DC MACHINES Prof. Vasudevamurthy, Dr.

AIT

UNIT - 3
LOSSES AND EFFICIENCY OF DC MACHINES:

It is convenient to determine the efficiency of a rotating machine by determining the losses than by
machines. By knowing the losses, the machine efficiency can be found by

In the process of energy conversion in rotating machines - current, flux and rotation are involved
which cause losses in conductors, ferromagnetic materials and mechanical losses respectively.
Various losses occurring in a DC machine are listed below.

Total losses can be broadly divided into two types.

1) Constant losses
2) Variable losses

These losses can be further divided as

1) Constant losses – i) Core loss or iron loss
a) Hysteresis loss
b) Eddy current loss

ii) Mechanical loss

a) Windage loss
b) Friction loss – brush friction loss and Bearing friction loss.
_
2) Variable losses – i) copper loss (_ _)
a) Armature copper loss
b) Field copper loss
c) Brush contact loss

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Vasudevamurthy. a) Hysteresis loss: This loss is due to the reversal of magnetization of armature core as the core passes under north and south poles alternatively. Dr. Iron loss consists of a) Hysteresis loss and b) Eddy current loss. To reduce this loss the core is laminated.DC MACHINES Prof. F = Frequency in hertz ! V = Volume of the armature core in b) Eddy Current Loss:Eddy currents are the currents set up by the induced emf in the armature core when the core cuts the magnetic flux. stacked and riveted. maximum value of flux density and frequency. These laminations are insulated from each other by a thin coating of varnish. Thus the magnitude of eddy current is reduced resulting in the reduction of eddy current loss. The loss occurring due to the flow of eddy current is known as eddy current loss. This loss depends on the volume and grade of iron. The loss occurring is . brush friction and bearing friction losses. The effect of lamination is to reduce the current path because of increased resistance due to reduced cross section area of laminated core. Hysteresis loss Wh is given by Steinmetz formula. when the current flows through them. AIT Core loss or iron loss occurs in the armature core is due to the rotation of armature core in the magnetic flux produced by the field system. 2) Variable losses: Variable losses consist of (i) Copper loss: _ a) Armature copper loss or _\$ _\$ loss: This loss occurs in the armature windings because of the resistance of armature windings. ii) Mechanical loss: these losses include losses due to windage.

This loss varies with the varying load. _ termed as copper loss or _ r loss. 57 .

In this method of testing no load losses are measured separately and eventually we can determine the efficiency The circuit connection for Swinburne's test is shown in figure below. We can run the machine as a motor or as a generator. Dr. The speed of the machine is adjusted to the rated speed with the help of the shunt regulator R as shown in figure. AIT CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY Swinburne Test of DC Machine This method is an indirect method of testing a dc machine. Vasudevamurthy.DC MACHINES Prof. . It is named after Sir James Swinburne. Swinburne's test is the most commonly used and simplest method of testing of shunt and compound wound dc machines which have constant flux. In this test the efficiency of the machine at any load is pre-determined.

Calculation of Efficiency Let. Since the no load mechanical output of the machine is zero in Swinburne's test.Ish) Also let. The value of armature copper loss = (I0 . Ra is the armature resistance.Ish)2 Ra Here. the no load input power is only used to supply the losses. no load armature current = (I0 . In Swinburne's test no load power input is only required to supply the losses. V is the supply voltage. The losses occur in the machine mainly are: Iron losses in the core Friction and windings losses Armature copper loss. Therefore. . No load power input = VI0 watts. I0 is the no load current ( it can be measured by ammeter A1 ) Ish is the shunt field current ( it can be measured by ammeter A2 ) Then.

Then. no to get the constant losses we have to subtract the armature copper loss from the no load power input. I is the load current at which we have to calculate the efficiency of the machine. Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Motoring on Load Power input = VI Armature copper loss. WC = VI0 -(I0 . WC = VI0 . And Ia = (I + Ish). when the machine is generating. PCU = I2 Ra = (I + Ish)2 Ra Constant losses. PCU = I2 Ra = (I .Ish). Constant losses WC = VI0 -(I0 . Then. Let.Ish)2Ra Constant losses.Ish)2 Ra Total losses = PCU + WC ∴ Efficiency of the motor: Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Generating on Load Power input = VI Armature copper loss. armature current (Ia) will be (I . when the machine is motoring.Now.Ish)2 Ra After calculating the no load constant losses now we can determine the efficiency at any load.Ish)2 Ra Total losses = PCU + WC ∴ Efficiency of the generator: Advantages of Swinburne's Test The main advantages of this test are : .(I0 .