Technologies and Solutions for

Handling of Contaminated Sediments
State-of-the-art review

Project acronym: SMOCS
Title of project: Sustainable Management of Contaminated Sediments
Project No: Baltic Sea Region Programme Project No #39

Report status: Final
Date: 2012-11-06

Author/Organisation: Nerijus Blažauskas, CORPI
Lennart Larsson, SGI
Susanne Rostmark, LTU

INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 5

2. UPTAKE TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................................ 5

2.1. Dry excavation..................................................................................................... 5

2.2. Dredging technologies ......................................................................................... 8

2.2.1. Mechanical dredging ....................................................................................... 9

2.2.1.1 Grab dredgers ............................................................................................. 10

2.2.1.2 Backhoe dredgers ....................................................................................... 12

2.2.1.3 Bucket (ladder) dredgers ............................................................................. 14

2.2.2. Hydraulic dredging ........................................................................................ 17

2.2.2.1 Cutter suction dredger ................................................................................. 17

2.2.2.2 Trailing suction hopper dredgers ................................................................. 20

2.2.3 Combined dredging technologies ................................................................... 22

2.2.4. Freeze dredging ............................................................................................ 23

2.2.5. Environmental dredging ................................................................................ 25

3. IN-SITU TREATMENT ............................................................................................... 26

3.1. Physical/chemical treatment .............................................................................. 26

3.1.1 In-situ Stabilisation/Solidification .................................................................... 27

3.1.2 Chemical oxidation ......................................................................................... 30

3.1.3 Electrokinetic separation ................................................................................ 33

3.1.4 In-situ Capping (ISC) ...................................................................................... 37

3.1.5 Soil flushing .................................................................................................... 40

3.2. Biological treatment ........................................................................................... 42

3.2.1 Monitored natural attenuation ......................................................................... 43

3.2.2 Enhanced natural attenuation ......................................................................... 45

3.2.3 Phytoremediation ........................................................................................... 48

2

3.3. Thermal treatment ............................................................................................. 51

3.3.1 Electrical resistance heating ........................................................................... 52

3.3.2 Steam injection and extraction ....................................................................... 54

3.3.3 Conductive heating......................................................................................... 56

3.3.4 Radio frequency heating ................................................................................ 58

3.3.5 In situ vitrification ............................................................................................ 61

4. EX SITU TREATMENT .............................................................................................. 64

4.1. Physical/chemical treatment .............................................................................. 64

4.1.1 Ex situ stabilisation/solidification..................................................................... 64

4.1.2 Gas-phase chemical reduction ....................................................................... 70

4.1.3 Liquefied gas solvent extraction ..................................................................... 72

4.1.4 Separation ...................................................................................................... 74

4.1.5 Dehalogenation .............................................................................................. 78

4.1.6 Soil washing ................................................................................................... 81

4.1.7 Solvent extraction ........................................................................................... 83

4.2 Biological treatment ............................................................................................ 85

4.2.1 Bioslurry ......................................................................................................... 86

4.2.2 Biopiles .......................................................................................................... 90

4.2.3 Landfarming ................................................................................................... 93

4.2.4 Composting .................................................................................................... 96

4.2.5 Phytoremediation ........................................................................................... 99

4.3 Thermal treatment ............................................................................................ 102

4.3.1 Thermal desorption ...................................................................................... 102

4.3.2 Hot gas decontamination .............................................................................. 106

4.3.3 Incineration .................................................................................................. 108

4.3.4 Pyrolysis ....................................................................................................... 111

3

...3....................... Mechanical dewatering (MDW) ..................................................5.................... 120 5.. Lagooning/drainage in settling ponds ............5................................. 130 5................... 131 4 .................. Combined technologies ........................................................................................... 118 5........................................1..................... 114 5...................................................................2.............. DEWATERING TECHNOLOGIES ...........5...............1 Thermo chemical treatment ...... 130 5................................................ 115 5.........................5..............................4... Geotubes ................................... Thermally assisted dewatering ...... 128 5........................ Electro-Dewatering (EDW) ..2...............

must be considered. The aim of this report is to make a state-of-the-art review of existing and new emerging technologies and solutions for handling alternatives of contaminated sediments. generally dry excavation includes two steps: 1. Ramboll Finland Oy Dredging of sediments eliminate the risks by removing pollutants from the aquatic environment. in the dry. Example of dry excavation equipment is provided in figure below (Fig. Sediment excavation by using conventional dry land equipment Dry excavation may be also possible without water diversion in wetlands during dry season or during the winter when sediment and water are frozen. fairways. transport and treatment after removal. Emerging treatment technologies make it possible to consider beneficial use of contaminated sediments. Depending on the case. UPTAKE TECHNOLOGY By Tommi Marjamaki. channels and industrial areas. 1): 5 . including dewatering.1. Handling alternatives are few. costly and require complicated technical methods to reduce environmental impacts. When removing sediments and especially polluted sediments many different stages in the process. INTRODUCTION Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in many harbours. 2. Removal of contaminated sediments can be done by excavation.1. 2. mechanical or hydraulic dredging. Dry excavation Basic description of the technology Dry excavation is a process of removal of sediment following significant dewatering of the water body. The first is very costly and the latter is often not possible due to environmental restrictions. Isolating the sediment by pumping or diverting water from the area 2. Dredged sediments are normally deposited on land or at sea.

After mixing the sediments are excavated with backhoes and loaded into trucks. shallow bonds. coffer dam. This makes access to the sediments easier permitting traditional excavation techniques for removal. lagoons. Fig. 1. small boat harbors etc.  might be necessary to use other machines on land to level the material 6 . location and expansion of project area. water filled structures. and soil dams. then staged for off-site transportation and disposal. In some cases in order to speed up drying sediment is blended with a drying agent. Removed sediment will require subsequent management. sheeting. Dry excavation equipment Work description Typical process options for excavation in the dry area include dewatering achieved via by-pass pumping. rivers.) Limitations  Depending of dredging depth. sets limits for equipment (excavator). Applicability Dry excavation is best suited to shallow waterways or near shorelines (streams.

and disposal of the dredged sediment. The dry conditions makes it easy to control that all contaminated sediments are excavated and removed. Costs  most of the cases no transportation by water  savings  quantities quite minor (hundreds to some thousands cubes)  unit prices high compared major "offshore" dredging prices  suitable machines usually nearby  mobilization costs are low Status  a number of projects ongoing every year  development ongoing Effectiveness  not special techniques required  earthwork companies can make an offer  a number of potential construction candidates available  creates good competition Advantages Effective prevention of contaminate pollution of the water-column.  Can be carried out winter time in ice conditions  depending of case. treatment (where applicable). staging. but usually easy to control spreading Disadvantages  volumes per hour quite minor  suitability for big quantity works doubtful (costs comp. XXm3 )  might need temporary construction of embankments or/and work edge for machines 7 .  Implementation of excavation is usually complex and costly because of the removal technologies themselves and the need for transport. the water content in the sediments removed is low.

material transport  via pipeline  offloading by cannon  emptying the barge directly to isolated basin  by excavator from barge to land over an embankment (Fig. fairway or harbour basin for ship traffic. dredging is the relocation of underwater sediments. bridges etc. pipelines. houses.  Deepening the channel. clean-up levels)  In remediation projects clean-up level shall not be set too tight (more certainty to the process of cost estimating and bidding) . . create new fairway. etc. roads. (demand of deeper draft.construction dredging  Aim to remove soft sediments under new infrastructure (stability purpose). expand existing fairway or carry out maintenance dredging)  Goal is to reach certain depth or remove soft material etc.remediation dredging  removal of contaminated sediments as aim to create safe environment for example recreation purpose (for instance new housing area)  remediation goals shall be set (reduction of risk. Dredging technologies Technically speaking. Dredging can be divided into mechanical dredging and hydraulic dredging some of the techniques are also considered as being environmental .2.2. quays. 2) 8 .low impact – dredging methods. Purposes of dredging projects could be divided as well to two different categories: . terminal areas.

2. Mechanical dredging Mechanical means are used for excavation .g.2.dislodging the material and then raising it to the water surface . These dredgers are well suited to removing hard-packed material or debris and to working in confined areas.:  dredging method/equipment availability  volume to be dredged  site conditions  physical and chemical characteristics of the sediment  presence of debris  site limitations (bridges. Fig.1.)  disposal site location  disposal and treatment methods 2. width of the fairway etc. with 9 . Effectiveness of dredging is site specific and it depends on e. Barges generally transport mechanically dredged sediments.in a way similar to dry land excavation methods. Cohesive sediments dredged and transported this way usually remain intact. Example of material transport from barge to land over an embankment There is a wide range of commercially available equipment applicable on hard and soft sediment and varying depths.

The most popular are: • Grab (clamshell) dredgers • Backhoe dredgers • Bucket (ladder) dredgers (chain-type budget dredger) 2. Grab sizes varies between less than 1 m up to 3 200 m . the jaws of which are opened and closed (rope operated or hydraulically) like a clamshell trapping sediments (Fig. each involving the use of grab or bucket to loosen the in-situ material and raise and transport it to the surface. 3). such as mud grab. Fig. The capacity of a grab dredger is 3 expressed in the volume of the grab.1 Grab dredgers Basic description of the technology Grab dredging is a dredging method which involves the collection of sediments in a crane mounted bucket.2. Mechanical dredgers come in a variety of forms. sand grab and the heavy digging grab.1. 3. 10 .large pieces retaining their in-situ density and structure through the whole dredging and placement process. Grab dredger with closed upper structure and horizontal closing There are various grab buckets designed for different types of material.

Lowering the filled bucket into the barge or hopper 6. The production of a grab depends strongly on the soil. Hoisting starts when the bucket is complete closed 4. While the smaller ones are mostly used for special jobs. Lowering of the grab to the bottom 2. However the accuracy decreases with depth. 1. Swinging to the barge or hopper 5. Closing of the grab by pulling the hoisting wire 3. Suitable materials are soft clay. Costs Project specific Status The technology is proven and used on a regular basis Effectiveness 11 .Work description The dredging process is discontinuously and cyclic. Though. Limitations The dredging depth depends only on the length of the wire on the winches. boulder clay is dredged as well by this type of dredger. such as: • Difficult accessible places in harbors • Small quantities with strongly varying depth. sand and gravel (except hard gravel). Opening the bucket by releasing the closing wire Applicability The large grab dredgers are used for bulk dredging. • Along quay walls where the soil is spoiled by wires and debris • Borrowing sand and gravel in deep pits • Etc.

which varies between less than 1 m 3 up to 200 m3. Dredging is executed by the excavator which sits on a turntable at the front of the pontoon.1. 4).2. Advantages  Horizontal reaching distance (dumping directly to deposit area or empting the barges)  Closing mechanism  Anchoring system allows some flexibility  Can remove debris  Availability on working in tight areas and in deep waters (> 100 m depth) Disadvantages  Anchoring system  Difficulty to retain fine-grain loose material in conventional buckets  Sensitive to strong currents and waves 2. stick and bucket.Depends of capacity (volume of the grab). Lifting 12 .5 to 40 m3. They can dig a broad range of materials.2 Backhoe dredgers Basic description of the technology A backhoe dredger is basically a hydraulic excavator placed on a pontoon (Fig. These operations are: Dredging The bucket is excavating soil by a combined back. but consists of a cycle of operations. The capacity of the bucket can vary from 0.and upward movement of boom. Work description Dredging with a backhoe dredger is not a continuous process. The sediments are removed with small addition of surrounding water. from sand to moderately hard rock.

When the bucket is filled. Swinging filled The bucket will be swung above the barge by turning the excavator on the turntable. Relocating the pontoon On each position of the pontoon an area as large as practically possible will be dredged (effective dredging area). Backhoe dredger Colbart (Source: Royal Boskalis Westminster Nv) 13 . the pontoon will relocate towards a new position adjacent to the previous one. a further upward movement of the boom and stick is ensuring sufficient height above the water to start swinging. Lowering and positioning The boom will be lowered and the stick and bucket will be moved to their starting position. 4. Upon completion of the dredging within this area. Unloading Swinging empty Upon completion of discharge the excavator will swing back empty to the dredging area. Fig. With aid of a dredge viewer the bucket penetrates the soil on the desired location.

Mainly used in harbors and other shallow waters. pipelines.3 Bucket (ladder) dredgers Basic description of the technology A bucket dredger is a stationary dredger.1. It is especially suitable for working in narrow areas and in the near presence of obstacles (like jetties. 2. from soft material (like soft silt) to hard material (like blasted or weathered rock and stiff boulder clay). The bucket dredger is one of the oldest types of 14 . Also boulders or debris can be removed. Advantages  Depending on the soil conditions different grabs can be equipped  Good vertical and horizontal control Disadvantages  Limited obstacle to shipping traffic (no anchor winches). etc.Applicability A backhoe is suitable for dredging a wide range of materials. fixed on anchors and moved while dredging along semi-arcs by winches. Costs Project specific Status The technology is proven and used on a regular basis Effectiveness The effective dredging area depends on the swing angle and the forward step per pontoon position. Limitations Dredging depths up to 25 m can be achieved.2.).

Work description The dredging action starts when a bucket reaches the bottom of the ladder. the bucket overturns and the contents are offloaded. Each bucket then returns empty on the underside of the chain to the bottom of the ladder where the cycle begins again. Fig. which is in the range 100-900 liters. They are use in blasted rock as well. Nowadays they are often used for dredging contaminated mud. at the highest point of the chain. The buckets are turned upside down and empty moving over the tumbler at the top. This material is carried in the bucket to the top of the ladder where. The size of a bucket dredger is usually described by the capacity of the buckets. Bucket dredger “Rozgwiazta” 15 . because the can dig the soil under in situ density conditions.dredging equipment. Applicability Can be applied in almost all soils. The material falls into drop chutes and into a barge moored alongside the dredger. The dredged material is loaded in barges (Fig. where it loosens and scoops up a quantity of material. from soft silt and clays to soft rock depending on the power on and the strength of the bucket chain. It has an endless chain of buckets that fill while scraping over the bottom. 5). 5.

Not recommended for use in dredging contaminated sediments. Maximum dredging depths are normally around 20 m. Advantages Capability of dredging level bottom topography Ability to work in narrow or restricted areas Dredging to the required depth quite accurate Handling a wide range of sediments A minimal amount of water is added to the dredged material during careful use of the buckets Disadvantages Cannot be applied under offshore conditions Obstruction for shipping High noise levels Rather low production compared to hydraulic dredgers 16 . Costs Expensive Status Although most bucket dredgers nowadays have been replaced with cutter-suction dredgers. semi suspended fine-grained materials in the buckets. location and material.Limitations It is difficult to retain soft.000 m³ (in-situ) depending upon size. Effectiveness The maximum weekly output of a bucket dredger can vary between 10. quite a few of these dredgers are still around.000 and 100.

a minimum of 0.2.2.1 Cutter suction dredger Basic description of the technology Cutter-suction dredgers are among the most popular type of dredger. It is a stationary dredger equipped with a cutter device (cutter head) which excavates the soil before it is sucked up by the flow of the dredge pump(s) (Fig. Hydraulic dredging The principal feature of all dredgers in this category is that the loosened material is raised from its in-situ state in suspension through a pipe system connected to a centrifugal pump. Coarser materials – and even gravel – can be worked but with greater demand on pump power and with greater wear on pumps and pipes. 7).5-1 m water depth for cutter heads and more for hopper operation. available in a wide range of sizes ranging from the small portable units that fit on a large road trailer to ocean-going vessels over 100 meters long. Fig. Hydraulic dredging is most efficient when working with fine materials. Disadvantages of hydraulic dredges include the high water content of the removed material. Hydraulic digging is mostly done in cohesion less soils such as silt. 17 . but firmer material may require mechanical loosening or the use of water jets. 6. If it is naturally very loose. and the inability to remove debris.2. suction alone may be sufficient. Various means can be employed to achieve the initial loosening of the material. 2. Hydraulic dredges remove large volumes of sediment quickly and accurately. They are excellent for navigational dredging and environmental dredging. because they can easily be held in suspension. sand and gravel.2.2.

Fig. Cutter suction dredger for dredging of hard material Work description Cutter suction dredgers operate by swinging about a central working spud using moorings leading from the lower end of the ladder to anchors. Cutter suction dredger (http://www.nl) Fig. 6. 7. and then moves forward by pushing against 18 .damen. By pulling on alternate sides the dredger clears an arc of cut.

gravel).000 m³/week are possible under good conditions. Advantages Suitability for dredging in a wide range of sediments Pumping directly and continuously to disposal site 19 . reclamation areas and so on. A generally smooth bottom can be achieved. channels. however mostly used in cohesion less soils (e.500 mm.the working spud using a spud carriage.g. sand. Some of the larger cutter suction dredgers are self-propelled to allow easy movement from site to site. Limitations The transport distance of the mixture is limited to maximum 10 km. silt. Pipe diameters are in the range 100 to 1. Applicability This type of dredger is capable to dredge all kind of material. The dredgers are accurate due to their movement around the spud. Costs Project specific Status Widely applicable Effectiveness A modern highly automated cutter suction dredger is capable of achieving high outputs over sustained periods and production rates of around 500. The size of a cutter suction dredger is measured by the diameter of the suction pipe and by the installed machinery power. Cutter suction dredgers are widely applied for dredging harbours. and modern instrumentation allows profiles and side slopes to be dredged accurately.

anchor wires) 2. 8. Trailing suction hopper dredgers (www.Disadvantages  Cutter head blocking (cohesive material/debris)  In the presence of coralline limestone. This kind of dredger is mainly used in open water: rivers.dcsc.nl) Work description A trailing suction hopper dredger operates very much like a floating vacuum cleaner. canals.2 Trailing suction hopper dredgers Basic description of the technology A Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger is a self-propelled ship which fills its hold or hopper during dredging.2. while following a pre-set track. It sails slowly over the area to be dredged filling its hopper as it proceeds.2. The hopper can be emptied by opening bottom doors or valves (offloading) or by pumping its load off ashore. 8). On completion of loading the dredger sails to the relocation site where the cargo can be 20 . the cutter head invariably generates considerable fines in the 10 micron range that are difficult to settle.tudelft. estuaries and the open sea (Fig.  Obstructions to navigation at the area (pipeline. Fig.

by using the dredging pump to deliver to a shore pipeline. especially for reclamation projects. Dredging rock with a TSHD is in most cases not profitable. Applicability The THSD is ideal for dredging in ports and shipping channels inshore as well as offshore.000 m³ . or loosened by a cutter dredger. Not very effective on hard materials such as the stiffer clays. Suitable materials for the THSD to dredge are soft clays. Limitations Unable to get into corners and can be difficult to manoeuvre in confined spaces close to quays and jetties. The maximum dredging depth without intermediate pumps is around 35 meters. Firm and stiff clays are also possible but can give either blocking problem in the drag head and/or track forming in the clay. either by opening the doors or valves in the hopper bottom. 21 . silt. but can dredge rock which has been blasted.increasingly larger vessels have been constructed in recent years to allow economic transport of the dredged material. Suitable materials for dredging are soft clays. sand and gravel. This last technique is known as “rainbowing” and is commonly used for reclamation and beach nourishment. This may range from a few hundred cubic meters to over 40. Costs Project specific Status Widely applicable Effectiveness The measure of size of a hopper or trailer dredger is the hopper capacity. sand and gravel. It requires very heavy drag heads with rippers and the productions are rather low. or directly to shore by using a special bow jet. silt.offloaded.

). 22 .2. The dredger is displaced by a combination of support legs and pontoons and is more or less independent of water depth. etc.  The dredged load may be pumped ashore as reclamation. The technique is similar to suction dredging as the excavation and transport of sediments takes place in a closed head. the dredged sediments are a paste-like consistency instead of the slurry obtained through suction dredging.  Versatility in handling both cohesion less and cohesive sediments. Unlike suction dredging adding of water is avoided. The technology has been used in some projects in Germany. and  Constructed in various sizes to suit most project sizes Disadvantages  Difficult to man oeuvre in confined spaces close to quays and jetties. This limits the redistribution in the same way as the suction dredging. As very little extra water is added. removing the sediment is made with an excavator and a suction nozzle that transport the sediments hydraulically.3 Combined dredging technologies Dredging technologies that should be mentioned is a combination of suction dredging and excavation dredging. Another interesting technology in the context of dredging of contaminated sediments is Möbius Sediment Pick-Up (MSA) with Möbius Pressing and Feeding Unit (MPF). The downside of technology is the redistribution of sediments during uptake.Advantages  Minimum interference to sea traffic. Dredging can be done selectively in areas with obstacles (blocks. The advantage of this type of dredger is a great accessibility in areas which otherwise may be difficult to access. Instead of water bound transport sediments are pushed through the system with large reciprocating pumps.  The final dredged depth is less precise  Mobilization costs can be considerable 2.

the structure is called a “freeze-cell” (Fig. 9. Freeze-Dredger 23 . The brine circulating in the freeze-cells are kept at a temperature of –20 to –40 C. Freeze plant freeze-cells Fig.2. 10. Freeze dredging Basic description of the technology The Freeze Dredging technology is a development of traditional ground freezing and thermally stabilises the contaminated sediment before removal. 9 and Fig.2. Work description When using Freeze Dredging.4. Brine conducting pipes or tubes are arranged in a fashion that enables freezing. lifting and unloading of the frozen material. contaminated sediments are frozen under the water surface and are removed while frozen. 10). using a mobile freeze plant. Working principles of freeze dredging Fig.

To avoid sediment suspension and erosion. and was used during a salvation operation of 130 m depth in 2004-2005. starting another freeze cycle. a lifted cell is preferably surrounded by other freeze-cells or by an area where the sediment already is removed. The freeze-cells are then unloaded and replaced. When the sediment has frozen. The high precision. Limitations No information available Costs No information available Status Artificial ground freezing has been in the existence for over 100 years and is a proven method used to provide earth support for excavations in the mining and construction industry. Freeze-dredging has also proven to be suitable for salvation of objects. built-in dewatering and minimal redistribution make this technology a highly efficient savings of dose and time during decommissioning projects. Freeze dredging is a novel dredging technique developed at Luleå University of Technology in co-operation with industrial partners. 24 . The freezing process alters the sediments. If the removed material thaws under drained conditions the dewatering due to the freeze/thaw cycle reduce the water content. The “built in” dewatering effect makes additional dewatering unnecessary. Effectiveness Freeze Dredging is a dynamic method that can be adapted to the specific conditions of the site.The freeze-cells are lifted and unloaded with a conventional crane placed on pontoons. Applicability Artificial freezing is commercially available for dewatering of sludge. the cells are lifted one by one.

Work areas can also incorporate multi-station real-time monitoring as an early warning system to help gauge for any significant re-suspension of sediment or spillage in the water during dredging activities.5. When dealing with contaminated sediments the cost of dewatering and disposal is high. To keep contaminated sediment from spreading downstream during dredging. If the sediment is polluted redistribution is risk also because it can cause chemical pollution of the water column. specifically engineered barriers that float on the water surface and extend to the bottom. 25 . During dredging redistribution of sediment to the water column is a problem due to environmental concerns. overdredging is therefore expensive while removal of to thin layers of sediment leaves exposed contaminated material causing a continuous environmental risk. increased turbidity can harm the aquatic fauna in a large area around the dredging site. Environmental dredging Use of the term “environmental dredging” has evolved in recent years to characterize dredging performed specifically for the removal of contaminated sediment. Environmental dredging is intended to remove sediment contaminated above certain action levels while minimizing the spread of contaminants to the surrounding environment during dredging [National Research Council (NRC 1997)].Advantages Preventing the redistribution of contaminated material during the lifting process Minimal exposure for workers Safe salvage of objects submerged in the material Disadvantages No information available 2. Unlike navigational dredging. environmental dredging is more precise and places greater emphasis on an environmentally sound operation. work areas can be enclosed or bordered with silt curtains. hydraulic and hybrid dredging.2. which stresses the quick removal of sediments. Categories of environmental dredging include mechanical.

. as the term indicates. enhanced natural attenuation). and there is less certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the variability in soil and aquifer characteristics and because the efficiency of the process is more difficult to verify. electrokinetic separation. 3. Additionally.e. chemically convert). remove. However. IN-SITU TREATMENT The main advantage of in-situ treatment is that it allows soil and sediment to be treated without being excavated and transported. c) thermal treatment (electrical resistance heating. or contain the contamination. monitored natural attenuation. separate. soil flushing and sediment capping). several of these methods have references to soil and to a much more limit extent to sediment. Biological and chemical measures seek to neutralize the harmfulness of the sediments by altering the polluting agent while covering and stabilization techniques minimizes contact between water and polluted sediments. in-situ treatment generally requires longer time period. 26 . steam injection and extraction. conductive heating.1. aim at dealing with the contaminated material at the location where it is present. Treatment methods can be categorized into three major groups: a) physical/chemical treatment (stabilisation/solidification. vitrification). In-situ solutions. biological or physical processes to the subsurface to degrade.3. Equipment is readily available and is not engineering or energy-intensive. chemical oxidation. The in-situ treatment methods presented involve applying chemical. Physical/chemical treatment is typically cost effective and can be completed in short time periods (in comparison with biological treatment). resulting in potentially significant cost savings. or immobilize contaminants without removing the bulk soil/sediment. radio-frequency heating. Physical/chemical treatment Physical/chemical treatment uses the physical properties of the contaminants or the contaminated medium to destroy (i. b) biological treatment (phytoremediation.

In short. hazardous and mixed wastes. Solidification technologies encapsulate the waste to form a solid material. When proper designed the final product can be used as construction material.3. Fig. Up to now most applications have been focused on soils but the method has also potential for sediment. The product of solidification may be a high-strength monolith-like product that physically reduces the mobility and chemically binds hazardous contaminants in-situ. stabilisation is chemical transformation of substances to less mobile forms and solidification is physical entrapment by producing a monolith that gives reduced permeability/mobility. like cement. The mixture dries to form a solid block that can be left in place or removed to another location (Fig. Solidification process 27 .1. that via chemical processes causes the soil to harden. 11. Work description Solidification involves mixing polluted soil with a substance. 11).1 In-situ Stabilisation/Solidification Basic description of the technology Stabilisation and solidification (s/s) refer to closely related technologies that use chemical and/or physical processes to treat radioactive.

The solidification process prevents chemicals from spreading into the surrounding environment. new methods for the treatment of contaminated sediments by introducing modern mass and process stabilisation technologies (pilot demonstrations in the ports of Turku and Vuosaari). Rain or other water cannot pickup or dissolve the chemicals as it moves through the ground. Limitations  Depth of contaminants may limit some types of application processes. it simply traps them in place. contaminated with heavy metals. PAHs and PCBs of low-moderate concentrations. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Stabilisation and solidification (s/s) method proved to be good for treating soils and sediments. Solidification does not get rid of the harmful chemicals.  The solidified material may hinder future site use. Treatability studies are generally required. 28 .  Future usage of the site may "weather" the materials and affect ability to maintain immobilization of contaminants.  Like all in situ treatments.  Certain wastes are incompatible with variations of this process.  Reagent delivery and effective mixing are more difficult than for ex situ applications. Several studies to date has been testing and demonstrating innovative.  Processing of contamination below the water table may require dewatering. During the implementation of STABLE project (LIFE06 ENV/FIN/000195) the pilot demonstration was carried out in port of Turku where dredged sediments from Aurajoki river were stabilised and used for filling of Pansio harbour lagoon (the future foundation for container storage area).  Some processes result in a significant increase in volume (up to double the original volume). confirmatory sampling can be more difficult than for ex situ treatments.

gyttja and sulphide rich matrices). 0. Effectiveness The most significant challenge in applying s/s in-situ for contaminated soils is achieving complete and uniform mixing of the binder with the contaminated matrix. Such sites may need extra amount of binders that may significantly add to the total cost in case high geotechnical strength and low leachability shall be maintained. Experience with the technology is abundant. Advantages  The product (treated material) has a potential to be used as construction material. A significant part of the total cost is coupled to how much of binder is needed per ton or m 3 of materials that shall be s/s treated and which binder or mix of binders is chosen. Status of the technology applications s/s has been applied to the remediation of hazardous waste sites for more than 15 years. 29 . for sediment the total amount of binders may vary from approx.  Thoroughly selected mix. with still limited amount of added binders may result in significantly lower leaching of constituents from the s/s treated soil/sediment matrices. The cost interval of binders may vary from only transport cost of the binder to approx.5 EUR/kg binder + transport cost.  High concentrations of non-polar organics in soil/sediments may not suite the method. 50 kg/m3 to 400-500 kg/m3.Costs The costs are typical very site/project specific and can vary a lot. Disadvantages  The method has limitations in aquifers containing high electric conductivities or soil/sediments with high amount of polar organic constituents (for ex. For example. compared to the original soil/sediment as such.

12) Fig. The oxidant mixes with the harmful chemicals and causes them to break down. Work description Chemical oxidation in-situ does not involve digging up polluted soil or groundwater. other organics are amenable to partial degradation as an aid to subsequent bioremediation. 3.  The vertical extent of the treated zone is limited to the working range of the equipment injecting the binders. The wells pump the oxidant into the ground. These oxidants have been able to cause rapid and complete chemical destruction of many toxic organic chemicals. wells are drilled at different depths in the polluted area. When the process is complete. sodium permanganate and persulphate. only water and other harmless chemicals are left behind (Fig. Instead.2 Chemical oxidation Basic description of the technology In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground-water or soil contaminants into less harmful chemical species.1. 12. ozone. Up to now most applications have been focused on soils and the method has limited potential for sediment due to difficulties to get approval for adding oxidation chemicals in situ to sediment. The chemical oxidants most commonly employed include hydrogen peroxide. Process of chemical oxidation 30 .

and type and concentration of the contaminant. and xylenes (BTEX). readily available equipment. soil oxidation demand. Status of the technology applications In situ chemical oxidation is a viable remediation technology for mass reduction in source areas as well as for plume treatment. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Limitations Requirement for handling large quantities of hazardous oxidizing chemicals due to the oxidant demand of the target organic chemicals and the unproductive oxidant consumption of the formation. toluene. The potential benefits of in-situ oxidation include the rapid and extensive reactions with various COCs. Further research and development is ongoing to advance the science and engineering of in- situ chemical oxidation and to increase its overall cost effectiveness. etc. Some organic contaminants (COCs) are resistant to oxidation. TNT. Also. methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). ethylbenzene. some COCs are resistant to oxidation. phenols. organic pesticides (insecticides and herbicides). polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Some potential limitations exist including the requirement for handling large quantities of hazardous oxidizing chemicals due to the oxidant demand of the target organic chemicals and the unproductive oxidant consumption of the formation. chlorinated solvents (ethenes and ethanes). in-situ chemical oxidation can be tailored to a site and implemented with relatively simple. and there is a potential for process-induced detrimental effects. stability of the oxidant. There is a potential for process-induced detrimental effects.). total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). chlorinated benzenes (CBs). applicability to many bio-recalcitrant organics and subsurface environments.Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Contaminants amenable to treatment by ISCO include the following: benzene. HMX. Costs Cost estimates depend on the heterogeneity of the site subsurface. Further research and development 31 . munitions constituents (RDX.

g. The viability of applying permanganate should be determined on a case-by-case basis and depends on the extent of contamination. including some that otherwise are difficult to remediate (i.  Permanganate-based ISCO is more fully developed than other oxidants.1%) is not kinetically fast enough to degrade many hazardous organic contaminants before decomposition occurs. Oxidants have varying persistency in the subsurface. HMX. 1998. RDX. etc. TNT. heavy PAH). and Cline 2001) as well as most aromatic compounds. Permanganate is not an effective oxidant for degradation of chlorinated alkanes such as 1. However.1-TCA) (Gates.  Persulphates may be an alternative to permanganate with focus on for ex.1.  Hydrogen peroxide at low concentrations (<0. 32 . The oxidative strength of peroxide can be increased by adding the ferrous salt iron (II) and producing Fenton‘s Reagent. Advantages  Rapid remediation  May completely transform organic contaminants to non-toxic inorganic ditto  Large variation of contaminants may be targeted.  Ozone is one of the strongest oxidants available for ISCO. the contaminant oxidant demand. the presence of competing naturally reduced materials.. Siegrist. Permanganate is also not an effective oxidant for PCB degradation. Tratnyek et al.1.) has been more successful (IT Corporation 2000). chlorinated alkanes. and Cline 1995. and treatment goals. permanganate oxidation of munition constituents (e.is ongoing to advance the science and engineering of in-situ chemical oxidation and to increase its overall cost effectiveness.1-trichloroethane (1.e. Siegrist. Gates-Anderson. Effectiveness  The success of ISCO applications largely depends on several parameters besides the oxidants’ ability to degrade the contaminant.

affect on ongoing activity above ground. sludge and sediment.  When normal bioactivity in the soil is back to normal this method can be part of treatment train (i.  May be difficult to handle large volumes of oxidants and toxic or explosive gases may be produced. direct current through the soil to separate and extract heavy metals.  Can be performed with no. etc. The latter has mostly been as an on-site application. Cr3+ => Cr6+.  Availability and usage of some type of oxidants may be restricted by law. saturated hydrocarbons). such as metals.e.). ammonium ions and some organic compounds. During electromigration positively charged chemical species.e. Most applications have hitherto been focused on soils and the method has limited potential for sediment due to potential difficulties to distributing current only where needed. some forms of Bio Treatment).3 Electrokinetic separation Basic description of the technology Electrokinetic separation is an emerging technology that relies on the application of a low-voltage.1. radionuclides. Work description The current is applied across electrode pairs that have been implanted in the ground on each side of the contaminated soil mass.  May take time until the soil is back to biological normality. and organic contaminants from unsaturated soil. such as 33 . 3. Disadvantages  Potential gas generation/volatilization of contaminants. or only minimal. The oxidation may produce toxic substances (Phenols.  Some organic contaminants not well susceptible to remediation with this method (i. move toward the cathode and negatively charged chemicals.  Limited amount of experienced contractors and equipment available in Europe.

and field scale and is hypothesised to be possible to apply as an in-situ solution for sediments contaminated with metals or chlorinated solvents. and are not readily drained. fluoride. Simple Electrokinetic Separation System As a result of the application of this electric field. Electrokinetics is most applicable in low permeability soils. anions. concentrated at the electrodes. 13). Maximum effectiveness occurs if the moisture content is between 14 and 18%. and polar organics in soil. cyanide. 13. mud. Fig. Such soils are typically saturated and partially saturated clays and silt-clay mixtures. 34 . nitrate and negatively-charged organic species. heavy metal contaminants may be mobilized. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Targeted contaminants for electrokinetics are heavy metals. Concentrations that can be treated range from a few parts per million (ppm) to tens of thousands ppm. and marine dredging.chloride. and extracted from the soil. migrate toward the anode (Fig. Limitations Effectiveness is sharply reduced for wastes with a moisture content of less than 10%. sludge. The method has been demonstrated in laboratory.

If no other efficient in situ technology is available to remediate fine-grained and heterogeneous subsurface deposits contaminated with metals. Inert electrodes. Additionally. deposits that exhibit very high electrical conductivity.. Electrokinetics is most effective in clays because of the negative surface charge of clay particles.. such as ore deposits. the spacing of electrodes and the type of process design employed.The presence of buried metallic or insulating material can induce variability in the electrical conductivity of the soil.02 EUR/kWh. Oxidation/reduction reactions can form undesirable products (e.g. together with the cost of enhancement. must be used so that no residue will be introduced into the treated soil mass.5 m.e. 35 . could result in direct costs of 35-50 EUR/m3 or more. although acidic conditions (i. Direct costs can be estimated to approx. the conductivity of the soil. the natural geologic spatial variability should be delineated. Extreme pH at the electrodes and reduction-oxidation changes induced by the process electrode reactions many inhibit ER’s effectiveness. Ongoing pilot-scale studies using "real-world" soils indicate that the energy expenditures in extraction of metals from soils may be 500 kWh/m3 or more at electrode spacing of 1.0 m to 1. Metallic electrodes may dissolve as a result of electrolysis and introduce corrosive products into the soil mass. However. low pH) may help to remove metals. A recent study estimated full scale costs at 82 EUR/m3. such as carbon. Other studies have indicated range of 50 – 200 EUR/m3 (excavation and transport to deposit not included). Costs Costs will vary with the amount of soil to be treated. this technique would remain potentially competitive. 10-15 EUR/m3 for a suggested energy expenditure of 0. graphite. or platinum. cause the technique to be inefficient. the surface charge of the clay is altered by both charges in the pH of the pore fluid and the adsorption of contaminants. therefore. the type of contaminant. chlorine gas).

 Ionic contaminants are absorbed to sediment particles and are often not available for removal by the simple flushing action of water. gasoline hydrocarbons. and colloids through fine-grained sediment. since treatment occurs between the electrodes.  The process is competitive in cost and remediation effectiveness to other methods currently in use. hydraulic flow through pores can be extremely limited.  Electrokinetic remediation is an effective method of inducing movement of water. The pH shift produced by the electrolysis of the water effectively desorbs contaminating ions. Energy needs are relatively small compared to excavation. 36 . The process of electrokinetic treatment can be highly targetable to the specific area to be cleaned. Electrokinetic remediation is also effective for the removal of organic pollutants such as phenol. Disadvantages  In addition to above given limitations. It also allows decontamination without removing contaminated soil. ions. and TCE from contaminated soils. resulting in additional remediation cost. radionuclides.  The resulting contaminant-concentrated parts of the soil/sediment may need excavation and transport to deposit.Effectiveness Studies showed that removal of heavy metals. non-polar contaminants may not be treated by the adapted electrical current. Advantages  There are currently no other viable in-situ methods for treating inorganic and organic compounds in porous media simultaneously. and selected organics by electrokinetics is feasible.  In clayey sediments.  The economical competiveness of the method relies on the site specific cost of electrical current.

1 m – 0. reduction in re-suspension/transport of contamination to the vicinity. Fig. 2/ The capping layer may include armouring. caps are made of several layers.5 m . C/ only a thick plastic liner (to be used temporarily until other remediation measures). Work description Mostly used for contaminant containment. In each case. 14.3. for example A/ gravel and geotextile or B/ gabions and geotextile or C/ sand.2 m). however. The top layer at the ground surface is usually soil with grass or other plants.000 m 2 - several 100. and in flux of dissolved contaminants into the water column (Fig.2 m thick layer on surface of contaminated sediment. resulting in sediment stabilisation. the covered area can be several 1.000 m2. Sediment capping Constructing a cap can be as simple as placing a single layer of asphalt on top of the contaminated material.1. constructed as a composite cap consisting of. 14). Plants take 37 . gravel and armour stones (each layer 0. Cap is placed on non-dredged sediment.4 In-situ Capping (ISC) Basic description of the technology Contaminated sediment is isolated from the benthic environment by applying a low permeable layer on the sediment surface. More often. 1/ Dredged non-contaminated sand is used as cap material and placed as a 0.

and some pesticides. semi-volatile organic compounds such as PAH and PCB. It is usually made of clay. The second layer down drains any water that comes through the first layer. 2008: Fact sheet Capping.gov/research/npd/pdfs/lrp- factsheet_capping.pdf). They also keep the topsoil from eroding. A third layer may be added to control gasses that come from the hazardous material. 5 EUR/m 3 – approx. Limitations The aim of the technology is to keep the contaminant masses in place which may require long term monitoring and maintenance. Depositing and placing a cap over contaminated sediment may generate suspended contaminants in the water column (US EPA. It is usually constructed of gravel and pipes. The bottom layer lies directly on the contaminated material. http://www. or not. Information regarding the 1990th century indicated costs in the range of approx. The hydrologic conditions may make the method less. in high current rivers. However. reductions in flux (less bioturbation of contaminants) and improved water quality. 100 EUR/m3 depending on selected capping material (low limit corresponds to dredged non-contaminated sediment used as cap material with dredging and transport cost not included). Costs No cost information is currently available. Applicability The technology may have good applicability for metals. The clay is covered by a sheet of strong synthetic material called a geomembrane. 38 . applicable. The contaminants are not destroyed. Together the clay and the geomembrane help stop further flow of water downward. only moved from one place to another and contained. Capping in areas with shallow water table may restrict water traffic.up rainwater with their roots and help prevent it from soaking down into the next layer. volatile organic compounds. for ex. when cap in place. it may result in improved aquatic habitat. Method may not be sustainable in water with strong currents.epa. The containment of contaminants may further be reduced by adding activated carbon between the contaminated material and the cap.

They are typically used to cover low or mixed-level contamination. Ambersorb. 39 .umich. activated Carbon.gov/greatlakes/arcs/EPA-905-B94-003/gifs/tab3-4a. http://www- personal. and that metals were adsorbed to carbon particles. Status of the technology applications Experimental studies carried out by NIVA in Norway.edu/~adriaens/Site/Dioxin_Remediation_files/Reible. and bound as sulphides in the sharply- reduced environment.epa. Aquablok (http://clu-in. Bion soil.org/download/contaminantfocus/pcb/ Aquablok-540R07008.amount of material to be capped. probably due to the anaerobic conditions developed in this layer. zero valent Iron. unlike the other two. Effectiveness Caps are best used in quite waters. or incl. Apatite. Coke (Reible. dredging and transport cost (US EPA.pdf).pdf). Sampling 15 years after capping has shown no change in the contaminated sediment. with caps of sand.gif). 20xx. http://www. waste lime and ash showed that the cap with ash did best to prevent to metal diffusion. XAD-2. Cost and Feasibility of Conventional and Active Sediment Capping. Following materials may be considered to be added to list of “active” capping material or as part of the cap material mix: Organo modified clay. A variety of laboratory and field investigations have confirmed that capping can be effective in isolating contaminated material from the aquatic environment. unless extra protection is added. The diffusion of pollutants through a fine-grained soil cover is generally low and diffusion mechanisms can be almost entirely eliminated. and excl. Advantages  Has a relatively lower cost  Quickly reduce exposure to the contaminants with little disturbance  Does not require disposal site  ISC may have some potential to be an effective technique for medium-long- term containment of contaminants.

 Existing piers. In addition to placing the wells.1.Disadvantages  Long-term effectiveness is still uncertain. Fig.  Activities such as commercial and recreational boating may also be limited. 40 . ice or contaminants moving upward through the cap. 3. The principle of the method should however has some potential also for sediments under specific conditions.  Potential for cap damage or leakage caused by erosion. other equipment— such as a wastewater treatment system — must be transported to or built on the site. boat traffic. Work description The process begins with the drilling of injection wells and extraction wells into the ground where the contamination has been found. Wells may be installed either vertically or horizontally. and depth of the injection and extraction wells depend on many geological factors and engineering considerations.5 Soil flushing Basic description of the technology In situ flushing is a way to clean up harmful chemicals in polluted soil and groundwater by pumping water or chemicals into the ground. The number. This helps flush the harmful chemicals from the ground by moving them toward wells that pump the chemicals out of the ground. This method has mostly been used in situ for soils and to a very limited extent for sediments. 15 provides an illustration of one type of in situ soil flushing process. bridges and pipelines can limit cap construction.  Long term-monitoring and maintenance may be required.  Contaminated sediments remains in place. location.

fuels and pesticides but it may be less cost-effective than alternative technologies for these contaminant groups. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The target contaminant group for soil flushing is inorganics including radioactive contaminants. The in situ soil flushing process The soil flushing equipment pumps the flushing solution into the injection wells. The extraction wells collect the elutriate—the flushing solution mixed with the contaminants. picking up contaminants along its way as it moves toward the extraction wells. The technology offers the potential for recovery of metals and can mobilize a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants from coarse-grained soils. The elutriate is pumped out of the ground through the extraction wells. the flushing solution may alter the physical/chemical properties of the soil system. and the treated water can either be recycled for use in the flushing solution or disposed of in another acceptable manner. 41 . however. The addition of environmentally compatible surfactants may be used to increase the effective solubility of some organic compounds. SVOCs. The solution passes through the soil. Here. The technology can be used to treat VOCs. the elutriate is typically treated by a wastewater treatment system to remove the contaminants. The contaminants are treated or disposed of. Fig. 15.

thereby making them less hazardous and/or less mobile.g. bacteria and fungi) can transform hazardous chemicals to substances that may be less hazardous than the original compounds. It would be difficult to prepare a flushing solution that would effectively remove several different types of contaminants at the same time. Cr(VI)). Since in situ soil flushing is tailored to treat specific contaminants. Many naturally occurring microorganisms (typically. Biological treatment Biological treatment involves the use of microorganisms or vegetation (phytoremediation). it is not highly effective with soils contaminated with a mixture of hazardous substances.Limitations  Requires greater understanding of the site’s geology than some other technologies  Requires the drilling of injection and extraction wells on-site  The flow of the groundwater must be well understood Costs Depending on the number of wells and the amount of surfactant or cosolvent needed. metals and oils. handling. Disadvantages Limited commercial success. 3. for example.2. Effectiveness This method is most effective on soils with low silt or clay content. Advantages Reduces the need for excavation. in-situ flushing can be expensive and difficult to use. Microorganisms also have been used to alter the valence of some hazardous metals (e. Several plant species have the ability to 42 . or transportation of the hazardous substances.

but it can keep them from polluting groundwater and leaving the site. As pollution moves through soil and groundwater. Scientists monitor or test these conditions to make sure natural attenuation is working.1 Monitored natural attenuation Basic description of the technology Natural attenuation (NA) relies on natural processes to reduce the concentration and the amount of pollution in soil (primarily saturated zone) and groundwater. nature can work in four ways to clean it up: 1. If these gases escape to the air at the ground surface. they can change them into water and harmless gases. 3. destroy (usually in cooperation with degradative microorganisms in the root zone). can evaporate. sunlight may destroy them. However. which means they change from liquids to gases within the soil. and/or evaporate/transpire various organic compounds. Work description When the environment is polluted with chemicals. The principle of the method has severe limitations for sediment due to that the method relies on monitoring and prognostication that may be difficult to obtain for transport of contaminants in the sediments. No official publication on sediment has been found. When they completely digest the chemicals. like oil and solvents. the right conditions must exist underground to clean sites properly. 2.bioaccumulate heavy metals found in the soil. 4. Tiny bugs or microbes that live in soil and groundwater use some chemicals for food. This is called monitored natural attenuation or MNA. Chemicals can stick or sorb to soil. This method has more or less only been used in situ for soils. cleanup will not be quick enough or complete enough. 43 . it can mix with clean water. Some chemicals. Natural attenuation occur at most polluted sites. This reduces or dilutes the pollution.2. and some tree species can sequester. 3. If not. This does not clean up the chemicals. which holds them in place.

this method is only accepted if degradation of contaminant (#1 above) can be shown as a significant part of the total NS activity.000 EUR per acre.Usually for organic contaminants. thereby reducing remediation costs.000 EUR and 140. ethers. MNA may be applicable to halogenated solvents. Limitations Need of regular monitoring.  Natural burial reduces long term risk and the short term disturbances and removal are minimized. Costs The Naval Facilities Engineering Command provides an estimate for implementing MNA of between 35. microbial and geo-hydrological circumstances and interactions for reducing mass and concentration of contaminants over time. esters. zinc. copper. polychlorinated biphenyls. where removing or capping sediments might cause irreversible damage. 44 . Advantages  Takes advantage of natural processes. and nickel. NA may be recommended for sensitive environments like wetlands. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Site contaminants most amenable to MNA include petroleum hydrocarbons. nitro-aromatics. which may be higher than that for a site not being considered for MNA. lead. Effectiveness Most effective in bodies of water that has advantageous geochemical. some pesticides. low- molecular weight alcohols. and chromium. This cost does not include site characterization. ketones. and iron and manganese. Before and during MNA it needs to be shown that the reduction in contaminant concentration versus time is sufficiently high. lightly halogenated aromatics. cadmium. Under a narrow range of conditions.

as well as ordinary NA/MNA (see 3. for example amendments that stimulate oxidative degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. also called Enhanced attenuation (EA).2. the part of the method coupled to amendments for enhancing the degradation of contaminants may be very well applicable for sediments. 45 . Disadvantages  The process is slow and contaminants remain in place  Long-term extensive monitoring is required  High costs of environmental monitoring  Effectiveness is still unproven  Natural events like storms and/or human activities like boating may cause resuspension of contaminated sediments 3.2. on natural processes to reduce the concentration and the amount of pollution in soil (only saturated zone) and groundwater. relies.  This process poses no disturbance to existing biological communities. in case the site specific design of the method does not need to rely heavily on monitoring and prognostication. This means including also oxidative reactions.1). This method has more or less only been used in situ for soils.2 Enhanced natural attenuation Basic description of the technology Enhanced natural attenuation (ENA). Definition of EA has lately widened and it is suggested that all in-situ amendment techniques in saturated zone that stimulates the degradation process may be called EA. The substances are usually added in liquid forms and the degradation is mainly focusing on contaminants in pore water and bulk water. However. No official publication on sediment has been found. moreover no disposal site is required. However. in contrast to NA. EA enhances the degradation of contaminants via injecting substances directly in-situ. EA is usually coupled to the MNA process and introduced when MNA shows it will take too long time for the NA-process to reach remediation goals within acceptable time frame.

for example aerobic degradation of petroleum products. hydrogen) that enhance the reductive degradation of the contaminants. The major costs 46 .Work description A main part of EA is to directly in-situ stimulate the degradation process directly in- situ. EA need regular monitoring. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Site contaminants most amenable to EA are chlorinated solvents and other chlorinated organics that are susceptible to reductive dechlorination. The added substances are usually non-expensive. during and after EA it needs to be shown that the reduction of contaminant mass is sufficiently. editable oil emulsions etc). If the reactions needed instead shall focuses on oxidative reactions (high redox and high oxygen level best). oxygen or oxygen producing compounds are injected in-situ in the saturated zone. also oxidative reactions such as amendments that stimulate oxidative degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons may be included. hydrogen) that promotes the microbial degradation of the contaminants (i. Frequency of adding is depending mostly on type of substances to add which in turn is depending on site specific circumstances (soil structure etc). etc) may be added alone.e. other substances are produced (i. Costs The additional cost that EA may contribute is not major to the overall cost of EA/MNA. via reductive dechlorination). etc) are susceptible to this method. Other types of substances (nano iron. This is done by adding substances that enhance the degradation process. Limitations As for MNA. sugar. or in combination with organics. and via chemical reactions produces substances (i. If the suggested widening of EA definition is accepted. Before. Also inorganic compounds that are less toxic in anaerobic environments than in aerobic ditto (Cr3+ versus toxic Cr6+.e.e. Such substances may consist of food-grade organics (molasses. When such substances ferments microbially in-situ.

 Method only focusing on saturated zones.  Non-toxic food grade organics are used/injected in-situ. thereby reducing remediation costs. 47 . Also oxygen enhancement (oxidative reactions on petroleum hydrocarbons) has been proved to significantly reduce the total remediation time. especially chlorinated solvents (via reductive dechlorination).  The mix of contaminants in sediment are usually significantly more complex than in groundwater on land. as shorter remediation time. may result in difficulties to apply the method in one step properly for all contaminants in sediment (some may have the mass reduced but other may be transformed into more toxic species). but the time reduction is far from as drastic as for chlorinated solvents. moreover no disposal site is required. added substances and secure (by for ex. experience of usage of EA in sediment limited. Advantages  Takes advantage of natural processes. monitoring) that the remediation goals within EA are reached.(additional to cost for MNA) are coupled to drilling new wells. chemistry. hydrogeology etc)  Method mostly proven on land.  The process poses no disturbance to existing biological communities. As better the amended substances can be distributed in the contaminated water column. EA has reached remediation goals within 1-5 years in such contaminated groundwaters (that with ordinary MNA would take > 50 years). geotechnique. Effectiveness Most effective in pore-/bulk-/ground-water contaminated with chlorinated organics. Disadvantages  Extensive monitoring is required (significant cost)  Integration of several disciplines at high level of knowledge needed (microbiology. can be performed with minimal disturbances above ground.  As for all in-situ methods.

into the atmosphere as water is transpired. and destroy contaminants in soil and sediment. This method has more or less only been used in situ for soils. and groundwater (Fig. Rhizofiltration uptake in roots from water) and Phytostabilisation (absorption and accumulation by roots. 48 . Work description Plants remove harmful chemicals from the ground when their roots take in water and nutrients from polluted soil. adsorbed onto the roots or precipitated in the rhizosphere). Hypothetically. mostly via leafs or similiar. so they are used to reach pollution deeper in the ground. stabilize. Phytoremediation of organics can be divided in Phytodegradation (also called Phytotransformation) (degradation by internal and/or external metabolic plant processes). or leaves • changed into less harmful chemicals within the plant • changed into gases that are released into the air as the plant transpires (breathes). No official publication on in situ usage of this method in sediment has been found. 16). it may be due to sparse numbers of tested phyto-remedial plants that can be placed in situ in the sediment. Contaminants may be either organic or inorganic. Once inside the plant. In summary. the contaminant may become modified during transport in the plant). streams. chemicals can be: • stored in the roots. Tree roots grow deeper than smaller plants. Rhizodegradation (degradation in soil by microbes in cooperation with the plant roots/rhizosphere) and Phytovolatilization (uptake of soluble contaminants by root and release. stems. Additionally.3.2. plants can be used as hydraulic controller of the transport of contaminants in the ground (by sorbing water). Plants can clean up chemicals as deep as their roots can grow.3 Phytoremediation Basic description of the technology Phytoremediation is a process that uses plants to remove. transfer. phytoremediation of metals can be divided in Phytoextraction (also called Phytoaccumulation) (uptake in roots from soil).

 It can transfer contamination across media.g. it is limited to shallow soils.  High concentrations of hazardous materials can be toxic to plants.  It involves the same mass transfer limitations as other biotreatments. Currently. and possibly metabolize them either to CO2 or plant tissue. Limitations  The depth of the treatment zone is determined by plants used in phytoremediation. crude oil. solvents. e. Hyper-accumulator plants may be able to remove and store significant amount of metallic contaminants. translocation and transpiration. from soil to air.g. depending on location.. 49 . As the roots become saturated with metal contaminants. PAHs and landfill leachates. Fig. Some plant species have the ability to store metals in their roots.  It may be seasonal.  It is not effective for strongly sorbed (e. Phytoremediation process Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Phytoremediation may be applicable for the remediation of metals. They can be transplanted to sites to filter metals from wastewater. In most cases. explosives. trees are under investigation to determine their ability to remove organic contaminants from ground water. they can be harvested. pesticides. PCBs) and weakly sorbed contaminants.. 16.

the method is best applied to low . phytoremediation has been implemented at a number of sites at full-scale (U.  It is unfamiliar to regulators. EPA 2006). used in conjunction with other treatment methods. Because high levels of contaminants may be toxic to plants and inhibit their growth. phytoemediation technologies have been selected 18 times by the US Superfund program. Effectiveness Phytoremediation is best used to treat large areas of shallow contamination.5 EUR/m3 – 25 EUR/m3 of polluted water. As of this publication. a wide range of site conditions. and contaminants have been studied under laboratory or field testing.  It is still in the demonstration stage. plants. Remediation of organics is cheaper than remediation of metals. Advantages  Takes advantage of natural plant processes  Requires less equipment and labour than other methods since plants do most of the work  The site can be cleaned up without removing polluted soil  Same tools and supplies as agriculture can be used  More likely to be accepted by public (aesthetic) 50 . Costs The cost has been estimated to between 25 EUR/ton – 125 EUR/ton of soil and 2. or used as a final polishing step in site remediation. Status of the technology applications In general.moderate contaminant levels.  The toxicity and bioavailability of biodegradation products is not always known. Also.S.  Products may be mobilized into ground water or bioaccumulated in animals.

steam injection and extraction. Vapour extraction is an integral part of these remediation systems to ensure the removal and treatment of mobilized contaminants. 3. Thermal treatment Five technologies are grouped under the in situ thermal treatment classification: electrical resistance heating. geology. including metals and radioactive materials. climate. the heating cost for all thermal heating technologies rapidly increases and may result in low competiveness. 51 . and sometimes with other thermal technologies when groundwater flow rates are high and/or when the contaminant being recovered is semi-volatile. all of these treatment technologies rely on the addition of heat to the soil to increase the removal efficiency of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants. In situ vitrification is unique among the thermal technologies in that the temperatures used will vitrify soil. temperature)  Remediation time far exceeds most of alternative remediation  Outcome depends on tolerance of the plant to the pollutant  Contaminants sorbed during spring may in autumn be released back to the environment  High concentrations of sorbed contaminants may need plant transportation to deposit or destruction at special energy producer. Liquid extraction is also used during steam injection. radio-frequency heating. and vitrification.e. This is hypothetically one of several reasons behind why it is very sparsely reported on using this group of methods in situ in sediments (besides that part of sediment after electrical treatment usually needs to be dredged and potential issues using electrical currents under groundwater table only where the remediation shall take place). conductive heating.  It can treat a site with more than one type of contaminant Disadvantages  Dependant on plant growing conditions (i. The stable glass that is formed by vitrification will immobilize any non-volatile contaminants that are present. With the exception of vitrification.3. In case focusing at areas below groundwater table.

These fractures make the soil more permeable allowing the use of SVE to remove the contaminants. but the complexity and cost of the drilling and installation increases significantly compared to vertical installations (Kingston J.1 Electrical resistance heating Basic description of the technology Electrical resistance heating (ERH) involves passing electrical current through moisture in the soil between an array of electrodes. ESTCP Project ER-0314). creating a resistance which then heats the soil (Fig. 17. Critical Evaluation of State-of-the-Art In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies for DNAPL Source Zone Treatment. Typical Six-Phase Soil Heating System 52 . et al. Heating can readily be done using angled or horizontal borings. 3. The heat dries out the soil causing it to fracture.Some of these methods may have possibility to remediate contamination present under structures where vertical drilling is prohibited.3. 17). the resistance of the soil produces heat. As the current flows through the moisture in soil pores.. Fig. Work description Electrodes are placed directly into the less permeable soil matrix and activated so that electrical current passes through the soil. 2010. The heat created by electrical resistance heating also forces trapped liquids to vaporize and move to the steam zone for removal by SVE.

Status of the technology applications The technology is proven and has been used at a number of sites. 30 EURO/m3 (total 27. Disadvantages 53 . Costs The cost per m3 decreases as the total volume treated increases. trichloroethylene. only limited to how deep the boring can be drilled. Advantages  ERH is adaptable to all soil types and sedimentary bedrock. Effectiveness ERH is typically most effective on volatile organic compounds (VOCs). U. The chlorinated compounds perchloroethylene. (total 9. Because electricity can and does travel through any lithology that contains some water.  ERH is effective in fractured rock and porous sedimentary rock as the electricity will follow the same fractures or pathways that the water and contamination have followed. water treatment has been published (USACE. Less volatile contaminants like xylene or diesel can also be remediated with ERH but energy requirements increase as the volatility decreases. 2009: EM 1110-1-4015).000 m3).50 EURO/m3.000 EURO plus 28 EURO /m3 .2- dichloroethylene are contaminants that are easily remediated with ERH. and cis or trans 1. ERH can be effective in any soil type.000 m3) up to 80 EURO/m3. The number of vendors offering the technology is limited. Beyke and Fleming (2005) estimate that ERH costs 140.Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics ERH is typically most effective on volatile organic compounds (VOCs).  ERH is not depth limited.S. excl. EPA provides remediation cost estimates of 22 EURO /m3 and 51 EURO/m3 at two full-scale ERH sites. Alternatively.

Example of typical steam injection system Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The applicability of steam injection to a particular site is determined by the permeability of the soil. The permeability of the soil 54 . Work description The steam is injected underground through wells drilled in the polluted area. Fig. the type and degree of heterogeneity as well as the contaminant type.2 Steam injection and extraction Basic description of the technology Steam injection and extraction (also known as steam enhanced extraction [SEE]) involves injection of steam into injection wells and the recovery of mobilized groundwater.3.  Peat or high organic carbon in the subsurface will preferentially adsorb VOCs due to van der Waals forces.  Heat losses on small sites  Co-contaminants like oil or grease make remediation more difficult (more energy required). and vapour from the recovery wells. evaporates. 18). 3. contaminants. and destroys the harmful chemicals (Fig. the depth at which the contaminants reside. 18. The steam heats the area and mobilizes.

must be high enough to allow sufficient steam to be injected to heat the entire source zone. contaminants present. or the overburden pressure will be exceeded. Limitations The method is hardly applicable for treatment of shallow areas. Advantages 55 . however. Costs are very sensitive to treatment rate as a function of site characteristics. and the clean-up criteria. EPA/540/S-97/505).g. pressures should not be higher than 1. short duration demonstrations of steam injection in fractured rock have shown the potential for this technology to be effective in fractured rock settings (e. Effectiveness  Several small scale. in general. but additional research and field demonstrations are needed to fully determine its effectiveness. Davis et al.65 pounds per square inch per meter of depth. Older information indicated cost interval of 50 EUR/m 3 soil – 500 EUR/m3 soil (US EPA 1998.  In systems where low volatility of the contaminant exists or strong adsorption onto a solid phase. and fracturing to the surface can be expected. the temperature of the system may determine the attained clean-up level. Loring Air Force Base. Higher injection rates can be achieved by increasing the injection pressure. Status of the technology applications Steam is a well-documented technology for addressing NAPL source zones in unconsolidated subsurfaces (Davis 1998).. Costs Cost data for steam injection and extraction are limited. 2005).

 The possibility to use high temperatures can increase the amount of semi- volatile organics that are recovered and the removal efficiencies from clay soils by increasing the volatilization and desorption from soil surfaces. such as vacuum extraction. the typical deployment is to place six heater- only wells in a hexagonal shape with a heater vacuum well occupying the centre of each hexagon. and the preferred flow paths for the injected steam. potential contaminants are not injected to the subsurface.  Extensive characterization of the site is important in order to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of the contaminant.  The accelerated removal rates can have positive impact on the total cleanup cost by reducing the time required for the remediation. The heating o o element typically operates at temperatures between 540 and 815 C. surface heater blankets. 3. Heater wells are constructed of steel pipe with the base sealed.3 Conductive heating Basic description of the technology Conductive heating. A resistive heating unit is lowered into the well and current is supplied. Disadvantages  Initial capital costs for steam injection are higher than for a system that relies on removal of soil gases without heating. sometimes called In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD). The wells can be installed using conventional drilling techniques or direct push. when the treatment area is within about 0.  Excavation is not required. and potentially rapid remediation is possible.15 m of the ground surface.  The method has potential to be expensive (but there may be trade-offs between efficiency of the cleanup and the methods total cost). While it is feasible to deploy all the wells in a heater/vacuum mode.3. 56 . uses either an array of vertical heater/vacuum wells or.

where some of the contaminants may be degraded. but it is placed within a larger screened well to which a vacuum can be applied. soil moisture content. generally need a o soil temperature of 325 C for adequate desorption. Treating contaminants that generate highly corrosive conditions (for ex. as well as sweeping the permeable areas. When the vacuum is applied to the centre well. while the coolest soil is at the midpoint between wells. 2009. The hottest o soil (typically 590 C) is in the immediate vicinity of the wells. Well spacing is chosen based on contaminant type and depth. The heating element typically operates at temperatures between 540 and 815°C. including high boiling components. then a dewatering system should be considered.Work description The vacuum well contains the same steel pipe and heating element components as a standard heater well. while VOCs require less heat 57 . The heating is fairly even through all dry textures of soil. Limitations If the treatment area contains saturated high-hydraulic conductivity soil. volatilized organics are pulled through the high-temperature soil. Costs Some vendor cost estimates cited range from 75 EURO/ton to 200 EURO/ton (upper interval level or higher for PCB contaminated soils according to USACE. and the time desired to reach that temperature. EM 1110-1-4015). This vacuum design is similar to soil-vapor extraction (SVE). Heat propagates in a cylindrical fashion from the well outward. the minimum required temperature between wells. some halogenated organics) may generate higher cost/ton (high equipment costs to withstand the corrosion). such as PAHs or PCBs. Effectiveness SVOCs. or using a steam system to control water influx. The steel pipe is heated by radiant energy and the soil surrounding it by thermal conductance.

are added to the subsurface)  Many different contaminants may be treated simultaneously  Less sensitive to subsurface heterogeneities across a site.  Thermal conductance systems can consume large quantities of power. and in some cases water and air. especially fine-grained silt and clay. Conductive heating operates best in unsaturated soil.  Difficult to apply near occupied/active sites  Require sophisticated design and operation  May enhance the potential for contaminant to migrate to previously non- impacted areas  Post-treatment soil temperatures may remain elevated for prolonged periods of time (months to years). Disadvantages  Few full-scale tests documented. however.3.  The drying of soils. o (usually 100 C). at high temperatures can result in shrinkage. 3. rather than years for many other technologies)  Potentially lower total operations and maintenance costs than many other technologies (only energy.4 Radio frequency heating Basic description of the technology Radio frequency heating (RFH) is an in situ process that uses electromagnetic energy to heat soil and enhance soil vapour extraction.  The soil will be sterile during and sometimes after the remediation. it does find application in saturated soil with low hydraulic conductivity. Advantages  Potentially shorter treatment time (weeks or months. Work description 58 .

3. A vapour collection and treatment system Depending upon the vendor. the electrodes themselves are used to recover soil gas and heated vapours. 4. In some designs. 5. 6. 19. and a final amplifier that delivers the current at the prescribed output level. 19). wells are placed specifically for soil vapour extraction and to act as electromagnetic sinks to prevent heating beyond the treatment zone (Fig. A radio-frequency source with an oscillator that generates a low-power current at the desired radio frequency. Radio frequency heating with electrodes Limitations RFH is not applicable for treatment zones that contain metal or other conductive objects. several serial amplifiers that increase the strength of the oscillator current. Fig. A grounded metal shield over the treatment area. In other designs. 59 . An applicator system consisting of electrodes or antennae. The electrodes can be placed with conventional drilling equipment or direct push. A monitoring control system.A radio-frequency heating system usually consists of: 1. a row or rows of applicator electrodes are placed in the ground to the depth of the treatment zone. A three-phase power supply 2.

These temperatures allow the system to treat both VOCs and many SVOCs. heavy oils. Effectiveness Lower energy requirements/cost than other thermal methods that heat host and target. RFH “high-temp” can obtain temperatures over 250ºC with some vendors claiming temperatures to 400ºC near the electrodes (Davis 1997 and U. Advantages 60 . The temperatures decrease with the distance to the electrodes. Depending upon the chemicals of concern. The method needs complementary method/s to take care of generated gases (mostly of organic contaminants). Fewer heating locations (boreholes. up to ca 100ºC to volatilisation (BTEX. Interval of 40 -100 EURO/m3 has been indicated. 100ºC has been reached up to 3 m from the electrodes. In general. application.. Low(-moderate) temp.S. Costs Key cost drivers are soil type (permeability) and depth to top/thickness of contaminated area. up to high-temp. temperature up to 40ºC may be coupled to enhanced microbial degradation.pdf). A deeper and thicker region of contaminated soils has higher remedial costs. may result in 20-25ºC within a soil column of up to ca Ø 25 m.. SVE needed) and 100-400ºC to stabilisation/destruction (PCB. waste. PCE etc. SVOC) (Kabir. 40ºC – 100ºC to change in viscosity (PAH.frtr. capture system needed). For thermal treatment. EPA 1997). 2010: http://www.gov/pdf/meetings/nov10/presentations/kabir-presentation. Sparsely public information of cost exists. Status Method in full-scale mode but few official reports from full-scale performances.Status of the technology applications The method can be used as a low-moderate temp. soils of lower permeability (silts/silty-clays) are less expensive to remediate as they require less gas flow. materials) than other thermal methods.

which means it turns into a solid block of glass-like material. the sunken area is filled with clean soil (Fig.  Moderate temp. 61 . application may parallel increase degradation of contaminants Disadvantages High temperatures only applicable in unoccupied or access-restricted locations. When the power is turned off. When vitrified. evaluation and selecting this method for sediment in situ may be done after negative outcome of evaluation of most other alternative methods. As the soil melts. Four rods. 20). An electric current is passed between the electrodes. Work description Vitrification uses electric power to create the heat needed to melt soil. reduced labour. the original volume of soil shrinks. called electrodes. To level it. Vitrification can be done either in place or above ground. Precautions are needed when dealing with sites containing large amounts of free water. This causes the ground surface in the area to sink slightly. Melting starts near the ground surface and moves down. consumables  Can enhance other methods such as soil vapor extraction (SVE)/air sparging. The electrodes become part of the block. this method has advantage at SVOC sites where excavation is unpractical or expensive  Less monitoring than many other in situ treatment technologies – fewer site visits.  As for many other similar in situ technologies. melting the soil between them.3. Therefore. the electrodes sink further into the ground causing deeper soil to melt.5 In situ vitrification Basic description of the technology Vitrification is a process that permanently traps harmful chemicals in a solid block of glasslike material. are drilled in the polluted area. This keeps them from leaving the site. the melted soil cools and vitrifies. not least in cold climates and where SVE is limited by high moisture content. 3. The economy of the method is strongly coupled to the local cost of electricity.

Fig. 20. In-situ vitrification

The heat used to melt the soil can also destroy some of the harmful chemicals and
cause others to evaporate. The evaporated chemicals rise through the melted soil to
the ground surface. Here, a hood, which covers the heated area, collects the
chemicals. These chemicals are sent to a treatment system where they are cleaned
up. Any harmful chemicals that remain underground become trapped in the vitrified
block, which is left in place. This prevents rainfall, groundwater flow, and wind from
transporting the chemicals offsite.

Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics
The conventional ISV process can destroy or remove organics and immobilize most
inorganics in contaminated soil, sludge, or other earthen materials. The process has
been used on a broad range of VOCs and SVOCs, other organics including dioxins
and PCBs, and on most priority pollutant metals and radionuclides. ISV is applicable
to sites with high clay and moisture content, although treatment costs increase with
increasing moisture content. Treatment of materials in a permeable aquifer may
require some type of dewatering (which is a significant obstacle for treating sediment
in situ), and if the treatment area is expected to contain large voids, dynamic
compaction is recommended.

62

Costs
Vitrification operations: 300 EURO/ton - 400 EURO/ton. Ancillary costs: treatability/
pilot testing 50K EURO - 150K EURO; mobilization 150K EURO - 200K EURO and
demobilisation 150K EURO - 200K EURO.

Status of the technology applications
ISV, using the electrical resistance method, has been tested in the field several
times, including a SITE Program demonstration (U.S. EPA 1995), a demonstration at
the DOE Hanford Nuclear Reservation (http://www.frtr.gov/) and Superfund cleanups
at the Wasatch Chemical Company, Lot 6 site (U.S. EPA 1997b) and General
Electric Spokane Shop (U.S. EPA 2005).

Effectiveness
The majority (70 to 99.9% by weight) of heavy metals, such as arsenic, lead,
cadmium, and chromium, and radionuclides are entrained in the melt mass
(Thompson, Bates and Hansen 1992). SVOCs and VOCs can be treated with this
process, with about 97% or more of the VOCs destroyed and the remainder captured
by the offgas treatment system (U.S. EPA 1997a).

Advantages

ISV can treat mixtures of waste types, contaminated with organic and inorganic
compounds. Metals are bound within the vitrified product. Organics in soil may be
destroyed, encapsulated or driven of as gas, in total to a very high degree of risk
reduction.

Disadvantages

Treatment in situ of sediment includes significant extra cautions and cost due to its
potential high water content. Electrical current applied to electrodes in materials with
high free water content can generate explosive gas. In free water containing chloride
ions, toxic gas can be produced.

63

4. EX SITU TREATMENT
The main advantage of ex situ treatment is that it generally requires shorter time
periods than in situ treatment, and there is more certainty about the uniformity of
treatment because of the ability to homogenize, screen, and continuously mix the
soil. However, ex situ treatment requires excavation of soils, leading to increased
costs and engineering for equipment, possible permitting, and material
handling/worker exposure considerations.

4.1. Physical/chemical treatment
Physical/chemical treatment uses the physical properties of the contaminants or the
contaminated medium to destroy (i.e., chemically convert), separate, or immobilize
the contamination. Chemical reduction/oxidation and dehalogenation (APEG, BCD or
glycolate) are destruction technologies. Soil washing, separation and solvent
extraction are separation techniques, and Solidification/Stabilisation (s/s) is an
immobilization technique. Physical/chemical treatment may be cost effective
(depending on site specific conditions) and can often be completed in shorter time
periods than by biological treatment methods. Equipment is readily available and is
not engineering or energy-intensive. Treatment residuals from separation techniques
will require treatment or disposal, which will add to the total project costs and may
require permits.

4.1.1 Ex situ stabilisation/solidification
Basic description of the technology
As for in situ solidification/stabilisation (s/s) ex situ s/s contaminants are physically
bound or enclosed within a stabilised mass (solidification), or chemical reactions are
induced between the stabilising agent and contaminants to reduce their mobility
(stabilisation). Ex situ s/s treated masses may be used as construction material (if
human and environmental impacts from the treated contaminated masses are
reduced enough) or requires disposal of the resultant materials. Typical ex situ s/s
process flow diagram is presented below (Fig. 21).

64

The emulsions are available as either cationic or anionic emulsions. (3) modified sulfur cement. in a heated extruder containing screws that mix the bitumen and waste. (4) polyethylene extrusion. Most of the innovations are modifications of proven processes and are directed to encapsulation or immobilizing the harmful constituents and involve processing of the waste or contaminated soil. The final product is a homogenous mixture of extruded solids and bitumen. Fig. (6) radioactive waste solidification. usually in slurry form. 21. Emulsified Asphalt. In the bituminization process. (8) soluble phosphates and (9) vitrification/molten glass. (7) sludge stabilisation. Typical ex situ S/S process flow diagram Work description There are many innovations in the stabilisation and solidification technology. Nine distinct innovative processes or groups of processes include: (1) bituminization. The emulsified asphalt process involves 65 . (2) emulsified asphalt. The process combines heated bitumen and a concentrate of the waste material. Asphalt emulsions are very fine droplets of asphalt dispersed in water that are stabilised by chemical emulsifying agents. Water is evaporated from the mixture to about 0.5% moisture. Bituminization. wastes are embedded in molten bitumen and encapsulated when the bitumen cools. (5) pozzolan/Portland cement.

where it cools and solidifies. After given sufficient time to set and cure. The hydraulic conductivity of the final product is usually significantly reduced down to 10 -9 – 10-11 m/s. Production of such monolithic structure may result in reduced leachability of both heavy metals and organic contaminants of the encapsulated contaminated material. or blast furnace slag and cement-based materials like Portland cement. and on various other wastes at the bench and pilot scale. such as lime or gypsum.adding emulsified asphalts having the appropriate charge to hydrophilic liquid or semiliquid wastes at ambient temperature. additional neutralizing agents. the water in the waste is released. may be required. such as. A variety of common mixing devices. The polyethylene extrusion process involves the mixing of polyethylene binders and dry waste materials using a heated cylinder containing a mixing/transport screw. and reuse or disposal. pumice. Polyethylene’s properties produce a very stable. The heated. paddle mixers and pug mills. The cement reactions may also chemically bind contaminants in the structure. homogenous mixture exits the cylinder through an output die into a mould. thereby establishing its viability. and the organic phase forms a continuous matrix of hydrophobic asphalt around the waste solids. Pozzolan/Portland Cement. In some cases. After mixing. The relatively low temperatures used limit emissions of sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide to allowable threshold values. Pozzolan/Portland cement process consists primarily of silicates from pozzolanic-based materials like fly ash. storage. The process has been tested on nitrate salt wastes at plant-scale. It is easily melted (130° to 150°C) and then mixed with the waste to form homogenous molten slurry which is discharged to suitable containers for cooling. Modified sulfur cement is a commercially-available thermoplastic material. kiln dust. These materials chemically react with water to form a solid cementious matrix which improves the handling and physical characteristics of the waste. the emulsion breaks. solidified product. Modified Sulfur Cement. Polyethylene Extrusion. Due to that the 66 . the resulting solid asphalt has the waste uniformly distributed throughout it and is impermeable to water. can be used.

The soluble phosphates process involves the addition of various forms of phosphate and alkali for control of pH as well as for formation of complex metal molecules of low-solubility to immobilize (insolubilize) the metals over a wide pH range. mixers and disposal or storage. Assemblies include pumps for liquids or slurries. conveyors for sludges or solids. The effectiveness of these binding agents with organic contaminants varies. Vitrification. Soluble Phosphates. or molten glass. One application of soluble phosphates and lime is in stabilizing fly ash by immobilizing the lead and cadmium in the ash. either slags or cementitious materials. However. adding small amount of additives (e. Pozzolanic and cement-based binding agents are typically appropriate for inorganic contaminants. Sludge stabilization.g. monolithic mass. weigh feeders. solidification additives are used to form a uniform and stable matrix to encapsulate radioactive waste materials. some heavy metal contaminants may precipitate and immobilize. to sludge to transform the material so that the hazardous constituents are in their least mobile or toxic form. Vitrification/Molten Glass. Radioactive waste solidification.process raise the pH of the water. The high temperatures destroy any organic 67 . The s/s technique on non. In radioactive waste solidification (Grouting/Other) treatment. piping. Sludges which leach heavy metals or other contaminants are often stabilised in order to obtain immobilization of the hazardous constituents. processes are solidification methods that employ heat up to 1200° C to melt and convert waste materials into glass or other glass-crystalline products.and low-medium contaminated soils and dredged sediments may result in products with geotechnical and environmental properties suitable as construction material. The sludge stabilisation process is the addition of a reagent. Unlike most other stabilisation processes. soluble phosphate processes do not convert the waste into a hardened. active carbon) to the mixture may significantly reduce the lechability of hydrophobic organic contaminants. storage silos.

a relatively strong. durable material that is resistant to leaching. are actually incorporated into the glass structure which is. the waste materials can be liquids. has shown significantly reduced leachablilty of organics from stabilised contaminated sediment. cement) with/without additives have been tested in pilot and full scale in the last years. including radionuclides. No information available on this methods usage for dredged sediments. However the Pozzolan/Portland Cement method. Potential usage for sediment primarily on very high contaminated or radioactive dredged ditto. Limitations  Environmental conditions may (theoretically) affect the long-term immobilization of contaminants. Treatability studies are generally required. wet or dry sludges.  Long-term effectiveness (> ca 30 years) has not yet been demonstrated for many contaminant/process combinations.constituents with very few by-products.  Some processes result in a significant increase in volume (up to double the original volume). such as heavy metals and radionuclides. Materials.  High-very high organic content (more/much more than 10 w-%) may reduce the cementing/hardening process. except vitrification which destroys most organic contaminants. generally. in which new innovative forms of binders/mixtures (other than. compared to the contaminated sediment itself. In addition to solids.  Certain wastes are incompatible with different processes. or combustible materials. Most s/s technologies have limited effectiveness against organics and pesticides. 68 . Borosilicate and soda-lime are the principal glass formers and provide the basic matrix of the vitrified product. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The target contaminant group for ex situ s/s is mainly inorganic. or in combination with.

 The bitumen. resulting in that contaminants having increased leachability at high pH may not be contained to sufficient degree. Depending on s/s method. 69 . Disadvantages For some binders. The non-cement based methods gives. Selection of optimal amount and mix of binders needs extensive laboratory tests. However they are usually more costly and have more limited application. Advantages Several methods. especially cement-based. For example.based alternative. the mobility and thereby environmental impact of several contaminants may be decreased. type and amount of binder. instead of transportation of the sediment to deposit. quay) after s/s treatment. compared to cement. the pH will increase dramatically in the leachate. not least if the final product shall be used as construction material. have found increased usage for moderate contaminated sediment where the sediment may be used as construction material (for ex.and vitrification based methods are used for radioactive materials. stronger containment for the method specific matrices and their contaminants. especially the cement-based. some heavy metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediments may show significantly decrease in leachability after treatment with cement-based mix of binders. Costs Cost varies between 90 EURO and 200 EURO per m3. if possible to apply at the specific situation.

which is sealed and heated in an oxygen-free atmosphere to about 600 °C. Work description Solid and bulk waste materials are processed in a Thermal Reduction Batch Processor (TRBP). Volatile contaminants may evaporate due to temperature increase during treatment 4.Some methods may be less suitable for sediments with high organic content and high water content.2 Gas-phase chemical reduction Basic description of the technology Gas Phase Chemical Reduction (GPCR™) is a proven.1. CFCs. such as pesticides are chemically reduced to methane or natural gas and hydrogen chloride (HCl). 22). Organic components are volatilised and swept into the GPCR reactor. non-incineration technology for the destruction of hazardous organic chemicals (mostly halogenated) by hydrogen and has been successfully applied to pesticides. and chemical warfare agents. 70 . dioxins. PCBs. Chlorinated hydrocarbons. where complete reduction by hydrogen takes place at 850-900 °C. as higher amount of binders as better containment of the contaminants and as higher geotechnical strength but amount of binders per m3 treatable material have upper levels above which the method is not economical competitive. Usually. This waste is placed in the TRBP. Gas leaving the reactor is scrubbed to move particulate and acid and then stored for reuse as a fuel (Fig.

dioxins and furans and other POPs. Dieldrin. pesticide. HCBs. Costs No information available 71 . PCBs.and other organic- contaminated material at sites. 22. Aldrin. Limitations  GPCR is limited in destroying only halogenated organic compounds. Fig.  Limited amount of contaminated soil/sediment that can be processed/time (ca 5 000 ton/month). Gas-phase chemical reduction process diagram Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Pesticides such as Hexachlorobenzene.  In some cases transportation of large quantities of hydrogen may be needed and may then present a risk of transportation-related accidents. DDT. DDT. The method may also reduce the content of volatile heavy metals (Hg and As) in soil/sediment (but special treatment of the off-gases then needed). The GPCR™ system is fully commercialised and has been used to treat more than 3000 tons of PCB-.

72 .s. slurries. sediments. other chlorinated pesticides and POPs related wastes such as dioxins and furans. Gases liquefied under pressure. The low viscosities. and surface tensions of these gases result in significantly higher rates of extraction compared to conventional liquid solvents.s and DDT. and sediments. Effectiveness The GPCR has treated HCBs and PCBs and DDT. sludges. 23).Status of the technology applications Commercially the system has been working more than 5 year at Kwinana in Western Australia. Due to their high volatility. densities. Advantages No information available Disadvantages No information available 4. have unique physical properties that enhance their use as solvents. and wastewaters. or wastewaters are fed into the extraction system along with solvent (Fig. sludges. Work description Contaminated solids. Liquefied propane solvent is typically used to treat soils. gases are also easily recovered from the suspended solids matrix. while liquefied carbon dioxide is typically used to treat wastewater.1. HCB. where it has been treating PCB.3 Liquefied gas solvent extraction Basic description of the technology The liquefied gas solvent extraction technology uses liquefied gas solvents to extract organics from soils. minimizing solvent losses.

more than 99% of the organics are extracted from the feed. dioxins. such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Once in the solvent recovery system. The reclaimed water is recycled to the extraction system and the filter cake is sent to disposal or reused. The organics are drawn off and either reused or disposed of. Treated feed is discharged from the extraction system as slurry. Liquefied Gas Solvent Extraction (LG-SX) Technology Typically. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). the solvent and organic mixture passes to the solvent recovery system. Limitations No information available Costs 100 – 500 EUR per ton of contaminated material 73 . 23. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The LG-SX technology can be applied to soils and sludges containing volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and other higher boiling point complex organics. Fig. This process can also treat refinery wastes and wastewater contaminated with organics. After the solvent and organics are separated from the treated feed. the solvent is vaporized and recycled as fresh solvent. and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The slurry is filtered and dewatered.

Advantages No information available Disadvantages No information available 4. Effectiveness During the demonstrational studies managed by the U. a pilot-scale mobile demonstration unit was tested in September 1988 on PCB-laden sediments from the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site in Massachusetts. Density differences may also be used for 74 .Status The technology was accepted into the SITE Demonstration Program in 1988.1. The Technology Evaluation Report (EPA/540/5- 90/002) and the Applications Analysis Report (EPA/540/A5-90/002) are available from EPA. to leave relatively uncontaminated fractions that can then be regarded as treated soil.9 % efficiency. Army Corps of Engineers extraction efficiencies reached 90 to 98 % percent for sediments containing PCBs between 360 and 2.S. shape.500 ppm.4 Separation Basic description of the technology The separation processes are used for removing contaminated concentrates from soils. Under the SITE Program. These techniques involve the physical separation of particles from each other based on particle characteristics such as size.575 ppm. Physical separation techniques have been used commonly in the chemical and mining industries for many years. PCB concentrations in the harbor sediment ranged from 300 parts per million (ppm) to 2. density. Volatile and semi-volatile organics in aqueous and semisolid wastes were extracted with 99. or magnetism.

which relies on a density difference between the phases) and sieving/physical separation are two well-developed processes. An alternative to Fig. Equipment size and effectiveness of gravity separation depends on the solids settling velocity. fluid viscosity and particle concentration (hindered settling). which is a function of the particles size. Magnetic separation uses particles magnetic qualities. These processes are sometimes preceded by chemical coagulation and flocculation to increase particle size. Gravity separation is a solid/liquid separation process. Chemical involves for example complex binding and usage of detergents. Gravity separation (a solid/liquid separation process. thereby allowing removal of fine particles. 23. Work description Separation can be performed by many processes. Diameter. inclination and length of the cyclones steer particle size separation and several different cyclones are usually coupled in serial. “Separation by gravity” principle may also be used for removing immiscible oil 75 . In the end of the cyclones. 23 is so called water cyclones (open pipes) in which soil slurries are transported downwards by gravity in a circular manner. density difference. Typical gravity separation system Gravity separation. finer particles have their exit in one part of the cyclone pipe and coarser particles in the adjacent part. which relies on a density difference between the phases. Fig.separate immiscible oil phases from water.

in small-arms ranges).e. the process may operate by passing contaminated fluid or slurry through a magnetized volume. Nearly vertical under the end of the band. in turn. Alternatively.. Separation is also useful when heavy metal contaminants occur as particulates (e. The clay and silt soil particles are. separating the fine clay and silt particles from the coarser sand and gravel soil particles would effectively concentrate the contaminants into a smaller volume of soil that could then be further treated or disposed. which alone may need to be treated. Physical separation often precedes chemical extraction treatment based on the assumption that most of the contamination is tied to the finer soil fraction. clay and silt) fraction of a soil. In some cases it can be preceded by coagulation and flocculation to increase particle size. Sieving and physical separation processes use different size sieves and screens to effectively concentrate contaminants into smaller volumes. One advantage of 76 . Thus. The technologies can be used on selected VOCs and pesticides. Sieving/Physical separation. Magnetic separation is used to extract more or less magnetic particles (sometimes also radioactive) from host materials such as water and soil. to the fine (i. either chemically or physically. non-magnetic particles are sampled while the magnetic parts are sample further out. Magnetic minerals or small metal scraps in the soil will then fall slightly longer/further distance than the non-magnetic particles. Physical separation is based on the fact that most organic and inorganic contaminants tend to bind.phases. physically bound to the coarser sand and gravel particles by compaction and adhesion.. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The target contaminant groups for ex situ separation processes are SVOCs. fuels and inorganics. Magnetic separation. While the contaminated soil is transported on a conveyer band it passes a strong electromagnet in the end of the band. thereby allowing additional technique using particle separation. Magnetic separation is specifically used for heavy metal particles (magnetical as such) and for magnetic particles on which contaminants are attached or incorporated. The magnetized volume contains a magnetic matrix material such as steel wool that extracts the slightly magnetic contamination particles from the slurry.g.

and Radioactive Wastes (HTRW) Historical Cost Analysis System (HCAS) developed by Environmental Historical Cost Committee of Interagency Cost Estimation Group. Costs Additional cost information can be found in the Hazardous. Effectiveness No information available Advantages High throughputs can be achieved with relatively small equipment 77 .  Gravity separation processes rely on a difference in the solids and liquid phase densities. resulting from organic sludge that undergoes septic conditions. and sludge. It has recently been tested at the bench- scale level at DOE sites.physical separation processes is that high throughputs can be achieved with relatively small equipment. Magnetic separation is a promising new technique used to remove radioactive contaminants from soils. Additionally.  Special measures may be required to mitigate odour problems. settling velocity is dependent on the viscosity of the suspending fluid. sediment. Status Gravity separation and sieving/physical separation are full-scale. Toxic. Limitations  High clay and/or moisture content will increase treatment cost. Specific gravity of particles will affect settling rate and process efficiency. well-established technologies used mostly for treatment of wastewater and contaminated soil. which must be known to estimate process efficiency and to size equipment.

dioxins and chlorinated solvents contained in polluted soil. Halogens are a class of chemical elements that includes chlorine. The sifted soil is then mixed with chemicals and heated in a large container called a reactor. The soil is then placed in a separator/washer where the excess APEG is removed from the soil. During mixing and heating. Chemical dehalogenation may sometimes transform the chemical into gaseous forms (still toxic) which then are treated in different ways. from harmful chemicals. Any remaining APEG is removed from the soil with water. The reaction involves removing the halogens and replacing them with less toxic chemicals (usually hydrogen). The other replaces the halogens to form other non- toxic chemicals. iodine.Disadvantages Odor problems 4.5 Dehalogenation Basic description of the technology Dehalogenation removes halogens. The gases are treated by air pollution control equipment at the site. sludge. bromine. There are two common types of chemical dehalogenation: glycolate dehalogenation and base-catalyzed decomposition. a chemical reaction occurs which changes the harmful chemical. making them less toxic.1. The soil is sifted and crushed to remove large objects. Many harmful chemicals contain halogens. one chemical combines with the halogens to form a nontoxic salt. like rocks and debris. Chemical dehalogenation is most often used to remove chlorine from PCBs. via chemical reactions. Glycolate dehalogenation adds a combination of two chemicals called “APEG” to soil in the reactor. The APEG can be 78 . or sediment. and fluorine. The presence of halogens can be one of the main reasons such chemicals are toxic. During mixing and heating. The heat in the reactor can cause some of the chemicals in the soil to evaporate. Work description Before using chemical dehalogenation the soil is excavated from the polluted area to be treated.

The resulting mixture is then treated using other cleanup methods and recycled. 24. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The target contaminant groups for dehalogenation treatment are halogenated SVOCs and pesticides.reused in the cleanup of more soil. These liquids are then mixed with other chemicals. If the soil still contains chemicals in harmful amounts. Fig. Schematic view dehalogenation Base-catalyzed decomposition (BCD) adds a chemical called “sodium bicarbonate” to soil in the reactor. The technology can be used but may be less effective against selected halogenated VOCs. The BCD can also be 79 . the cleaned soil can be returned to the site. it is placed back in the reactor to repeat the process (Fig. This produces a nontoxic salt and a non-toxic chemical. The sodium bicarbonate allows the harmful chemicals in the soil to evaporate at a low temperature. 24). The technology is amenable to small-scale applications. it can be placed back on the site. The gases produced during evaporation are changed into liquids. When the soil is clean. such as sodium hydroxide and heated again. APEG dehalogenation is one of the few processes available other than incineration that has been successfully field tested in treating PCBs. Once the chemicals evaporate. A chemical reaction occurs that removes the halogens from some of the chemical and replaces them with hydrogen. The wash water is removed from the soil and treated.

Factors such as high clay or moisture content may raise the treatment cost slightly. Limitations  High clay and/or moisture content will increase treatment costs.000 ppm.  Concentrations of chlorinated organics greater than 5% require large volumes of reagent. capture and treatment of residuals (volatilized contaminants captured. residue disposal. Advantages 80 . Costs The cost for full-scale operation is estimated to be in a range of EURO 150 to EURO 390 per metric ton and does not include excavation. and other condensates) may be difficult. Status The technology is amenable to small-scale applications.used to treat halogenated VOCs but will generally be more expensive than other alternative technologies. refilling. Effectiveness Glycolate process has been used to successfully treat contaminant concentrations of PCBs from less than 2 ppm to reportedly as high as 45.  With the BCD process. especially when the soil contains high levels of fines and moisture. or analytical costs.  The APEG/KPEG technology is generally not cost-effective for large waste volumes. dust. There have been no commercial applications of this technology to date.

and sometimes detergents. Soil washing helps separate the silt and clay from the larger-grained. The sifted soil is placed in a machine called a scrubbing unit. like rocks and debris. soil dug from the polluted area is sifted to remove large objects. Few full scale demonstrations. cleaner soils. are added to the polluted soil in the scrubbing unit. 4.Dehalogenation with glycol-based chemicals is one of the few processes available other than incineration that has been successfully field tested in treating PCBs. The technology is only amenable to small-scale applications. Water. Some of the pollution may dissolve in the water or float to the top. 81 . gravity separation.6 Soil washing Basic description of the technology Soil washing is a water-based process for scrubbing soils to remove contaminants by dissolving or suspending them in the wash solution (which can be sustained by chemical manipulation of pH for a period of time) or by concentrating them into a smaller volume of soil through particle size separation. This washes the silt and clay from the larger-grained soil and separates them. Disadvantages The technology may be less effective against selected halogenated VOCs. and attrition scrubbing (similar to those techniques used in sand and gravel operations). especially when the soil contains high levels of fines and moisture. Concentrations of chlorinated organics greater than 5% require large volumes of reagent. The clean water then can be reused in the scrubbing unit or discharged (Fig.1. Capture and treatment of residuals (volatilized contaminants captured. and other condensates) may be difficult. The polluted wash water is removed and cleaned up at a treatment plant. High clay and moisture content will increase treatment costs. and water sprays. Work description Before using soil washing. dust. 25). The mixture of soil and water is passed through sieves. mixing blades. It works best when the soil contains a much bigger portion of the larger-grained soils than the fine-grained ones.

Fig. hence minimizing the amount of soil need to be cleaned  Complex waste mixtures (e.  Additional treatment steps may be required to address hazardous levels of washing solvent remaining in the treated residuals.  The aqueous stream will require treatment at demobilization. Limitations  Soil washing does not clean the soil. metals with organics) make formulating washing fluid difficult.. 25. but separates contaminated fraction from the clean one. 82 . and heavy metals.g. The technology can be used on selected VOCs and pesticides.  It may be difficult to remove organics adsorbed onto clay-size particles. Schematic view Soil Washing Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The target contaminant groups for soil washing are SVOCs.  High humic content in soil may require pretreatment. The technology offers the ability for recovery of metals and can clean a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants from coarse-grained soils. fuels. Costs Cost estimates of EURO70 to EURO200 per m3 for washing.

The sieved 83 . Cleanup usually takes weeks to months.Status of the technology applications At the present time. size of scrubbing unit (the largest units can clean up to 100 m3 of soil per day). the technology was one of the selected source control remedies at eight Superfund sites. The soil is sieved to remove large objects like rocks and debris. Solvents dissolve sorbed chemicals and remove them from polluted materials. Advantages  Reduces the amount of soil needing further cleanup  Works for very polluted soils  Relatively a low-cost alternative for separating waste and minimizing the volume of waste requiring more treatment  Transportable technology that can be brought to the site Disadvantages No information 4. Work description Before using solvent extraction. clay. the soil must be dug from the polluted area to be treated. During 1986-1989.7 Solvent extraction Basic description of the technology Solvent extraction (also known as chemical extraction) is a clean-up method that uses solvents to extract harmful chemicals from polluted materials. soil washing is used extensively in Europe but has had limited use in the United States. type and amount of pollution in the soil. Effectiveness The effectiveness depends on the amount of silt.1. depending on the site. and debris in the soil.

The type of solvent will depend on the harmful chemicals present and the material being treated. Otherwise. grease.soil is then placed in a machine called an extractor where it is mixed with a solvent (Fig. the solvents must be destroyed or disposed of in a landfill. 26. Fig. This is where the chemicals are separated from the solvent. 26). The used solvent often can be recycled and reused to clean up more soil. Once the solvent dissolves the sorbed chemicals. Limitations No information available Costs No information available 84 . If harmful chemicals remain. Schematic view extraction The cleaned soil is tested to make sure that the harmful chemicals have been removed. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics PCB. the soil is placed back in the extractor to repeat the process. the solvent is drained into a separator. oil.

Status of the technology applications
Fully applicable

Effectiveness
Solvent extraction has been shown to be effective in treating sediments, sludges and
soils containing primarily organic contaminants such as PCBs, VOCs, halogenated
solvents, and petroleum wastes. The technology is generally not used for extracting
inorganics (i.e., acids, bases, salts, or heavy metals).

Advantages
 Cleanup using solvent extraction is generally quicker than methods that treat
the soil in place.
 Solvent extraction is used to clean up many chemicals that are difficult to
remove from soil.
 Can be done at the site to avoid trucking polluted soil to cleanup facilities
offsite.
 The solvents can often be recycled and reused.

Disadvantages
 The presence of detergents and emulsifiers can unfavourably influence the
extraction performance.
 Solvent extraction is generally least effective on very high molecular weight
organic and very hydrophilic substances.

4.2 Biological treatment
Bioremediation techniques are destruction or transformation techniques directed
toward stimulating the microorganisms to grow and use the contaminants as a food
and energy source by creating a favourable environment for the microorganisms.
Generally, the reactions may be based on oxidation or reduction reactions. Oxidation
means providing some combination of electron acceptors (e.g. oxygen), nutrients,

85

and moisture, and controlling the temperature and pH. The contaminants act then as
electron donators. Reduction means that the contaminants themselves are acting as
electron acceptors, using for example hydrogen as electron donator. Oxidation
reactions are used for degrading and mineralising more or less all organic
contaminants not consisting of halogens (e.g. all hydrocarbons). Reduction reactions
involves heavily halogenated organics (e.g. mostly highly chlorinated solvents,
PCB:s). Oxidation reactions are most effective in high redox conditions, in contrary to
reduction reactions that need low - very low redox. Sometimes, microorganisms
adapted for degradation of the specific contaminants are applied to enhance the
process. Biological treatment of PAHs usually are non-effective on 5-ring PAHs and
larger. Several of these higher molecular PAHs are classified as carcinogens. As
indicated, an increase in weight percentage chlorine in the molecule leads to a
decrease in biodegradability via oxidation. By alternative reduction reactions some
compounds may be broken down into more toxic by-products during the
bioremediation process (e.g., TCE to vinyl chloride). It is then important to design the
treatment system so the reactions also involve degradation of vinyl chloride. An
advantage over the in situ applications is that in ex situ applications, these by-
products are contained in the treatment unit until non-hazardous end-products are
produced. New microbial in situ techniques have however been able to also destroy
vinyl chloride in situ (enhanced attenuation). Although not all organic compounds are
amenable to biodegradation, bioremediation techniques have been successfully used
to remediate soils, sludges, and ground water contaminated by petroleum
hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, wood preservatives, and other organic
chemicals. Bioremediation is not yet commonly applicable for treatment of inorganic
contaminants (except phytoremediation for reducing heavy metal contents in soils
and ground waters).

4.2.1 Bioslurry
Basic description of the technology
An aqueous slurry is created by combining soil, sediment, or sludge with water and
other additives. The slurry is mixed to keep solids suspended and microorganisms in
contact with the soil contaminants. Upon completion of the process, the slurry is

86

dewatered and the treated soil is disposed of. This method has main focus on
microbial oxidation of the contaminants but can also use microbial reduction
reactions, however, not in same reactor.

Work description
Slurry phase biological treatment involves the controlled treatment of excavated
soil/sediment in a bioreactor. The excavated soil is first processed to physically
separate stones and rubble. The soil is then mixed with water to a predetermined
concentration dependent upon the concentration of the contaminants, the rate of
biodegradation, and the physical nature of the soils. Some processes pre-wash the
soil to concentrate the contaminants. Clean sand may then be discharged, leaving
only contaminated fines and washwater to biotreat. Typically, a slurry contains from
10 to 30% solids by weight. The typical bioreactor process is presented in below
scheme (Fig. 27).

Fig. 27. Schematic view bioslurry

The solids are maintained in suspension in a reactor vessel and mixed with nutrients
and oxygen. If necessary, an acid or alkali may be added to control pH.
Microorganisms also may be added if a suitable population is not present. When
biodegradation is complete, the soil slurry is dewatered. Dewatering devices that may
be used include clarifiers, pressure filters, vacuum filters, sand drying beds, or
centrifuges.

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Treatment effectiveness Slurry biodegradation is effective in treating soils and sludges with contaminant concentrations as high as 250.Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Bioreactors are favoured over in situ biological techniques for heterogeneous soils. pesticides and PCBs in excavated soils and dredged sediments. Slurry-phase bioreactors can alternatively work under low redox conditions and as such treat halogenated VOCs and SVOCs.  An acceptable method for disposing of non-recycled wastewaters is required.  Dewatering soil fines after treatment can be expensive. precluded removal is mandatory.000 ppm. Limitations  Excavation of contaminated media is required. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic slurry-phase bioreactors are used to treat both non-chlorinated and chlorinated hydrocarbons found in excavated soils or dredged sediments. For optimum performance higher degree of scientific knowledge in chemical process technology. or when faster treatment times are required. While light and medium weight hydrocarbons can be efficiently removed. Slurry-phase bioreactors are used primarily to treat non-halogenated SVOCs and VOCs in excavated soils or dredged sediments. heavier weight petroleum products will be more difficult to remediate and require longer time in the bioreactor vessel. Costs 88 . except for lagoon implementation. Ordnance compounds may also be treated. areas where underlying ground water would be difficult to capture.  Sizing of materials prior to putting them into the reactor can be difficult and expensive. In the case of free phase contaminant. low permeability soils. microbiology and biochemistry is needed. Non-homogeneous soils and clayey soils can create serious materials handling problems.

 Sizing of materials prior to putting them into the reactor can be difficult and expensive (not included in costs above). precluded removal is mandatory. As a result it can be used to effectively remove a variety of contaminants from many soil types. While light and medium weight hydrocarbons can be efficiently removed. Costs ranging from €150 to €300 per cubic meter are incurred when the slurrybioreactor off-gas has to be further treated because of the presence of volatile compounds. Effectiveness Slurry biodegradation is effective in treating soils and sludges with contaminant concentrations as high as 250. 89 . Demonstrations of three different bio-slurry processes are underway. except for lagoon implementation. Advantages Slurry bioremediation allows for the control of all of the parameters. Status of the technology applications This technology is field-tested.000 ppm. For optimum performance higher degree of scientific knowledge in chemical process technology.  In the case of free phase contaminant. heavier weight petroleum products will be more difficult to remediate and require longer time in the bioreactor vessel.Treatment costs using slurry reactors range from €150 to €250 per cubic meter. microbiology and biochemistry is needed. Disadvantages  Excavation of contaminated media is required.  Non homogeneous soils and clayey soils can create serious materials handling problems. important to the success of biodegradation.

the air leaving the soil may be treated to remove or destroy the VOCs before they are discharged to the atmosphere (Fig.  Treated soil need to be dewatered and dewatering soil fines after treatment can be expensive.2 Biopiles Basic description of the technology Biopile treatment is a full-scale technology in which excavated soils are mixed with soil amendments and placed on a treatment area that includes leachate collection systems and some form of aeration. and volatilisation and to promote solar heating. The formulations are usually modified for site-specific conditions.  An acceptable method for disposing of non-recycled wastewaters is required.) may be needed before placing it as a pile. mixing with bulking material (hay etc. evaporation.  Bioreactor is a batch technique and the amount of treated soil per batch is limited to the reactor size and time needed to treat one batch. Soil piles and cells commonly have an air distribution system buried in the soil to pass air through the soil either by vacuum or by positive pressure. oxygen and pH can be controlled to enhance biodegradation. Vendors have developed proprietary nutrient and additive formulations and methods for incorporating the formulation into the soil to stimulate biodegradation. heat. Soil piles may be covered with plastic to control runoff. nutrients. If there are VOCs in the soil that will volatilize into the air stream.2. 4. 90 . It is used to reduce concentrations of petroleum constituents in excavated soils through the use of biodegradation. 28). The drainage itself may be treated in a bioreactor before recycling.  When significant volume of soil/sediment to be treated several reactors need to be used in parallel. Reactor size usually limited to be transported on truck. If the soil is fine grained. Work description The treatment area will generally be covered or contained with an impermeable liner to minimize the risk of contaminants leaching into uncontaminated soil. The soil piles in this case can be up to 6 meters high (generally not recommended. Moisture. 2-3 meters maximum).

diesel.gov) Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Biopile treatment has been applied to treatment of nonhalogenated VOCs and fuel hydrocarbons. it is not always possible to achieve low cleanup standards.1 ppm are very difficult to achieve. motor oil. kerosene. Treatment effectiveness Removal efficiencies are site specific.ny. lubricating oils and crude oils. Technology is appropriate for cleanup of sites contaminated with fresh or weathered gasoline. 91 . Fig. heavy fuel oil.  The effectiveness of biopiles can be limited by extreme weather conditions.dec. Limitations  Effective in removing biodegradable constituents only. jet fuel. Typical biopile for solid phase bioremediation (www.  Biopiles may require the placement of a bottom liner under the cell if there is a concern about leaching from the pile. Concentration reductions > 95% and constituent concentrations < 0. 28.

and . constituent characteristics. construct and maintain. nutrients and soil texture.  Large areas of land are needed for the treatment of large quantities of contaminated soils. The effectiveness of a biopile system depends on many parameters which can be grouped into three categories: . It is in the pilot stage for other contaminants. climatic conditions. Effectiveness Biopiles. Status of the technology applications The technology is commercially available for treating fuel contamination. have been proven effective in reducing concentrations of nearly all the constituents of petroleum products typically found at underground storage tank (UST) sites.  The volatile constituents in the soil will tend to evaporate during excavation and soil pre-treatment. Advantages  Use of biopiles provides increased control over the parameters such as aeration. .  Biopiles are relatively easy to design.  Biopiles may release unpleasant odours Costs The cost of a biopile system is usually between €60 and €250 per m3 of contaminated soil. like landfarms. which are important for the success of biodegradation process. soil characteristics.  Treated soil from biopiles may be approved and available for reuse as backfill 92 . moisture.

Nutrients are added to promote biodegradation and.2. although less than landfarming. Work description In landfarming the excavated soil is spread in a thin layer (ca 40-60 cm thick) over a lined treatment area (Fig. In case the design includes walls and roof. May not be effective for high constituent concentrations (> 50.1 ppm are very difficult to achieve. more volatile products like gasoline or chlorinated solvents tend to be removed by evaporation during the landfarming aeration processes (tilling or ploughing). Removal efficiencies are site specific. . . The method typically involves periodically tilling the soil to enhance the natural release of volatile organic compounds and the biodegradation of less volatile contaminants. The lighter. Instead of construct a static aerated pile of contaminant soil (biopile) the soil is actively treated and aerated in an ordinary farming/agriculture way. hay/straws are added for increased air permeability. lubricating oils and crude oils. diesel. Heavy petroleum products require a much longer period of time to degrade than do the constituents in gasoline. relatively rapid 93 . 4. Vapor generation during aeration may require treatment prior to discharge. if necessary. the method is usually called Biocell. it is not always possible to achieve low cleanup standards. motor oil. Requires a large land area for treatment.500 ppm) may inhibit microbial growth.Disadvantages . Concentration reductions > 95% and constituent concentrations < 0. Presence of significant heavy metal concentrations (> 2. and is used where climate varies too much and when the volatiles need to be treated. kerosene. In general. The method is appropriate for cleanup of sites contaminated with fresh or weathered gasoline. heavy fuel oil.3 Landfarming Basic description of the technology Landfarming is another process that removes biodegradable contaminants from soil that has been excavated. 29).000 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons). . jet fuel. .

Heavy petroleum products require a much longer period of time to degrade than do the constituents in gasoline. diesel.rates of degradation can be expected in the first 60-90 days. heavy fuel oil. Heavy petroleum products. motor oil. 29. Treatment effectiveness Removal efficiencies are site specific. normally remain untreated in the soil. jet fuel.1 ppm are very difficult to achieve. kerosene. Concentration 94 . The lighter. with increasingly diminishing rates thereafter. In general. Typical landfarming treatment unit (US EPA Report 510-R-04-002) Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Appropriate for cleanup of sites contaminated with fresh or weathered gasoline. lubricating oils and crude oils. relatively rapid rates of degradation can be expected in the first 60-90 days. with increasingly diminishing rates thereafter. Concentration reductions > 95% and constituent concentrations < 0. it is not always possible to achieve low cleanup standards. especially branched chain aliphatics and multi-ring aromatics. Fig. more volatile petroleum products like gasoline tend to be removed by evaporation during the landfarming aeration processes (tilling or ploughing).

the amount of equipment required.  Landfarms require relatively large dedicated area for an extended period of time. Treatment costs range (excluding design and construction of treatment facility and eventual transport of non-treated/not enough degraded soil.1 ppm are very difficult to achieve. Limitations  Effective in removing biodegradable constituents only. and depositing at ex situ landfill) from EURO 10 to EURO 100 per m3. may be difficult to obtain a permit and find suitable location.  Need of extensive monitoring Costs Landfarming costs depend on the type and physical setup of the system (e. Effectiveness 95 .  Landfarms may require the placement of a bottom liner under the cell if there is a concern about leaching from the pile.reductions > 95% and constituent concentrations < 0. Status of the technology applications Numerous full-scale operations have been conducted. type and amount of contamination present and level of remediation required. the nutrients required.  Dust and vapour generation during the aeration process may occur.  Possibility of unpleasant odours.  The effectiveness and practicality of landfarming can be limited by extreme weather conditions (if not using Biocell design). Land farming is considered a commercial technology.g. size and number of treatment cells). particularly for sludges produced by the petroleum industry.

moisture.1 ppm are very difficult to achieve. In most cases. which are important for the success of biodegradation process.Landfarming has been proven effective in reducing concentrations of nearly all the constituents of petroleum products typically found at underground storage tank (UST) sites. 4. . . Disadvantages . this is achieved by the use of indigenous microorganisms. nutrients and soil texture. Advantages . Requires a large land area for treatment. . 96 . stabilized by-products.500 ppm) may inhibit microbial growth.2.000 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons). . Use of landfarming provides increased control over the parameters such as aeration. Dust and vapor generation during landfarm aeration may pose air quality concerns. PAHs) are converted by microorganisms (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) to innocuous. Landfarms are relatively easy to design. . May not be effective for high constituent concentrations (> 50. Concentration reductions > 95% and constituent concentrations < 0. construct and maintain. Typically. Presence of significant heavy metal concentrations (> 2. thermophilic conditions (54 to 65 °C) must be maintained to properly compost soil contaminated with hazardous organic contaminants.4 Composting Basic description of the technology Composting is a controlled biological process by which organic contaminants (e. Treated soil from landfarms may be approved and available for reuse as backfill. The increased temperatures result from heat produced by microorganisms during the degradation of the organic material in the waste.g.. .

off-gas control may be required. 30).g. Windrow composting is usually considered to be the most cost-effective composting alternative. Typical windrow composting process Several process designs may be defined as composting: mechanically agitated in- vessel composting (compost is placed in a reactor vessel where it is mixed and aerated). animal.Work description Soils are excavated and mixed with bulking agents and organic amendments. Sometimes also aerated static pile composting (compost is formed into piles and aerated with blowers or vacuum pumps) is included in the definition (i. and temperature (Fig. 30. Fig. Maximum degradation efficiency is achieved through maintaining oxygenation (e.e.. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics 97 . daily windrow turning). it may also have the highest fugitive emissions. and closely monitoring moisture content. If VOC or SVOC contaminants are present in soils. Biopile. to enhance the porosity of the mixture to be decomposed. and vegetative wastes. such as wood chips. Meanwhile. irrigation as necessary. in this document given separate presentation). and windrow composting (compost is placed in long piles known as windrows and periodically mixed with mobile equipment).

 Excavation of contaminated soils is required and may cause the uncontrolled release of VOCs. the type of contaminant. thermophilic composting is able to reduce the concentration of explosives (TNT. availability of amendments (costs per unit and transport usually significant parts of total cost). Also high levels of heavy metals can be toxic to the microorganisms. Status of the technology applications Full scale 98 . heavy metals are not treated by this method. Total costs are usually less than €100/ton. design and construction of treatment facility and eventual deposit fees for not-well treated material. and HMX). Costs Costs vary with the amount of soil to be treated.  Although levels of metals may be reduced via dilution. Aerobic. ammonium picrate (or yellow-D). and the type of process design employed. but excluding cost for excavation. pilot and full-scale projects have demonstrated that aerobic.  Composting results in a volumetric increase in material because of the addition of amendment material. Furthermore. All materials and equipment used for composting are commercially available. RDX. thermophilic composting is most applicable to PAH-contaminated soil. the soil fraction in the compost.The composting process may be applied to soils and lagoon sediments contaminated with biodegradable organic compounds. Limitations  Substantial space is required for composting. transport. and associated toxicity to acceptable levels.

2. However.  Sometimes the degradation process is inhibited due to different reasons (e. Disadvantages  Substantial space is required for composting. 4. microorganisms or chemical ingredients in the start mix can prohibit thermophilic bioactivity). But during this aerobic treatment of chlorinated compounds there may be some % of all Volatile Halogenated hydrocarbons that may be weathered. Herby. with subsequent plantation of rapid growing plants or trees in the 99 .g.5 Phytoremediation Basic description of the technology Phytoremediation is normally defined as an in situ method (see separate description).Effectiveness Composting is mostly an aerobic method. this method can also be defined as ex situ method in cases where the contaminated soil or sediment has been excavated/dredged and placed in a treatment area.  Treated soil may be re-used as filling material or bioactive base at plantages. Advantages  Composting takes into account semi-high temperature produced by thermophilic microorganisms which can reduce the treatment time and enhance microbial availability and degradation of semi heavy PAHs.  Composting results in a volumetric increase in material because of the addition of amendment material. resulting in that no or limited remediation is obtained which in turn my result in transportation to a landfill. Aerobic circumstances mean that only low- chlorinated organic contaminants may be biologically degraded. this method has been given the evaluation “Average” for applicability for Volatile Halogenated hydrocarbons and Lower than Average for Semi-Volatile Halogenated hydrocarbons. The latter is also influenced by the possibility to bio-degrade PCP (highly chlorinated phenol) aerobically with the help of with rot fungus.

transported in the stem and evaporated from the leafs. nutrients. Soil and sediment are amended with substances promoting grow of the selected plants or trees in the excavated/dredged medium. The soil/sediment shall not contain contaminants with too high concentrations (method best: low and moderate levels of contamination) or other factors that prohibit growth. etc. In case of accumulation. the used plants are usually transported to an incineration facility for destruction and energy production. Additionally. soluble and volatile organics can be sorbed in their root system. Ex situ phytoremediation (as well as for the in situ alternative) is mostly based on gardening knowledge and performance. The method is applicable for soils and sediments in which trees/plants can grow (for finer materials. bulking agents are usually needed to be mixed in. via the plant/tree roots. for optimal growth of the selected trees/plants. The plants/trees need periodic watering. primarily containing soluble heavy metals. good soil quality.contaminated soil. This method is mainly focusing on remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and sediments. but can in same cases also be used for organic contaminants. 100 . and transport them to the leaves where they vaporise). For finer materials. Besides this. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The method is applicable for coarser soils and sediments. heavy metals can be taken up/ concentrated in stem/root. bulking agents may be needed to add). Natural degradation of organics can be enhanced in the root system. Work description By planting trees/plants in contaminated soil. This is done in a designated area with a type of plant that has the ability to 1/ grow fast and 2/ mainly accumulate the contaminants (usually heavy metals) or can degrade the contaminants (degradable organics) in the root zone in cooperation with microorganisms (or alternatively taking up soluble and volatile organic contaminants from the soil. the basic description of the method is the same as for in situ phytoremediation. for optimum growth. The method has though shown applicability for other types of contaminants (see description in the In situ segment).

Limitations
 The ex situ method is not extensively used for treatment of contaminated soils
and sediment (but may have the potential to be used more frequently).
 The conditions and circumstances are limited for optimal growth of limited
types of useful threes/plants.
 The used trees/plants need to be disposed (best to incinerate and gaining the
generated energy).

Costs
The method as such is coupled to low treatment costs (EURO10-EURO50),
excluding costs for transport and handling of the contaminated soil/sediment and
excluding transport for the used plats/trees to incineration and eventual cost for
construct the designated treatment area. The cost for incineration may be erased by
the gain in generated energy (prerequisite that the concentrations in the trees/plants
are not too high needing special incineration facility).

Status of the technology applications
Full scale

Effectiveness
Method most suitable in large areas with low - moderate concentration of
contamination.

Advantages
 The method is easy to use
 Low maintenance
 The primary advances of this method performed ex situ vs. in situ are that the
soil more easily can be pretreated for optimum growth and the selection of
trees/plants are more extensive.

Disadvantages

101

 Method not suitable for highly contaminated soils
 Mass reduction of contaminants seldom exceeds 50% - 60% and it takes time
to reach such targets.
 Method limited to root depth.
 Effect usually only in the vicinity of the root and during vegetative times in the
uptake area/volume of water.
 Many trees may be needed in small area.
 Method mostly used for uptake of heavy metals from soil, less used for
organic contaminants.
 Method sparsely used for sediments.
 The used trees/plants need to be disposed (best to incinerate and gaining the
generated energy).
 After treatment, the roots may contain too high concentrations of contaminants
and they may be difficult to remove.

4.3 Thermal treatment
Thermal treatments offer quick cleanup times but are typically the most costly
treatment group. This difference, however, is less in ex situ applications than in in
situ applications. Cost is driven by energy and equipment costs and is both capital
and O&M-intensive. Thermal processes use heat to increase the volatility
(separation); burn, decompose, or detonate (destruction); or melt (immobilisation) the
contaminants. Separation technologies include thermal desorption and hot gas
decontamination. Destruction technologies include incineration, open burn/open
detonation and pyrolysis. Vitrification immobilizes inorganics and destroys some
organics.

4.3.1 Thermal desorption
Basic description of the technology
Thermal desorption is a physical separation process and is not designed to destroy
organics. Wastes are heated to volatilize water and organic contaminants. A carrier
gas or vacuum system transports volatilized water and organics to the gas treatment

102

system (e.g. sorption, incineration). The bed temperatures and residence times
designed into these systems will volatilize selected contaminants but will typically not
oxidize them. A carrier gas or vacuum system transports volatilized water and
organics to the gas treatment system (e.g. sorption, incineration).

Work description
Thermal desorption uses equipment called a desorber to clean polluted soil. Soil is
excavated and placed in the desorber. The desorber works like a large oven. When
the soil gets hot enough, the harmful chemicals evaporate (Fig. 31). To get the soil
ready for the desorber, workers may need to crush it, dry it, blend it with sand, or
remove debris. This allows the desorber to clean the soil more evenly and easily.

Fig. 31. Schematic view thermal desorption

Three types of thermal desorption are available and briefly described as following:

Direct Fired: Fire is applied directly upon the surface of contaminated media. The
main purpose of the fire is to desorb contaminants from the soil though some
contaminants may be thermally oxidized.

Indirect Fired: A direct-fired rotary dryer heats an air stream which, by direct
contact, desorbs water and organic contaminants from the soil. The Low
Temperature Thermal Aeration (LTTA®) developed by Canonie Environmental

103

The same equipment could probably meet stricter requirements with minor modifications. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Thermal desorption systems have varying degrees of effectiveness against the full spectrum of organic contaminants. High Temperature Thermal Desorption (HTTD). Low Temperature Thermal Desorption (LTTD). if necessary. solidification/stabilisation. Based on the operating temperature of the desorber. The carrier gas is later treated to remove or recover the contaminants. which successfully removed >99% of PCB from contaminated soil. XTRAX™ thermal Desorption System is a process using indirect heated desorption followed by a high-energy scrubber gas treatment. organic components in the soil are not damaged. thermal desorption processes can be categorized into two groups: high temperature thermal desorption (HTTD) and low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD). depending upon site-specific conditions. Decontaminated soil retains its physical properties. or dechlorination. The technology has been proven to produce a final contaminant concentration level below 5 mg/kg for the target contaminants identified.Services Corporation is a good example of indirect fired system which has been successfully used to remove DDT family compounds from soil. Indirect Heated: An externally fired rotary dryer volatilizes the water and organics from the contaminated media into an inert carrier gas stream. HTTD is a full-scale technology in which wastes are heated to 320 to 560 °C. HTTD is frequently used in combination (treatment tree) with incineration. Unless being heated to the higher end of the LTTD temperature range. In LTTD wastes are heated to between 90 and 320 °C. which enables treated soil to retain the ability to support future biological activity. The target contaminant groups for LTTD systems 104 . Contaminant destruction efficiencies in the afterburners of these units are greater than 95%. LTTD is a full-scale technology that has been proven successful for remediating petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in all types of soil.

hydrocarbon- contaminated soils. lead. Volatile metals may be removed by HTTD systems. The technology can be used to treat SVOCs at reduced effectiveness. creosote-contaminated soils. Limitations  There are specific particle size and materials handling requirements that can impact applicability or cost at specific sites.  Heavy metals in the feed may produce a treated solid residue that requires stabilisation. The target contaminants for HTTD are SVOCs.g. PAHs. pesticides and paint wastes.  Clay and silty soils and high humic content soils increase reaction time as a result of binding of contaminants. Status of the technology applications Full scale Effectiveness LTTD has been proven successful for remediating petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in all types of soil. The process is applicable for the separation of organics from refinery wastes.  Dewatering may be necessary to achieve acceptable soil moisture content levels. VOCs and fuels also may be treated. Costs Total cost: €75/m3 . mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. synthetic rubber processing waste. mercury). dioxin contaminated soils (up to €800). but treatment may be less cost-effective.  Highly abrasive feed potentially can damage the processor unit.€400/m3. however. The technology has been proven to 105 . PCBs. The presence of chlorine can affect the volatilisation of some metals (e. excl. and pesticides. coal tar wastes.are nonhalogenated VOCs and fuels. wood-treating wastes. Contaminant destruction efficiencies in the afterburners of these units are greater than 95%.

PCBs.2 Hot gas decontamination Basic description of the technology The process involves raising the temperature of the contaminated equipment or material to 260 °C for a specified period of time.  Highly abrasive feed potentially can damage the processor unit.  Clay and silty soils and high humic content soils increase reaction time as a result of binding of contaminants. Work description The method eliminates a waste that currently is stockpiled and requires disposal as a hazardous material. PAHs.3.  Heavy metals in the feed may produce a treated solid residue that requires stabilisation. and pesticides. but treatment may be less cost-effective.  A wide range of contaminants and soils can be treated. Hot gas decontamination can also be used for 106 .produce a final contaminant concentration level below 5 mg/kg for the target contaminants identified. This method will permit reuse or disposal of scrap as nonhazardous material. Advantages  High to very high efficiency (high % reduction) of contaminant mass. VOCs and fuels also may be treated. The gas effluent from the material is treated in an afterburner system to destroy all volatilised contaminants.  HTTD may be very energy consuming. 4. The target contaminants for HTTD are SVOCs.  Dewatering may be necessary to achieve acceptable soil moisture content levels. Disadvantages  There are specific particle size and materials handling requirements that can impact applicability or cost at specific sites. however.

heating with hot gas stream to 260 °C for a prescribed period of time.decontamination of explosives-contaminated masonry or metallic structures. Operating conditions are site-specific. Fig. such as mines and shells. processing. and propellants. being demilitarized (after removal of explosives) or scrap material contaminated with explosives. 32. explosives. Typical process flow diagram for hot gas decontamination of explosives contaminated equipment Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The method is applicable for process equipment requiring decontamination for reuse. volatilizing the explosive contaminants. It is also applicable for explosive items.  Flash chamber design must take into consideration possible explosions from improperly demilitarized mines or shells. Limitations  The costs of this method are higher than open burning. The method can also be used for buildings or structures associated with ammunition plants. and destroying them in an afterburner. Contaminants are completely destroyed (Fig. 107 . loading. and storage of pyrotechnics. The method involves sealing and insulating the structures. 32). and depots involved in the manufacture. arsenals.

depending upon the size and geometry of the equipment or material to be decontaminated and the temperature and holding time required for the decontamination. 108 .3 Incineration Basic description of the technology Incineration is the process of burning hazardous materials to destroy harmful chemicals.  Flash chamber design must take into consideration possible explosions from improperly demilitarized mines or shells  The rate at which equipment or material can be decontaminated is slower than that for open burning.  The rate at which equipment or material can be decontaminated is slower than that for open burning. 4. Status of the technology applications Full scale Effectiveness Completely destroys contaminants Advantages Contaminants are completely destroyed Disadvantages  The costs of this method are higher than open burning. solvents and pesticides. Incineration also reduces the amount of material that must be disposed of in a landfill. Costs The cost of the decontamination will vary with the application. incineration does not destroy metals.3. No specific cost analysis has been completed. such as PCBs. Although it destroys a range of chemicals.

33). Schematic view Incineration The gases produced in the incinerator pass through air pollution control equipment to remove any remaining metals. Fig. Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics Incineration is used to remediate soils contaminated with explosives and hazardous wastes. like steam and carbon dioxide. and dioxins. The soil or ash remaining in the incinerator after the burning may be disposed of in a landfill or buried on site. they change into gases. acids. The gases become so hot. are released outside through a stack. The other cleaner gases. These wastes are harmful and must be properly disposed of in a licensed landfill. which pass through a flame to be heated further. 109 . The amount of material that requires disposal is much less than the initial amount of waste that was burned. To increase the amount of harmful chemicals destroyed.Work description The material is placed in the incinerator where it is heated. workers control the amount of heat and air in the incinerator. that they break down into smaller components that combine with oxygen to form less harmful gases and steam (Fig. As the chemicals heat up. 33. and particles of ash. particularly chlorinated hydrocarbons. PCBs.

110 . Such compounds are likely to be short-lived reaction intermediates that can be destroyed in a caustic quench. and arsenic. and dioxins) that usually exist in concentrations not allowed to be deposited in landfills. cadmium.  Volatile heavy metals.>99%) remediation efficiency and can destroy contaminants that otherwise are recalcitrant (e.  Sodium and potassium form low melting point ashes that can attack the brick lining and form a sticky particulate that fouls gas ducts. forming more volatile and toxic compounds than the original species. mercury.  Metals can react with other elements in the feed stream.Limitations  There are specific feed size and materials handling requirements that can impact applicability or cost at specific sites. such as chlorine or sulphur. Disadvantages  Heavy metals can cause restrictions in deposition of the generated ash or it may require stabilisation. Advantages The method gives very high percentage (95% .  Heavy metals can produce a bottom ash that requires stabilisation. Costs Total cost per cubic meter may vary between €400 and €1000. dioxins). PCBs.g. including lead. chlorinated hydrocarbons.g. Status of the technology applications Full scale Effectiveness Incineration is used to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous wastes (containing e. leave the combustion unit with the flue gases and require the installation of gas cleaning systems for removal.

4. liquids condense producing an oil/tar residue and contaminated water.3. leave the combustion unit with the flue gases and require the installation of gas cleaning systems for removal. such as chlorine or sulphur.  Sodium and potassium form low melting point ashes that can attack the brick lining in the incineration and form a sticky particulate that fouls gas ducts. Such compounds are likely to be short-lived reaction intermediates that can be destroyed in a caustic quench. Particulate removal equipment such as fabric filters or wet scrubbers are also required. and arsenic. 34). Work description Pyrolysis transforms hazardous organic materials into gaseous components.  Volatile heavy metals. small quantities of liquid and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed carbon and ash. flared and partially condensed. Pyrolysis typically occurs under pressure and at operating temperatures above 430 °C (Fig. cadmium. The off-gases may be treated in a secondary combustion chamber.4 Pyrolysis Basic description of the technology Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis gases require further treatment. it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere. including carbon monoxide. Pyrolysis of organic materials produces combustible gases. If the off-gases are cooled. Because some oxygen will be present in any pyrolytic system. If volatile or semi-volatile materials are present in the waste. mercury. including lead.  Metals can react with other elements in the feed stream. nominal oxidation will occur. actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of oxygen. hydrogen and methane and other hydrocarbons. In practice. 111 . forming more volatile and toxic compounds than the original species. thermal desorption will also occur.

coal tar wastes. PAHs and many other organics. Pyrolysis is not effective in either destroying or physically separating inorganics from the contaminated medium. Fig. Pyrolysis systems may be applicable to a number or organic materials that "crack" or undergo a chemical decomposition in the presence of heat. 112 . Volatile metals may be removed as a result of the higher temperatures associated with the process but are similarly not destroyed. Limitations  There are specific feed size and materials handling requirements that impact applicability or cost at specific sites. mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Typical pyrolysis process Applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics The target contaminant groups for pyrolysis are SVOCs and pesticides. wood-treating wastes. creosote-contaminated soils. dioxins. synthetic rubber processing wastes and paint waste. Pyrolysis has shown promise in treating organic contaminants in soils and oily sludges. 34. The process is applicable for the separation of organics from refinery wastes. Chemical contaminants for which treatment data exist include PCBs. hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

Status of the technology applications Full scale Effectiveness No information available Advantages  Increased possibilities for recycling  Considerably lower emissions Disadvantages  Technology is still evolving  Markets are yet to be developed for char product and pyrolysis liquids 113 .200 metric tons (20. Costs The overall cost for remediating approximately 18.000 tons) of contaminated media is expected to be approximately EURO350 per metric ton.  Highly abrasive feed can potentially damage the processor unit. High moisture content increases treatment costs.  The technology requires drying of the soil to achieve low soil moisture content (< 1%).  Treated media containing heavy metals may require stabilisation.

like belt filter press or dewatering centrifuges. will be used in this study. The sediment/sludge matrix Water in saturated soil materials exist in different forms. water must be removed and/or the solids content of the sediments must be made more uniform. LTU The need for dewatering is determined by the water requirements or limitations of the treatment or disposal technologies and the solids content of the sediments following removal and transport. “Free” water is not associated with the aggregates and is free to move within them. Some hydraulic dredge pumps are able to move slurries with higher solids content. In case of reuse a relatively high dry matter content of the sediment is envisaged to obtain a soil like material with maximal geotechnical properties. interstitial water and can hardly remove superficial water. but the average solids content in an extended dredging operation is rarely greater than 20 percent. To prepare dredged sediments for most treatment or disposal technologies. Hydraulically dredged sediments are in slurry form with solids content typically in the range of 10-20 percent. DEWATERING TECHNOLOGIES By Susanne Rostmark and Sven Knutsson. whereas most sediment remediation projects will be of shorter duration. The fourth type of water 114 . The water removed during dewatering may be contaminated and require further treatment. In case of disposal or treatment mass reduction is the main issue in order to minimize the landfill or treatment costs. free water is easily removed with conventional mechanical dewatering systems. the classification given by Vesilind and Martel (1990). Mechanical systems. These applications are generally of a larger scale than that expected for most sediment remediation projects and are usually part of a permanent process operation. Most of the described dewatering technologies were originally developed for the mining industry and applications involving municipal and industrial sludge. “Surface” water is associated with the single particle by superficial forces. a mechanical dewatering device can break the aggregate and free the interstitial water. can easily remove free water.5. Mechanically dredged sediments typically have solid content comparable to that of in situ sediments (about 50 percent by weight for most fine-grained sediments). The water that is trapped inside an aggregate or is held by capillary forces is called “interstitial” water.

after Vesilind and Martel (1990). 5. Fig. 35. their effective size is increased resulting in accelerated sedimentation rates. Thermo chemical methods can also be combined with the mechanical dewatering during solids dewatering. Basic description of the technology There are two main groups of chemicals available: I – Coagulants (positively charged): chemicals that serve to reduce the electrostatic forces responsible for repulsion thereby allowing the suspended particles to agglomerate.1 Thermo chemical treatment Thermo chemical treatment methods can be used to improve settling and thickening or as standalone dewatering technologies. A model for water distribution in a saturated soil material.can be released from the particles only with a thermo-chemical treatment and is called “bond” water (chemically bounded to the particles). II – Flocculants: synthetic polymers made from long chains of polyacrylamide. In Figure 35 the four types of water are shown. The length of the chain is indicative of the polymer’s molecular weight and the polymer is engineered to have a characteristic electrical charge that may be anionic (negative 115 . When particles come together. The methods affect the surfaces of the sediment particles and the thermal methods can also affect the bound water.

The extent to which a relatively small amount of chemical additives can influence the behavior of suspended particulates must not be underestimated. The number of charged sites along the polymer chain is also engineered into the polymer resulting in the availability of a wide range of polymers characterized by molecular weight and charge density. The processes are used as “stand alone” technologies for industrial wastes and municipal sludges but can also be part of pre-treatment of the sediments in other stages during treatment or dewatering. compaction. thickening. the process is also applicable for sediment dewatering prior to landfill or incineration. When a polymer flocculant is added to slurry containing suspended particles. Water is driven from the surface of the particles by evaporation or cryogenic suction. This serves to bind the solids together and prevents shear forces or excessive turbulence from re-suspending the solids. improvements to solids settling rates. non-ionic (neutral charge). Work description 116 .charge). The basic process is the same both for freezing and drying.a sludge or sediment bound and surface water can be removed. When properly applied. Thermal drying or the removal of moisture by evaporation is a process step in the disposal of sewage sludge. volume reduction. The basic principle is the physical phenomena of structural change caused by the freeze thaw cycle. the particulates are attracted to the charged sites while the polymer chain forms a physical bridge between the solids. Thermal treatment By thermally treating – freezing or drying. or cationic (positive charge). and water release are profound. Thermal dewatering (freezing) Seasonal natural freezing of sewage sludge is used for dewatering sewage sludge and contaminated landfill material in the Northern parts of Sweden.

The additives are used both in passive dewatering (lagooning or geotubes) and in active mechanical dewatering (presses. Thermal treatment as freezing and evaporation can be both a natural feature if outside temperature is high or low. Effectiveness The overall impact of thermo chemical treatment is biggest if a lot of fines are available. Natural freezing affects all landfill materials during winter days with sub-zero degrees. Applicability Chemicals for settling and thickening are widely used in materials with a high amount of fines. Artificial drying or freezing are high cost options. Status of the technology applications Chemicals are widely used. Natural freezing or drying only influence the surface of the sediments. but only a few “stand alone” facilities are used in the northern parts. Thermal drying is mostly used as a natural feature during lagooning but thermal drying prior to incineration is also common. Limitations Knowledge on the sediment/sludge properties are important predict the impact and select the system for thermo chemical methods. as a combined technology during dewatering. and an artificially induced process. The process is “built in” during uptake with freeze-dredging. Costs Chemical additives and natural freezing or drying are low cost alternatives. after mechanical dewatering or before treatment. 117 . Right choice of additives is important for the performance. Large scale artificial freezing of industrial sludge is used prior to compost treatment of oil contaminated sludge or prior to incineration of heavy metal contaminated sludge. screws or centrifuges).The thermo chemical methods can be used prior to mechanical dewatering.

dewatering rely on primary settling. To increase the dewatering rate the velocity of the inlet water can be lowered by energy consuming obstacles like walls. If the amount of dredged water and sediments exceeds the size of the lagoon water can be discharged.Advantages The overall impact of thermo chemical treatment is biggest if a lot of fines are available. Right choice of additives is important for the performance. To enhance the sedimentation rate polymers can be added. the evaporation rate is enhanced by tilling the sediments with an hydraulic excavator. Generally. Dewatering trough drainage can be made directly in a CDF. consolidation and evaporation at the atmosphere on a lagooning field. Artificial freezing is still an emerging technology and thermal drying is energy intensive.2. Subsurface drainage with perforated pipes and wick drains have also been demonstrated to promote dewatering and consolidation. surface drainage. If the sedimentation time is sufficient the water will have very low turbidity. The first stage of drying occurs until all free-standing water has been decanted from the dredged material surface. Lagooning/drainage in settling ponds Basic description of the technology Lagooning is the process in which dredged sediments are dewatered by drainage. and evaporation. but the result of only a small amount of chemicals can be large and the energy input is low. The energy input for evaporating a cube of water using freezing is 50 kWh. Work description Sediments are discharged into a holding/handling facility like a tank or lagoon. for thermal drying 900 kWh is used. The time needed for sedimentation is depending on the sedimentation properties of the material. consolidation. Disadvantages Adding chemical or thermal treatment to a mechanical dewatering process makes it more complicated and time consuming. 5. The corresponding void ratio at this point is termed the initial void ratio and has been determined to occur at a water content of 118 .

climate conditions and time allowed for settlement (eg the length of the lagoon).approximately 2. Surface drainage can be difficult to enhance with pipes or wicks if the sediment is fine grained as it will clog the drains. Evaporation of water can also remove surface water. Many waste water facilities use the technology and there are numeral examples of dredging operations where the process is used. evaporation of any additional water from the dredged material will effectively cease. especially if no polymers need to be added and climate conditions allow maximum evaporation. Effectiveness The effectiveness is depending on the sedimentation properties of the material.5 times the Atterberg liquid limit of the material. Settled material is removed with an excavator. Advantages The robustness of lagooning makes it a very flexible technique in many ways: first of all the large lagooning fields can buffer peak deliveries of dredged sediments. At this point. The lagooning process is able to deal with sediments that contain coarse materials and 119 . The technology requires significant amounts of land and is most effective if the sediments can be spread out in thin layers allowing maximum evaporation. hence making it possible to reach a higher DM than with mechanical methods. Status of the technology applications Lagooning is a well-known and much used process. Applicability Lagooning can be used where there are large areas that can be used to collect the discharged sediments and where the climate conditions allow high evaporation rates. The second stage of drying occurs until the material reaches a void ratio called the desiccation limit. Costs Lagooning is a low cost technology. Limitations Space and the timeframe can be limiting factors.

Mechanical dewatering (MDW) Mechanical dewatering via filtration and compression (MDW) is widely used in fields as varied as chemicals and pharmaceuticals production.1 Belt filter press Basic description of the technology Belt filters are characterized by two continuous. 36). but they require space and their production capacity is very climate dependant.3. press. tensioned filter cloths. The cake is then squeezed under increasing pressure as the cloths move over a sequence of successively smaller diameter rollers. As the two belts pass over the rollers there is a relative movement of the belts. or draw water from the feed material. Disadvantages Large lagooning fields are often used for dewatering. for large scale purposes. dredged sediment is (pre-) dewatered by centrifuges or by sieve belt presses.3. Work description Flocculated sludge is fed to the lower cloth (belt).debris. 5. crumbly cake. 120 . causing liquid to be removed by a combination of expression and shearing to produce a dry. 5. Generally. minerals extraction and wastewater treatment. mechanical dewatering technologies can remove free and intestinal water and increase the solids content up to 70 percent by weight. Finally the sediments are turned into a soil like material with a high geotechnical and chemical quality. The lagooning process can also deal with all types of sediment (from clayey to sandy) and does not require any additives. These systems require the input of energy to squeeze. Occasionally. initial dewatering is under gravity as the belt carries the sludge into a consolidation zone where it is progressively squeezed under pressure by the upper and lower belts moving towards each other to form a closed “envelope” (Fig. In the process the material is dewatered both under gravitation and press.

to avoid blinding of the filter belt and facilitate gravity drainage when it is initially fed to the belt. Limitations Sediments containing organic material can be difficult to dewater as they stick to the cloth. Fig. Status of the technology applications Belt presses are used as a dewatering option for dredged material and mobile large scale dewatering rigs are available. Costs Belt presses are a high cost alternative. Belt filter press. Free and intestinal water can be removed but surface and bound water are not affected. Flocculant is always needed and large particles need to be removed prior to dewatering. Advantages 121 . Applicability A key to successful operation of a belt press is that the feed must be flocculated. Effectiveness The effectiveness depends on the accuracy in flocculent dosage and compressibility of the material. 36.

The sludge is filtered under pressure in the filtration chamber. the filtration rate begins to diminish at the same time as the cake begins to 122 . This vertical plate layout forms watertight filtration chambers allowing easy mechanization for the discharge of cakes. presses against each other by hydraulic jacks at one end of the set (Fig. . Filter clots finely or tightly meshed are applied to the two grooved surfaces in these plates.as the pump filling the press feeds the slurry. While at a constant pressure. until a constant pressure is achieved. 37).The Belt Filter press is capable of supporting relatively high production rates and is generally regarded as being reliable and adaptable to changing conditions. Cake squeezing.The flocculated slurry pumped into the press through a center port running through the length of the filter plates until all of the air is evacuated and the press is filled. Slurry feeding . Work description The filtration cycle is completed in four steps: . Belt presses gives effective dewatering of sediments with low organic matter contents.2 Filter press Basic description of the technology A filter press comprises of a set of vertical. by inflating the membranes . The filtrate is collected at the back of the filtration support and carried away by internal ducts. Solids sludge gradually accumulates in the filtration chamber until the final compacted cake is formed. juxtaposed recessed plates.3. The pressure applied to the joint face of each filtering plate must withstand the chamber internal pressure developed by the sludge pumping system. 5. There are many presses available so a high capacity can be found within the region. Disadvantages Sludge containing high concentrations of oil and grease or mineral content can permeate the weave and reduce water drainage. filtration begins to occur while forcing a steady increase in pressure.

however. the press may remain pressurized from one to four hours. Large projects. 123 . a conveyor.each individual plate is slid open so that the cake can be dropped to the ground. the filter media are cleaned. may require the availability of a large staging ground and the use of several units and/or batching tanks in order to maintain an uninterrupted dredging program. and the press is reassembled and readied for the next dewatering cycle. Depending on the press and the type of solids being dewatered. the pumping process is stopped. On small projects. or a receiving bin beneath the press. 37. When the full volume of the press is occupied.in many instances. as necessary. the effective dewatering volume can be decreased by placing a blank plate in the machine to section off a smaller working volume. the device can be adapted to dewater a wide spectrum of sediment types. Fig. Air blow through the cake . Discharge . consolidate. Filter press Applicability With the appropriate filter media in place. . . and to remove solids from the center core. Following the discharge of the cake. air is blown through the press drainage ports to depressurize the press. remove any filtrate remaining within the press.

3. but moisture contents of 25% more than can be achieved on a conventional belt press are not uncommon. Status of the technology applications The technology is well known and has been used for decades. Costs The filter press is a high cost alternative. The filter press system is not a continuous process and storage tanks/ponds are needed.3 Screw press Basic description of the technology The screw press is a simple. Filter presses are not suitable for organic rich material and production rate/unit which can be a limitation in large scale projects. 5. Dewatering is continuous and is accomplished by gravity drainage at the inlet end of the screw and 124 . To be able to handle a continuos flow a collection tank is needed.Limitations Sediments containing organic material can be difficult to dewater as they stick to the cloth. Advantages If the compressibility of the material treated is high a Filter Press can produce high cake solids and high capture rates. Disadvantages Achieving good results. The types of cloths and presses develop all the time. Effectiveness Cake moisture content reductions are dependent on its compressibility properties. slow moving mechanical devise. requires a reliable and well planned thickened solids strategy and continuously optimized chemical treatment program.

the discharge orifice at the end of the screw length is equipped with an adjustable pressure cone or choke plate that controls the size of the orifice opening. Low Pressure Zone .flocculated slurry is gravity fed into an inlet hopper where free water escapes through the screened housing. As the void space is diminished. In the dewatering sequence. the solids are gradually compressed causing the release of additional water.compression occurs as the screw vanes advance the solids through a fixed diameter screen. Work description Solids by transporting them in a helical path along the length of a tapered screw encased within a screened housing. 38). Screw press 125 . the screw shaft diameter increases resulting in a gradually diminishing void space. High Pressure Zone . solids are advanced through three processes: Feeding . A small orifice opening yields a reduced rate of solids discharge and exerts a back pressure on the solids resulting in an increased pressure that yields higher cake dryness values. water is extruded and decanted after passing through the screened housing. As the solids are compressed. they are conveyed through a cavity of diminishing volume resulting in compressive forces. Fig.then by reducing the volume as the material being dewatered is conveyed from the inlet to the discharge end of the screw press (Fig. 38. As solids are slowly moved from the entry zone towards the discharge zone.

screw configurations. screen type and diameter. Ideal conditions generally occur while dewatering fibrous and/or inorganic solids and can produce medium-high cake solids. Advantages As the screw press construction is simple and the rotation of its screw is slow. Limitations Large solids must be removed before dewatering and solids smaller than silt can be difficult to separate in the process. and chemical additive selection influence the cake solids and capture rate generated by a screw press.Applicability Screw presses are suitable both for inorganic and organic materials but different materials require different screw speeds. there are many manufacturers of equipment. Effectiveness Many factors. Most dredging projects will require the use of several presses as the total solids throughput is relatively low when compared 126 . Status of the technology applications The screw press is a well-known technology. Disadvantages A screw press configuration requires extensive chemical additive laboratory testing and empirical evaluation through pilot testing. highly organic substrates) may produce lower cake solids. taper. pitch. including screw length. Costs Screw presses are a medium cost technology. solids characteristics. and screens in order to dewater to a high outlet consistency while maintaining at high capture rate. non-fibrous materials (i.e. it is less liable to attrition loss.. Non- cohesive. its maintenance is easy because no filter cloth is used.

Centrifuges are generally used for dewatering p rocess sludge in larger applications where sludge incineration is required. Applicability Centrifuges may be used for dewatering where space limitations or material characteristics make other methods unsuitable. centrifuge thickening is not economically feasible. 5. Fig. Wakeland. The movement separates components on the basis of their mass (Fig. 39. The liquid phase passes through the barrel with solids conveyed co-currently along the walls of the bowl by a helical screw. centrifuge. 39). Schematic view.3.4 Centrifuges Basic description of the technology A centrifuge uses rapid rotation of a fluid mixture in a rigid vessel. 2003. The mixture is usually conditioned with a flocculent. Work description In the centrifuges the liquid mixture is fed into the centrifuge where rotating forces separates the particles by mass. The turbidity of the outlet water can be high.to other types of dewatering equipment. 127 . If sediment can be effectively thickened by gravity without chemicals.

Disadvantages The centrifuge can be over-torqued due to the flow properties of the thickened solids. its continuous operation. Typically the liquid fraction will be relatively high in suspended non settling solids.4. or due to plugging by accumulation of unconveyed solids in the bowl. flexible. 5. simple. The processes can have significant maintenance and power costs. Advantages Centrifuges are a compact. Depending on the waste. Adequate electric power must also be provided for the large motors that are required. the liquid fraction after centrifugation may be considered hazardous also and require proper disposal.Limitations Large solids must be removed before dewatering and solids smaller than silt can be difficult to separate in the process. The effectiveness can be enhanced by addition of polymers. Status of the technology applications Centrifuges can be used as a standalone dewatering technology or as a pre- treatment of material before dewatering trough drainage in a logon/tank or CDF. Geotubes Basic description of the technology 128 . The ability to handle higher solids content feeds. The need for energy is large. Costs Centrifuges are a high cost technology. Wear problems on the screw can also be caused by more abrasive particles. Effectiveness Centrifuges separate solids from fine gravel to silt. with solids throughputs up to about 90 te h−1. self-contained unit. and the capital cost is relatively low.

Geotextile tubes are comprised of high strength and permeable woven or composite geotextiles and are filled with high water content materials. compared to traditional methods. Geotubes are placed on the dewatering pad and the sediment is pumped into the tubes. and 13. Nonetheless.7 m and the length is dependent on the specific project. the performance of geotextile tubes is primarily a function of the pore characteristics of the geotextile and the nature of the slurry such as water content and characteristic particle size. As a consequence. Effectiveness 129 .5.0. Status of the technology applications Since the 80ies the process has been used in many dredging applications.Geotextile tubes are an innovative and still developing alternative. The three standard circumferences of geotextile tubes are 4. Soil retention requires that the pore openings of the geotextile be small enough to prevent excessive migration of soil particles through the geotextile. Limitations Grotubes can be difficult to operate during winter time. 9. Work description To collect water from the Geotubes a dewatering pad of a sealed layer and gravel is built and a water treatment facility is built. the drainage requirement necessitates that the geotextile pores be large enough to allow for the flow of water. Costs Geotubes is a medium cost alternative. Applicability A successful dewatering application of geotextile tube depends on two main requirements: drainage and retention capability.

and the surface tension.5. To gain extra compression. are a combination of different mechanisms: (i) the mechanical dewatering reduces the volume of the pores and squeezes the water out of the product. density and surface tension lead to the pores structure to hold a smaller mass of water. and to save space. Advantages Passive drainage in Geotubes is not as size dependent as using settling ponds/lagoons. (ii) the application of elevated temperatures reduces the liquid density and viscosity. resulting in the reduction of water content. it cannot achieve sufficiently low water content. 5.1. Combined technologies Mechanical dewatering is the most used process however. Therefore many potential alternatives to enhance the dewatering ability of conventional processes has been proposed. The decreased viscosity. for many applications. 5.5. some of which flows out of the product. the tubes can be stacked on each other. Work description Mechanical and thermal effects. 130 .Drainage with Geotubes is a passive dewatering technology not affecting the bound or surface water. Disadvantages The dewatering can be time consuming and the performance during winter is poor. Thermally assisted dewatering Basic description of the technology Thermal assisted dewatering describes the process whereby a heating plate and heat supply unit are incorporated into a filter press system to improve separation of water from sludge. Geotubes filled with sediment are heavy and difficult to handle.

Disadvantages The temperature increasing step is time and energy consuming. This can occur through hydrophobization during the strong decrease in polar groups. Effectiveness The method can create very high 70% and higher dry matter contents of the cake.2. Costs The process is a high cost option. the water in a porous vegetable matter is in a mobilized state. 131 . Applicability The method is applicable in dewatering projects with high demands on low cake moisture. 5.(iii) at high temperatures. limited by the resistance of the solid structure against deformation.5. through the destruction of cellular structure and more easily overcoming the electrostatic forces of attraction between water and particles . in principle. Electro-Dewatering (EDW) Basic description of the technology The use of an electric field changes the surface charge of particles and the particles aggregate. Status of the technology applications Thermally assisted dewatering can still be seen as an emerging technology. An essential acceleration of dewatering can be achieved by increasing the temperature. Limitations The technology is still not widely used and it is difficult to find high capacity equipment. Advantages The mechanical dewatering is.

Disadvantages There is still a lot of work to understand the factors that affect the rate of EDW. which is usually applied in conjunction with vacuum filtration or an imposed mechanical pressure acting on the upper anode. Electric field combined with mechanical compression. which either cannot be sufficiently dewatered or would otherwise require extreme conditions using conventional dewatering devices. Effectiveness EDW can increase the compression properties thereby improving the performance of mechanical dewatering. The energy input is lower than in thermally assisted dewatering. complementary each other. Costs As the energy input is low the method is a medium-high cost option. Applicability Electro-dewatering (EDW) can be an option for slurries. is another efficient dewatering method. Limitations For the electro-dewatering process to be viable on a commercial scale. This process involves a vertical electric field.Work description Most electro-dewatering techniques developed to date use a process known as pressurized electro-dewatering. Status of the technology applications EDW is still an emerging technology. 132 . it has to be capable to dewater the given product to the desired water content at a sufficient rate to reach throughput demands. Advantages The treatment increase aggregate size which prevents clogging of the cloths in filter presses.