New concept for observing slow transient on analog oscilloscope

M.H.L.C. Hettiarachchi
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology
The Open University of Sri Lanka
#M.H.L.C. Hettiarachchi; <mhalackith@gmail.com>

Abstract— Circuit testing is one of the most important
areas in electronics design and fault diagnosis. Among the The most of analog oscilloscopes can show 100Hz to
widely used testing methods, signal analysis using 30MHz repetitive signals only .The analog oscilloscope
oscilloscope is the major technique for time and frequency starts the sweep which is triggered at a selected voltage
related circuitry. Signal patterns describe important level also called triggering point on the repetitive signal,
parameters of a system such as transient, steady state, providing a stable display because repetitive signals find
and noise. In non-repetitive signals, trigger level does not the triggering level repeated at equal time intervals .In
repeat at same interval. Hence it is difficult to observe non-repetitive or slow transients, the trigger level doesn’t
such signals in analog oscilloscope. As in the storage repeat at same time interval .Hence it is difficult to
oscilloscope this new concept first acquires signal data observe such signals in CRO .
within the transient period which is not repeated again. It Digital Storage Oscilloscope is one of the best solution in
is then regenerated and repeated at a faster rate in order slowly varying transient observation. But it is very
to get a stable display on analog oscilloscope. expensive than analog oscilloscope. Therefore, if a
recording option to existing CRO can be introduced, it can
Slowly varying signals and transient’s observation on be used for aforementioned function at a very low cost. As
analog oscilloscope is a novel approach that basically in the storage oscilloscope this new concept first acquires
improves the utilization efficiency of the circuit signal data within the transient period which is not
measurement testing such as Feedback control system, repeated .It is then regenerated and repeated at a faster
Electrical insulation test, observation of armature current rate in order to get a stable display on analog oscilloscope .
of a motor and RLC circuit responses. Therefore, using the The system consists of four parts namely, analog to digital
proposed system, it can increase the analog oscilloscope’s converter, controller, memory, and digital to analog
capability to a greater extent. converter .As an example, if it is observed a slowly varying
Keywords: Oscilloscope, Trigger level, transient response transient in 10 minutes’ duration it will get 100 samples
and store it in the flash memory .Then compress the time
interval of sampling and forward it within 60 milliseconds
duration repeatedly. Block diagram of the system is shown
Fig. 1.
I. INTRODUCTION

Circuit testing is one of the most important areas in
electronics design and fault diagnosis .Among the widely
used testing methods, signal analysis using oscilloscope is
the major technique for time and frequency related
circuitry .Signal patterns describe important parameters
of a system such as transient, steady state, and noise.
There are two types of oscilloscopes available; first -
Analog oscilloscope and second –Digital oscilloscope .
Analog oscilloscope is the most common type .Digital Fig. 1 Block Diagram of the System
oscilloscope is used for advance testing .Digital
oscilloscope is very expensive than its analog counterpart . System was implemented on Arduino Due development
CRO working principle is very simple .Electron beam board. The Arduino Due is a microcontroller board based
generated by the electron gun first deflected by the on the Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. It is the first
deflection plates, and then directed on to the fluorescent Arduino board based on a 32-bit ARM core
coating of the (CRO )screen, which produces a visible light microcontroller. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of
spot on the face plane of the oscilloscope screen .If we which 12 can be used as PWM outputs), 12 analog inputs,
apply the voltage signal it is measured to an electron beam 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), an 84 MHz clock, an USB
moving across the oscilloscope screen .The voltage OTG capable connection, 2 DAC (digital to analog), 2 TWI,
deflects the beam up and down proportionally, tracing the a power jack, an SPI header, a JTAG header, a reset button
waveform on the screen. and an erase button.

DESIGN CIRCUITS FLOW CHART OF THE OVERALL SYSTEM Arduino Due development board analog input pins and ADC can measured ground to a maximum value of 3. DAC output amplify and repositioned relative to a zero-volt reference. 3. This will return values from “analog Read ()” between 0 and 4095. This will remove the currently loaded sketch from For the previous resistor values. Analog0 pin connected Voltage shifter circuit calculation. Therefore. connected voltage shifter is done by reverse operation of 2016) the previous one and change the resister value for the maximum DAC output reconstruct the actual value. respectively).3V on the Due’s pins will damage the SAM3X chip.55 V to 2. The gain off stored in a dedicated ROM memory.6 V and attenuate shown circuit Fig. Therefore. All the available memory (Flash.3 V. These pins can be used If R1= R3.6 V. the gain is 1 since R3=R1. The “analog Reference ()” function is ignored on the Due.75 V only. It is possible to erase the Flash memory of the “Due” with the on-board erase button. The is 33 K and R1 is 100 K. To erase. that output reconstruct the previous stage. Therefore. These pins provide true analog outputs with 12-bits resolution (4096 level) with the “analog Write ()” function. Selected resistor for R4 of 256 KB) of flash memory for storing code.2. 3 Voltage Shift circuit to connect DAC out to the SAM3X analog reference pin through a resistor bridge. But proposed system maintain -5 to+5 voltage signals.ADC Arduino Due contain 12 analog input pins. then to create an audio output using the Audio library. DAC output range is from 0. The Due has the ability to change its default analog read and write resolutions (10-bits and 8-bits.55 V to 2. the MCU. To use the AREF pin. MEMORY It is required to convert a 10 Vpp signal to a 3.75 V. Now we need to choose the positive bootloader is pre-burned in factory from Atmel and is offset such that the signal is centered at 1. Applying more than 3. 2 Voltage Shift circuit to connect ADC . Fig. RAM and ROM) can be accessed directly as a flat addressing space.3 V signal. CALCULATIONS soldered from the PCB. Also Arduino due DAC output vary range is actually from 0.6 V. DAC Arduino due contain 2 analog outputs. The available SRAM the offset voltage is: is 96 KB in two contiguous bank of 64 KB and 32 KB. press and hold the Erase button for a and so we use an offset voltage of 1. The AREF pin is connected Fig. Shown Fig.3V. The Due’s analog inputs pins measure from ground to a maximum value of 3. resistor BR1 must be de. and R2= R4. repositioned zero-volt reference to 1. The Arduino due development board has 512 KB (2 blocks therefore the gain should be 1/3. (Arduino DUE. DAC0 pin few seconds while the board is powered. It can support up to 12-bit ADC capabilities that can be accessed by changing the resolution to 12.

DAC output plotted the CRO shown in Fig. Tested RC circuit Capacitor charging and 3 minute duration minute discharging time duration is equal and it is5𝛕. Fig. Time duration: 300Second RC first order circuit Resister value 1.5 s.oscillations transient Period 10 Fig. Compression ratio 1:100000. Test provided 3.oscillations sample time 300 oscilloscope show the repetitive signal transient Period 10 minute duration frequency is 363.oscillations transient Period 2 1 2minute duration minute. In future system will develop the above value 10µF.5 CRO Output of RC resonance Circuit Fig.3V voltage to the RC first order criteria.5MΩ and capacitor value 47µF . get the sample 1 s and total Mode4 300 samples10 Slow. Capacitor Charging Test provided 3. Samples: 31. Proposed System Pre Defined Mode Mode Samples Suitable Systems Mode 400 samples High. If minute received more sample shape is become very accurate. In here comparison ratio 1:100000 but propose Applied voltage 3. circuit and get the samples 10seconds period.4 Flow chart of the Overall system Table 1.6 CRO Output of RC first order Circuit 2 minute duration minute Mode 300 samples 2 high. In here received the maximum 300samples. Calculated time duration is 352.3. Auto Until stable get the Unpredictable CONCLUSION samples systems Slowly variant transient observation is a novel approach that basically improves the utilization efficiency of the circuit measurement testing such as Feedback control EXPERIMENTAL RESULT system. and armature current of the motor observation and RLC slowly variant response. 5.6. Test2 parameters: Applied voltage 3.36 Hz.oscillations Arduino Due out put clearly show the repetitive signal in transient Period 2 CRO screen. DAC output plotted the CRO shown in Fig.3V voltage to the RC resonance circuit and get the samples 1mili second’s period. Mode 400samples10 Slow. Time duration: system can adjust caparisons ratio to intelligent 300Second calculation of the test system it is the best way of the RC first order circuit Resister value 4. Samples: 300.3. DAC resolution and sample rate are defending on the best Test1 parameters: output.7MΩ and capacitor measurement. Electrical insulation test.

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