Vol. 10(10), pp.

247-255, 28 May, 2016
DOI: 10.5897/AJBM2016.8031
Article Number: 62D9E5758470
ISSN 1993-8233 African Journal of Business Management
Copyright © 2016
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article
http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM

Full Length Research Paper

Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment :
A study on the public schools teachers in Menoufia
(Egypt)
Mohamed Mousa* and Ruth Alas
Estonian Business School, Estonia.
Received 13 February 2016; Accepted 18 April 2016

Due to its significant impact on organizations’ survival and success, workplace spirituality has gained
popularity in both academic and work environments over the last decade. This popularity has been
created and maintained because of employees’ feeling of hyper stress and anxiety stemming from the
very high demands and expectations imposed by their organizations. In reaction to such high targets,
employees tend to increase their levels of absenteeism, leave their jobs with less provocation, raising
rates of turnover, and yield very poor results in terms of work performance. This study tried to
investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality dimensions and organizational commitment
approaches in the Egyptian public primary schools where teachers show low level of organizational
commitment. The authors distributed 200 questionnaires to collect their data and found a 75% response
rate of their respondents. By analyzing their data using the statistical packages for social sciences
(SPSS) (version 13), they discovered that only meaningful work and sense of community had a
significant correlation relationship with organizational commitment approaches (affective, continuance
and normative), whereas organizational values had very weak effect on the three approaches of
commitment.

Key words: Workplace spirituality, organizational commitment, affective commitment, continuance
commitment, normative commitment.

INTRODUCTION

Educational system is always seen as a paradigm for Hunt, 2003). Egypt is one of the developing countries that
attaining economic soundness and organizational have tried to use education as a mechanism for
effectiveness. That is why many developing nations put a accelerating its potential to reach the level of developed
great emphasis on its educational process as a step country (Mahrous and kortam, 2012). However, Egypt is
towards their prospective development (Alzaroo and currently facing a serious problem that affects the whole

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Mohamed.mousa@ebs.ee.

Authors agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License 4.0 International License

According to Altaf and Awan and heavy workloads required from employees.248 Afr. that they do not see their work to be meaningful. there is a limited amount of empirical organizational commitment in an attempt to find a research with respect to its impact in work place. Google and This supports what has been highlighted by Jurkiewicz Microsoft are currently deploying spiritual lecture and Giacalone (2004) when mentioning that spirituality in sessions. a reality in the business world that should not be ignored. workplace spirituality has gained religious aspects. Others claim management (Ahiauzu and Asawo. 2012). absenteeism and then effectiveness (Daniel (2008) clarifies that spirituality relates to values. This issue causes employees’ poor health and order needs especially those with high cultural and social interactions (Ahiauzu and Asawo. Accordingly. the majority of its teachers are organizational performance”. including Considering the limited research conducted to work slowdowns. environments. P. body. this lack of commitment may harm not only the whole educational process but also the whole trials for economic reform. Bus. Alas and Mousa From another perspective. (2014) considered changes in both demographic and Over the last decade. not only for nourishing their employees’ moral workplace is a basic need for employees’ personal and spiritual lives. meaningful works and Spirituality and workplace spirituality organizational values are three dimensions of workplace spirituality. Accordingly. besides the improvement in the a currency in both academia and work arenas. spirituality is much that “in the management discourse. low investigate the association between workplace spirituality productivity and high rates of turnover. many companies that is. care. International Business Machines (IBM).4) stated religiosity relates to behaviors. In such ethical concerns. 2015). (2014) saw term survival and maintenance of any organization that both stress and anxiety.while the there is a need to find out the factors that influence rest of them admit that they exhibit the same lack of employees’ commitment in order to enhance both professionalism as other governmental employees do individual and organizational effectiveness (Fry. organizational success. Daniel solution for this problem. this study attempts to investigate Because spirituality has gained popularity only during the the relationship between workplace spirituality and two last decades. the study of Rego and Conha turnover. Manage. 2015). relationship between workplace spirituality and the matter that positively affects overall organizational organizational commitment. In line with this. educational process. and rewards are not sufficient for upgrading employees’ self. the topic of leaving governmental schools in search for better work organizational commitment has been discussed opportunities in the private sector and gulf countries. 2003). derived from high targets (Usman and Danish. building a spiritual presence of Gods’ spirituality. growing tendency of employees to satisfy their higher 2014). However. mind. Also. given that more committed people tend Malik and Naeem (2010) added that workplace spirituality to devote higher efforts to work. their such as organizational behavior and human resources schools do not show a sense of community. The researcher has considered what Literature review has been said by the teachers themselves and found that sense of community. 2001). Deshpande (2012) and Alas peace is vital for satisfying employees’ inner lives (Daniel and Mousa (2016) indicated that workplace spirituality is and Jardon. affection. theoretically and empirically in many managerial fields Many teachers claim that besides their low salaries. Waddock (1999) companies have recently realized that only monetary assures that bringing employees’ heart. 2010). That is why.. values at the workplace that is. commitment is a more personal. Rego and Cunha (2008. but religiosity is much more communal. whereas and Jardon. it has been noted that there (2016) clarified that spirituality is a dynamic factor in is a rarity in empirical research with respect to the building trust between employers and their employees. but also overcoming their employees’ growth due to the declining role of families. whereas religiosity is . Gupta et al. soul to organizations is vital for both individual and actualization. has been seen to be an essential element in any While it might be thought that workplace spirituality is workplace due to its effect on outcomes such as rates of the same as religion. enhancing organizational commitment. and other societal main players. 2012). Accordingly. neighbor- anxiety and hyper stress (Tredget. Organizational commitment performance. Such hoods. J. central variable. when they mistrust their organizational values. necessitates increasing discourse about climate of suffering. Roof (2015) highlights that the employees feel a hyper stress and anxiety (Gupta et al. love and Rego and Cunha (2008). Moreover. thus contributing to is characterized as open-minded. shaped (2011) tough competition which takes place in our current the main motives for the emergence and maintenance of global and local markets has fostered companies to set this term in both the academic and working very high targets for their employees. and organizational commitment. high level of absenteeism. this study seeks to fill in Since governmental schools are the main destination this gap and attempts to introduce an approach for for children of Egyptian low and middle income families. This standard of living as the main drivers for the popularity of intangible asset has a considerable effect on the long the term spirituality in workplace.

(1982) saw experience with God or the divine that informs an commitment as “The willingness to expend personal. whereas continuance commitment points 2015. organizational commitment definition varies from one Roof (2015) defines it as “the personal relationship or researcher to another. discussion at the workplace. 2012) discussed its context spirituality. 1990. Mowday et al. alternatives other than to remain in the current companies such as Boing. designed to protect their occupational and feelings of completeness and joy“ (Jurkiewicz and employment assets in terms of salary and benefits. the researcher has chosen to discuss only competiveness. the concept of spirituality has become a develops when the employee perceive that there are no buzzword in modern successful businesses. organizational commitment is derived from its strong Tredget (2001) declares that workplace spirituality has impact on organizational performance and subsequently. Quatro (2004) sees that prompting spirituality through socialization. (2010) claimed that development program. So. workplace spirituality is about connectedness The study of Sreejesh and Tavleen (2011) considers (Daniel. 2014). when employees internalize the organizational norms Also. Allen and Meyer. and Giacalone. have launched programs to motivate their employees’ Li et al. AT&T. organization. receive benefits that induce them to promotes harmony and cooperation instead of fear at feel the need to reciprocate and/or to accept the terms of workplace. facilitating their organizational commitment as “a rational behavior of sense of being connected to others in a way that provides employees. Zainal et al. while because of its ability to build a psychological contract normative commitment describes the psychological between employer and employee by which the employee contract of values and obligations towards an feels valued. Manion. which counts on commitment is developed when the employees become disseminating the universal values of ethics. 2010. 2014). norms. That is why they do their best to attain three of them (meaningful work.. be discussed but religiosity is an inappropriate subject for many studies (Allen and Meyer. identifies and involved with his or her organization and/or On the other hand. Harrington (2004) sees that spirituality in commitment towards an organization as a matter of workplace is about employees who have the same sense personal choice. not only because of its and Meyer (2000) mentioned that affective refers to the collaboration to employees’ personal growth. On one hand. Pizza Hut and Deloitte organization”. approaches and consequences). The consistent trial to find an ultimate being (Heschel. normative and continuance. The concept also According to the study of Meyer and Allen (1991). That is why spiritual approaches: affective. 1955). 2000.. Steijn and Leisink. out the costs associated with leaving the organization. Omer et al. 2012). 2003). According to Gupta et al. of purpose and meaning in their work. Ahiauzu and Asawo. Mousa and Alas 249 viewed as close-minded and it excludes those who do not Organizational commitment follow the same religion and do not share the same beliefs. . They explain organizational encompass religion nor does it by nature exclude commitment as “The extent to which an individual religion”. Allen transformation is vital. a psychological contract. (2014) spirituality can Because of the importance of organizational commitment. temporal and psychological resources on behalf of a purpose. become a main part of any training and human resources organizational success. Normative commitment develops organizations for achieving success. Ashmos and Duchon (2000) is unwilling to leave it”. indicates that employees can fulfill their spirits through organizational commitment encompasses three work (Gupta et al. rules involved in and/or derive their identity from an association and guidance. individual’s existence and shapes their meaning. Haim (2007) sees transcendence through the work process. as a function of tenure". It could be also defined as” a Gbadamosi (2003) considers it as “identification. 2006. 2004). but based on rational judgment.. (2010) highlighted that the importance of spiritual identities (Fry. framework of organizational values evidenced in the involvement and loyalty as well as a feeling of obligation culture that promote employees’ experience of to stay with one’s organization”. context of community”. employees who identify with their organization tend to Although workplace spirituality includes many focus much more on their organizational survival and dimensions. in workplace aligns employees with their with the organization. and mission in daily life. either on or off his job (Dniel and Jardon. 2004. Usman and Danish (2010) indicate that empowering Sreejesh and Tavleen (2011) stated that “affective the philosophy of spirituality. Zainal et Workplace spirituality differs from the usual concept of al. It does not need to particular domain”. spirituality may be defined as a (definition. Moreover. responsibilities in achieving higher productivity rates. sense of community. Continuance commitment Accordingly. Allen and Meyer (2000) defined it defined workplace spirituality as “the recognition that as “a psychological state that characterizes an employees have an inner life that nourishes and is employee’s relationship with the organization and nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the reduces the likelihood that he/she will leave it“. but also emotional attachment to the organization. better quality work performance and to fulfill their organizational values) in this study.

Atak (2009) maintains that the following H1: There is a positive connection between workplace spirituality elements are the main indicators of organizational (meaningful work. loyalty. (meaningful work. employees can use a range of five behavioral Based on the previous literature review. neglect. education is the backbone for any trial This quantitative research used a questionnaire in collecting the towards economic development (Alzaroo and Hunt. there was and still are some negative educational This section includes three subscales. present. having committed employees enhances organizational competitiveness by reducing RESEARCH METHODOLOGY rates of turnover and intentions to quit (Omar et al. A five –point through three stages: the first was 1950 to 1970. He indicates that there is a growing trend meaningful work. adopting the organizational culture (values and H2: There is a positive relationship between workplace spirituality (meaningful work. Haim (2007) raised the This conceptual framework is designed based on a review of argument of whether or not the organizations should previous studies that had been conducted to demonstrate the keep their long-term commitment/contracts to their relationship between workplace spirituality and organizational workplace despite the on-going technologization and commitment. Most of questions included in the questionnaire are 2003). (2014) designed survey of workplace spirituality. Conceptual framework 2012). revolution (Hargreaves.250 Afr. feeling and showing a desire to continue and normative commitment. this economy and divided culture because of the section covers the three approaches of organizational commitment: concentrated shift towards establishing an open economy affective. committed employees are the most valuable assets for 2010). and the second has seven conditions and children living in the streets (Soliman and questions about sense of community. Section A: Demographic variables involve questions about the Arabism and national consciousness due to the 1952 personal information of the targeted respondents such as gender. the educational system reflected a mixed (1990) three dimensional model of organizational commitment. continuance and normative. They are resources with the capabilities of assisting Egyptian chosen as a sample for this study because they represent the . The halt of this educational training initiative shows a Teachers who are working in public schools in Menoufia Province. 2007). the education in Egypt has passed contained three main sections: Demographic variables. In this study. Accordingly. According to this study sample. subscales and each subscale involves eight items. existing models. but this kind of Scope of the study educational dialogue did not continue for a long period. and exerting maximum H3: There is a positive relationship between workplace spirituality effort to achieve organizational goods. with some modifications a mechanism to foster its prospective advancements as made to the original questions with regards to the cultural aspect of explained by Mahrous and Kortam (2012). 2010). Using Albert Hirschman’s (1970) model of voice and Hypotheses loyalty. and the third is 1981 till and workplace spirituality. any organization. J. level of income and organizational tenure. sense of community and organizational values. and silence (Haim. This section is prepared education and higher education described educational to cover three selected dimensions of workplace spirituality: reform as a matter of national survival (Hargreaves. the educational programs were controlled by the principles of socialism. five questions about organizational values. The questionnaire prepared for this study Hargreaves (2001). Manage. Bus. there was an initiative to training Egyptian teachers in Western countries. Egypt often tries to use education as based on established.. In a different perspective. 2001). missing ability to create a real liaison with any outside Egypt are the main population sample of this study. and affective commitment. the researcher will test the modes of commitment in facing organizational crisis: Exit. organizational commitment and workplace spirituality. primary data. the first subscale involves social phenomena such as drug addiction. Omar et al. marital status. Thus. sense of community and organizational values) behaviors). Also. Organizational commitment approaches (affective. In the first stage (1950 to 1970). the proposed independent variables are: globalization. In the second stage (1970 age. Education in Egypt Survey instruments As said before. Whereas. This section involves three during this stage (Hargreaves. Moreover. In the third stage. continuance and towards downsizing and outsourcing of labor activities normative) function as dependent variables. (2012) highlighted that educational system reform (Soliman and Abd Elmegied. despite the fact that in 1995 the Egyptian ministry of Section C: Workplace spirituality based on Gupta et al. membership in the organization. Section B: Organizational commitment based on Allen and Mayer’s to 1981). the Likert scale was used for all items under organizational commitment second was 1970 to 1981. meaningful work. sense of community and organizational values. which may yield a need to restructure the meaning and measurement of the concept organizational commitment. whereas the third contains Abd Elmegied. 2001). sense of community and organizational values) and continuance commitment. slum living seven questions about meaningful work. 2001). sense of community and organizational values) commitment: accepting the organizational mission. following hypotheses: voice.

the sets of b) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0.813 and the value is highly significant (P = 0. 2003). correction coefficient proves that meaningful work positively affects The result (R2 = 0. community (0. and that organizational values dividing the population into homogenous subgroups and then taking have no effect.This result indicates that guarantees that each subgroup is represented in the chosen meaningful work positively affects continuance commitment. there is effect than meaningful work (0. to the targeted respondents. the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient is 0.The result (R2 = 0.0) suggests that if employees work in groups with common moderate chance of increasing teachers’ level of normative purposes.0) suggests when meaningful work is assigned. expert teachers and a) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0.8% increase in teachers’ feeling that they are in the right organization (Table 9). result (R2 = 0. the researcher distributed 200 sets of organizational values have no significant effect.0634.184 and the values is moderately significant (P= 0.0). showing no significant For data analysis. The results also show that the help of stratified random sampling. hypothesis 3 is partly accepted.579. showing that there is no teachers’ normative commitment. With hypothesis 2 is not fully accepted. The result (R2 = 0.072) shows that even if standard deviation.018) shows that even if affects teachers’ affective commitment. random sampling reduces any possible bias and at the same time ensures that the chosen simple random sample represents the general population.This highly significant and variables have adequate levels of internal consistency and they positive correlation coefficient implies that meaningful work can meet the acceptable standard of 0.142 and the Findings 3: Both meaningful work and sense of community affect value is highly significant (P= 0.This result shows a very weak value is highly significant (P = 0.192 and the b) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0. the researcher formed the meaningful work (0. Hypothesis 1 b) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0. P = 0.0634) has much more effect than counts on stratified random sampling.4% 66. The results a simple random sample from each subgroup. As depicted in Table 1. Since teachers who are working in Egyptian Hypothesis 2 public schools are classified into five categories: junior teachers.9 % increase in teachers’ continuance the researcher has chosen to distribute 200 sets of questionnaires commitment (Table 6).7 % increase in affective commitment commitment (Table 11). the use of stratified random sampling value is highly significant (P= 0.661. a moderate chance that they will perceive a loss by leaving their school (Table 8).811 and the each of the variables used in the study.796 and the positive value of correlation coefficient implies that sense of value is highly significant (P = 0. there is a 57. the SPSS will be used to show the normal effect for organizational values on the level of continuous descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution.658. Data analysis c) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0. assigned. questionnaires and he received responses from 150 teachers. The result (R2= 0. P= 0.0).037. (Table 4). the study. The sample. it deserves to be mentioned that Findings 1: Since only meaningful work and sense of community the researcher can reach out to many teachers in this province. increase in teachers’ affective commitment (Table 3).755 and the questionnaire will be delivered in both Arabic and English to match value is highly significant (P = 0. the result is a 57% increase in the level of teachers’ continuance commitment (Table 7). there is a 63. Reliability analysis Hypothesis 3 The Cronbach alpha was used to assess the internal consistency of a) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0. the researcher show that meaningful work (0. there is a 0.760 and the value is highly significant (P = 0. the result is a 57. P = 0. result (R2 = 0. Also. Specifically.034.661) has much more that even if there is an alignment with organizational values.60 (Sekaran.083).0) suggests that when meaningful work is Since it is difficult to determine the size of population in this case. alpha first class teachers. P = 0. whereas organizational values significant statistical relationship between organizational values and have a very weak effect.0) group. This highly significant positive correlation between organizational values and teachers’ normative correlation coefficient proves that sense of community positively commitment .0) suggests that when teachers work in groups with common purposes.0) suggests that if teachers work in teachers’ affective commitment.9777 (Table 2). The result (R 2 = 0. Thus.570.577) on the level of affective commitment. P = 0. The respond.0).685) on the level of normative .018). Accordingly.020. c) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0. the first hypothesis is partly supported. This result proves that sense of the abilities of all targeted respondents and to motivate them to community can positively affects continuance commitment. affective commitment. their feeling of obligation towards their school increases by suggests that when meaningful work is assigned. This highly significant positive community positively affect the teachers’ normative commitment. there is only to obtain the results of hypotheses testing. there is a 65.072). In this positively affect teachers’ normative commitment.761 and the finally senior teachers. mean and commitment. P= 0.0). whereas As previously stated. P = 0. Research findings Findings 2: Both meaningful work and sense of community affect teachers’ level of continuance commitment positively. c) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0.577. and who are likely to opt for offers from private school or to accept others from Gulf countries. Needless to say. By can affect affective commitment. result (R2 = 0. The result (R 2 = 0. all value is highly significant (P= 0.1% (Table 10).083) shows The results show that sense of community (0. The SPSS Pearson correlation will be adopted there is teachers’ alignment with organizational values. This highly significant and a) The analysis results in a Pearson coefficient of 0. P = 0.0).0). first class teachers.570) on the level of continuance commitment. Such adoption of stratified sense of community (0. Mousa and Alas 251 category of Egyptian teachers who are working in public schools no increase in the level of affective commitment (Table 5).579) has much more effect than sense of following respondents’ profiles (Table 1). P = there is an alignment with organizational values.

In contrast to Jurkiewicz and Giacalone (2004) and DISCUSSION Rego and Cunha (2008). between both meaningful work and sense of community with affective. In concordance with the considered unattainable luxuries for teachers and other study of Rego and Cunha (2008). The researcher thinks workplace spirituality dimensions (meaningful work. J. Manage. Table 1.) are continuance and normative). this study discovers a very week relationship between organizational values and the This study investigated the relationship between three approaches of commitment. organizational commitment approaches (affective. Bus. Demographic variables Items Count Male 123 Gender Female 27 below 25 years 15 26-30 years 30 31-35 years 30 Age 36-40 years 25 41-45 years 20 46-50 years 20 More than 50 years 10 Single 40 Marital Status Married 74 Other 36 Bachelor 100 Level of Education Bachelor + Diploma 48 Master 2 EGP 1200 15 EGP 1300-2500 60 Level of Income EGP 2500-4000 65 EGP 4000-5500 10 Above 5500 0 Less than 1 year 0 1-3 years 45 4-6 years 55 Organizational tenure 7-9 years 40 10-12 years 10 Above 15 years 0 Muslim 145 Religion Christian 5 Full time 150 Work Bases Part time 0 commitment. the results of the public employees in Egypt who witness an increasing current study shows a strong positive relationship rate of corruption with minimum monthly wages of 1200 . caring sense of community and organizational values) and about the poor. that aspects of organizational values (for example. connecting with the mission of the schools and etc.252 Afr. continues and normative commitment. Respondents profile. differentiating between right and wrong.

967 Sense of community 7 0.576 0. Correlation and Regression. Scale name Number of items Coefficient alpha values Organizational Commitment Affective commitment 8 0.941 Organizational Values 8 0.020 0.42126 Table 5.940 Organizational Values 8 0. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0. Correlation and regression.577 0.51306 EGP (Corruption in Egypt. Correlation and Regression between affective commitment and meaningful work. Minimum monthly wages).977 Table 3.632 0.142 0. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0.705 Total 90 0.760 Normative commitment 8 0. between Continuance Commitment and Meaningful Work. whereas.43496 Table 6 Correlation and Regression.707 Workplace spirituality – Continuance commitment Meaningful work 7 0. between affective commitment and organizational values.796 0.981 Sense of community 7 0.574 0. Mousa and Alas 253 Table 2. variable in predicting teachers’ affective and continuance Meaningful work has emerged to be the most dominant commitment to their school.915 Organizational Values 8 0.013 0.634 0.579 0. sense of .801 Workplace spirituality – Affective commitment Meaningful work 7 0.840 Workplace spirituality – Normative commitment Meaningful work 7 0. between Affective Commitment and Sense of community.964 Sense of community 7 0.771 Continuance commitment 8 0. Reliability analysis.58654 Table 4.760 0. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0.761 0.

38955 Table 8. the Egypt and the whole Arab region. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0. Schools be subject to criticism because it excluded moderating need to understand that monetary aspects alone are not variables such as turnover values. Correlation and regression. between normative commitment and meaningful work.031 0.659 0. Correlation and regression.658 0. this study appears to be the first to discuss and rates of turnover. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0. workplace spirituality and organizational commitment in Given the history of public schools in Egypt. To the best of the researcher’s of work by decreasing employees’ levels of absenteeism knowledge. J.30253 community tends to be the most influential dimension in work environment where teachers feel valued and their terms of normative commitment. Correlation and Regression. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0. between continuance commitment and organizational values. between continuance commitment and sense of community. a work climate in which teachers Conclusion perform meaningful work and work in a group enhances their likelihood of reaching full capacity and realizing full The present study has tried to fill in a gap in management potential at work.811 0. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0.034 0. Manage. meditation and training sessions on future research done by the researcher and/or other spirituality are important for creating a healthy and happy scholars in the management academic field. Correlation and regression.656 0. Thus. organizational sufficient for satisfying teachers’ inner and outer lives. 2 2 Model r R Adjusted R SE of the estimate 1 0. between normative commitment and sense of community. This study may they adopt when dealing with their teachers. Correlation and regression.813 0.567 0 .570 0.192 0.50979 Table 10. Guided by the results of full capacities are utilized for the betterment of their this study and the result of the studies of Ashmos and schools Duchon (2000). Jurkiewicz and Giacalone (2004).31920 Table 11.184 0.037 0.027 0. to some degree. That is why the results ministry of education and each school’s administration may seem to be different. promoting and maintaining spiritual practices such However. satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors. Daniel (2010). Bus. from those need to rethink the psychological and cultural mechanism results yielded by studies done in Europe. Table 7.72248 Table 9.254 Afr. between Normative commitment and Organizational values. Roof (2015) and Alas and Mousa (2016). That is why the study of Ahiauzu and literature by examining the relationship between Asawo (2012) states that exercising spirituality in workplace spirituality dimensions and organizational workplace leads to higher performance and better quality commitment variable. Malik and Naeem (2011). .755 0.661 0. such moderating variable may be considered in as yoga classes.

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