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Doubly fed induction generator system for wind
turbines. IEEE Ind Appl Mag 8:26-33

ARTICLE in IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE · JUNE 2002
Impact Factor: 0.35 · DOI: 10.1109/2943.999610 · Source: IEEE Xplore

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ORG/IAS HE AIM OF WIND TURBINE SYS- T TEMS DEVELOPMENT is to contin- uously increase output power. & RIK W. in which wind energy is transformed into electrical en- COURTESY OF ENRON WIND GMBH ergy using a simple squirrel-cage induction machine directly connected to a three-phase power grid. The ro- tor of the wind turbine is coupled to the generator shaft with a fixed-ratio gearbox. the prototype of a Nordex N80 with a rated power of 2. By 1999.IEEE.5 MW was installed in March 2000 near Aachen. at 1077-2618/02/$17. the average output power of new installations climbed to 600 kW. BY S. MÜLLER. especially in offshore applications. the rated output power of production-type units reached 200 kW. A few years ago. For example.5-MW output power (Table 1). It is anticipated that in the near fu- ture. The largest series production units today are specified to deliver 1.00©2002 IEEE . However. Some induction generators use pole-adjustable winding configurations to enable 26 operation at different synchronous speeds. 1). power rating of wind turbines will increase fur- ther. DEICKE. DE DONCKER A viable alternative to ADJUST SPEED over a wide range at MINIMAL COST IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAY|JUNE 2002 • WWW. M. Many low-power wind turbines built to-date were constructed according to the “Danish concept” (Fig.

turbine speed is ad- justed as a function of wind speed to maximize output 0 0 0. ■ They reduce acoustic noise. 0. output power at high wind speed. 3). RATED POWER ABOVE 1.e. gusts of wind can be absorbed.6 ■ They improve power quality. ■ They reduce mechanical stresses. Pitch angle control is performed only to limit maximum Fixed speed “Danish” concept. especially at high-rated power. Adjustable Speed Generators Modern high-power wind turbines are ca- pable of adjustable speed operation.4 system. Key Grid advantages of adjustable speed generators (ASGs) compared to fixed-speed genera- tors (FSGs) are: PGen IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAY|JUNE 2002 • WWW. mum power point tracking (red curve) can be realized with tion is possible at low power conditions. Operation at the maximum power point can be Turbine Speed n/nN realized over a wide power range.4 0. As a result. energy is stored in the mechanical inertia of the turbine.0 pulsations caused by back pressure of the tower. 27 . 0. i.e. Type Power Control Control Diameter pends on the characteristics of mechani.500 Pitch Variable 80 result. less flicker. because low-speed opera. e.2 ■ They dynamically compensate for torque and power Pel 1.500 Pitch Variable 70 turbine.000 CombiStall Const 76 some of these mechanical circuits may be in the range of tens of milliseconds. in (kW) (m) cal subcircuits.8 1...g. Maxi- ciency improvement up to 10% is possible (Fig. ASG reducing pitch control complexity Compensation and peak power requirements.250 Pitch Variable 64 constants.Electrical output power as a function of turbine speed. energy effi- rameter curves are plotted for different wind speeds.800 Pitch Variable 70 These load variations not only require a Enron EW3.ORG/IAS ■ They are cost effective and provide simple pitch control.2 Wind Speed ■ They improve system efficiency. creating an “elasticity” that re- duces torque pulsations. The construction and performance of Nominal Rotor Manufacturer/ Rotor Speed fixed-speed wind turbines very much de. the pitch angle is 1 usually fixed. This strategy leads to expensive mechanical construction. At lower wind speed. Pa- bine speed and wind speed.6 0. the control- ling speed of the generator (fre. The response time of AN BONUS 2.8 power. Enercon E-66 1.2 0. pitch control time DeWind D6 1. This Electrical Power P/PN back pressure causes noticeable torque pulsations at a 0.6 3.any given operating point. etc. torque pulsations can be reduced due to the elasticity of the wind turbine 0. As a Nordex N80 2. Pmech quency) allows the pitch control time constants to become longer.600 Pitch Variable 100 stiff power grid to enable stable opera- tion.0 MW [1] stant speed.000 Pitch Variable 80 stresses.2 1. each time a gust of wind hits the Enron EW1. Fig. main breaker maximum switching rate.IEEE. a fast and strong variation of electrical output power can be observed. This eliminates electrical power variations. i. a speed variable system.5s 1.0 1. this Danish TABLE 1. 1.4 1. WIND POWER STATIONS CURRENTLY IN OPERATION WITH turbine basically has to operate at con..8 rate equal to the turbine rotor speed times the num- ber of rotor wings.500 Pitch Variable 70 design to absorb high mechanical Vestas V80 2.6 1. 2 illustrates 2 typical output power-speed curves as a function of tur. but also require a sturdy mechanical Pro&Pro MD70 1.

Approximately 2-3% efficiency im- disadvantages are apparent: provement can be obtained. In addition. The losses power into fixed-frequency ac power. and inverter harmonics represent a smaller Fig. because the DFIG system (four-quadrant con- verter and induction machine) ba- sically operates similar to a Grid synchronous generator. The con- verter has to provide only excita- tion energy. total system power. Fig. Compared to direct-in-line systems. .25 p. 4. Generator To develop decoupled control of active and reactive power. Profit: Pitch Control ■ Inverter output filters and EMI filters are rated for 1 100% p. is expensive. nected to the rotor windings. Although these di. output power. 5 shows an alter- native ASG concept that consists of a doubly fed induction 3 Wind Speed generator (DFIG) with a four-quadrant ac-to-ac converter based on insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) con- Efficiency gains due to adjustable speed wind turbines.2. cost. this DFIG offers the following advantages: ■ Reduced inverter cost. Doubly Fed Induction Generator ASG System Constant Speed Recent developments seek to avoid most disadvantages of direct-in-line converter based ASGs. compared to silicon-con- PGen trolled rectifier (SCR) based Kramer Pmech drives [3]. able-frequency ac power.5 MW.u. total system One possible implementation scheme of ASGs is shown in power. which has to be rated at 1 p. ically 25% of total system power. because inverter rating is typ- In addition. Island operation is difficult to range of the ASG is ±33% around the synchronus realize with the Danish concept. Direct-in-Line ASG System becuase filters are rated for 0. The latter is DFM fed via slip rings. ■ Reduced cost of the inverter filters and EMI filters.u.ORG/IAS ■ The power converter. Table 2 shows the sys- series with the ASG transforms this variable-frequency ac tem losses for different windmill concepts.u. Variation Reference: Stall. are shown separately for the generator and for the rect-in-line systems have been built up to 1. making filter design difficult and Power costly. several IGBT inverters. while the speed land-operation capability. 6). A synchronous generator is used to produce vari. The construction of a DFIG is similar to a wound rotor induc- tion machine (IM) and comprises a three-phase stator winding and a PGen three-phase rotor winding. a DFIG dynamic Grid model is needed. fraction of total system harmonics.IEEE. 4 Dynamic Model of a Doubly Fed Induction Direct-in-line wind turbine system. speed (Fig. most ASG-based wind turbines can offer is. The voltage and torque equations of the DFIG in a stationary ref- s*PGen erence frame are: s*PGen 3~ = ∂ψ Sj = 3~ Filter v Sj = r S ⋅ i Sj + j = {1. the DFIG with a four-quadrant 3~ = SG converter in the rotor circuit enables de- = 3~ coupled control of active and reactive Gear Box Filter power of the generator. ■ Power-factor control can be implemented at lower IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAY|JUNE 2002 • WWW.3} dt Converter (1) 5 28 Doubly fed induction generator wind turbine system. A power converter connected in ■ Improved system efficiency. ■ Converter efficiency plays an important factor in to- Profit: Speed tal system efficiency over the entire operating range.

2 j =1 dϑ (5) (3) yields IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAY|JUNE 2002 • WWW.1 –0. 29 .2 0.5 0.3 0.5 0. i.25 0.25 PR PGC PR PGC Slip n/n0 0.3} −v 1 ⋅ sin ϑ − v 2 ⋅ sin ϑ − 3  dt 2   (2) vd = ⋅ 3   2⋅π  −v 3 ⋅ sin ϑ + 3   p 3 dψ j     Tel = ⋅ ∑ij ⋅ . Transforming these equations from three-phase to (6) two-phase components and subsequently rotating all vari- ables into a synchronous reference frame (dq) according to ∂ψ S v S = rS ⋅ i S + + j ⋅ωS ⋅ψ S dt   2 ⋅ π  v 1 ⋅ cos ϑ + v 2 ⋅ cos ϑ − 3  (7) 2   vd = ⋅ ∂ψ ′ R 3   2⋅π  v ′ R = rR′ ⋅ i ′ R + + j ⋅ ωR ⋅ ψ ′ R +v 3 ⋅ cos ϑ + 3   dt     (8) P/Pr P/Pr 1 1 PG PG 0.e.ORG/IAS In these equations.25 8 Induction machine type equivalent circuit and vector diagram of the DFIG. all quantities are referred to the stator.2..9 1. transformed rotor quantities (superscript ′) are v = vd + j ⋅vq used.3 0.75 0.2 1.7 0.75 PS PS 0.1 –0.8 0. DFIG.3 -0.25 -0. jXsis jXsσIs vb vs vs vm Synchronous Machine-Type Induction Machine-Type Equivalent Circuit Equivalent Circuit i ′R i ′R is is i ′R is Xs IM Xsσ X′Rσ′ vs vM v ′R iM vb vs s is XM is 6 7 Maximum output power as a function of slip s (left) or Equivalent circuit and vector diagram of the (synchronous) speed ratio n/n0 (right). (4) ∂ψ Rj   2 ⋅ π  v ′Rj = rR′ ⋅ i ′Rj + j = {1.1 1.2 –0.IEEE.

depending on the state variables selected in the tor current can be considered as the field current of the (synchronous) DFIG. stator voltage and stator current are either given (line operation) or controlled (island operation) variables. In this induction machine-type equivalent circuit. according to ω S − ωmech ωR IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAY|JUNE 2002 • WWW. COMPARISON OF LOSSES equivalent circuit and vector diagram are shown in Fig. 0. the next steady-state equivalent circuit and vector diagram Generator Inverter can be found (Fig. a reference (12) frame linked to the stator voltage space vector v S is a conve- nient alternative because the DFIG operates as a generator V b = j ⋅ ω S ⋅ L m I′ R . A synchronous machine model is obtained when se- (9) lecting the flux linked to the rotor currents [or back-elec- tromotive force (EMF) voltage] as a state variable. 7. 3 { Tel = − ⋅ p ⋅ Im ψ S ⋅ i S . ψ R = Lm ⋅ i S + LR ⋅ i ′ R Selecting the air-gap flux (or magnetizing current) as a (10) state variable invariably leads to an induction machine type model. This ro- possible. 8).ORG/IAS Direct Line ca. In (13).5 % ca. stator voltage (7) reduces to The synchronous reference frame can be linked to the V S = j ⋅ωS ⋅ LS I S + V b stator or rotor flux of the machine. 3. This can be demonstrated easily for steady state. DFIG ca. due to mechanical reasons. 2 * } Both models give valuable insights on how the DFIG works and can be controlled. The associated DFIG steady-state TABLE 2. a slip Danish Cannot be constructed economi- Concept cally. maintaining or being fed with constant stator voltage [4]. ψ S = L S ⋅ i S + Lm ⋅ i ′ R model. the rotor slip frequency. . 3 % s= = . voltage vector V b represents the back-EMF Two interpretations of the DFIG dynamic equations are voltage induced in the stator by rotor current I R ′ . OF DIFFERENT TURBINE SYSTEMS By selecting the magnetizing current as a state variable. (13) Hence. 3.IEEE. the with ωR = ω S − ωmech . (11) In steady-state and neglecting-stator resistance. s can be introduced.5% ca. However.75% ωS ωS (14) VDC + - QG Set Control of Decoupling VRdq Grid Side Rotation VR PWM Converter φVS–φr PWM PG Set + - IRdq IR IGC Rotation φVS–φr Position Encoder φr - + φVS Calculation of Angle of Voltage Vector ISdq Rotation IS PG Calculation of VS Active and Reactive Power Filter QG IN 9 30 Vector controller block diagram for DFIG.

7 0.2 NSyn 500 400 1.2 0.2 1.9 1 0 Time [s] 0 100 200 300 400 500 (b) –200 Time [ms] 10 11 DFIG ac line current (top). Neglecting rotor resistance and rotor Both (14) and (15) clearly describe the leakage inductance. –400 IR3 [A] –500 1.2 1.8 0.IEEE.7 NSyn 800 0.5 Active Power in P. as is common in (17) field-oriented controllers for drives. the VR ≈ s∗ a SR ∗ V S .3 NSyn 200 0. because the synchronous (16) reference frame in which the machine equations are de- scribed is linked to the stator voltage space vector v s and Pmech = (1 − s )∗ PS . Fundamentally.U. trol of active and reactive power of the DFIG.5 0.2 20 40 60 80 100 –200 1 –400 0.5 0. 31 . Fig.0 NSyn Time [ms] 0 1. 6 illustrates these matches the stator voltage at maximum relationships. (a) Response tive power command and instantaneous active power without decoupling at different speeds. Transient active power step response of DFIG. The active power delivered to the rotor by the DFIG Vector Control four-quadrant converter and the mechanical power deliv.8 400 1. Grid Current 1000 800 2 IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAY|JUNE 2002 • WWW.9 NSyn –1000 0.7 0. decoupling.Set [kW] 0 1.8 –600 IG1 [A] 0. A block PR = s∗ PS diagram is shown in Fig.8 1000 0. To guarantee stable operation and enable independent con- ered to the shaft of the generator can be calculated accord.0 NSyn 600 PG [kW] PG.9 1 200 Time [s] 100 (a) IR [A] 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 –100 2 –200 1.5 0. rotor current (middle).3 NSyn 300 0.1 0.2 1.4 0.3 0. the proposed controller is a vector controller. output ac. four-quadrant converter operates as a (15) RATING OF generator of active power delivering power to the grid parallel to the DFIG. not to the stator or rotor flux vector.4 0.ORG/IAS 600 1.5 0. 200 IG [A] 0 1. a ing to the well-known IM equations model-based feed-forward controller is developed using the dynamic model equations mentioned above. This ra.U.8 –300 IR1 [A] IR2 [A] 1.8 NSyn 0.1 NSyn Rotor Current –0.9 NSyn PG [kW] 0. (b) Response with (bottom). Above synchronous speed. speed to avoid transformers in the rotor circuit. with a SR . passes) active power from the grid into ing of the four-quadrant converter the rotor circuit. the voltage-transformation WIND TURBINES Bel ow s ynchr onous s peed.2 0. 9. the ratio between stator and rotor. WILL INCREASE.2 NSyn 1.5 Active Power in P.1 0.6 0.3 0. four-quadrant converter circulates (by- tio is selected such that the voltage rat.2 1.7 NSyn IG2 [A] 0.6 0.1 NSyn 400 –0.8 0. one can derive that power flow in the DFIG for over-syn- the rotor voltage amplitude equals IT IS ANTICIPATED chronous and under-synchronous opera- THAT THE POWER tion.2 Time [ms] 1 Active Power 0.8 NSyn –800 IG3 [A] 0.

9 NSyn –90 _______ 1.IEEE. speed. rent.3 NSyn 1700 Rotor Speed rpm 1650 IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAY|JUNE 2002 • WWW.7 NSyn 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 t /s 0 _______ 0. Furthermore. Fig.1 NSyn 1800 –180 _______ 1. content in the line current of the DFIG system. (b) DFIG rotor speed.8 NSyn 0 1950 _______ 0. (c) Pitch angle of turbine mittance. stator and rotor current Simulation Results i S and i R .5 MW DFIG system. blades. (a) Admittance IS/VR Bode plots without decoup.e. A reverse vector rotation com. 11(a) regulation to minimize the effects of parameter detun. tive. mand in a stationary reference frame.) 12 10 (a) 8 Pitch Angle ° 6 4 40 2 0 –2 Magnitude [dB] 20 –4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 t /s 0 (c) 120 –20 100 80 60 40 –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 20 Torque Set Value % Frequency [Hz] (Field Coord. 11(b) shows system re- sponse when decoupling is performed according to the dy- Magnitude [dB] 20 0 20 15 –20 10 5 Wind Speed m/s –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Frequency [Hz] (Field Coord. Detailed system simulations were performed to evaluate ence frame. (b) Admittance IS/VR Bode plots with decoupling. rotor cur- command v Rd and v Rq . (e) ling. i.e.1 NSyn 1500 –180 _______ 1.0 NSyn 1900 Angle [°] 1850 _______ 1.2 NSyn 1750 –270 _______ 1. Note that system performance depends on speed due to the coupling 40 between d and q variables.8 NSyn _______ 0.) t /s 90 _______ 0. A decoupling circuit calculates from the de. Fig. the To analyze system response and tune feedback parame- measured rotor current signals are used for rotor current ters. 10 illustrates the DFIG line current. All measured quantities. Fig. and output active power.3 NSyn 1000 –270 500 –360 Output Power kW 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 t /s Frequency [Hz] (Field Coord. (a) Wind Bode diagram of the rotor voltage to stator current IS/VR ad. DFIG measured output power.0 NSyn 2000 Angle [°] _______ 1.7 NSyn (a) _______ 0.ORG/IAS –360 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 t /s –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 (b) Frequency [Hz] (Field Coord.9 NSyn (d) –90 _______ 1. (d) DFIG controller output power command. an active power step response is simulated.) (e) 13 (b) 12 Recorded waveforms on a 1. shows the response when the decoupling network is inac- ing and inverter gain errors.. 32 . i. Notice the low THD putes magnitude and phase of the rotor voltage com..) 0 90 _______ 0. the performance of the vector-controlled doubly fed gener- sired active and reactive power signals the rotor voltage ator. the machine is controlled using the basic steady-state voltage model based on slip control.2 NSyn _______ 1. are transformed into the synchronous refer.

S. F a k u l t ä t f ü r IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAY|JUNE 2002 • WWW. tive power control. Weigand. [7] H. levels above 1.de/informationen/informationen.W.5 MW. A negative frequency indicates a The authors would like to thank Tacke Windenergie. e. d i s s e r t a t i on . Ed. the pitch control is not very active because maxi. 13(d) shows that the wind turbine controller now limits Braunschweig. Müller (s. Fig. ton. 13. This than 1 MW. Germany. Deicke is a Member of the turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher IEEE. the DFIG independent of speed. one Maschinenbau und Elektrotechnik Technische Universität can see wind speed going up to approximately 15 m/s. wind-energie. 13-25. Electron. Note that a positive frequency indi. The doubly fed induction generator system article first appeared in its original format at the 2000 presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce IEEE/IAS Annual Meeting. 1. The top trace shows variation of wind speed as a [3] R. IEEE Int.” in Proc. strated. “Doppeltgespeister Drehstromgenerator mit mum power is not reached. 13(c)].g.htm ing a doubly fed Concycle generator produced by SEG.com) and M. can notice that the slip controlled DFIG has a strong de. Webster.namic model of the DFIG. Measurements were made on a wind turbine system hav. The actual output power [6] H. 13(e) and matches the Grundlagen. vol. Lauw.ORG/IAS mum efficiency curve shown in Fig. Bogalecka. 1996. oretical results. Typical results are illustrated in pert Verlag.W. 13(b) shows dia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. 1993. “Dynamics of the power control of double fed induc- bounds. “AC-AC power converters.800 rpm. [5] D. “Control of generators. The rated power is 1. command value perfectly. “Variable-speed m/s. Stemmler and A. tia. FL: CRC.. pp.5 MW. the elasticity of the tion generator connected to the soft grid. ” P h . Beyond 350 s. One Salzbergen. the torque command at 100%. of Energy. Dept. References Experimental Results [1] Windenergie (2001) [Online]. W. cates a rotation of the superimposed small signal space vec- tors in the direction of the fundamental component. The same performance improvement can be noticed in A dynamic model of the DFIG was derived to develop a the frequency domain. 1999.K. Hence. variable-speed DFIG wind turbine system is demon- Ind. Symp. J.H. Washing- allowed to increase storing energy into the turbine’s iner. “Converter controlled fixed-frequency Notice that in this constant. 13. Deicke are with SEG GmbH & Co. Arsudis. C. Marckx. Germany. Up to the time instant trol Handbook. avoiding power surges into the power grid.” in The Con- using pitch control [Fig. t=350 s. the main controller Spannungszwischenkres-Umrichter im Rotorkreis für seeks to maximize output power according to the maxi- W i n d k r a f t a n l a ge n . Steuerverfahren für Drehstrommaschinen: Theoretische delivered to the grid is shown in Fig.e. for off-shore applications... Rep. 1993. Ed. Simulations show excellent response of 12 [(a) for slip control and (b) for decoupled operation].” presented at the IPEC ‘95. Japan. The pitch controller is not capable of following this fast gust of wind. Rik W. 1983. [2] Q. Levins. D . pp. New generator speed. for the measurements shown in Fig. Omlin. The system’s response is quick cost and has the potential to be built economically at power and speed invariant.mueller@newage-avkseg. York: Wiley. 1993. Fig. Ph. Ex- Germany. Boca Raton.” U. in Kempen Germany. and the rated speed is nr=1. output power remains practi- cally constant. Available: http://www. pendency on speed. DOE/BP/99893-TI. at Acknowledgment a frequency above 50 Hz. Späth. Fig. and D.” in Wiley Encyclope- function of time (elapsed time 0-600 s).N. the speed of the turbine blades is wind system design: Final Report.IEEE. The main turbine controller aims at controlling speed [4] T. variable-speed motor/generator. small signal analysis with a frequency below 50 Hz. De Doncker. De Doncker. 1989.. Measurements obtained The 3-dB bandwidth reaches ±20 Hz when decoupled from 1. At the time instance t=450 s. DC.A. i. Berlin. Small signal Bode plots for the vector controller to decouple dynamically active and reac- I S V R ∗ transfer function (admittance) are shown in Fig. Germany: Springer-Verlag. Budapest. Praxis der feldorientierten Drehstromantriebs-regelung. and De Doncker is a Senior Member of the IEEE. wind speed rapidly reaches 17 [9] H. Jahns and R. 33 . S. Hence. the pitch controller sets the blades to keep speed within [8] E.5 MW units currently in operation confirm the the- control is turned on. De Summary Doncker is with the Institute for Power Electronics and Electri- This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind cal Drives in Aachen Germany. For a short while. 509-513. maximum power mode. During this transient. 4.