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1.HISTORY

The milliradian (approximately 6283.185 in a circle) was first used in the mid-19 th

century by Charles-Marc Dapples (1837-1920), a swiss engineer and professor at the

University of Lausanne. Degrees and minute where the usual units of angular

measurement but others were being proposed, with “Grads” (400 gradians in a circle)

under various names having considerable popularity in much of Northern Europe.

However, Imperial Russia used a different approach, dividing a circle into equilateral

triangle (600 per triangle, 6 triangles in a circle) and hence 600 units to a circle.

Around the time of the start of world war 1, France was experimenting with the

use of milliemes (6400 in a circle) for use with artillery sights instead of decigrades (400

in a circle). The United Kingdom was also trialing them to replace degrees and minutes.

They were adopted by France although decigrades also remained in use throughout

world war 1. Other nations also use decigrades. The US, which copied many French

artillery practices, adopted mils (6400 in a circle). Before 2007 the Swedish defense

forces used “streck” (6300 in a circle, streck meaning lines or marks) (together with

degrees for some navigation) which is closer to the milliradian but then changed to

NATO mils. After the Bolshevik Revolution and the adoption of the metric system of

measurement (e.g. artillery replaced “units of base” with meters) the red army expanded

the 600 unit circles into a 6000 mil one. Hence the Russian mil has a somewhat

different origin than those derived from French artillery practices.

In the 1950’s, NATO adopted metric units of measurements for land and general

use. Mils, meters and kilograms became standard, although degrees remained in use

for Naval and Air purposes reflecting civil practices.

2. Mill System

A mil system is another angular measure, the mill of which is used in artillery and

other military application.

The unit of measurement under the mill system is the “mil”.

From the Latin word “mille” which stands for one thousandth.

Mils are used in adjustment of firearm sights by adjusting the angle of the sight

compared the barrel (up, down, left or right). In complete rotation or complete revolution

is equivalent to 6400 mils.

If we compare the sexagesimal system, circular system and the mil system. What

is the equivalent of 1 rotation to mils and degrees?

3600 = 2 π rad = 6400 mils

3600 = 6.2832 rad = 6400 mils

77778 )=800 mils 2. we can get the value of 1’’ by dividing again by 60. we have 360 6. = 6400 mils.77778=0.000291 rad . = . From 10 = 0.017453 rad. thus we have ' o 60 .000291 rad = .0034906 rad = 12/60 (17.1 Converting 10 to radian and mil .0052777 ° x 17.5556 mils 2. = 45 °=45 ( 17. = 19/3600 = 0.2 Converting 1’ to radian and mil .0052777 ° x 0.2832 rad.3 Converting 1’’ to radian and mil? .77778 mil 1° = = = 60 60 60 o 1’ = .17453 rad = 17.000291 rad.77778 mil. 6400 mil o = = 360 360 360 0 o 1 = .29630 mil. = 17.77778) = 3.017453 ) 45=0.0938 mil 2. if we divide by 360 thus. From 3600 = 6. The equivalent of 1 radian to degrees and mil using again the one complete rotation or one complete revolution of the circle.017453) = 0. we can get the value of 1’ by dividing again by 60.017453 rad 17.4 What is the equivalent of 1 radian to degrees and mils? .000005 rad . o 60 ' . From 1’ = . thus we have.=.29630 mils Illustrative Example #2 12’ to radian and mil = 12/60 (.77778 mils Illustrative Example #1 45 ° ¿ radian∧mil = 45 °= ( 0.017453 = 0.78538 rad .2.000092 rad.2832 rad . We have.004938 mil Illustrative Example #3 19’’ to radian and mil = 19/3600 = 0.29630 mil 1' = = = 60 60 60 '' o 1 =. o 2 π rad=360 ° =6400 mils .

017453 = 5672. 1 rad = 1000 mil Illustrative example #4 99 radian to degree and mils = 99 rad / 0. mils Note: 1 mils = 0.2832 6.2832 1 rad = 57. o 2 (3.2832 rad=360 °=6400 mils 6. 296 ° = 1018.0009817 = 100840.38 degree = 99 rad / 0.0009817 rad. .58925 mils Note: we say that approximately.9 percent. although there is an error of about 1.1416 ) rad =360 °=6400 mils o 6.2832 6.

0. cm 3. Used in adjustment of firearm sights by adjusting the angle of the sight compared the barrel? a. Charles Darwin d. Metric system 2.777778 b. Another angular measure. Sexagesimal system b. In complete rotation or complete revolution is equals to _______ mils? a. 17. 0.79000 7. 1. m b. Charles-Marc Dapples b.77778 d. 6000 4. 17. 0. From the Latin word “mille” stands for _________? a.177777 c. mills 5. 5400 b. 1. 1 degree is equals to ________ mils? a. Circular system c.1 d. mile d. 6400 c. Unit of measurement under the mil system? a. Pre-Test Direction: Encircle the correct answer. 1 minute to mils? . Charles X Savier c. 1000 b. Mil system d. 7400 d. Charles Charles 8. mil d. mil b.01 c. mille c. A swiss engineer and professor at the University of Lausanne a. which used in artillery and other military applications? a. mL c. 0.001 6.

.630 9. 2. 5 10. .9630 c.9 d. 1018.004938 b.6 Post. 38 c. 1 second to mils? a.29630 b.86 d. 9 d. 1 rad to mils? a. 1018. 4.Test . 2.58925 b. a. 29. 49. 101. 1019 c.

Sexagesimal system f. 0. Unit of measurement under the mil system? e.1 h.9 h. 1 degree is equals to ________ mils? e.01 g. 6400 g. Mil system h. 7400 h. 17. 1. Charles-Marc Dapples f. m f.79000 7. 0. 1000 f. 29. mil h. 1 minute to mils? e. 5400 f. mille g. Charles Darwin h. mills 5. which used in artillery and other military applications? e.9630 g.777778 f. mil f.630 . mL g. Metric system 2. mile h. Charles Charles 8. 1.177777 g.77778 h. 2. 0. 2. 0. Charles X Savier g. 17. A swiss engineer and professor at the University of Lausanne e. cm 3. From the Latin word “mille” stands for _________? e.29630 f. Another angular measure. 6000 4. Used in adjustment of firearm sights by adjusting the angle of the sight compared the barrel? e. Circular system g.001 6. . In complete rotation or complete revolution is equals to _______ mils? e.Direction: Encircle the correct answer.

12 minutes to mil 3. 1 rad to mils? e. 101. 38 g. 9 h. .86 h. 49. 4. 1019 g. 9.004938 f.58925 f.6 Self. 45 degree to mil 2. 1018. 59 seconds to mil 4. 1018. 1 second to mils? e.Assessment Convert the following: 1. 2 radian to mil . 5 10.

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