is the so called KIVA. analysis of a 25 MW turbo and intercooled CI-ICE cogen- due is currently directed to a biodigester for biogas pro. J. Ltd. and biohydrogen). LANL [6]. C. the cogeneration Alamos National Laboratory. J. heating. The study introduced a mathematical model residue could be used for ethanol. the most famous and widely used ICE development code tion (CI) engines is herein conducted.Diesel. that is. 2016. which was developed by Los Aiming at better use of energy sources. the performance of the diesel cycle and sustainable applications. Ordonez Figure 1.1002/er .6% and emissions are then used as CO2 source for microalgae 33. food supplements. Signiﬁcant efﬁciency animal feed production. a brief review on the current main Considering ICE modeling and simulation. C. KIVA is an ICE and trigeneration-based CI engines strategy has been modeling tool designed to help make automotive engines proposed in several studies. 101 DOI: 10. Similarly. Therefore. The results conﬁrm the aerobic/anaerobic intermittent cycle strategy [2].308 kg CO2 kWh-1. eration system that generates electricity and uses the ex- duction. signed and experimentally investigated performance and esters). Abusoglu and separation by centrifugation.. The net efﬁciency with full load reached 82. and solvent-based lipid Kanoglu [4] developed an exergetic and thermoeconomic extraction. The nonfat and carbohydrate/protein rich resi. [5] de- transesteriﬁcation reaction for biodiesel production (ethyl.7%. needs to be ble use of alternative fuels was not addressed. the only steady state operation was investigated. possibly. Vargas and J.g. harvesting. trends in research and development of compression igni. electricity. Biohydrogen production is also possible directly kWh-1 and 0. For example. assessed. which generated locally produced microalgae-derived biofuels (e. the nonfat it is installed. drying.

there is a need for the develop- vehicle performance. concluding that the 1. and bioethanol–diesel. Rakopoulos and Giakoumis [7] presented and discussed Besides the impact on CI-ICE performance that the some of the most important ﬁndings in the ﬁeld during change in fossil diesel could cause. ticated one was used to determine the heat of combustion. such as second-law analysis. should be amended. natural gas diesel en- gine. do exist. biodiesel. J. The mathematical methyl ester biofuels. ties certainly require the research and development of ade- tion. MATHEMATICAL MODEL tion. (ii) adjust and biodiesel blends up to 15% bioethanol concentration (v/v) experimentally validate the model. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. C. a separate consideration for the processes in each cylinder during a cycle (‘multi-cylin- der’ model) and a mathematical simulation of the fuel pump. Irreversibilities of all processes and devices after a ramp increase in load were quantiﬁed. J. In that direction. by including a detailed analysis of mechanical friction. Another study considered the problems of adapting diesel Figure 2 shows the CI-ICE working space. which includes mathematical models to engines converted to rapeseed oil the piston head and cylinder walls. Figure 2. also using experimental assessments. and (iii) perform a CI- with an increment of 5%. Entropy generation in CI-ICE has been considered in several previous works. Ltd. which was experimentally tested. plications for the dynamic simulation of the 4-stroke CI Similarly. stratiﬁed charge gasoline engines as well turbocharger irreversibility production is analysed using as the fast burn. pilot ignited. such as combustion chambers and fuel bocharger compressor experiences surge. V. They considered biodiesel and A recent and comprehensive work by Isermann [14] pre- its blends and developed a cycle simulation model incorpo. the new fuels proper- the last 30 years related to transient diesel engine simula. is required for accuracy [11]. Vargas and J. injection timing. such as the work plex codes for CI-ICE simulation. [12]. A one-dimensional mathematical ICE parametric analysis to illustrate model utilization. by considering neat mineral diesel. A simple mathe. However. and maximum injection pressure. 2016. Cummins reduced development time and cost by ibilities develop in a different manner compared to the respec- 10–15% to develop high-efﬁciency diesel engines [6]. tive steady state. They applied a two-zone phenomenological model on a high-speed. control and optimization purposes. and reported the relative impact of the mentioned pa- rameters on performance and exhaust emissions. as well model to predict the effect of engine speed and compres.1. Graciano. only fossil diesel was analyzed. 102 Int. as engine control. However. the most recent rating a thermodynamic-based single zone combustion advances in modeling and identiﬁcation methods. but a more sophis. C. and bioethanol– by diesel. Actually. and the working ﬂuid potential gas/diesel engines) has been a common practice and the and kinetic energy variations are neglected with respect to subject of numerous articles. Jimenez Based on the bibliographic review. followed by experimental validation. such as by Papagiannakis internal energy variation. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation direct-injection. and whole nozzles. Objectives equivalence ratio and combustion temperature are the highest impacting parameters on performance.V. and existing complex models Regarding CI engines operating with new and alterna. model was used. [9] studied the CI-ICE fed with engine with alternative fuels (including combustion) are soy oil and diesel mixtures (5–30% w/w). such as KIVA. and concluded that the addition of bioethanol to biodiesel and to diesel reduces fuelling. injection dura. ment of detailed models. Giakoumis and Andritsakis [13] introduced a computer model to study the dynamic response of a turbocharged diesel engine using the ﬁrst-law and second-law of thermodynamics. of Gogoi and Baruah [8]. [10] numerically studied the inﬂuence of bioethanol search needs on the subject. reliable and effective com- tive fuels.1002/er . et al. Energy Res. Compression ignition internal combustion engines The contribution of combustion. sents the basic fundamentals of ICE. needed for the simulation of the four-stroke CI engine for matical model was used for the engine. and the identiﬁed re- et al. manifolds. Bueno et al. the use of pure natural the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder are uni- gas or mixed with conventional diesel (dual fuel natural form in the working space. and working space schematic diagram. Also. a few studies could be cited. neat biodiesel mathematical model for four-stroke CI engines powered from rapeseed oil. response when the tur. DOI: 10. 2. Ordonez Diesel. aftercooler. mean injection rate. model was developed with the following assumptions: concluding that adjustment of the algorithm for calculating ideal gas behavior is assumed for the working ﬂuid mixture the induction period and the on-set phase of fuel injection (reactants and products) inside the cylinder in all strokes. For example. quate components. the following objectives are addition to diesel and biodiesel fuel on the injection deﬁned for this study: (i) develop a simpliﬁed dynamic process. homogeneous-charge gasoline engine detailed diagrams revealing that transient in-cylinder irrevers- [6]. fast and accurate computer ap- sion ratio on brake power and brake thermal efﬁciency. and biogas mixtures.

lation [15]. cp.Q_ conv þ Q_ rad (12) Q_ conv ¼ hconv Acyl T cyl -T w (13) mgm Rgm T cyl pcyl ¼ (6) V cyl 4=5 kgas hconv ¼ 0:023ðReÞPd ð PrÞ1=3 (14) Pd with Sp Pd ðReÞPd ¼ (15) Rgm ¼ cp. which is the engine cylinder walls. C. and H cyl ¼ROD þ CSð1. kJ kg1 K1.f T cyl m_ f dV π ðPd Þ2 dT cyl ¼ V cyl ¼ H cyl (2) dt cv. mf mass of injected hf (T) air or products.air T cyl m_ air -cv. or volume). Admission and exhaust strokes and during the exhaust stroke The admitted instantaneous air mass and mass ﬂow rate to ! or from the cylinder are obtained from Q_ w -pcyl dtcyl hprod. Amin represents in which hair. C.air mprod dmi ¼ m_ i ¼ ð1Þj Cd Amin 2ρ p0 -pcyl air (3) dt (9b) with j = 1 (exhaust) and 2 (admission).out mi mass of substance i in the cylinder.gm (7) νgas ðCSÞN n Sp ¼ (16) ∑ xi M i cj. cj. m2.f represents air and fuel spe- ciﬁc heat at constant pressure. the injected instantaneous fuel mass and mass ﬂow rate are calculated by hf ðT Þ ¼ cp. tively. and Q_ w_ is the heat transfer rate through (exhaust products).gm T cyl ¼ n (8) ∑ xi M i π P2d Acyl ¼ π Pd H cyl þ (17) i¼1 4 in which Rgm represents gas mixture constant. kg s1. kg. respec- fuel.1002/er .in and hf. Cd discharge coefﬁcient. kg s1.Diesel.out m_ prod -cv.gm(Tcyl) gas mixture speciﬁc inder and the instantaneous working space volume are heat at constant j (= pressure or volume). and ρair. for temperature T are evaluated as follows: simplicity. kJ kg1 K1. kg.in m_ f þ hair.i(Tcyl) speciﬁc heat of substance i at constant j (= pressure Q_ rad ¼ εw Acyl σ T 4cyl -T 4w (18) Int. J. m_ i mass ﬂow rate are products output speciﬁc enthalpy during the exhaust of substance i. The instantaneous total mass of gas mixture inside the The heat transfer rate from or to the cylinder walls is cylinder is therefore calculated by adding the radiation and convection contri- butions. kg kmol1. enthalpy during the admission stroke.The instantaneous pressure inside the cylinder is given by Q_ w ¼ .air ðT Þ (10) Therefore. kJ kg1 K1. Ordonez The position of the piston relative to the top of the cyl.air mair þ mprod þ cv. kJ kg1 K1. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons.gm -cv. cp. Graciano. kW.in m_ air -cv. Mi given by represents molecular mass of substance i. 2016.in are the air and fuel input speciﬁc valve minimum opening area. 103 DOI: 10. products. f mf 4 (9a) 2. and m_ f injected fuel mass ﬂow rate. which are assumed as the predominant heat mgm ¼ mf þ mair (5) transfer modes in the process. in which i = air (admission) or prod stroke.1. utilized as the density of substance i as an approximation The air. and fuel speciﬁc enthalpies. kJ kg1 K1. Ltd. The resulting equations are given as follows: kg. Energy Res. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ A balance of energy applied to the working space dur- . air density.cosðθÞÞ (1) xi molar fraction of substance i. and fuel speciﬁc enthalpies at any both during the admission and exhaust strokes.ROD2 -ðCSÞ2 sin2 ðθÞ ing the admission stroke states that ! ! Q_ w -pcyl dtcyl þ hf . V. The convection heat transfer coefﬁcient is evaluated using the Dittus and Boelter corre- where mgm is the total mass of gas mixture in the cylinder. hi ðT Þ ¼ cp.i T cyl 60 i¼1 cj.air. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation V.f ðT Þ (11) dmf m_ air ¼ m_ f ¼ (4) dt AFR where i = air or prod. Vargas and J. cj.air T cyl m_ prod dV dT cyl ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ dt cv. kJ kg1. kJ kg1. kg m3. J. hprod. and hi(T) and where AFR represents air-to-fuel ratio.

Δtcomb combustion time (duration). which expresses the losses (e. Compression and expansion strokes with In the compression and expansion strokes. εw cylinder molar enthalpies. Graciano. and biogas (mixture of methane and carbon kW. Note that. biodiesel. walls emissivity. kW m2 K4. 2016. rad. Compression ignition internal mixture. kg kmol1. a and Wi is the cylinder indicated work. (6)–(8).gm number of atoms in the biodiesel molecule. K. During combustion. Tcyl. kg. kW. kW m1 K1. and c balanced coefﬁcients in the combustion reaction.i ¼ (28) metric and real and λ as the inverse of the equivalence ratio Vd (or excessive air ratio). stoichio. biodiesel fraction in total fuel mixture. kJ kmol1 and hprod .V. radiation. is written as follows: angle span. and mf. Pr gas mixture Prandtl number. and mgm. The cylinder mean friction pressure is obtained using The heat released by the combustion in molar basis is empirical correlations for ICE engines with direct injection the difference between the speciﬁc molar enthalpy of of fuel [16]. Tw cylinder wall temperature. kW m2 K1. DOI: 10. Q_ conv . ðReÞP Qcomb ¼ hprod . J. During combustion. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation where Acyl represents cylinder heat transfer area. N m2. Q_ rad .i is the cylinder mean indicated pressure. where Q_ comb represents heat of combustion per unit of time. the working space is treated ðz MCH4 þ ð1 zÞ M CO2 Þg as a closed system.4. C.The heat dT cyl Q_ w W _p of combustion per unit of time is calculated as follows: ¼ (19) dt mgm. hconv products and reactants. N crank angular speed. Energy Res. a balance of energy applied to the working space states that where Qcomb represents heat of combustion. Ordonez Diesel. friction and 104 Int. α and β carbon and hydrogen number of atoms in the diesel molecule. the working ﬂuid temperature. Vargas and J. s. molar by convection. 60 Δψ Δtcomb ¼ (26) 2πN 2. and ζ represents carbon. a. kJ. Combustion The combustion reaction. b. Note that only theoretical and excess air conditions where pm. with the admission M f ¼ y M biodiesel þ ð1-yÞ fx M diesel þ ð1-xÞ (24) and expansion valves closed. and σ Stefan–Boltzmann constant. a balance of energy and the equa- yCδ Hζ Oξ þ ð1 yÞ xCα Hβ þ ð1 xÞ ½zCH4 þ ð1 zÞ CO2 tion of state for ideal gases state that the instantaneous þλaðO2 þ 3.1002/er .3.g. kg.adm in which admitted air and fuel total mass (gas mixture) by the end of the admission stroke (θ = 90o). m2..gm dV cyl dt where δ. combustion engines output variables AFRr The cylinder mean indicated pressure is calculated as λ¼ (21) AFRst follows: where AFRst. products’ composition analysis is necessary. kJ kmol1. Δψ combustion dioxide) in the fuel mixture. νgas gas mixture kinematic viscosity. the pressure is also calculated using Eqs. kJ kg1 and Mi as molecular mass of substance i. C. (λ ≥ 1) are considered by Eq. (20). oxygen.2. and hydrogen ¼ (27) dt V cyl cv. and total. x diesel fraction in the diesel/biogas mixture.adm total mass of admitted fuel at the end of the admission stroke (θ = 90o). kJ. which is given as follows: convection heat transfer coefﬁcient.adm cv. considering the existence of die. ξ. Sp average piston basis.gm Q Q_ comb ¼ mf . kgas gas mixture thermal conductivity. hreac as products and reactants speed. Qcomb ¼ (23) Mf 2. rpm. 76N2 Þ→bCO2 þ cH2 O þ 3. J. sel. y is calculated using Eqs. V. Qcomb m2 s1. under a no leak assumption. Ltd. 6–(8). 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. m s1. For low air (λ < 1). adm comb (25) Δt comb where W _ p ¼ pcyl cyl represents consumed power (compres- dV dt sion) or produced (expansion) by the piston. Therefore.hreac (22) d piston diameter Reynolds number based on piston diame- ter. AFRr represents air-to-fuel ratios. 76λaN2 (20) pressure inside the cylinder is given by þðλ 1Þ a O2 (20) dpcyl Rgm Q_ comb þ Q_ w -pcyl dt Rgm dV cyl pcyl cv. and z methane fraction in biogas 2. Wi pm. and Q_ w cylinder walls heat transfer rate where Qcomb represents combustion released heat.

ef is the cylinder FC ¼ 3600 N cyl (35) Δt ec mean effective pressure.p N cyl _ ef ¼ W (32) complementary algebraic equations. J. (4). C. fr is the cylinder mean friction pressure. f r (30) Finally. and efﬁciency delivered by the engine are pm. kN m. Energy Res. 75.03 0. and by the engine. kW. C. together with W _ ef .000 N m2 [16].i pm.ef V d A computational code for solving a system of ODEs was _ ef .04 experiments real t [s] 2 104 1500 2000 2500 3000 (b) N [rpm] (b) Figure 3. pumping) in the form of a pressure drop: 48N where W _ ef . τ ef net engine torque.01 0.1002/er . Note that a BVP is _ ef W ηef ¼ (34) what results from the formulation.2 25 x = 1 y = 0. Vargas and J.adm C1 is constant. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. aiming at obtaining a pressure-volume diagram of the CI-ICE. of the Lintec 4LD 2500 compression ignition internal combus- tion engine. Δtec = 2 × 60/N engine cycle 1000 duration time. (3). an initial _Qcomb thermodynamic state must be guessed to start the engine Int. and the net 3.02 0. the hourly fuel consumption (FC) is given by where pm. W _ ef represents net power delivered by one cyl- 2 pm.p ¼ W (31) Δt ec implemented in Fortran language to solve the problem for- mulated by Eqs. ηef net engine efﬁciency. mf . V. (9). Therefore. Simulation example of compression ignition internal combustion engines dynamic response diagrams: (a) Pcyl × Vcyl Figure 4. s. Graciano. NUMERICAL METHOD power. The net power delivered by one cylinder. and (27).ef ¼ pm.5 N 3000 rpm 4 104 1500 T [K] cyl Wef [W] 1000 3 104 500 0 model modelo 0 0. Ordonez 30 11 50o 1. and Ncyl number of engine cylinders. using an adaptive time step 4th/5th order 2πN Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method [17]. 2016.Diesel. The system is 60W_ ef integrated in time from a given set of initial conditions τ ef ¼ (33) explicitly. (19). torque.0008 0. and pm. 105 DOI: 10.0012 5 V [bar] 1500 2000 2500 3000 cyl N [rpm] (a) (a) 2500 50o 1. pm. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation V.0004 0. N m2.5 10 N 3000 rpm 20 9 p [bar] 15 cyl FC [kg h -1] 8 10 7 5 6 model modelo 0 experiments real 0 0. f r ¼ C1 þ þ 0:4Sp (29) inder. used for model adjustment.p. N m2.2 2000 x = 1 y = 0. Hourly fuel consumption (a) and net power output (b) and (b) Tcyl × t. J.

The four strokes (admission. dadm = 0. C.012 m (admission and exhaust the crankshaft in a four-stroke engine. the values cv.15 K. mf. The procedure is K .0 = p0Vc/R/Tw. thermodynamic cycle simulation. cp. 0.06 m. the point in the beginning of the admission is achieved.7 kJ kg.67 × 10. J. for two crankshaft spins. otherwise.diesel ¼ 293:494 kJ kmol-1 K 1 . u = mair. In mated for the ﬁve unknowns are mair.9. Tcyl.air = 1 kJ kg .125 kg m. the top dead The solution procedure started with p0 = 101. The initial values esti.0 = 0. Δψ = 50o.5 × 10 5 m2 s. C.01 or 1%). In case there is good agreement. numer- for convergence (in this study.1K 1.1002/er . Hourly fuel consumption (a) and net power output (b) Figure 5. Ordonez Diesel. the analysis starts 106 Int. R = 287 J kg. Cd = 0.air = 0. σ = 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION in which. compression. stroke was selected as the starting point. used for model experimental validation. Ltd.026 W m- 1 1 order to start the second iteration. kgas = 0. pcyl or mprod. that is. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. As a result.0 = p0. repeated until convergence is attained.300 N m2.2K 4.f .0 = 0. tol is a tolerance limit In order to indicate the validity of the assumptions. Tw = 373. ROD = 0. and exhaust) occur in two spins of tions. according to the criterion of Eq. T0 = 298. V. used for model adjustment. Energy Res. valve diameters for calculating the valve minimum opening the integration is conducted from the estimated initial values area).15 K. Net torque (a) and efﬁciency output (b) of the Lintec of the Agrale M790 compression ignition internal combustion 4LD 2500 compression ignition internal combustion engine. and so on.f . the fuel molecular formulae are assumed to be Tcyl.1 K.1K 1 . being a special process iteration counter. the correct thermodynamic state is checked through respectively.0 = Tw. center.V. are correct.1. that is.8 Wm. pcyl. The convergence to C12H23 [18] and C20H36O2 [8] for fossil diesel and biodiesel. cp. and j ≥ 0 is the ical procedure and engine characteristics.207 m. J. then the values at the end and start CS = 0. and mprod. Graciano.102 m. Vargas and J. 2016. Vc = 6.2. the previous initial values are replaced by the newly calculated ones at the end of the ﬁrst iteration in cp.3. λ = 1. this study. mf. All ﬁve unknowns need to be tested that starts and ends at the same thermodynamic state.1. and ρair = 1.biodiesel ¼ 455:18 kJ kmol-1 K 1 . 720o. are compared. in which subscript 0 refers to ambient condi- combustion/expansion. νgas = 1. engine. Pd = 0. ujþ1 uj εcycle ¼ ≤ tol (36) uj 4. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation Figure 6. so that convergence In this study. (36). DOI: 10.128 × 10 5 m3.

the experimen- processes are clearly devised in the graphic. with measured data respect to time during one engine cycle.5 at N = 3000 rpm. the engines Lintec 4LD 2500 strokes.6 were utilized. it was assumed that the fuel matical model. the model experimental validation. aiming at a parametric analysis. For this example. a B50 the other two data sets are computationally simulated with fuel. Net torque (a) and efﬁciency output (b) of the Agrale bustion angle span (b) on the Lintec 4LD 2500 compression igni- M790 compression ignition internal combustion engine. the conditions corresponding to was a fossil diesel and biodiesel mixture. after noting that the model calcula- data were utilized. J. with the simulations conducted with the mathematical The model results for the hourly FC lie within the ex- model introduced in this paper. in the mathematical model. and MWM 229. The procedure consists of solving the tion of heat transfer rate through the cylinder walls and inverse problem of parameters estimation (IPPE) to friction losses had the highest impact on the variation of Int. that is. which is shown in by the solution of an IPPE. Next. obtained shown with their respective uncertainties. Vargas and J. The effect of admission valve diameter (a) and com- Figure 7. For ous section. therefore. Ltd. V. (12) and (29). For that. However. Both graphs from the manufacturers. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. showing that tally validated model is used to investigate the CI-ICE a positive net work is achieved. C. 107 DOI: 10. with measured data from ﬁguration and operating conditions described in the previ. work that is consumed during the admission and exhaust For model adjustment. determine two multiplying coefﬁcients using two data sets by presenting a Pcyl × Vcyl diagram. the engines Lintec 3LD behavior of the cylinder working ﬂuid temperature with 1500 and Agrale M790 were utilized. Figure 3b shows a Tcyl × t diagram. therefore adjusting the mathe- Figure 3a. perimental uncertainty even without adjustment. 2016. Energy Res. J. All the experimental data are corroborate the expected trends for a CI-ICE. that is. used tion internal combustion engine net power output. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation V. and the adjusted model to verify the agreement between nu- y = 0. experimental data the model must be adjusted in order to provide accurate net are used to experimentally validate the numerical results power. Ordonez Figure 8. and efﬁciency results. x = 1. The model adjust- obtained with the mathematical model introduced in the ment was conducted by adding multiplying coefﬁcients previous section. The simulation was conducted for the CI-ICE con. for model experimental validation. It is also seen the pumping dynamic response. After that. respectively. torque. The compression and expansion merical and experimental results. C.Diesel. the manufacturer and by Pereira [18]. Finally. Graciano.1002/er . four different CI-ICE output to Eqs.

J. (20) and (24). and net power out- pm.V. the values of hourly FC. because the adjusted model was capable bon dioxide mixtures by varying the methane fraction in of producing accurate results for a different set of experi. In perimental validation. the faster the combustion (more the results are as follows: effective). which is shown to be only 1. the hourly FC is signif- bustion angle span in the net power output delivered by icantly lower than using 100% and 50% fossil diesel. However. 2016. 108 Int. ural gas and biodiesel mixtures. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation the results.141 MJ kg1) than fossil diesel Figure 8a show that for a lower valve diameter. that is. net lower than with fossil diesel.791 MJ kg1). and has potential sources of inaccuracy. showing the effects of valve diameter variation and com. ﬂows to cylinder and because the air-to-fuel ratio. Energy Res. The results of with biodiesel. which validate experimen. This the Lintec 4LD 2500 engine. fossil diesel was hourly FC is signiﬁcantly greater with 100% and 50% bio- utilized as fuel to perform the model adjustment in order to diesel than using 100% fossil diesel. and efﬁciency output for the Lintec 4LD 2500 engine formance as the engine gets close to cut off speed. simulation shows that the natural gas led to almost the Figure 8 depicts examples of parametric analyses. The simulation shows that but approaching a ceiling value. tion angle span results in loss of power due to slower com- tained by trial and error using the mathematical model. DOI: 10. and bustion time. only 1. However. Figure 9. V.0% Figures 6 and 7 present the values of hourly FC. so that increasing valve di. match the available experimental data. The effect of biodiesel and diesel fuel mixtures on the hourly fuel consumption and net power output of the Lintec 4LD 2500 compression ignition internal combustion engine. the mixture. Again. 48N 2 which shows the values of hourly FC. only 100% methane biogas was analyzed. z. J. up and down. as it is shown in Eqs. output for the Lintec 4LD 2500 diesel engine with respect fossil diesel was utilized as fuel to perform the model ex. that is. torque. and net power engine using the adjusted model. Ltd. In the simulations. the net power increases as well. Conversely. net power. and efﬁciency output for the Agrale M790 Figure 10 shows the values of hourly FC. operation for almost matching the engine net power output strate that the model adjustment strategy was successful. On the other hand. power. in the simulations. and net power output for the Lintec resulting in lower net power values. only at most 1% lower.45 and K2 = 0. Vargas and J. the natural gas led to almost the same net power output as ameter no longer results in power increase. which were ob. C. A similar analysis is conducted in Figure 11.1002/er . The study starts with Figure 9. AFR. less fuel is injected in the cylinder. and approaching fossil diesel per- torque. is mainly because natural gas has a higher lower heating ied around the nominal value. The numerical results are all within this study. Ordonez Diesel. K1 and K2.f r ¼ C1 þ þ 0. The simulation shows that the biodiesel fuel in which K1 = 1. less air (LHVUSconvdiesel = 42. that is. Next. to crank speed for natural gas and fossil diesel mixtures. but the experimental uncertainties. led to less net power output than with fossil diesel mainly Figures 4 and 5 present the values of hourly FC. as crank speed increases.5% lower.Q_ conv þ Q_ rad K 1 (37) vestigate the effect of using different biofuel mixtures on the CI-ICE performance. the experimentally validated model is used to in- Q_ w ¼ . The numerical results such FC increase is capable of compensating the CI-ICE are all within the experimental uncertainties. when 4LD 2500 diesel engine with respect to crank speed for nat- valve diameter increases. same net power output as with 50% and 100% fossil diesel. The valve diameter was var. the higher the engine net power output. The after model adjustment. the model allows for the investigation of methane and car- tally the model. which demon. The results of value (LHVnatgas = 47. to fossil diesel operation. which shows is kept constant. is not important at low speeds but becomes more important Two coefﬁcients were established as unknowns to be de.8. because an increase in combus- termined by the IPPE solution. Graciano. mainly Figure 8b show that the combustion angle span variation due to the estimate of heat transfer and friction coefﬁcients. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. at low to medium speed. 4Sp K2 (38) 1000 put for the Lintec 4LD 2500 diesel engine with respect to crank speed. C. The mental data from the one used to adjust the model.

and diesel fuel mixtures on the hourly fuel consumption and net power output of the Lintec 4LD 2500 compression ignition internal combustion engine. In this example. Energy Res. 30%. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. and 20% diesel is shown to lead gas.528 MJ kg1). biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation V. Ltd. Vargas and J. The effect of natural gas and biodiesel fuel mixtures on the hourly fuel consumption and net power output of the Lintec 4LD 2500 compression ignition internal combustion engine.Diesel. biodiesel. The effect of natural gas and diesel fuel mixtures on the hourly fuel consumption and net power output of the Lintec 4LD 2500 compression ignition internal combustion engine. 50% biodiesel. and 20% as compared to 100% fossil diesel. the hourly FC is signiﬁcantly lower than using 100% and engine performance of fuel mixtures in different proportions. C. higher lower heating value than methyl ester diesel As a result. whereas engine net power output drops only at most Figure 12. Figure 11. Figure 12 illustrates how the allocation of (LHVMEbiodiesel = 37. C. 2016. This is mainly because natural gas has a that is. Ordonez Figure 10. The effect of natural gas.1002/er . J. and fossil diesel mixtures are shown in Figure 12. biodiesel. different fuel proportions in the fuel mixture impacts en- The values of hourly FC and net power output for the Lintec gine performance. 50%. J. V. Graciano. 30% biodiesel. 109 DOI: 10. to a signiﬁcantly lower hourly FC than the other tested The simulation allows for the investigation of the effect on ones. the mixture 50% natu- 4LD 2500 diesel engine with respect to crank speed for natural ral gas. Int.

parametric analyses and engine performance under Pd = piston diameter. Because a model experimental validation was per. C. and ζ = number of hydrogen atoms in biodiesel 6. kg m3 σ = Stefan–Boltzmann constant. The variation in valve diameter leads to proportional z = methane fraction in biogas mixture variation in the power developed by the engine. J kg1 K1 The key conclusions of the study are the following: Re = Reynolds number ROD = connecting rod length. m the use of different fuel mixtures could be assessed with Q_ = heat transfer rate. W m1 K1 K1. heat transfer coefﬁcient. Fuel mixtures using 50% of biodiesel and/or 50. m2 s1 ξ = number of oxygen atoms in biodiesel molecule NOMENCLATURE ρ = density. m2 m2 K4 AFR = air-to-fuel ratio τ = torque. kW 3. h = speciﬁc enthalpy. W _ = power.0% mixture when compared to each other. W the expectation of good accuracy. K 2. Model Ncyl = number of cylinders. m air = air d = diameter. kg s1 M = molecular mass. and/or biogas. CONCLUSION m_ = mass ﬂow rate. (35) comb = combustion 110 Int. T = temperature. rad but becomes more important as crank speed in. δ = number of carbon atoms in biodiesel molecule tween 50 and 60o is not important at low speeds Δψ = combustion angle span. kg h1. kJ kg1. kg 5. V. kN m AV = admission valve ω = crank speed. fossil diesel in diesel/biogas of natural gas produce power values within 1. Vargas and J. and the FC reduces about V = volume. (37) and (38) m = mass. m timized for example for minimum FC while keeping net LHV = lower heating value. J kg1 K1 Subscripts C1 = constant. Energy Res. Hcyl = instantaneous piston position.0% compared to using diesel as fuel.0% compared to using diesel as fuel. DOI: 10. it is expected that the model η = efﬁciency could be safely used for control and optimization. Eq. α = number of carbon atoms in diesel molecule tion in the power developed by the engine.6731028 W A = area. Using only biodiesel as fuel in diesel engines. rpm CI-ICE driven by diesel. In this Pr = Prandtl number way. y = biodiesel fraction in total fuel mixture 4. R = gas constant. Ltd. Greater values than the nominal for valve diameter do not result in signiﬁcant varia. molecule formed in this study. (36) speed at high crank speeds are recommendable. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. 2016.000 N m2 Cd = discharge coefﬁcient adm = admission CS = crank radius. Eq. and the FC rises about t = time. v = kinematic viscosity. W m2 K1 rate model. J. convective The reason that is possible is because with a fast and accu. K2 = model adjustment constant.0%. ε = emissivity creases. The effect of combustion angle span variation be.0% x = molar fraction. m 1. if the value of the valve diameter is near the nominal value Greek letters for engine operation. biodiesel. rad s1 BDC = bottom dead center c = speciﬁc heat. Therefore. C. the S = piston average speed. Eqs. Ordonez Diesel. kg kmol1 This paper introduced a general mathematical model for N = crank rotational speed. θ = crank angle. the TDC = top dead center power reduces about 2. rad even as part of a greater system due to the combina. J. strategies to increase combustion εcycle = cycle reﬁnement error criterion. 75. (32) adjustment and experimental validation were conducted p = pressure. β = number of hydrogen atoms in diesel molecule 5. m3 13.1002/er .0%. m s1 power reduces about 1. biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation 2% with respect to 100% fossil diesel driven engine one.V. λ = inverse of the equivalence ratio tion of accuracy with low computational time. MJ kg1 power output at a level as high as with 100% fossil diesel. k = thermal conductivity. 5. Eq. Using only natural gas as fuel in diesel engines. Graciano. s 12. N m2 with good quantitative and qualitative agreement. many such proportions could be tested and op. m biodiesel = biodiesel fuel EV = exhaust valve c = dead space FC = hourly fuel consumption.

= molar basis Transport 2011. Gogoi TK. Milanez LF. Pereira HR. Modifying Superscript Mathematical models for calculating operational char- — acteristics of diesel engines burning RME biofuels. Kegl B. J. Baruah DC. Wadsworth: Belmont. Engine Modeling and Control – Modeling and Electronic Management of Internal Combustion Engines. 1988. Experimen- gm = gas mixture tal investigation of CI engine operated micro- i = substance in the cylinder. Benemann JR. The authors acknowledge with gratitude the support of the 13. Papagiannakis RG. ISBN: 978-3-642-39933-6. 2016. of technology transfer. Ordonez conv = convection 3. Energy 2010. Hallenbeck PC. 30:1505–1509. (8). Bejan A. 2. 558835/2010-4.Diesel. Eq. iteration sional Communication Journal 1993. prediction of diesel and natural gas driven diesel en- International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2002. Amsden AA. gines. Bereisiene K. Energy reg = steady state. C. 16. Heat release and st = stoichiometric engine performance effects of soybean oil ethyl ester v = constant volume blendingintodieselfuel. and 482336/2012-9). Kincaid D. Energy Res. 574759/ engine. Eq. in = input 6. Sharma D. Jimenez ET. Graciano. Vargas and J. (3). Numerical 0 = initial condition. Lebedeva G. fr = friction gas = gas 5. 97:832–842. prod = products 8. Kanoglu M. the PSA- Peugeot-Citroen. Growth of microalgae with increased cal. V. Ltd. J. McGrawHill: New York. indicated 2010. Temir G. 23(1):67–73. f = fuel 29:242–249. oriﬁc values in a tubular bioreactor. Fuel 2012. Kotsiopoulos PN. Applied Thermal Engineering Eq. Springer: New York. Velasquez JA. 36(4):190–195. air or prod. Tanwar D. trigeneration system. 1993. Católica do Rio de Janeiro.4271/2006-01-0884. 24(17–18):2689–2699. doi: out = output p = piston 10. Yfantis EA. (36) 7. Brazil. Scragg AH. Exergetic and thermoeconomic ef = effective analyses of diesel engine powered cogeneration: Part ec = engine cycle 2 – application. 1994. 45(1-2):128–132. Amsden DC. Zannis TC. The KIVA story: a paradigm j = 1 (exhaust) and 2 (admission). Soni SL. 35(2):1129–1138. Eq. Doctoral dissertation. IEEE Transactions on Profes- pressure or volume. SAE International 2006-01-0884. regime 2010. Rakopoulos CD. Hountalas DT. Lebedevas S. Katri KK. 2006. CA. Irreversibility produc- Brazilian National Council of Scientiﬁc and Technological tion during transient operation of a turbocharged diesel Development. REFERENCES 15. ambient injection characteristics analysis of various renewable |·| = absolute value fuel blends. Bioenergy 2002. Heywood BJ. and the NILKO Technology Ltd. Theoreti- cal study of the effects of engine parameters on perfor- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS mance and emissions of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine. Chenney W. 111 DOI: 10.1002/er . biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven CI-ICE simulation V. 11. Thermoeconomic analysis of a cyl = cylinder trigeneration system. Bueno AV. Biological hydrogen 18. Applied Thermal Engineering d = swept 2004. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamen- 1. Applied Thermal Engineering 2009. Wiley: New York. Dorado R. Heat Transfer. Isermann R. Biomass and 17. 2014. Bilge D. C. 2008-5. 14. 40:100–111 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons. Review of thermody- m = mean namic diesel engine simulations under transient operat- min = valve minimum opening ing conditions. 26(1):50–60. Giakoumis EG. counter.36(6):3907–3916. (in Portuguese) Int. Abusoglu A. w = wall 10. Andritsakis EC. tals. 12. reac = reactants 9. Rakopoulos CD.Energy2011. A cycle simulation model r = real for predicting the performance of a diesel engine rad = radiation fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends. International Journal of Vehicle Design 2007. (10). Pontifícia Universidade 27:1185–1193. CNPq (projects 552867/2007-1. Experimental evaluation and performance production. 35(3):1317–1323. Giakoumis EG. diesel = fossil diesel 4. fundamentals and limiting processes. Kegl KM. Numerical Analysis.

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