3.

The Passive

Uses:
a. We don’t know or care who the doer of the action is. Sometimes we also use the doer of the action emphasis.
The walls were painted white. The bicycle has been repaired by Peter.
The blackboard has been cleaned. This essay wasn’t written by you, it was written by Jane.
b. The doer is obvious.
The robbers will be found and arrested.
He was operated on this morning.
c. The action itself is more important than who did it.
My car has been stolen!
The president was assassinated in 1963.

Forms:
Tenses Active Passive
Simple S + V1 + O O + is/am/are + V3 + (by S)
Present Continuous S + is/am/are + Ving + O O + is/am/are + being + V3 + (by S)
Perfect S + has/have + V3 + O O + has/have + been + V3 + (by S)
Simple S + V2 + O O + was/were + V3 + (by S)
Past Continuous S + was/were + Ving + O O + was/were + being + V3 + (by S)
Perfect S + had + V3 + O O + had + been + V3 + (by S)
S + is/am/are + going to + V1 + O O + is/am/are + going to + be + V3 + (by S)
Going to
S + was/were + going to + V1 + O O + was/were + going to + be + V3 + (by S)
Can/could
Will/would
May/might
Modal S + modal + V1 + O O + modal + be + V3 + (by S)
Should
Shall
Let

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