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**Negative numbers are numbers with a value less than zero.
**

Negative numbers always have a minus sign before them.

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

**Negative numbers are used when we measure temperature and in transactions with money.
**

When we are in debt, we have a negative balance. This means we owe money.

1 What is the temperature showing on each thermometer in °C (degrees Celsius)?

a b c d e f g

h

On Wednesday morning the i

On Thursday morning the

thermometer reads –4 °C. thermometer reads –9 °C. One

One hour later it is 3 °C colder. hour later it is 4 °C warmer.

The new temperature is The new temperature is

2 Sarah had $10 in her bank account. What would the balance be if she:

a Withdrew $15? _____________ b Withdrew $9? _____________

c Deposited $5? _____________ d Deposited $2? _____________

e Withdrew $20? _____________ f Withdrew $12? _____________

g Deposited $7? _____________ h Withdrew $25? _____________

**Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

Copyright © 3P Learning

G 2 9

SERIES TOPIC

Types of numbers – negative numbers

3 Mark the number line with the amount either added or subtracted. The first one has been done

for you.

a 2 – 7 = –5

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

b 1 – 5 =

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

c –4 + 7 =

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

d –6 + 3 =

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

e –1 – 7 =

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

4 Use the number line to complete the number sentence:

a – = –2

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

b + = –5

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

c – = –7

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

d + = 1

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

**10 G 2 Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

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SERIES TOPIC

Types of numbers – prime and composite numbers

**A factor is a number that divides equally into another number.
**

5 × 4 = 20

20 arranged in 5 rows means 4 in each row.

5 and 4 are factors of 20.

1 How many ways can 24 objects be arranged? Use the arrays below to complete the facts:

a b

× = 24

× = 24

c

× = 24

d

× = 24

24 can be arranged in many different ways. The factors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24.

**Composite numbers are numbers with more than two factors.
**

24 is a composite number.

A prime number is only divisible by 1 so has only two factors: 1 and itself. 7 is a prime number.

2 How many ways can 12 objects be arranged?

Draw all the combinations you can think of:

**Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

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G 2 11

SERIES TOPIC

Types of numbers – prime and composite numbers

**Eratosthenes (276 BC – 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician who developed a clever way to find
**

prime numbers.

3 Find all the prime numbers in the hundred grid below. (Do not shade the number itself as it is not a multiple.)

a Cross out 1 since it is not prime. b Shade all the multiples of 2.

c Shade all the multiples of 3. d Shade all the multiples of 5.

e Shade all the multiples of 7.

f

The remaining numbers are prime numbers, apart from 1 which is a special case. List them:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

**The Sieve of Eratosthenes
**

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

4 Circle the prime numbers. Use the Sieve of Eratosthenes to help you.

65 89 47 94 25 43

11 27 32 19 21 65

7 53 99 87 26 13

**12 G 2 Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

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SERIES TOPIC

Types of numbers – mixed practice

1 Work out what the secret numbers are. Assume all numbers are positive, unless stated otherwise.

a I am the only even prime number. I am ____________.

b I am one of the two numbers that are neither prime nor composite. I am not zero.

I am ____________.

c I am a 2 digit number. I am less than 40. I am a prime number and my second digit is smaller than

my first number. I am ____________.

d I am the negative number closest to positive numbers. I am ____________.

e I am the 5 digit negative number furthest from zero. I am ____________.

f I am the largest 5 digit number where no number is repeated. I am ____________.

g I am the largest 4 digit number that uses the 4 smallest prime numbers. I am ____________.

h I am a prime number. My digits add to total the smallest prime number. I am ____________.

2 In these next questions, there is more than 1 possible answer.

**a Look at the number 1 000 855.
**

Write 5 numbers that are larger than this with the same number of digits.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Write 5 numbers that are smaller.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

b Rounded to the nearest 100 km, my train trip was 3 000 km long. How long could it have been?

How many answers to this question can you find?

**Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

Copyright © 3P Learning

G 2 13

SERIES TOPIC

Types of numbers – Roman numerals

**The numerals we use are part of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. It is believed to have been
**

invented in India and transmitted by the Moors (Arabs). Europeans adopted the system in the

12th century.

The Romans had their own system.

Study this Hindu–Arabic to Roman numerals conversion table.

**Hindu–Arabic Roman Hindu–Arabic Roman
**

0 20 XX

1 I 30 XXX

2 II 40 XL

3 III 50 L

4 IV 60 LX

5 V 70 LXX

6 VI 80 LXXX

7 VII 90 XC

8 VIII 100 C

9 IX 500 D

10 X 1 000 M

**In the Roman system:
**

• You can have 4 numerals in a row such as IIII but it is customary to write IV.

• If you put a smaller number in front of a larger number, the smaller number is subtracted from

the larger one (XL = 50 – 10 = 40).

• There is no zero.

1 Express the following numbers in Roman numerals:

a 5 b 6

c 50 d 51

e 63 f 10

g 12 h 55

i 138 j 82

**14 G 2 Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

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SERIES TOPIC

Types of numbers – Roman numerals

2 Convert the following Roman numerals into Hindu–Arabic numerals:

a VI b XV

c VII d XVI

e LX f LXI

**When we are expressing large numbers in Roman numerals, it is useful to work on one place value
**

at a time.

MCCLXXVII = M + CC + LXX + VII

= 1 000 + 200 + 70 + 7

= 1 277

3 Express the following numbers in Roman numerals:

Thousands Hundreds Tens Units

358

612

475

939

1 563

**4 These days, we only use Roman numerals when the credits roll in the
**

movies – and sometimes on our watches!

These are the 3 top grossing films of all time. When were they made?

a Star Wars Epsiode IV was made in MCMLXXVII

b The Dark Knight was made in MMVIII

c Titanic was made in MCMXCVII

**Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

Copyright © 3P Learning

G 2 15

SERIES TOPIC

We need a new system create

Getting

ready In this activity you are going to use what you know

about our Hindu–Arabic number system and Roman

numerals to invent your own number system.

**What Look at the chart below. It shows numbers written in our Hindu–Arabic system and in
**

to do

Roman numerals. Design your own system. There is a column for you to record it.

What will you use in your system? Will you use symbols? Letters? Shapes? Will you

use different symbols for values such as 1, 2, 3 or will you repeat them as in I, II, III?

Will you use a 0 type symbol to develop a place value system so you can easily write

numbers as 5, 50, 500?

**Hindu–Arabic Roman Hindu–Arabic Roman
**

0 20 XX

1 I 30 XXX

2 II 40 XL

3 III 50 L

4 IV 60 LX

5 V 70 LXX

6 VI 80 LXXX

7 VII 90 XC

8 VIII 100 C

9 IX 500 D

10 X 1000 M

**What to Now you have your system, write 5 simple addition or subtraction problems using
**

do next

your numbers for a friend to solve.

1 __________________________________________________________________

2 __________________________________________________________________

3 __________________________________________________________________

4 __________________________________________________________________

5 __________________________________________________________________

**Can they work with your number system? It is trickier than it looks to invent
**

a number system, and you may need to tweak it till you get it working.

**16 G 2 Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

Copyright © 3P Learning

SERIES TOPIC

Goldbach’s conjecture investigate

**Getting In the year 1742, a Prussian mathematician called
**

ready

Christian Goldbach looked at many sums and made

a conjecture. He said that every even number over

4 is the sum of 2 prime numbers. (Actually he said

over 2 but that was when 1 was considered a prime

number. That is now so 1742.)

**What You have been asked by the Mathematics Institute to test this out.
**

to do

How high can you go?

What will you need to help you solve this problem? You may want to use the table of

prime numbers on page 18.

You can work by yourself or as part of a small group.

Here are a few to start you off.

**Look at 8. It can be made by adding
**

8 the prime numbers 3 and 5. 16

5 3 16 can be made by adding 11 11 5

and 5, and by adding 3 and 13.

3 13

**Use the triangles on page 18 to record your thinking. Or create your own.
**

You may need more!

What to Which even number can be made the most ways? Discuss your answer with 2 friends.

do next

Do they agree?

Goldbach’s theory has never been absolutely proven or disproven. The publishing

group Faber and Faber offered a $1 000 000 prize to any one who could do so.

No one was able to claim the prize at the end of the competition time. Who knows,

you could be the one to claim the glory (if not the prize). You could rename the

conjecture. What would you call it?

**Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

Copyright © 3P Learning

G 2 17

SERIES TOPIC

Goldbach’s conjecture investigate

2 3 5 7 11 13

17 19 23 29 31 37

41 43 47 53 59 61

67 71 73 79 83 89

97 101 103 107 109 113

127 131 137 139 149 151

157 163 167 173 179 181

191 193 197 199 211 223

227 229 233 239 241 251

257 263 269 271 277 281

283 293 307 311 313 317

331 337 347 349 353 359

367 373 379 383 389 397

401 409 419 421 431 433

439 443 449 459 461 463

467 479 487 491 499

**18 G 2 Reading and Understanding Whole Numbers
**

Copyright © 3P Learning

SERIES TOPIC

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