Chapter 87

CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF NATURAL VENTILATION PRESSURE AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

Ian M. Loomis Keith G. Wallace

Westinghouse Electric Corporation Mine Ventilation Services. Inc.

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department experimental areas to the storage areas. Furthermore,
of Energy research and development facility designed to radiation detectors are located throughout the storage and
demonstrate the permanent, safe disposal of U.S. waste transportation areas underground and an exhaust
defense-generatedtransuranic waste. The waste storage filtration building is installed on surface to prevent the
horizon is 655 m (2150 ft) below surface in bedded salt. To possible release of radiation to the environment.
date the WlPP project has not emplaced any waste.
For over two years the underground ventilation system has
There are three intake shafts used to supply air to the been rigorously tested and balanced. It was during this
underground. All air is exhausted though a single return period that the adverse effects of NVP were noticed and
shaft. The total design airflow during normal operations is subsequently quantified. From extensive field studies and
200 m3/s (424,000 cfm). The ventilation system is designed computer models, several mitigating features were designed
to prodde'separate air'splits to construction, experimerital, and constructed and special operational procedures were
and storage activities. Separation is achieved by isolating implemented to control the impacts of NVP.
the storage circuit from the construction or experimental
circuits with bulkheads. Any air leakage must be towards To quantify more accurately the NVP at the WIPP, a
the storage area of the facility. Field studies have shown continuous monitoring system was installed. This
that the pressure differential necessary to maintain the monitoring system consists of measuring dry bulb
correct leakage direction is susceptible to the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure
natural ventilation; therefore, extensive studies and analyses every fifteen minutes at strategic locations on surface and
have been conducted to quantify the natural ventilation underground. From this psychrometric data, the NVP is
effects on the WlPP underground airflow system. A calculated. Fan operating pressures and flows and
component of this work is a monitoring system designed to strategic differential pressures are recorded from the site
measure the air properties necessary for calculation-of the Continuous Monitoring System (CMS). The monitoring
natural ventilation pressure (NVP). This monitoring system system provides a means of evaluating how the ventilation
consists of measuring dry bulb temperature, relatiGe system behaves in regard to climatic conditions and to
humidity, and barometric pressure at strategic locations on judge the efficacy of the mitigating features and operational
surface-andunderground.. The psychrome6ic parameters procedures.
of the air are measured every fifteen minutes. From these
data, trends can be determined showing the impact of NVP To the author's knowledge, continuous calculation of NVP
on the ventilation system during diurnal variations in surface as a function of time and surface temperature has not been
climate. Both summer and winter conditions have been previously reported.
studied. To the author's knowledge this is the first reported
instance of automatic and continuous production of time O v e ~ i e wof the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
and temperature variant NVPs. This paper describes the
results of the initial monitoring study. The U.S. Department of Energy determined that the plastic
nature of bedded salt may provide the best solution to
INTRODUCTION isolate transuranic (TRU) waste from the biosphere. Initial
evaluations at the WlPP site began in 1974. In 1979, the
The ventilation system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant United States Congress enacted Public Law 96-164 for the
(WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, is designed to perform construction and development of the WlPP project. The
two distinct functions. First, it supports normal mine mission of the WlPP is to demonstrate the safe, long-term
ventilation requirements complying with all state and federal disposal of TRU waste generated by the national defense
mine regulations. Second, the system is designed to programs of the United States. TRU waste is classified as a
prevent an uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants low to medium level waste. The waste is stored in drums
from the storage and transportation areas of the facility. and does not produce significant heat (not greater than 1 W
Although a nuclear radiation release in the facility is per drum).
considered unlikely, many special features are implemented
in the ventilation system to prevent the possible spread of The WlPP site is located approximately 47 km (29 miles)
contamination. east of Carlsbad, New Mexico in the Chihuahuan Desert.
The repository is located in the 630 m (2000 ft) thick Salado
The facility is constructed with the waste transportation and Formation. This Permian Basin salt deposit is about 225
storage areas separated from the mining and million years old and appears to have been minimally
non-radioactive experimental areas. The ventilation system disturbed by earthquake, faulting, and ground water activity
is designed such that air leakage is from the mining and since it was deposited. The underground facility is 660 rn

Airflow sensors. located at the return end of the constant flow (assuming a constant airflow resistance experimental circuit. w. and resulting decrease in waste shaft tower pressure. immediately exhausted to return after ventilating the shaft Hence. Because the NVP assists of 120 m3/s (250. including high efficiency particulate filters. In filtration mode. waste handling. There are four conditions the opposite occurs.g. the WlPP facility must meet certain station. and during warm surface waste shaft station exhaust at S400/E300. However. and materials to the waste storage area (see Figure 1). lowering the waste to the repository horizon. handling mode. Air passing south combines with the salt handling computer. which have filters. Air moves accurate.000 dm). This is advantageous in maintaining an area or continues south to the mining area. NVP arises from an imbalance in air density between the salt handling shaft. During cool surface conditions. and is used for the waste and exhaust shafts remain relatively constant. even reversal of air up the waste shaft. This results shaft. via a area. AIS. the facility. only the first of these panels has been constructed. Description of the Ventilation System and exhaust shaft. reduced airflow through the waste shaft. the density of the air in equipped with an enclosed headframe. mining and storage. At present. a decrease automatically shifted to filtration mode. experimental. The filtration capability is materials contained in the waste and the repository 99. in the direction of airflow (which is equivalent to applying a forcing fan on the intake shafts).578 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6th US MINE VENTILATION SYMPOSIUM (2150 ft) below surface approximately half way through the E300) are closed (see figure 2). as shown on Figure 1. The waste shaft is For both cold and warm conditions. as the pressure below the mining and experimental areas. At S1000 the air splits to either the storage centrifugal fans. Air passing north constant rate. . differential pressure criteria across the waste tower and between the mining and storage areas. located in the exhaust duct circulates clockwise through the non-waste experimental leading to the fans. the pressure differential To prevent the possible spread of contaminated air to the between the mining and storage sides of the facility are non-waste areas of the facility. and the waste shaft station regulator located at the return end of the waste shaft As noted previously.000 cfm) is achieved.) and is among the intake shafts. At the WlPP facility. In the second configuration. mining side of the facility and is used for the removal of the mined salt. the NVP developed between the waste and exhaust station area. EFFECTS OF NATURAL VENTILATION The facility is designed to accommodate eight panels. The main fans are turned Salado Formation. A controlled This is because the waste shaft collar is enclosed with a amount of intake air enters this shaft. is not considered a In the event that detectable quantities of radioactive material problem when both main fans are operating. non-radioactive experiments off and a single 175 kW (235 hp) centrifugal fan is started have been performed underground to determine rock behavior and fluid and gas transport. the intake end of the storage circuit. WlPP are the salt handling. the storage area is kept at a maintained in the correct direction. An equivalent main regulators which control the airflow through the pressure/quantity curve for the fan system is a vertical line facility. The WlPP ventilation system operates under two normal minimum air quantities are required in specific underground configurations. During waste handling mode two main 450 kW (600 hp) centrifugal main fans operate in parallel to Effects of Low Surface Temperature provide 200 m3/s (424. Maintaining clockwise through the mining area and joins the a fixed flow fan results in the pressure developed by the fan experimental exhaust in El40 north of the waste shaft system (which is a combination of the fan and inlet vanes) station. More air enters the facility influenced by the main fan configuration and NVP. The conditions the fan system pressure is lowered by an return air combines with the mining.000 cfm). Experiments with nuclear waste. to adjust automatically the inlet vanes to the shaft intake air. The waste shaft also provides access for men shafts is small. the subtracts from the fan system pressure to maintain the experimental regulator. most of the intake air That is. in airflow down the waste shaft as the surface temperature the storage supply regulator and a door in the common falls can result in significant reductions of airflow. Storage area airflow is counter-clockwisefrom varying with the NVP.3 are important to determine the long-term ~erformanceof m3/s (60. During normal operation. Hence. and in return drift from the experimental and mining areas (in some instances. return shaft. The ensure this shaft is always an intake. Reduced surface temperatures result in NVPs that assist in experimental. The waste shaft air is headframe that conditions the air before it enters the shaft. The exhaust shaft is the only return airway for During higher surface temperatures the opposite occurs. The three intake shafts at the direction of airflow. one or two main During periods of low surface temperatures. the density of the air entering the AIS and salt handling shaft is The repository is accessed by three intake shafts and one greater than that of the return air at the exhaust shaft. located at the return end of the mining circuit. before not yet been initiated. All the air is routed through banks of air the repository.95% removal of sub 0. during cool surface El40 through the panel and returns through E300. and any variation in NVP simply adds or regulator. monitor the flow and are used. There are three main areas to the facility. and amount equal to the NVP. called waste storage mode. the ventilation system is waste mode with only one main fan operating. the density of the air in the two open intake shafts enters the underground through the AIS. Air entering the AIS splits to the north and south ends of the The airflow through the surface fans is maintained at a facility at N300/EO (see Figure 1). These experiments The total facility airflow is reduced to a maximum of 28. These are the mining (constant quantity). located at underground).3 micron particles. Since 1984. Additionally. is a secondary intake shaft. The first configuration is called waste areas for the activities planned in those areas. the storage supply regulator. the intake air is redistributed differential pressure is typically 500 Pa (2 in. each ON THE WlPP VENTILATION SYSTEM with seven storage rooms. The salt handling is less than that in the waste or exhaust shaft. the fan system fans operate. The through the AIS and less through and salt handling shaft waste tower is also maintained under a negative pressure to and waste shaft as the surface temperature falls. environment. constant airflow to the underground. and air intake shaft (AIS). The surface temperature falls. With only one main fan operating a total flow pressure is reduced by the NVP. will evaluate the reactions between discharge to the atmosphere. waste shaft. During stored are found in the exhaust air stream. which provides men and material access to the in a NVP opposing the normal direction of flow.

To prevent this from occurring. These prevent the excessive fan to maintain a constant flow (approximately 60% of the pressures that could arise if the underground regulators two fan system) is less than that for a two fan system. facility through the AIS and the salt handling shaft. and changes in the resistance to the waste shaft fans operating. Effects of Higher Surface Temperatures and the fan system pressure. Because the waste shaft airflow is nearly constant for The pressure chamber consists of two bulkheads built in various higher surface temperatures. interlocking airlock doors for access through the pressure (top of the Waste Shaft) is maintained at a chamber from either side of the cross-cut. During higher surface temperatures the NVP opposes the Variations in NVP between the waste shaft. By increasing the system resistance between the the S400 cross-cut connecting the waste shaft station with open intake shafts and return shaft. a pressure the waste shaft station. the fan system pressure the mining intake airway W30 (see Figure 1). Such a reduction is particularly noticeable in areas. The tower two.g. obstructions (such as a work deck) system pressure to maintain a constant airflow through the in the intake shafts. For the normal configurations with one or two main regulators. special pressure between the W30 drift and waste shaft station falls . the NVP between the open intakes. below the value necessary to maintain a negatke pressure on the waste tower. the waste shaft and the exhaust shaft. DETAILED DRAWING OF THE WlPP FACILITY. To prevent this from occurring. The pressure is increased (because of the constant flow fans) and the differential at this location is dependent on the magnitude of waste shaft is maintained as a downcast. redistributed among the intake shafts similarly to that The bulkheads are approximately 3 m (10 ft) apart and have noticed during low surface temperatures. adjustments to the underground facility.). R K Y REGKAT Figure 1. A compressed negative 500 Pa (2 in. w. were breached during high negative NVPs generated from Hence. The remaining intake air enters the chamber was constructed in S400. INCLUDING SURFACE FAN ARRANGEMENT This is because the fan system pressure generated by one relief dampers were installed. the intake shafts direction of airflow. When the differential realizing a significantly larger negative pressure. the intake air is not the S400 drift between the waste shaft and the W30 drift. the airflow through the waste shaft is headframe enclosure can cause the airflow to reverse at maintained constant by the regulators at the return end of this intersection. To prevent the tower from air line is supplied to the chamber. a large NVP can reduce the fan system pressure warm surface conditions. the frictional pressure drops in the airways. A reversed NVP applied to the intake shafts can result in a procedures are in place that close the underground reduced pressure differential between the mining and regulators at the return ends of the mining and experimental storage areas. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF NATURAL VENTILATION PRESSURE AT PILOT PLANT 579 - AIR INTAKE S - STORAGE --S. This results in an increase the fan and the exhaust shaft.

and shaft. until the natural differential pressure across the atmospheric monitoring station. This is because the open intake shafts are isolated from the return shaft. Additional engineering reports to the CMS a large number of climatic parameters. In high velocity airways.200 Including equipment handling shaft. The NVP does not impact filtration mode. A second differential underground (at two locations). The plan consisted of installing independent monitoring stations located strategically on surface and underground to measure barometric pressure. a computer program was written for calculation of the NVP from the psychrometric data.. the programmgble controller. radiation shields were installed underground monitoring station with the main components around the sensor heads. dry bulb temperature. and the relative humiditvltemperature probe. the NVP is calculated by measuring the air operated stations were selected because of the lack of psychrometric properties at the top and bottom of each power at some of the desired measurement locations. casing. Figure 2 shows a typical To protect the RH/T probe. or so). The Central Monitoring System (CMS) was used to obtain continuous data on fan operating flows and pressures. has become pressurized to a sufficient value and the compressed air valve is closed. differential translates to 96 data sets per station per day. This station monitors and chamber exceeds the set point. sea level). system. The cost of each stations at the exhaust shaft and on the collar of the salt station was approximately U. a valve is opened that allows pressure between the mining and storage circuits compressed air into the chamber. Calculation of the NVP is achieved by measuring the barometric pressure and computing the specific volume at the top and bottom of each shaft.S. a continuous NVP monitoring plan was developed for the WlPP facility. interface hardware. differential pressures between the mining and storage areas and across the waste tower. and backup surface climatic conditions. Each station is emplacement. Site Continuous Monitoring System INITIAL RESULTS OF NVP MONITORING PROGRAM Through a series of Local Processing Units (LPUs). This configuration ensures that the differential pressure across the tower and between the mining and storage sides of the facility are IW Velocitv maintained in the correct direction regardless of NVP. the CMS monitors over one hundred site parameters each There are eight psychrometric monitoring stations second. $3. RH/T probe was also protected by a metal shield (see Figure 2). To facilitate the calculations. Data has been collected NVP studies are the mode of operation (waste nearly continuously since January of 1991. The parameters extracted from the CMS for the distributed throughout the facility. as In addition. and software for an IBM PC compatible computer. Psychrometric monitoring stations were installed at to minimize dependence on the site electrical system. a barometric pressure against specific volume graph can be Module Removed produced. including dry bulb temperature and dew point at 3 m (10 ft) non-stall vane axial fans on the W30 bulkhead to pressurize above the surface and the barometric pressure (adjusted to the chamber continuously. Battery As noted earlier. A linear relationship is also assumed between the intake and return surface stations and between the intake and return underground stations. DETAILS OF TYPICAL PSYCHROMETRIC MONITORING STATION NOTE RELATIVE Psychrometric Monitoring Stations HUMIDITY/TEMPERATURE PROBE WITH PROTECTIVE COVER Each of the psychrometric monitoring stations consist of three main elements. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6th US MINE VENTILATION SYMPOSIUM below a set point. the system is reliable. The area enclosed by the graph gives the natural ventilation energy (accounting for the work of the exhaust fan(s)). the WlPP site is equipped with a site necessary. each of these locations except at the top of the AIS. waste storage or filtration mode). Figure 2. and relative humidity. The process is repeated. From this information. This information is used as back up to the compressed air would be maintained as a redundant surface psychrometric monitoring stations. al. A linear relationship is assumed between the top and bottom of each shaft. The stations are powered by a 12 i o l t bakery pack. the of the station labeled. Provided the batteries are replaced regularly (every two Surface conditions for this shaft were extracted from the months. If the fans are installed. Calculation of NVP at the WlPP site has been reported by Brunner. MONITORING PLAN In late 1990. and the differential pressure pressure sensor is used to determine when the chamber across the waste hoist tower. Most of the air exhausting through the filtration fan enters the facility through the waste shaft. This and pressure of each main or filtration fan. studies are presently being performed to Install small. the Location of Psychrometric Monitoring Stations barometer. Multiplying the natural ventilation energy by the mean density of the intake and return shafts yields a value for NVP. 1991. During the . et. the flow programmed to collect data in fifteen minute intervals.

By connecting the monitoring stations to a central computer and developing a comprehensive expert system. I I . These extreme NVP values were input to a ventilation model and the system behavior analyzed. temperatures for the WlPP sle (see Figure 5). j n t e w Maximurn NVP I -80 W:W 02100 O I M!O~ ~ D B 101~) ~ 1203 l4. The operator could compare the current . indicating a good the monitoring stations have operated reliably. Figure 3 illustrates the NVP and By extrapdating the summer and winter data. GRAPH OF SURFACE DRY-BULB lnlerpoW Mmmrnurn NVP . 2 0 0 2 0 4 0 M W settings with the computer generated settings and decide Natural Ventilation Pressure (Pa) whether an adjustment is warranted. the maximum surface dry bulb temperature against time. The measured pressure drop will be results of plotting the NVP against surface dry-bulb used to determine the resistance of the AIS. These NVP cycles could then be directly input to the WlPP ventilation model and the model output used to prompt the operator on the optimum 164 regulator settings. it is planned to AIS liner. Furthermore. for both the summer and winter data. GRAPH OF SURFACE DRY-BULB by the expert system. TEMPERATURE AGAINST NATURAL VENTILATION PRESSURE The programmable controller within the psychrometric monitoring stations is able to measure and record any Figure is thought to be caused by heat retention in the main signal from a transducer. This transducer will be connected to a Linear regression analyses were performed on several days small diameter polyethylene tube that will extend the entire of warm and cool surface conditions. Figures the air during the winter months. The only correlation. The monitoring program has been a valuable asset in Temperatue and Natural Ventilation Pressure Against Time evaluating the performance of the ventilation system. The hystereses shown on the to MINIMUM NVP VALUES BASED ON ASHRAE 99% DESIGN develop operating procedures and to test the installed DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE mitigating infrastructure against the expected maximum FUTURE APPLICATION OF MONITORING SYSTEM Surface Dry-Bulb Temperature Against The installed psychrometric monitoring stations provide a Natural Ventilation Pressure means by which dynamic control of the ventilation system 20 May 1991 may be possible. A m w indials l m e r d airflow and pressure distribution at the WlPP facility. For instance. 4 and 5 show typical data obtained for a 24 hour period during the 20th May. z -400 i TEMPERATURE AND NATURAL VENTILATION PRESSURE AGAINST TIME "mL1io rb io jo Surface Dry Bulb Temperature (deg C) '40 A This figure confirms that as the temperature increases.W 16:W 18:W 20:W 22:W W W 8 Time (hr) Figure 3. A linear relationship can be seen between the MEASUREMENTS. the NVP can affect the Nae. install a differential pressure transducer in the station at the base of the AIS. LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR NATURAL surface temperature and changes in NVP. positive and negative NVP were estimated using the summer and winter 99% design dry-bulb surface NVPs. INTERPOLATED MAXIMUM AND temperature and the NVP. Figure 5 shows the length of the shaft. This was overcome by modifying the wiring to the indicative of the increased heat transfer from the strata to barometers and changes to the program software. This has allowed engineers Llnear Regression Against SurfaceAnalysis for W Temperature P Boo. 4 0 . To date. Any direction d time. 1991. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF NATURAL VENTILATION PRESSURE AT PILOT PLANT 581 testing period. The R-squared value was about 98 percent various modes of operation have been observed. control of the ventilation system could be enhanced. This technique temperature using the average linear regression for these of differential pressure measurement in a shaft has been . Continuous psychrometric monitoring of all four mine shafts would provide the data necessary to calculate all NVP cycles by the central computer. both c o d and warm surface conditions and measurements. This is quickly. the results show that there is very little time lag between changes in Figure 5. The operator would keep the ventilation controls within a setting range specified Figure 4. Figure 4 VENTILATION PRESSURE AGAINST SURFACE DRY-BULB illustrates a plot of surface dry bulb temperature against TEMPERATURE FOR BOTH WINTER AND SUMMER NVP. and vice versa. As discussed. The average slope for winter measurements problem encountered was after initial installation when it was more negative than for summer measurements with the was noticed that the batteries were losing their charge too y-intercept being greater for c o d conditions. plan that provides dynamic control of the ventilation system must consider the effects of NVP. 8 0 b 0 . the NVP decreases.

1985. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6th US MINE VENTILATION SYMPOSIUM proven to give good results (McPherson. 6. 85-92. pp ventilation svstem violate permissible criteria. "Field Verification of Shaft Resistance only one main fan operating. may become the foundation for a comprehensive ventilation airflow and pressure differentials at strategic locations. From is because of the work deck that operates in the shaft. June 3-5. Additional instrumentation within the shaft would be necessary but all the data could be recorded by REFERENCES the present monitoring stations. 5th U.. Cool surface conditions. It was 3-5. Deen. Malcolm McPherson of Long term trends in ventilation response could be recorded Mine Ventilation Services.. The variable resistance impacts the effects of the adjust automatically the ventilation control." reverse the airflow and pressure differential between the Proceedings. "Department of Energy National psychrometric monitoring stations. SME. could result in airflow Equations" Proceedings. Chapter 75. SME. J. been previously reported. S. McPherson. Wallace. Future applications of the monitoring system may include continuous calculation of NVP through a central computer. Mark would be to measure the "thermal flywheel" effect caused Hatfield of Campbell Scientific. Chapter 81. Mine Ventilation Symposium. 5th U. Mine Ventilation Symposium. The depending on equipment on the deck and its position within operator could then send a signal from the computer to the shaft. 1979. operating duties. The central computer could analyze the data and evaluate the effects on the NVP. Brisbane. Inc. NVP on the ventilation system. underground locations.C. Justus B. The authors would like to thank Dr. the computer would prompt an operator work deck has been shown to vary the shaft resistance. a unique continuous monitoring plan was developed in late 1990. Chapter 54. D. The NVP monitoring program established at the WIPP has Use of the continuous monitoring program coupled with an been a valuable asset in evaluating the underground expert system would provide a valuable tool for controlling ventilation system. and air quality parameters. 1988. 593-604. ASHRAE. Inc. Homestake Mining Company (formerly with MVS) for their review of this paper and for the preparation of the facility Additional capabilities of a complete monitoring system drawings. combined with Deen. main intake shaft. Deen of from such a program. American Society of Heating. 1988. pp. Applying the extreme NVPs to a ventilation model has allowed engineers to evaluate the system performance and develop appropriate operating procedures. CONCLUSIONS Ch. 1991. Continuous monitoring of NVP has not. differential The purpose of measuring the shaft resistance continuously pressure on the tower.United States Congressional surface temperature. to the Campbell Scientific. fan monitoring system." Proceedings. 1991). 1987. The monitoring system could be useful information as the facility begins to receive waste and enhanced to provide information such as regulator settings. p 6.B. The authors also would like to thank Mr..G. Deen.B.J. Logan. Control Module Operator's Manual. temperature graph is approximately linear with an obvious hystereses. pp. and Mr. combined with the expert system. for his assistance in by the retention and rejection of heat in the walls of the developing the psychrometric monitoring stations. The monitoring program. operational procedures were revised and new ventilation infrastructure constructed." Proceedings of the The new infrastructure included a pressure chamber Fourth International Mine Ventilation Congress.. During ventilation testing and balancing at the WIPP facility Brunner. The this information. and direct control of the ventilation system. To prevent 647-655. "Modification of the Ventilation System at to prevent a negative over-pressurization of the tower. also possible to create an excessive negative pressure on the waste tower.S. 371-382.. M. June waste shaft station and the mining intake airway. 1987.J. Utah. pp. K. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers. 1991. quantify further and evaluate the impacts caused by the October 12-14. Preliminary analysis of Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy this data shows that the NVP varies inversely with the Authorization Act of 1980n. Inc. 1990. Inc. The program will continue to provide ventilation operation. 'The it was noticed that NVPs could impact system operation. airflow and pressure differentials at strategic DOE/WIPP 92-016C . SME. To WIPP. Furthermore. Jr. These effects on the Symposium. it was possible to Ventilation System at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Regression analyses suggest that a linear relationship exists between NVP and surface dry-bulb temperature. air leakage from the shaft to the intake and a pressure relief system installed on the air intake tunnel to the waste shaft Sethi. Effects of Natural Ventilation Pressure on the Underground During higher surface temperatures.. these adverse effects. Extrapolation of data has allowed the maximum positive and negative NVP to be estimated for both the summer and winter 99% design dry-bulb surface temperatures.. CRlO Measurement and author's knowledge. a NVP against surface Record. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS would provide the operator with unparalleled monitoring capability. Inc. NVP. Mine Ventilation reversing up the waste shaft.. Work supported by the Department of Energy The computer also would retrieve data about the regulator under Contract No. The hystereses is thought to be caused by the heat retention of the liner in the main AIS. between the mining intake and the waste shaft to prevent Australia. that an adjustment to a regulator or fan is necessary.S. "An Analysis of the Resistance and Airflow Characteristics of Mine Shafts. and air quality parameters. fan operating duties. J.. 1991. DE-AC0486AL31950 settings. 1991. The analyses showed that the cool weather linear relationship has a more negative slope and greater y-intercept than warm surface temperatures. 3rd U..S. Over six months of data has been collected by Public Law 96-164.4. Inc. Fundamentals Handbook.