5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline

History of Computers: A
Brief Timeline
By Kim Ann Zimmermann, Live Science Contributor | September 8, 2015 04:10pm ET

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The computer was born not
for entertainment or email
but out of a need to solve a
Famed
mathematician
serious number-crunching
Charles Babbage
designed a Victorian-
crisis. By 1880, the U.S.
era computer called
the Analytical Engine.
population had grown so
This is a portion of large that it took more than
the mill with a printing
mechanism. seven years to tabulate the
Credit: Science U.S. Census results. The
Museum | Science &
Society Picture government sought a faster
Library
way to get the job done,
giving rise to punch-card
based computers that took up entire
rooms.
Today, we carry more computing power on
our smartphones than was available in
these early models. The following
brief history of computing is a timeline of
how computers evolved from their humble
beginnings to the machines of today that
surf the Internet, play games and stream
multimedia in addition to crunching
numbers.

1801 : In France, Joseph Marie Jacquard
invents a loom that uses punched wooden
cards to automatically weave fabric
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1941 : Atanasoff and his graduate student. is a failure. belts or shafts.5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline cards to automatically weave fabric designs.html 2/9 . This marks the first time a computer is able to store information on its main memory.V. the world’s first computer was actually built. later called the Turing machine. 1943-1944: Two University of Pennsylvania professors. design a computer that can solve 29 equations simultaneously. build the Electronic Numerical https://www. He establishes a company that would ultimately become IBM. Clifford Berry. funded by the English government. More than a century later. Presper Eckert. 1937: J. Atanasoff. : presents the notion of a 1936 Alan Turing universal machine. 1822: English mathematician Charles Babbage conceives of a steam-driven calculating machine that would be able to compute tables of numbers. cams. however. accomplishing the task in just three years and saving the government $5 million.com/20718-computer-history.livescience. The central concept of the modern computer was based on his ideas. capable of computing anything that is computable. Early computers would use similar punch cards. a professor of physics and mathematics at Iowa State University. 1890: Herman Hollerith designs a punch card system to calculate the 1880 census. attempts to build the first computer without gears. John Mauchly and J. The project.

it fills a 20-foot by 40-foot room and has 18.com/20718-computer-history. with a mouse and a graphical user interface (GUI)..html 3/9 . conceives the IBM 701 EDPM to help the United Nations keep tabs on Korea during the war. 1964 : Douglas Engelbart shows a prototype of the modern computer.000 vacuum tubes. Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for his work.livescience. : William Shockley. : The FORTRAN programming 1954 language is born. Thomas Johnson Watson Jr. known as the computer chip. build the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). the first commercial computer for business and government applications. son of IBM CEO Thomas Johnson Watson Sr.5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline Eckert. They discovered how to make an electric switch with solid materials and no need for a vacuum. Considered the grandfather of digital computers. 1958 : Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce unveil the integrated circuit. : Grace Hopper develops the first 1953 computer language. John Bardeen and 1947 Walter Brattain of Bell Laboratories invent the transistor.. This https://www. which eventually becomes known as COBOL. : Mauchly and Presper leave the 1946 University of Pennsylvania and receive funding from the Census Bureau to build the UNIVAC.

1975: The January issue of Popular Electronics magazine features the Altair 8080. the first Dynamic Access Memory (DRAM) chip. : Robert Metcalfe.5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline and a graphical user interface (GUI). develops Ethernet for connecting multiple computers and other hardware. 1971: Alan Shugart leads a team of IBM engineers who invent the “floppy disk.html 4/9 .livescience. UNIX was portable across multiple platforms and became the operating system of choice among mainframes at large companies and government entities. 1974-1977 : A number of personal computers hit the market. described as the "world's first https://www. : A group of developers at Bell Labs 1969 produce UNIX. This marks the evolution of the computer from a specialized machine for scientists and mathematicians to technology that is more accessible to the general public. IBM 5100. Due to the slow nature of the system. Written in the C programming language. 1970: The newly formed Intel unveils the Intel 1103.com/20718-computer-history. a member of the 1973 research staff for Xerox. an operating system that addressed compatibility issues. RadioShack’s TRS-80 — affectionately known as the “Trash 80” — and the Commodore PET. it never quite gained traction among home PC users.” allowing data to be shared among computers. including Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair.

using the new BASIC language. 1978: Accountants rejoice at the introduction of VisiCalc. : and Steve Wozniak start 1976 Steve Jobs Apple Computers on April Fool’s Day and roll out the Apple I. introduced in 1977. It https://www. like crazy. the two childhood friends form their own software company. It offers color graphics and incorporates an audio cassette drive for storage.” is introduced.html 5/9 . It sold The TRS-80." Two "computer geeks. Microsoft.livescience. was one of the first non-geeks could write machines whose documentation was programs and make a intended for non. after the success of this first endeavor. computer do what they geeks Credit: Radioshack wished. : Jobs and Wozniak 1977 incorporate Apple and show the Apple II at the first West Coast Computer Faire. the first computerized spreadsheet program.000.com/20718-computer-history. 1979 : Word processing becomes a reality as MicroPro International releases WordStar. 1981: The first IBM personal computer. the first computer with a single-circuit board.5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline 8080. described as the "world's first minicomputer kit to rival commercial models. For the first time. 1977: Radio Shack's initial production run of the TRS- 80 was just 3. code-named “Acorn. On April 4." Paul Allen and Bill Gates. offer to write software for the Altair.

5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline “Acorn. More than two years later.” : Microsoft announces Windows.html 6/9 . a small Massachusetts computer manufacturer. Sears & Roebuck and Computerland sell the machines. Credit: IBM monitor.com/20718-computer-history. Commodore unveils the Amiga 1000. : The first dot-com domain name is 1985 registered on March 15. Its 32-bit architecture provides as speed comparable to mainframes.com. It uses Microsoft’s MS-DOS The first IBM personal operating system. It has an computer. which features advanced audio and video capabilities. 12. years before the World Wide Web would mark the formal beginning of Internet history. : Apple’s Lisa is the first personal 1983 computer with a GUI. It flops but eventually evolves into the Macintosh.livescience. its 1985 response to Apple’s GUI. It also popularizes the term PC. two floppy disks used the MS-DOS and an optional color operating system. The Gavilan SC is the first portable computer with the familiar flip form factor and the first to be marketed as a “laptop. 1986 : Compaq brings the Deskpro 386 to market. Intel chip. https://www. registers Symbolics. introduced on Aug. The Symbolics Computer Company. It also features a drop-down menu and icons. 1981. marking the first time a computer is available through outside distributors. only 100 dot-coms had been registered.” is introduced.

" "Theme Park. which was struggling at the time. : Tim Berners-Lee. : Microsoft invests $150 million in 1997 Apple. Not to be outdone." "Descent" and "Little Big Adventure" are among the games to hit the market. among other benefits. ending Apple’s court case against Microsoft in which it alleged that Microsoft copied the “look and feel” of its operating system.livescience. giving rise to the World Wide Web. a researcher at 1990 CERN. : Sergey Brin and Larry Page develop 1996 the Google search engine at Stanford University. which has a significantly https://www. : The term Wi-Fi becomes part of the 1999 computing language and users begin connecting to the Internet without wires." "Magic Carpet.html 7/9 . : The Pentium microprocessor 1993 advances the use of graphics and music on PCs." "Alone in the Dark 2. Microsoft rolls out Windows XP. which provides protected memory architecture and pre- emptive multi-tasking. : PCs become gaming 1994 machines as "Command & Conquer.5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline speed comparable to mainframes. develops HyperText Markup Language (HTML). the high-energy physics laboratory in Geneva.com/20718-computer-history. 2001 : Apple unveils the Mac OS X operating system.

livescience. as well as an Intel-based iMac. a video sharing service. : YouTube. a social networking site. becomes available to the consumer market.5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline out Windows XP. among other features.html 8/9 . 2006: Apple introduces the MacBook Pro. : Facebook gains 1 billion users on https://www. : Apple unveils the iPad. launches. which offers the ability to pin applications to the taskbar and advances in touch and handwriting recognition. changing the 2010 way consumers view media and jumpstarting the dormant tablet computer segment. AMD’s 2003 Athlon 64. the dominant Web browsers. : The first 64-bit processor. Nintendo’s Wii game console hits the market. 2009: Microsoft launches Windows 7. Facebook. its first Intel-based. a 2011 laptop that runs the Google Chrome OS. : Google releases the Chromebook. is 2005 founded. 2004: Mozilla’s Firefox 1.com/20718-computer-history.0 challenges Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. : The iPhone brings many computer 2007 functions to the smartphone. a Linux-based mobile phone operating system. which has a significantly redesigned GUI. Google acquires Android. dual-core mobile computer.

: Apple releases the Apple Watch.html 9/9 .5/7/2017 Computer History Timeline : Facebook gains 1 billion users on 2012 October 4.com/20718-computer-history. 2015 Microsoft releases Windows 10.livescience. https://www.