Factory language

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1. Dispatch: Dispatch is a procedure for assigning employees (workers) or
vehicles to customers. With vehicle dispatching, clients are matched to
vehicles according to the order in which clients called and the proximity
of vehicles to each client's pick-up location. Telephone operators take
calls from clients, then either enter the client's information into a
computer or write it down and give it to a dispatcher. In some cases,
calls may be assigned a priority by the call-taker. Priority calls may jump
the queue of pending calls. In the first scenario, a central computer then
communicates with the mobile data terminal located in each vehicle (see
computer assisted dispatch); in the second, the dispatcher
communicates with the driver of each vehicle via two-way radio.
Dispatchers have to coordinate worker availability, skill, travel time and
availability of parts. The skills required of a dispatcher are greatly
enhanced with the use of computer dispatching software
Manual dispatch systems
The following are examples of manual systems used to track the status of
resources in a dispatched fleet.

a. Cards
Card systems employ a set of shelves with a slot for each unit in the
dispatch fleet. Each vehicle or resource has a slot in the shelving system.
In it, a card, like a time card used to track an employee's work hours, is
stored. A time clock, similar to the one that stamps work hours on a time
card, is used to stamp event times on each card. At the beginning of a
work day, the resource's identifier or other information is handwritten on
the card. Each time the resource's status changes, the card is punched
in the time clock and a new status entry is handwritten on the card. The
card collects a series of entries through the work shift.

b. Punched tags
Punched tag systems employ a set of pegs with each peg holding tags
for one unit in the dispatch fleet. Each vehicle working the current
shift has a peg with a tag describing the unit's current status. A time
clock, similar to the one that stamps work hours on a time card, is
used to stamp times on each tag. At the beginning of a work day, the
resource's identifier may be posted above the peg. The unit's start
time is stamped and their status is written on the tag. Each time the
resource's status changes, a new tag is written and the tag is time
stamped in order to log the time the unit's status changed. The peg
collects a stack of tags through the work shift.
c. Plastic icons in a plastic icon system, the blank panel on the
communications console or a nearby wall is fitted with a sheet of
Velcro. The material has vertical stripes painted on it, making a
column for each of several possible status conditions. The simplest
system is two columns: available and unavailable. Magnetized icons
can be used in place of Velcro. The icons can be coloured or shaped to
identify the type of unit or some other feature of the resource.
d. Trucking dispatchers play a major role in transportation logistics.
Truck dispatchers orchestrate freight movement and equipment from
one place to another while keeping close communication with truck
drivers. Some dispatching companies help truck drivers to negotiate
and acquire loads and handle paperwork. Dispatching trucks require
a variety of skills like using a computer to find and track loads for
drivers to speaking multiple languages depending on the region or
number of trucks they manage. Great customer service and good
communication are vital for succeeding in this fast-paced
environment.
Capacity and metrics

There is a limit to how many field units can be managed. 3. You recognize raw materials cost are recognized in your inventory at the point of acquisition. plastics and fabrics used in the production of goods. it must recognize the transition of the materials into works-in-progress. Some workplace cultures will allow longer wait times than others. Raw material inventory: Raw materials include wood. you pull raw material from inventory and use it in the production of finished goods. you simply credit the works-in-progress account and debit the finished goods inventory account. In a typical process. 2. For example. you can actually just move the inventory directly from raw materials to finished goods in your accounting. Over time. when production is complete. Work is not evenly distributed across time: in any dispatch system there are traditional peaks or busy hours in requests for service. metals. 4. you remove indirect materials by crediting raw materials inventory. Simultaneously. Work in Process inventory: When a manufacturer uses direct and indirect materials in production. and it is a current asset on your company's balance sheet. This varies with circumstances. Since the raw materials are in use. Finished goods inventory: Finished goods are the products that manufacturers rely on to make money by selling them to wholesalers and retailers. you must show the reduction in raw materials inventory by crediting the current asset account and debit the "works-in-progress" inventory. A manufacturer typically acquires raw materials from one or more producers or suppliers. a parcel delivery service dispatcher may encounter higher traffic around Christmas. . but you apply the debit to a factory overhead account. In very short production processes.

Loading hour: The number of hour’s machine will be working. Product family: A product and its variants passing through similar processing steps and common equipment just prior to shipment to the customer. Delivery request 8. ranging from the ultimate customer (the end consumer) to intermediate customers within the production process. Defects: Defect is a physical. 6. aesthetic. 7. a product . For example: In a power tools business.5. Product families can be defined from the standpoint of any customer along an extended value stream. Delivery performance 9. or functional attribute of a product or service that exhibits that the product or service failed to meet one of the desired specifications.

and will therefore be very attentive to the many needs and challenges that will arise in order to ensure success. The model line gets significant supporting resources in order to accomplish the change so that it can serve as a demonstration to the rest of the organization. B. and developing the full operating system there. The benefit of this approach is that it focuses the resources to achieve the change: if the company is serious about its commitment to lean. family might be defined as medium-sized electric drills utilizing a common chassis and passing through a common assembly cell as the last manufacturing step before shipment directly to end consumers. it cannot afford to have the model line fail. . and C. which it then value stream mapped as a product family. a firm with seven product lines. In the illustration below. as perceived by its customers. The first difficulty with the model line is that it focuses an intense amount of change in a limited time and space. arrayed its assembly steps and equipment across the top of a product family matrix and quickly found a common path for Products A. 10. Model line: A model line refers to taking one value stream. or one part of the organization.

to recover its cost from the sales revenue. or non-availability of inputs such as materials. Downtime: Period during which an equipment or machine is not functional or cannot work. power. which can create challenges for both staff and management. Sequential flow: . It may be due to technical failure. machine adjustment. Forest/ wood / tree view: 14. if the results are not as dramatic as hoped. In addition. Secondly. Tier 12. the rest of the organisation is essentially observing the experiment. Also called waiting time. 11. however. maintenance. Opposite of uptime. Average downtime is usually built into the price of goods produced. the overall change will be put at risk. Despite these challenges. labor. 13. the approach allows a business to generate change at a sufficient scale and with enough completeness that it can be used as a springboard to create momentum for change in the rest of the organisation. and executives will feel the pressure from other areas of the business wanting access to the same resources.

Product customer matrix 18. Product variety 17. Product line matrix .15. subtler flow 16.

In manufacturing. Scheduling is used to allocate plant and machinery resources. and on which equipment. These provide the production scheduler with powerful graphical interfaces which can be used to visually optimize real-time . Backward scheduling is planning the tasks from the due date or required-by date to determine the start date and/or any changes in capacity required. by telling a production facility when to make. controlling and optimizing work and workloads in a production process. It is an important tool for manufacturing and engineering. plan production processes and purchase materials. Forward scheduling is planning the tasks from the date resources become available to determine the shipping date or the due date. the purpose of scheduling is to minimize the production time and costs. controlling and optimizing work and workloads in a production process or manufacturing process. The benefits of production scheduling include:  Process change-over reduction  Inventory reduction. Companies use backward and forward scheduling to allocate plant and machinery resources. with which staff. Production scheduling aims to maximize the efficiency of the operation and reduce costs. Scheduling is the process of arranging.19. plan human resources. leveling  Reduced scheduling effort  Increased production efficiency  Labor load leveling  Accurate delivery date quotes  Real time information Production scheduling tools greatly outperform older manual scheduling methods. where it can have a major impact on the productivity of a process. plan production processes and purchase materials. Production schedule: is the process of arranging. plan human resources.

Delivery request. Delivery conditions . aircraft usage. or the flow of passengers. The extent to which any one product is produced within any one factory is governed by transaction cost.  Output for the next factory : By way of example. materials. tooling. 20. The aim is to maximize output with given inputs or to minimize quantity of inputs to produce required output.  Outputs : Outputs are the products produced in factories either for other factories or for the end buyer. workloads in various stages of production. the output of a paper mill is an input to a print factory.  Output within the factory : The output of any one work area within the factory is an input to the next work area in that factory according to the manufacturing process. the output of cutting is an input to the bending room. a cosmetics factory and a plastics factory.  Output for the end buyer : Factory output goes to the consumer via a service business such as a retailer or an asphalt paving company. and pattern recognition allows the software to automatically create scheduling opportunities which might not be apparent without this view into the data. and scheduling software can allow the planners to see how this can be done. an airline might wish to minimize the number of airport gates required for its aircraft. Key concepts here are:  Inputs: Inputs are plant. For example. in order to reduce costs.  Resource allocation : Resource allocation is assigning inputs to produce output. labor. by analyzing time tables. energy and a clean environment. 21. the relation between quantity of inputs and quantity of output. Key concepts in scheduling Key character of scheduling is the productivity. The output of a petrochemicals plant is an input to an asphalt plant. For example.

scrap has monetary value. building supplies. Direct pass ratio. In process defects 25. 27. and non-metallic materials are also recovered for recycling. and surplus materials.22. Scrap: Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption. especially recovered metals. such as parts of vehicles. Rework: the process of removing a component from a product and then redoing once again. Range of fluctuations 23. Unlike waste. For example if a factory . outflow defects 24. Incoming defects 26. It means the ratio of output produced without any rework against the total production volume. 28.

and another had a part missing (= total 3 units needed repair. another had a scratch on the paint. With a high first-pass ratio. Case study: Honda . The other definition of direct pass ratio is Direct Pass ratio measures the percentage of the product passing all quality requirements without rework. 1 was found to have an engine problem. costly rework is reduced. your "Straight Pass Ratio" for the day would be 97%. replacement. not on fixing it. allowing production staff to focus on generating the product. and at the final car inspection. or adjustment).produced 100 cars on one day.

29. Business outline 37. particularly human resource management. Span of control: Span of control is the term now used more commonly in business management. Outsourced process. Policy 34. 32. Production batch size 35. Risk diversification 33. Crossing flows 31. Route map 38. 36. Stabilization . Product design 30. Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a supervisor has.

If the Preliminary Notice is sent but the claimant's bill is paid. Product meter 42. 45. if the bill is not paid the claimant may now file a Mechanics lien on the owner's property. Resource allocation 46. Forecast 44. Contractor/Subcontractors Notice to Owner. Window timing 48. 41. subcontractor. Market flow 47.39. Product leveling. The distinction is important. Trend analysis 40. Most states do not allow the filing of a Mechanics lien without claimants being able to prove they first sent a Preliminary Notice. material men. Preliminary notice: In Mechanics lien law a Preliminary Notice (also known as a Notice to Owner. the Preliminary Notice has no further legal effect. equipment lessors or other parties to a construction project not to create a Mechanics lien but rather to establish the right to file a Mechanics lien in the event of nonpayment. Line meter 43. daily scheduling 49. Notice of Furnishing. However. Materialmens Notice to Owner. and others) is a notice sent by the general contractor. Product quantity chart: .

50. Runner .

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the act of combining components in manufacturing. . An assembly line is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced. Time management 56. Production sequencing 54. or the resulting assemblage. Types of bin and Box 58. 57. a finished product can be assembled faster and with less labor than by having workers carry parts to a stationary piece for assembly.51. By mechanically moving the parts to the assembly work and moving the semi-finished assembly from work station to work station. Repeater 52. Brain storming. Stranger 53. Assembly: Assembly. Cleanliness 55. Part name 59.

While the engine installation crew works on the second car. By having three stations. the first car can be moved to the hood station and fitted with a hood. hood installation takes five minutes. When one station is finished with a car. After finishing its work on the first car. and install the wheels (in that order. Consider the assembly of a car: assume that certain steps in the assembly line are to install the engine. the engine installation crew can begin working on the second car. and wheels installation takes 10 minutes. In an assembly line. only one car would be assembled at a time. install the hood. the longest stage on the assembly line determines the throughput (20 . then a car can be produced every 35 minutes. only one of these steps can be done at a time. with arbitrary interstitial steps). the second car moves to the hood assembly. Assuming no loss of time when moving a car from one station to another. household appliances and electronic goods. a total of three different cars can be operated on at the same time. subsequent cars (if any) can be moved to the engine installation station.Assembly lines are common methods of assembling complex items such as automobiles and other transportation equipment. each one at a different stage of its assembly. After the engine has been installed on the second car. If engine installation takes 20 minutes. then to the wheels station and be fitted with wheels. meanwhile. When the third car’s engine has been mounted. In traditional production. it passes it on to the next. At the same time. the third car moves to the engine assembly. it then can be moved to the hood station. all working simultaneously. car assembly is split between several stations.

These items are often stored in a warehouse. or others. Other processes. shaping. the aircraft industry. drill presses. The machine tools typically include metal lathes. once the first car taking 35 minutes has been produced. such as heat treating. A machine shop can be a capital intensive business. or grinding machines. whether a toolroom or a production area for manufacturing. milling machines. minutes for the engine installation) so a car can be produced every 20 minutes. but production machining (both batch production and mass production) is much more automated than it was before the development of CNC. companies in those fields have their own machine shops. although the jobs that remain . are often done in a separate facility. Machine shop: A machine shop is a room. multitasking machines. A machine shop can be a small business (such as a job shop) or a portion of a factory. and robotics. A machine shop can also be labour-intensive. or company where machining is done. finishing. drilling. In other cases. building. It no longer requires masses of workers. A machine shop can contain some raw materials (such as bar stock for machining) and an inventory of finished parts. usually of metal or plastic (but sometimes of other materials such as glass or wood). In a machine shop. and other processes. PLC. machining centers. especially if it is specialized in repairing machinery on a job production basis. because the purchase of equipment can require large investments. 60. The production can consist of cutting. many controlled with CNC. The parts produced can be the end product of the factory. to be sold to customers in the machine industry. microcomputers. machinists use machine tools and cutting tools to make parts. or painting of the parts before or after machining. the car industry. electroplating.

cost 63. In material control: withdrawal of inventory as demanded by a user. 69. Quality 62. Shorter distance 78. Productivity 65. PPC 73. Flow 68. Staff 77. Skill 80. Push and Pull Method. Training and experience in a machine shop can both be scarce and valuable. 2. KAIZEN 72. Delivery 64. Workload 66. System 76. Transformation . Shared processes 75. In manufacturing: the production of items only as demanded to replace those taken. tend to require high talent and skill. Organization goals and strategy 71. 61. Pull System 1. Space creation 79. Customer requirements 70. Material is not issued until a signal is received from the user. 3. In distribution: a system for replenishing field warehouse inventories where replenishment decisions are made at the field warehouse itself and not at the central warehouse or plant. Tier 67. Safety 74.

Preventive maintenance 83. Failures which occur that can be left or maintained in an unrepaired condition.[2] In addition. then their MTTF would be 116. units that are taken down for routine scheduled maintenance or inventory control are not considered within the definition of failure. which is 116.[1] MTBF can be calculated as the arithmetic mean (average) time between failures of a system.81. MTBF is the "up-time" between two failure states of a repairable system during operation as outlined here: . Maintenance 82. In general. If the systems are non-repairable. For example. The term is used in both plant and equipment maintenance contexts.667 hours. while mean time to failure (MTTF) denotes the expected time to failure for a non-repairable system. The definition of MTBF depends on the definition of what is considered a system failure. the second failed at 120 hours and the third failed at 130 hours. failures are considered to be those out of design conditions which place the system out of service and into a state for repair.[3] Mean time between failures (MTBF) describes the expected time between two failures for a repairable system. For complex. The first system failed at 100 hours. and do not place the system out of service.667 hours. The MTBF of the system is the average of the three failure times. are not considered failures under this definition. MTBf( Mean time between failures) Mean time between failures (MTBF) is the predicted elapsed time between inherent failures of a system during operation. three identical systems starting to function properly at time 0 are working until all of them fail. repairable systems.

Once the MTBF of a system is known.UTE 80-810 (RDF2000). it will fail before with a probability of 63.e. Under this assumption.e.2%). Telcordia SR332. the "down time" is the instantaneous time it went down.[4][5] MTBF value prediction is an important element in the development of products. The difference ("down time" minus "up time") is the amount of time it was operating between these two events. Reliability engineers and design engineers often use reliability software to calculate a product's MTBF according to various methods and standards (MIL-HDBK-217F. greater than) the moment it went up. The same applies to the MTTF of a system working within this time period.For each observation. the "up time". any one particular system will survive to its calculated MTBF with a probability of 36. which is after (i. FIDES. Siemens Norm.. The Mil-HDBK-217 reliability calculator manual in combination with RelCalc software (or other . the probability that any one particular system will be operational at time equal to the MTBF can be calculated.8% (i. This calculation requires that the system is working within its "useful life period". which is characterized by a relatively constant failure rate (the middle part of the "bathtub curve") when only random failures are occurring.). etc.

Functional layouts are rearranged into process oriented cells. the MTBF of a component is the sum of the lengths of the operational periods divided by the number of observed failures: 84. in particular. . cell: A close arrangement of people and machines in a processing sequence to facilitate flow. efficiency 88. and is important in the computations involving MTBF. A concept which is closely related to MTBF. Quick reaction to quality concerns 86. An approach to producing a family of parts or products on a dedicated line with dedicated operators a. MDT is considered different from MTTR (Mean Time To Repair). Usually. MTTR( mean time to repair) 85. Layout 87. MDT can be defined as mean time which the system is down after the failure. comparable tool) enables MTBF reliability rates to be predicted based on design. b. is the mean down time (MDT). Machines and workstations are linked. Formal definition of MTBF and MDT[edit] By referring to the figure above. MDT usually includes organizational and logistical factors (such as business days or waiting for components to arrive) while MTTR is usually understood as more narrow and more technical.

Sequence 101. Production cell: 89. Human productivity 98. Layouts are designed for efficient flow. KRA and KPI 97. All operator requirements are close by. Pattern 100. Internal variation 92. Order fluctuation 91. Delivery synchronization 93. Batch manufacturing . d. Line 90. c. Advanced product quality panning 95. Cycle time 99. manpower deployment 96. Production synchronization 94.

102. Batch flow 103. Single piece flow .

104. .