Under the guidance of
Assistant Proffesor, Dept. ECE,
RGUKT, R.K Valley

Presented by
Kursheed (R121328)
Musthafa (R121339)
Rajendra (R121985)

● In last ten years, many of residentials around the world used
electric solar system as a sub power at their houses.

● This is because solar energy is an unlimited energy resource,
set to become increasingly important in the longer term, for
providing electricity and heat energy to the user.

● Solar energy also has the potential to be the major energy
supply in the future.

● Solar tracker is an automated solar panel that actually follows
the Sun to increase the power

● Many of the solar panels had been positioned on a fixed
surface such as a roof.

● As sun is a moving object, this approach is not the best
method. One of the solutions is to actively track the sun using
a sun tracking device to move the solar panel to follow the

● There are numerous types of solar trackers, of varying
costs,performance and sophistication.
They are:- 1.Single Axis Trackers
2.Dual Axis Trackers

➔ Solar panel

➔ Sensors(LDRs)

➔ DC Servo motors

➔ Microcontroller(Arduino UNO)

➔ Connecting Wires
Solar panel

● Solar panels are devices that convert light into electricity.
● They are sometimes called photovoltaic which means "light-electricity". Solar
cells or PV cells rely on thephotovoltaic effect to absorb the energy of the sun
and cause current to flow between two oppositely charge layers.
Solar panel

● A solar panel is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells.

● The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system
to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications.

● Several types of solar cells available in the market are:

1. Monocrystalline silicon (mono-silicon or single silicon)

2.Polycrystalline silicon (multicrystalline, multisilicon,ribbon)

● A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it
into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument.

● Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is made of a high-resistance
semiconductor. It can also be referred to as a photo-sensor.

● LDR's are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally
the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high as 1mega
ohms, but when they are illuminated with light resistance drops
Servo Motor

Servo motor works on PWM (Pulse width modulation) principle, means its
angle of rotation is controlled by the duration of applied pulse to its Control
● Basically servo meter is made up of DC motor which is controlled by a
variable resistor or potentiometer and some gears.
● A servo metor is an electrical device which can push or rotate an object with
great precision. If you want to rotate the object at some specific angles or
distance, then you use servo motor.

● Microcontroller is used in Arduino UNO. Arduino is an open-source electronics
prototyping platform based on flexible,easy-to-use hardware and software.
● Arduino can sense the environment by receiving input from a variety of sensors
and can affect its surroundings.
● Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can communicate with software
running on a computer. In this development, Arduino UNO is used as the main
Principle of sun tracking solar
● The sun tracking solar panel consists of four LDRs,solar panel and servo
motor and ATMEGA8 Micro controller.
● Four light denpendent resistors are arranged on the edges of the solar panel.
Light dependent resistors produce low resistance when light falls on them.
● The servo motor connected to the panel rotates the panel in the direction of
● Panel is arranged in such a way that light on two LDRs is compared and
panel is rotated towards LDR which have high intensity i.e. low resistance
compared to other. Stepper motor rotates the panel at certain angle.
● When the intensity of the light falling on right LDR is more, panel slowly
moves towards right and if intensity on the left LDR is more, panel slowly
moves towards left. In the noon time, Sun is ahead and intensity of light on
both the panels is same. In such cases, panel is constant and there is no
Applications of sun tracking
solar panel
● These panels can be used to power the traffic
lights and streetlights.

● These can be used in home to power the
appliances using solar power.

● These can be used in industries as more energy
can be saved by rotating the panel.