DC MACHINES Prof. Vasudevamurthy, Dr.


UNIT - 3

It is convenient to determine the efficiency of a rotating machine by determining the losses than by
direct loading. Further it is not possible to arrange actual load for large and medium sized
machines. By knowing the losses, the machine efficiency can be found by

In the process of energy conversion in rotating machines - current, flux and rotation are involved
which cause losses in conductors, ferromagnetic materials and mechanical losses respectively.
Various losses occurring in a DC machine are listed below.

Total losses can be broadly divided into two types.

1) Constant losses
2) Variable losses

These losses can be further divided as

1) Constant losses – i) Core loss or iron loss
a) Hysteresis loss
b) Eddy current loss

ii) Mechanical loss

a) Windage loss
b) Friction loss – brush friction loss and Bearing friction loss.
2) Variable losses – i) copper loss (_ _)
a) Armature copper loss
b) Field copper loss
c) Brush contact loss
ii) Stray load loss
a) Copper stray load loss
b) Core stray load loss


Vasudevamurthy. a) Hysteresis loss: This loss is due to the reversal of magnetization of armature core as the core passes under north and south poles alternatively. Dr. Iron loss consists of a) Hysteresis loss and b) Eddy current loss. To reduce this loss the core is laminated.DC MACHINES Prof. F = Frequency in hertz ! V = Volume of the armature core in b) Eddy Current Loss:Eddy currents are the currents set up by the induced emf in the armature core when the core cuts the magnetic flux. stacked and riveted. maximum value of flux density and frequency. These laminations are insulated from each other by a thin coating of varnish. Thus the magnitude of eddy current is reduced resulting in the reduction of eddy current loss. The loss occurring due to the flow of eddy current is known as eddy current loss. This loss depends on the volume and grade of iron. The loss occurring is . brush friction and bearing friction losses. The effect of lamination is to reduce the current path because of increased resistance due to reduced cross section area of laminated core. Hysteresis loss Wh is given by Steinmetz formula. when the current flows through them. AIT Core loss or iron loss occurs in the armature core is due to the rotation of armature core in the magnetic flux produced by the field system. 2) Variable losses: Variable losses consist of (i) Copper loss: _ a) Armature copper loss or _$ _$ loss: This loss occurs in the armature windings because of the resistance of armature windings. ii) Mechanical loss: these losses include losses due to windage.

This loss varies with the varying load. _ termed as copper loss or _ r loss. 57 .

Dr. the flux density distribution gets distorted in the teeth and core. (ii) Stray load loss: The additional losses which vary with the load but cannot be related to current in a simple manner are called stray load loss. EFFICIENCY OF A DC GENERATOR: Power flow in a DC generator is shown in Figure 3. c) Brush contact drop: This is due the contact resistance between the brush and the commutator. Stray load loss is difficult to calculate accurately and therefore it is taken as 1 % of the output of a DC machine. ii) Core stray load loss: When the load current flows through the armature conductors. AIT b) Field copper loss: This is the loss due to current flowing in the field windings of the machine. is known as stray load loss in the core. This loss is a component of stray load loss. Further under highly saturated conditions of teeth. the decrease in flux density will be less than the increase due to the increase in flux density. i) Copper stray load loss: the loss occurring in the conductor due to skin effect and loss due to the eddy currents in the conductor set up by the flux passing through them are called copper stray load loss. resulting in a net increase in the core loss predominantly in the teeth. Mechanical power Electrical Power Electrical power input = Output of developed in armature output = VI Watts Prime Mover = -._$ Watts Iron and friction Copper losses losses Figure 3. DC MACHINES Prof.1 58 . flux leaks through the frame and end shields causing eddy current loss in them. Vasudevamurthy.1. This loss remains constant with load. Stray load losses are. The flux density decreases at one end of the flux density wave and increases at the other. Since the core loss is proportional to the square of the flux density.

In this method of testing no load losses are measured separately and eventually we can determine the efficiency The circuit connection for Swinburne's test is shown in figure below. We can run the machine as a motor or as a generator. Dr. The speed of the machine is adjusted to the rated speed with the help of the shunt regulator R as shown in figure. AIT CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY Swinburne Test of DC Machine This method is an indirect method of testing a dc machine. Vasudevamurthy.DC MACHINES Prof. . It is named after Sir James Swinburne. Swinburne's test is the most commonly used and simplest method of testing of shunt and compound wound dc machines which have constant flux. In this test the efficiency of the machine at any load is pre-determined.

Calculation of Efficiency Let. Since the no load mechanical output of the machine is zero in Swinburne's test.Ish) Also let. The value of armature copper loss = (I0 . Ra is the armature resistance.Ish)2 Ra Here. the no load input power is only used to supply the losses. no load armature current = (I0 . In Swinburne's test no load power input is only required to supply the losses. V is the supply voltage. The losses occur in the machine mainly are: Iron losses in the core Friction and windings losses Armature copper loss. Therefore. . No load power input = VI0 watts. I0 is the no load current ( it can be measured by ammeter A1 ) Ish is the shunt field current ( it can be measured by ammeter A2 ) Then.

Then. no to get the constant losses we have to subtract the armature copper loss from the no load power input. I is the load current at which we have to calculate the efficiency of the machine. Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Motoring on Load Power input = VI Armature copper loss. WC = VI0 -(I0 . WC = VI0 . And Ia = (I + Ish). when the machine is generating. PCU = I2 Ra = (I + Ish)2 Ra Constant losses. PCU = I2 Ra = (I .Ish). Constant losses WC = VI0 -(I0 . Then. Let.Ish)2Ra Constant losses.Ish)2 Ra Total losses = PCU + WC ∴ Efficiency of the motor: Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Generating on Load Power input = VI Armature copper loss. armature current (Ia) will be (I . when the machine is motoring.Now.Ish)2 Ra After calculating the no load constant losses now we can determine the efficiency at any load.Ish)2 Ra Total losses = PCU + WC ∴ Efficiency of the generator: Advantages of Swinburne's Test The main advantages of this test are : .(I0 .

4. Hence. the power drawn from the external supply is therefore used to overcome the internal losses of the . One of these two machines is operated as a generator to supply the mechanical power to the motor and the other is operated as a motor to drive the generator. Power losses can vary with the temperature. Since constant losses are known. 2. This test is very convenient and economical as it is required very less power from supply to perform the test. If there are no losses in the machine. Hopkinson's test is also called back-to-back test or regenerative test. 3. We can’t measure the temperature rise when the machine is loaded. But due to the drop in the generator output voltage we need an extra voltage source to supply the proper input voltage to the motor. the Swinburne’s test cannot be done to find its efficiency as it is a no load test. We cannot be sure about the satisfactory commutation on loaded condition because the test is done on no- load. 1. then no external power supply would have needed. 2. In dc series motors. It is a full load test and it requires two identical machines which are coupled to each other. efficiency of Swinburne's test can be pre-determined at any load. Hopkinson Test Hopkinson's test is another useful method of testing the efficiency of a dc machine. Disadvantages of Swinburne's Test The main disadvantages of this test are : 1. For this process of back to back driving the motor and the generator. Iron loss is neglected though there is change in iron loss from no load to full load due to armature reaction.

V = supply voltage of the machines. A motor and a generator. Motor input = V(I1 + I2) . When the machine is started it is started as motor. This equality of these two voltages of generator and supply is indicated by the voltmeter as it gives a zero reading at this point connected across the switch. Then. The generator voltage is now made equal to the supply voltage by adjusting the shunt field resistance connected across the generator. motor-generator set. Calculation of Efficiency by Hopkinson's Test Let. The machine can run at rated speed and at desired load by varying the field currents of the motor and the generator. are coupled together. both identical. The shunt field resistance of the machine is adjusted so that the motor can run at its rated speed. Here is circuit connection for the Hopkinson's test shown in figure below.

armature copper loss in the motor = (I1 + I2 .. I4 is the shunt field current of the motor.... Then... the stray losses in both machines will be W = VI2 .(2) From equation 1 an 2 we get.. Ra is the armature resistance of both motor and generator.. Shunt field copper loss in the motor will be = VI4 Next. in case of motor.... VI1 = η2 V(I1 + I2) or I1 = η2 (I1 + I2) Now. both machines are operating at the same efficiency 'η'.... Shunt field copper loss in the generator = VI3 Now....I4)2 Ra..I1 = The current from the generator I2 = The current from the external source And.. Power drawn from the external supply = VI2 Therefore.. Output of motor = η x input = η x V(I1 + I2) Input to generator = Output of the motor = η X V(I1 + I2) Output of generator = η x input = η x [η x V(I1 + I2)] = η2 V(I1 + I2)...I4)2 Ra + VI4 + (I1 + I3)2 Ra + VI3 Let us assume that the stray losses will be same for both the machines. Generator output = VI1.......(I1 + I2 .(1) Let..... Stray loss / machine = W/2 ... in case of generator armature copper loss in generator = (I1 + I3)2Ra I3 is the shunt field current of the generator. Then.

Change in iron loss due to flux distortion can be taken into account due to the advantage of its full load condition Disadvantages of Hopkinson's Test The demerits of this test are 1. Both machines cannot be loaded equally all the time. 2. WG = (I1 + I3)2 Ra + VI3 + W/2 Generator output = VI1 Then. This test requires very small power compared to full-load power of the motor- generator coupled system. . Efficiency of Motor Total losses in the motor. Temperature rise and commutation can be observed and maintained in the limit because this test is done under full load condition. 2. efficiency of the generator. WM = (I1 + I2 . It is difficult to find two identical machines needed for Hopkinson's test. 3. Advantages of Hopkinson's Test The merits of this test are… 1.Efficiency of Generator Total losses in the generator.I4)2 Ra + VI4 + W/2 Motor input = V(I1 + I2) Then. That is why it is economical. efficiency of the motor.

3. 4. It is not possible to get separate iron losses for the two machines though they are different because of their excitations. It is difficult to operate the machines at rated speed because field currents vary widely. .