\Chemistry as science

Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), a Persian alchemist whose experimental research laid the
foundations of chemistry.
The development of the modern scientific method was slow and arduous, but an early
scientific method for chemistry began emerging among early Muslim chemists,
beginning with the 9th century Persian or Arabian chemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (known
as "Geber" in Europe), who is sometimes referred to as "the father of chemistry".
[29][30][31][32] He introduced a systematic and experimental approach to scientific
research based in the laboratory, in contrast to the ancient Greek and Egyptian
alchemists whose works were largely allegorical and often unintelligble.[33] Under
the influence of the new empirical methods propounded by Sir Francis Bacon and
others, a group of chemists at Oxford, Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and John Mayow
began to reshape the old alchemical traditions into a scientific discipline. Boyle
in particular is regarded as the founding father of chemistry due to his most
important work, the classic chemistry text The Sceptical Chymist where the
differentiation is made between the claims of alchemy and the empirical scientific
discoveries of the new chemistry.[34] He formulated Boyle's law, rejected the
classical "four elements" and proposed a mechanistic alternative of atoms and
chemical reactions that could be subject to rigorous experiment.[35]

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