Cheese is a food derived from milk that is produced in

a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms
by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises
proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk
of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. During production,
the milk is usually acidified, and adding the
enzyme rennet (enzymes) causes coagulation. The
solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some
cheeses have molds on the rind or throughout. Most
cheeses melt at cooking temperature.
Hundreds of types of cheese from various countries are produced. Their
styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet),
whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the
processing, and aging. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such
as vinegar or lemon juice.

Fresh, whey, and stretched moldy cheese
The main factor in the categorization of these cheeses are their ages. Fresh cheeses
without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days.
For these simplest cheeses, milk is heated and drained, with little other processing.
Example: cottage cheese and fresh goat's milk. Such cheeses are soft and spreadable,
with a mild flavour.
Whey cheeses are fresh cheeses made from whey, which would otherwise be
discarded, in the process of producing other cheeses.

Ricotta is one of the examples.

Traditional pasta filata cheeses such as Mozzarella also fall into the fresh cheese
category. Fresh curds are stretched and kneaded in hot water to form a ball of
Mozzarella, which in southern Italy is usually eaten within a few hours of being made.
Stored in brine, it can easily be shipped, and it is known worldwide for its use on pizza.

Mozarella Cheese

Moisture: soft to hard

and stirred before being pressed into forms. and many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variants. and "hard" are arbitrary. Hard cheeses — "grating cheeses" such as Parmesan and Pecorino Romano—are quite firmly packed into large forms and aged for months or years. Monastery cheeses have a high moisture content and tend to be mild-tasting. Muenster and Port Salut. and upon aging time. Some well-known varieties include Havarti. which depends on the pressure with which it is packed into moulds. originating in the village of Cheddar in England but now used as a generic term for this style of cheese. Parmesan Source of milk used . The lines between "soft". "semi-hard".Categorizing cheeses by moisture content or firmness is a common but inexact practice. "semi-soft". Cheddar is one of a family of semi-hard or hard cheeses whose curd is cut. The factor that controls cheese hardness is moisture content. gently heated. They are generally packed into moulds under more pressure and aged for a longer time than the soft cheeses. Havarti Cheese Medium-hard cheese Cheeses that range in texture from semi-soft to firm include Swiss-style cheeses such as Emmental and Gruyère. piled. Gruyere Emmental Semi-hard or hard cheese Harder cheeses have a lower moisture content than softer cheeses. The same bacteria that give such cheeses their eyes also contribute to their aromatic and sharp flavours. Cheeses that are classified as semi-hard to hard include the familiar Cheddar. Semi-soft cheese Semi-soft cheeses and the sub-group.

camemberti that forms a flexible white crust and contributes to the smooth. sometimes with white molds (Chèvre-Boîte) and sometimes with blue. runny. flavourful rind around the cheese. and spices. Sometimes cheeses marketed under the same name are made from milk of different animal—Feta style cheeses. they are treated differently. Goat's milk cheeses are often treated in a similar manner. Brie and Camembert. washed rind cheeses and blue cheeses. Soft-ripened Soft-ripened cheeses begin firm and rather chalky in texture. Camembert Washed-rind Washed-rind cheeses are soft in character and ripen inwards like those with white molds. or gooey textures and more intense flavours of these aged cheeses. brandy. While most of the world's commercially available cheese is made from cow's milk. the most famous of these cheeses. are made by allowing white mold to grow on the outside of a soft cheese for a few days or weeks. Feta Cheese Mold There are three main categories of cheese in which the presence of mold is an important feature: soft ripened cheeses. Washed-rind cheeses can be soft (Limburger). The mold may be a velvety bloom of Penicillium candida or P. making their surfaces amenable to a class of bacteria Brevibacterium linens (the reddish-orange "smear bacteria") that impart pungent odours and distinctive flavours.Some cheeses are categorized by the source of the milk used to produce them or by the added fat content of the milk from which they are produced. Washed-rind cheeses are periodically cured in a solution of saltwater brine and/or mold-bearing agents that may include beer. wine. but are aged from the exterior inwards by exposing them to mold. however. and produce a firm. many parts of the world also produce cheese from goats and sheep. are made from sheep's milk in Greece and from cow's milk elsewhere. semi-hard. or hard . for example.

This is done while the cheese is still in the form of loosely pressed curds. Many. Blue So-called blue cheese is created by inoculating a cheese with Penicillium roqueforti or Penicillium glaucum. In some cases. Gorgonzola. though all will be rindless. according to the type of milk used. Varieties of brined cheese include feta. This process gives the cheese good stability. Their texture can be soft or firm. Notable examples of smear-ripened cheeses include Munster and Port Salut. Blue cheese Brined Brined or pickled cheese is matured in a solution of brine in an airtight or semi- permeable container. and generally taste clean. of these cheeses have a distinctive pinkish or orange colouring of the exterior. The mold grows within the cheese as it ages. Brined cheeses may be soft or hard.(Appenzeller). assertive flavours. sirene and telemea. each with its own distinctive colour. inhibiting bacterial growth even in hot countries. Processed . varying in moisture content. which gives them their name and. The same bacteria can also have some impact on cheeses that are simply ripened in humid conditions. a variant of brinza. making it quite labour-intensive compared to other methods of cheese production. The moulds range from pale green to dark blue. but not all. older cheeses are smeared on young cheeses to transfer the microorganisms. texture and aroma. and may be further enhanced by piercing a ripening block of cheese with skewers in an atmosphere in which the mold is prevalent. particularly in the early stages of production. and Stilton. the washing is done to ensure uniform growth of desired bacteria or fungi and to prevent the growth of undesired molds. flavour. Brined cheese is the main type of cheese produced and eaten in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. and/or Geotrichum candidum which usually gives them a stronger flavour as the cheese matures. like Camembert. salty and acidic when fresh and most will be white. and may be accompanied by white and crusty brown molds. Some of the most renowned cheeses are of this type. halloumi. Unlike with other washed-rind cheeses. Smear-ripened Some washed-rind cheeses are also smear-ripened with solutions of bacteria or fungi. Debaryomyces hansenii. The process requires regular washings. These cheeses have distinct blue veins. and in colour and flavour. most commonly Brevibacterium linens. often. They include Roquefort.

more salt. . It is also available in aerosol cans in some countries. often with the addition of milk. and melts smoothly.wikipedia. preservatives. and food coloring.Processed cheese is made from traditional cheese and emulsifying salts. It is cheap and consistent. It is sold packaged and either pre-sliced or unsliced. in several varieties.