/ Hybrid Cooling Towers

Cooling Towers without visible plume /

Cooling Technologies
Balcke | Hamon Dry Cooling | Marley

the visible plume therefore components in the vicinity consists only of small water droplets and is normally neither • endangering of nearby traffic dangerous nor environmentally routes (roads and railways) in hazardous. Visible cooling tower plume in for example. in particular in cold weather and when there are traffic routes in close proximity . however. When it leaves the cooling • corrosion and ice formation on tower. It is the • complaints and objections from physical functioning principle of a local residents wet cooling tower. and approval at plant locations portion thereof. which causes the plume. areas theless giving grounds for complaint. the case of larger cooling towers • in the case of very large cooling towers a considerable amount of shadow is caused in the vicinity which can have negative effects./ Visible plume – an avoidable problem / Every wet cooling tower generates Such plume can. on agricultural most cases harmless but never. in which the water to be cooled is essentially • problems relating to acceptance cooled by evaporating a small pro. lead to a visible plume which can be very negative reactions such as: extensive particularly in cold and/or humid weather.

x-diagram” on ambient air. In evaporation is used. No additional energy is Cooling Technologies design are The problem: visible plume therefore required to heat the air. In this case the with the ambient air. Consequently it remains cooled (please refer to pages 6/7). case the plume is not visible. The air leaves the dry bulb temperature cooling tower in this state. Some examples of our hybrid cooling towers are set out on the following pages. When emerging line (humidity of the air = tower. then 1. The method of operation of from purely wet cooling towers. The mixing line (green connecting saturation line between 1 and 4) distin- zone guishes the possible degrees to which the exhaust air is mixed with the ambient air. To date we have built such cooling tower is undersaturated towers exclusively as round struc- and remains undersaturated even tures which are best suited to the when it is mixed with the ambient large flow rates of water to be air. The solution: SPX Cooling Technologies hybrid cooling tower / Physical functioning principle of a hybrid cooling tower / air is heated in the dry section % j = 95 at a constant level of humidity.This was the reason why SPX Normally. % =100 4. This involves. Heated air stream leaving the (the so-called wet section of the dry section heat exchanger. 2. If the mix- the right side. This air stream is generated ing tower. Plume leaving the cooling fill 3. in heat exchangers. hot air temperature achieved are higher stream prior to leaving the cooling compared to those of a wet cool- tower. Smallest distance between the mixing line and the saturation Principle sketch of a hybrid cooling cooling tower). Mixed air streams from wet and ne j uration li sat dry sections. cooling with the plume Cooling Technologies developed being invisible is only possible the concept of the “hybrid cooling when a dry cooling tower without tower” several decades ago. principle this hybrid cooling tower however. the water to be cooled serving as the heating Hybrid cooling towers of the SPX medium. In this cooling tower. Ambient air being fed to the mixing line (dotted connecting no water condenses out. The ·3· . higher capital invest- is a wet cooling tower in which the ment costs and the cold water plume is mixed with a dry. invisible. line between 1 and 2). cooling tower plume mixes ing line does not intersect or with the ambient air along the touch the saturation line. water content 5. 100 %) when the air leaving the a hybrid cooling tower is illustrated this plume mixes with the hybrid cooling tower mixes in the “Mollier h. amongst the technically most The quantity of hot air added advanced cooling towers of this is such that the plume leaving the type.

FRP. are normally equipped with sound ies. 2 ·4·· . attenuators./ The most frequent design – cell-type hybrid cooling towers / SPX Cooling Technologies hybrid As hybrid cooling towers are cooling towers of a cell-type primarily used in plants where design are excellently suited to all disturbing effects on the sur- types of application.g. prevention components such as ing plants etc. They can be made low-noise fans and sound of different materials such as con. steel. refrigerating and air-condition. they stations. crete. Cell-type hybrid cooling tower with induced draught fan Fig. e. 1 Fig. in power roundings must be avoided. chemical plants. timber. refiner.

2) Hybrid cooling tower made of con- crete and equipped with sound attentuators for a German chemi- cal plant. 4) Hybrid cooling tower made of con- crete and equipped with sound attenuators for an Austrian com- bined heat and power station. It is therefore possible to achieve extremely low sound emissions on the side of the cooling tower away from the fans. (Fig. 5 ·5· . Adjustable roller shutter doors can be seen in front of the heat exchangers. 5) This plant has separate forced draught fans for the wet and dry sections.Cooling tower made of concrete for a Spanish paper mill. (Fig. 4 (please refer to pages 6/7). 1) Hybrid cooling tower made of con- crete with sound attenuators for a power station in The Netherlands. (Fig. These control the required hot air flow rate to ensure plume-free operation. (Fig. As in the case of round cooling towers. 3) Fig. 3 Hybrid cooling tower made of timber for a British cogeneration plant. Fig. it is possible to control the wet and dry sections optimally Fig. (Fig.

This significantly reduces Whilst the speed of the wet the thermal performance of the section fans is adjusted to ensure cooling tower and additional cells the required cooling water temper- would have to be built in order to ature. the appropriate speed Hybrid cooling tower with forced compensate for the reduction in adjustment of the dry section fans draught fans performance.e./ The top class – Hybrid cooling tower of a round design / SPX Cooling Technologies hybrid towers only one hot water pipe cooling towers are the ideal solu. in cell-type cooling towers one cal plants in which large water individual pipe has to be allocated flows need to be cooled. i. Finally less piping ing towers. to each cell. is needed. energy-saving process towers due to their greater overall control can therefore be achieved height. inlets. Recirculation and controls the required hot air flow interference problems are hardly rate for plume-free operation. leads to the cooling tower whilst tion for power stations and chemi. in such cooling towers. the hot cooling tower separate forced draught fans in plume is sucked back into the air front of the wet and dry sections. A round hybrid cooling tower also Another positive aspect is the requires less space than a large architectural design of hybrid cool- cell-type plant. ever experienced in round cooling Optimal. as in round cooling . Recirculation and interference occur in large cell-type cooling Round hybrid cooling towers have towers.

Hybrid cooling towers of a round design equipped with sound attenuators for a combined heat and power station in Germany. (Fig. 1+2) Round cooling tower for an Italian refinery. 2 design equipped with sound atten- uators for a German nuclear power plant – the definite world champion of its class. 4 . 3 Fig. 4) Fig. 3) Hybrid cooling tower of a round Fig. (Fig. 1 Fig. (Fig.

invisibility of the plume contribute Fig. stainless steel. ments of environmental regula- hybrid cooling tower / tions. quality. When tubes or fins are Cooling Technologies ensures that • Heat exchangers for the dry made of C-steel the finished tubes optimal efficiency is achieved at a section (Fig. C-steel. 3) tubes. The production staff can select from a wide range of materi. aluminium in significantly to compliance with / Components essential order to provide the appropriate the optical and acoustic require- to the functioning of a tube material for any medium. stainless steel. The low-noise fan drives and the als such as C-steel. 4) are hot-dip galvanised to protect low sound power level. copper or • Mixing ducts or mixing discs aluminium are used as fin material The low-noise running of the fans (Fig. 1 nonferrous metal. / Key components of a hybrid cooling tower / / Heat exchanger – quality at / Fans – low sound power the highest level / level but a high degree of efficiency / SPX Cooling Technologies heat Low-noise fans are an absolutely exchangers are produced at the essential component of an envi- company’s own production facili. the inside of the heat exchanger tubes • Pressurised water cleaning system for outer finned tube surfaces • Evacuation equipment • Bypass systems Fig. ronmentally sound hybrid cooling ties and guarantee the highest tower design. • Rubber ball cleaning system for them against corrosion. 1 and 2) for the finned heat exchanger designed especially by SPX • Low-noise fans (Fig. 2 .

Effectiveness and low pres. Manual or semi. to operate a hybrid cooling tower compliance with the guaranteed automatic water jet cleaning purely as a wet cooling tower or invisibility of plume. The cleaning equipment ability. when required / flow weirs ensure absolutely reli- able operation. 4 / Mixing systems – patented tube walls are kept clean during / Bypass systems – flexible efficiency / continuous operation in a large mode of operation / cooling tower. design and configuration of the Rubber balls ensure that the inner heat exchanger. To do this. ·9· . order to guarantee 100% avail- ducts generate the vortices faces/fins. and reliably bypassed. / Cleaning equipment – The syphon-principle mode of custom-built for easy main. operation has to be applied in tenance / order to operate the dry section economically. the plant section required to mix the immense air is used once or twice per year. not in operation must be suitably flows. Controlled sure drop are the main features of / Evacuation – only applied valves in conjunction with over- these mixing systems. It may be appropriate cleaning system in necessary to use evacuation order to keep the fouling factor as equipment depending on the low as possible. Fig. In cell-type cooling The mixing systems patented by towers it is preferable to use a In principle it should be possible SPX Cooling Technologies ensure cleaning fluid. Accumulation of A custom-designed heat exchang. Appropriately equipment ensures thorough purely as a dry cooling tower in designed mixing discs and mixing cleaning of the tube outer sur. 3 Fig. inert gases may disturb or inter- er for the dry section requires an rupt the syphon effect.

we can also supply tion rate and the changing • maximum profitability with optimal automated process control ambient air conditions are as minimal power consumption for the entire cooling circuit. the heat rejec. required • maximum reliability and • power consumption of the cool. including Programmable Logic in cooling tower operation and tive of the changing ambient Control (PLC) systems guarantees: have specific technical expertise meteorological conditions in instrumentation and control • the cooling water temperatures • fully automatic operation to technology. team of experts at SPX Cooling mentation and control technology Technologies who are well-versed • operation is plume-free irrespec. availability of the plant ing tower fans is minimised • minimal personnel expenses ·10· . being a function of the cooling ensure invisibility of plume or water flow rate./ Automatic process control and instrumentation – Guarantee for optimal operation / Control panel for a hybrid cooling circuit When operating hybrid cooling The automatic hybrid cooling The automatic process control for towers it is extremely important to tower process control developed hybrid cooling towers is designed ensure optimal adjustment to the by SPX Cooling Technologies and engineered by an experienced mode of operation so that: which comprises the latest instru. minimum plume Upon request.

even unusual prob- lems are in the very best of hands at SPX Cooling Technologies. Your competent partner./ Teamwork for the benefit of our customers / / Together we are strong / / On the spot with good advice and assistance / Specialists for thermodynamics. and universities to exchange infor. Your assignments. instrumentation and hybrid cooling towers. structural engineering and any questions or require informa- civil engineering work together in tion from us about any specific our interdisciplinary engineering problems relating to cooling sys- teams. Because colleges of advanced technology “tricky cases” are our speciality. Challenge and obligation in one. interesting problems facing our customers. Our company Research and “Us” being SPX Cooling Technol- Development Centre is fitted with ogies GmbH or our affiliated com- state-of-the-art equipment and panies in Europe and overseas. mation on a regular basis. If you have control. employs a highly qualified staff to We are always open to learn about meet your requirements. tems just phone us or write to us. This gives you an insight into hydraulics. And in most cases we We are also in contact with can provide the solution. .

/ Worldwide Competence in Cooling / Manufacturing Units Representatives/Agents SPX Cooling-Units CW / 05/06 / 2.com Balcke | Hamon Dry Cooling | Marley www. / WAGNER DRUCK / BA-06015 SPX Cooling Technologies GmbH Ernst-Dietrich-Platz 2 40882 Ratingen Germany Phone: +49 (0) 2102/16 69.000 e / UFER & CIE.spx-ct.0 Cooling Technologies Fax: +49 (0) 2102/16 69.spx.com .699 info@cts.