# MIL SYSTEM

1.HISTORY
The milliradian (approximately 6283.185 in a circle) was first used in the mid-19 th
century by Charles-Marc Dapples (1837-1920), a swiss engineer and professor at the
University of Lausanne. Degrees and minute where the usual units of angular
measurement but others were being proposed, with “Grads” (400 gradians in a circle)
under various names having considerable popularity in much of Northern Europe.
However, Imperial Russia used a different approach, dividing a circle into equilateral
triangle (600 per triangle, 6 triangles in a circle) and hence 600 units to a circle.
Around the time of the start of world war 1, France was experimenting with the
use of milliemes (6400 in a circle) for use with artillery sights instead of decigrades (400
in a circle). The United Kingdom was also trialing them to replace degrees and minutes.
They were adopted by France although decigrades also remained in use throughout
world war 1. Other nations also use decigrades. The US, which copied many French
artillery practices, adopted mils (6400 in a circle). Before 2007 the Swedish defense
forces used “streck” (6300 in a circle, streck meaning lines or marks) (together with
degrees for some navigation) which is closer to the milliradian but then changed to
NATO mils. After the Bolshevik Revolution and the adoption of the metric system of
measurement (e.g. artillery replaced “units of base” with meters) the red army expanded
the 600 unit circles into a 6000 mil one. Hence the Russian mil has a somewhat
different origin than those derived from French artillery practices.
In the 1950’s, NATO adopted metric units of measurements for land and general
use. Mils, meters and kilograms became standard, although degrees remained in use
for Naval and Air purposes reflecting civil practices.
2. Mill System
A mil system is another angular measure, the mill of which is used in artillery and
other military application.
The unit of measurement under the mill system is the “mil”.
From the Latin word “mille” which stands for one thousandth.
Mils are used in adjustment of firearm sights by adjusting the angle of the sight
compared the barrel (up, down, left or right). In complete rotation or complete revolution
is equivalent to 6400 mils.
If we compare the sexagesimal system, circular system and the mil system. What
is the equivalent of 1 rotation to mils and degrees?
 3600 = 2 π rad = 6400 mils
 3600 = 6.2832 rad = 6400 mils