Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 1555–1561

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Energy Conversion and Management
journal homepage:

Air gasification of empty fruit bunch for hydrogen-rich gas production in a
fluidized-bed reactor
M.A.A. Mohammed, A. Salmiaton ⇑, W.A.K.G. Wan Azlina, M.S. Mohammad Amran, A. Fakhru’l-Razi
Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A study on gasification of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a waste of the palm oil industry, was investigated. The
Received 9 November 2009 composition and particle size distribution of feedstock were determined and the thermal degradation
Received in revised form 23 August 2010 behaviour was analysed by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Then fluidized bed bench scale gasifica-
Accepted 4 October 2010
tion unit was used to investigate the effect of the operating parameters on EFB air gasification namely
Available online 30 October 2010
reactor temperature in the range of 700–1000 °C, feedstock particle size in the range of 0.3–1.0 mm
and equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.15–0.35. The main gas species generated, as identified by
a gas chromatography (GC), were H2, CO, CO2 and CH4. With temperature increasing from 700 °C to
Empty fruit bunch
1000 °C, the total gas yield was enhanced greatly and reached the maximum value (92 wt.%, on the
Gasification raw biomass sample basis) at 1000 °C with big portions of H2 (38.02 vol.%) and CO (36.36 vol.%). Feed-
Hydrogen stock particle size showed an influence on the upgrading of H2, CO and CH4 yields. The feedstock particle
Yield size of 0.3–0.5 mm, was found to obtain a higher H2 yield (33.93 vol.%), and higher LHV of gas product
Energy source (15.26 MJ/m3). Equivalence ratio (ER) showed a significant influence on the upgrading of hydrogen pro-
duction and product distribution. The optimum ER (0.25) was found to attain a higher H2 yield
(27.31 vol.%) at 850 °C. Due to the low efficiency of bench scale gasification unit the system needs to
be scaling-up. The cost analysis for scale-up EFB gasification unit showed that the hydrogen supply cost
is RM 6.70/kg EFB ($2.11/kg = $0.18/Nm3).
Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Eq. (1). The yields of end products of gasification and the composi-
tion of gases are dependent on several parameters including tem-
Dependence on fossil fuels as the main energy sources has led perature, biomass species, particle size, heating rate, operating
to serious energy crisis and environmental problems. Therefore, pressure and reactor configuration [2].
due to the environmental considerations as well as the increasing
demand for energy in the world, more attention has been paid to Biomass þ heat ! H2 þ CO þ CO2 þ CH4 þ Hydrocarbon
develop new energy sources [1]. Owing to that, there has been þ Char ð1Þ
interest in the utilization of biomass for production of environmen-
tal friendly biofuels. As known, biomass is a CO2 neutral resource in The concern of using biomass in gasification to produce a
the life cycle, while CO2 is a primary contributor to the global hydrogen rich product has been getting particular attention in re-
greenhouse effect. Hence, increasing attention is being paid to bio- cent years. The reasons may be attributed to: (1) hydrogen is a
mass as a substitute for fossil fuel to reduce the global greenhouse clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take an impor-
effect, particularly under the commitment of the Kyoto Protocol. tant role in a future energy demand; (2) hydrogen is a safe source
Biomass used as an energy resource can be efficiently achieved and can be easily stored as a gas or a liquid; (3) hydrogen has good
by thermo-chemical conversion technology: pyrolysis, gasification properties in fuelling engines in automobiles; and (4) most impor-
or combustion. Gasification process is one of the most promising tant, current and future energy technologies are extensively
thermo-chemical conversion routes to recover energy from bio- increasing the possibility of utilizing hydrogen with economic
mass. During gasification process, biomass is thermal decomposed acceptance. Apparently, how to force the biomass gasification pro-
to small quantities of char and ash, liquid oil and high production cess into shift towards the maximum hydrogen rich end product is
of gaseous products under limited presence of oxygen following becoming a priority topic [3].
Various types of biofuels can be produced from gasification pro-
cess after catalytically upgrading the syngas by using Fischer–
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 3 89466297; fax: +60 3 86567120. Tropsch (FTS) synthesis and Higher Alcohol synthesis (HAS)
E-mail address: (A. Salmiaton). technologies [4]. Through the FTS reaction, syngas can be

0196-8904/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The ultimate analysis indicates that EFB is the same time. For example. 14–15% fiber. preliminary treatment such as biomass drying oil production and 62% of the world exports. per raw biomass sample with good portions of H2 (33.20 and 17. thermo-chemical processes (gasifi. equivalent ratio (ER)) have been presented ticles between 0. It plays an important role during the gasifica.0 mm. It grows well in wet and humid places like Malaysia. [21] have investigated the use of the fore being used as a liquid transportation fuel [5]. like Currently. Mohammed et al. gasification can be directly utilized as fuel for gas turbines and gas Feed particle size (mm) Mass fraction engines [28] or can used as an industrial feedstock for heat and power generation. Ethanol is an important renewable liquid fuel for mo. were first manually chopped into small pieces that could be fed Presently. The distribution of feed particle size after grinding is given (air. oil palm biomass (shell. The syngas produced from gasifi. For examples. fiber and EFB) can be con- gasoline. shells and fibers in the production of palm oil.% was annual generation of 9.57 million metric tons in 1980 to cost of the process. the feasibility study of obtaining 17. pure oxygen. The bunches solutions for ‘‘second generation fuels”. The re- bunches (EFB). Different operation conditions fruit bunch contains only 21% palm oil. at 450 °C at only 1.1. On the other hand. There sults showed that the maximum bio-oil production was 55. EFB had tion reactions.3 22 0. possibly due to the low fixed carbon and high oxygen con- oxygen is used. the government has embarked on the 2. a waste from the palm oil multipurpose plantation and also a prolific producer of biomass industry as a feedstock material using air gasification process in as raw materials for value-added industries [9].%).A. the heating value of syngas will increase but at tents in the EFB [31]. while the rest 6–7% palm namely reactor temperature.0 mm was used to obtain the feedstock size of less than ers (fixed bed. Seri Ulu Langat palm oil mill. Yet. [29] have studied the thermodynamic analysis environmental pollution [6]. The authors Africa.8 million metric tons in 2009 [7].1 wt. many research works related to the gasification of in a shredder. sion processes.%) and low amounts of fixed mixtures. hydro. Its currently accounts for 51% of the world palm (>50%).% moisture. carbon (<10 wt. mance of EFB conversion to energy with a high yield of In Malaysia. The proximate and elemental analyses were carried out in a Gasifying agent is one of the most important parameters in the TGA (Mettler-Toledo TGA/SDTA 851) and CHNS/O analyzer (LECO gasification process. Both the size frac- and extensive researches have been conducted on small and tion below and above this range frequently led to blockage of the medium size air gasifiers to produce low BTU fuel gas and power available feeder. and the same can be said for using steam Table 1 as gasifying agent. the operating costs will also increase due to the oxygen production [27]. After that. it is found that only par- (temperature. a Fritsch grinder with a screen size of biomass using different operating processes such as types of gasifi. 6–7% shell and 23% empty fruit bunch (EFB) lence ratio will be investigated to achieve an improved perfor- are left as biomass [10]. cantly reduce both the dependency on fossil fuel sources and Kelly-Yong et al. gas. empty fruit EFB using 150 g/h fluidized-bed reactor to produce bio-oil. if pure coal. a lot of work has been done and many processes are cess after removal of the nuts. ber. temperature with the maximum 70 wt. and coal.03 s vapor residence time. Oil palm is a This study focuses on using EFB. The authors reported that produced using HAS technology. 1. and were in the form of masses [13–18]. hydrogen from palm oil biomass (0. The results are listed in Table 2. feedstock particle size and equiva- kernel. Materials and methods ment of the energy sector as well as promoting a clean environ- ment. the palm oil wastes could be ideal biomass sources for biofuels cation process will be catalytically converted to alcohols under this production The total gas yield was enhanced by increasing reactor technology.66. Feedstock preparation and properties growth of renewable energy as the fifth fuel after oil. obtained. and the ninth Malaysian plan (9MP). 2000–2010 [11]. Therefore. Beside palm oil availability.49 vol. gasification agents 1. diesel and wax. [19–26]. tion can directly deal with high moisture content of biomass porter of palm oil. Yang et al. it contains large amount of nitrogen. Air is cheap and widely used in the gasification process. Abdullah et al. the condensable organic compounds (tar) Less than 0. of hydrogen production from oil palm biomass in gasification Oil palm (Elaeis guianensis) originally originates from West reaction using supercritical water (SCW) technology. 5. moving bed and fluidized bed). The implementation of biofuels program in Malaysia is in line with the government policy in ensuring a sustainable develop.5 50 need to be removed using hot gas cleaning method or catalytic 0. EFB used in this 2006–2010 [12]. dry having less than 10 wt.1556 M. whole bunches. After extensive feeding trials. The long chain hydrocarbons verted to the high-value products via thermo-chemical conver- produced from the FTS reaction are distilled and hydro-cracked be. fresh bench scale fluidized bed gasifier.3 and 1. work is the biomass remaining as a by-product of industrial pro- Till now. initiated earlier under the Third Outline Perspective Plan The EFB sample investigated in this study was collected from (OPP3). steam or their mixtures) and operating conditions in Table 1. there has been a strong interest in the utilization of hydrogen-rich gas.%).0 28 reforming of tar. naphtha. oxygen. Palm oil production in could be avoided which will automatically reduce the operating Malaysia has increased from 2. 2. In reported that the utilization of SCW medium in biomass gasifica- the present time Malaysia is the world’s largest producer and ex. . this is lower than that of heating value of the syngas produced. [30] investigated the fast pyrolysis of mass including oil palm trunks. CHNS932). shell and empty fruit bunches respectively [8].% of gas yield achieved tor vehicles. steam or their a very high volatile content (>80 wt. Particle size reduction was required to allow gasi- cation and pyrolysis) are the most promising and applied fication of the EFB on the available 600 g/h reactor.A. The low calorific value syngas produced from air Particle size distribution of EFB. respectively.3–0. oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly bio- fuels. The production of ethanol from biomass can signifi.5–1. pressure. oil palm fronds.08 million tons for fi. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 1555–1561 converted to a wide range of long chain hydrocarbon products. The agent can be air. Selangor. Samples received were relatively being investigated on hydrogen-rich gas production from bio. which reduces the sured in a bomb calorimeter (Parr 1341).117 kg H2 kg1 biomass) was Malaysian palm oil also generates huge quantity of oil palm bio. Dengkil. In addition. Among them. There are also palm oil wastes as a feedstock to produce hydrogen-rich gas via many types of alcohols such as methanol and ethanol that can be pyrolysis process in fixed bed reactor.0 mm were easily fed. The calorific value of EFB (17 MJ/kg) was mea- however.

2 by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential ther- tively.A.58 product called charcoal was removed from the reactor and sepa- Ad 3. The thermal degra- thermocouples were inserted in the middle of the heating furnace. medium in the reactor was inert sand of size between 0.A. respectively. glass wool filter and dryer) and gas storage (gasbags). / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 1555–1561 1557 Table 2 rate. The Proximate analysis heated filtrate was then weighed to get the weight of tar.035 then filtered using filter paper and the filtrate was heated in an Ob 45. with trace amounts of nitrogen.79 rated from the sand bed then weighed to get the solid mass. (8) temperature recorder. Mad 5. 1.53 mm and 0.45 by gasbags for gas chromatography (GC) analysis. (5) flange.58 The condensable part of the product gas was collected from the Lignin 30. Three 10 mL/min air with a heating rate of 10 °C/min. and (15) gas flow meter. (6) thermocouples.18 The yield of the products was quantified as mass basis. respectively. 1 shows a sche. Mohammed et al.5 mm. Results and discussion matic diagram of this unit. M: moisture. (3) air pump. The dissolved product was S 0. A: ash.24 reactor. Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent 0.21 the tar from condenser walls and filter. oven temperature was set at 70 °C and carrier gas flow rate (Argon) was 6 mL/min. (13) glass wool filter. Thermogravimetric analysis of EFB purification (condenser. which consists of three main systems: reactor (gasification reactor and heating furnace). Dichloromethane (DCM) was used to remove N 1. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed under less steel with a length of 600 mm and a diameter of 40 mm. ad: on air dried basis.45 ice water condenser. (GC) Agilent Technologies model HP6890 N with TCD and FID detectors. dation characteristics of different particle size dried feedstock are middle of the reactor tube and bottom of the reactor tube. The internal diameter and film thick- environmental friendly.02 yield of the total product gas was then calculated by difference. . 3. The heating Properties of EFB. 3. A 30 m HP-Molesieve capillary column was used to sep- arate the permanent gases. (4) biomass feeder. whereas the incondensable gases leaved the Asha 8. The tar product Elemental analysis was trapped in the water cooler. which were continuously carried out at a constant flow a small DTG peaks around 100 °C.66 oven at 70 °C for about 2 h to evaporate any rising solution. (14) fuel gas sampling point.%) 0. Product gas analysis a Remaining value obtained from Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF). CO2. The Calorific value (MJ/kg) 17. FC: fixed carbon. (11) ice trap. (12) cooling water supply. The TCD was calibrated with standard gas (Air Product. entering from the base of the Cellulose 22.3 and Component Measured (wt. (7) air distributor. M. A fluidized bed bench scale gasification unit operating at atmo- spheric pressure was employed for all runs.5 mL of the product gas was analyzed in gas chromatography Lignin (ADL) analysis method. displayed in Fig. The fluidizing gas was air.5 lm. The EFB samples showed the reactor.1.45 FCad 8. b The oxygen content was determined by difference. d: on dry basis. Experimental procedure H2 and CH4 in nitrogen at periodic intervals. Fig. The feeding capacity of biomass was 10 g/min.62 H 6. which are indicative to the mois- Fig. Hemicellulose 20. The reactor is a cylindrical configuration made of stain. The solid Vad 82. Schematic diagram of biomass air gasification in a fluidized bed: (1) lab-scale gratifier. Malaysia) mixture containing CO. condenser and 4. ice condenser walls and glass C 46. (2) electric furnace. respectively. sulfur and ness of the column were 0. V: volatile matters. respec. (9) gas discharge. (10) water cooler. 4. The mineral matter.1. Biomass was fed into the reactor by a feeder on the top of mogravimetry curves (DTG). The splitless inlet and TCD detector temperature were 60 and 200 °C.28 system through glass wool/silica gel filter and then were collected Extractivesa 18.45 wool/silica gel filter.

3.% as temperature increased from 700 to 1000 °C. Among them.08 vol. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 1555–1561 ture content. At high furnace temperature. 2.87 to 33. 3a with tem- perature increasing from 700 to 1000 °C.% as temperature continuously increased to 1000 °C.% at temperature 900 °C.36].35 vol. while the humps apparent around 450 °C are indicative to the decompo- sition of lignin. (7)–(10) are the main reactions of interest for EFB gasification at atmospheric pressure and temperature between 700 and 1000 °C. before it increased again to 36. then de- Fig.68 to 91. In terms of increasing H2 production. Meanwhile. Similar weight loss rate was observed in other re- searches [32. particularly at 1000 °C. Mohammed et al. CH4 yield also increased from 5. CO2.33]. (b) differential thermogravimetric analysis of EFB.A. The other gases component might increase or decrease with the occurring of secondary reactions. (7)–(11) are homogenous and secondary reactions. The main reactions in- volved could be expressed using the following Eqs. the total yield of gases products increased significantly as tem- perature increased from 700 to 1000 °C.2. The main gas products are H2. Eqs. CH4 and some C2 hydrocarbons traces (C2H4 and C2H6). Effect of reactor bed temperature on product yields The yields of final products from EFB gasification under differ- ent temperatures are shown in Fig. varying temperature showed a great influence on gas product components. char and tar yields reduced gradually. H2 content increased progressively from 10.%. creased to 33. (2)–(6) are principle or heterogenous gasification reactions whilst Eqs. the total gas yields increased sharply from 62.02 vol.36 vol.% as temperature increased to 800 °C. it can be concluded that higher temper- Fig.A. CO.. while liquid. As shown in Fig. (b) effect of temperature on product gas composition. leading to much more incondensable gases (including H2) generated.1558 M. 4. which are indic- ative to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose. Thermal degradation characteristics of EFB: (a) thermogravimetric analysis ature (1000 °C) is favorable for thermal cracking of tar and shift of EFB. more H2 can be obtained when secondary reactions occur significantly. 3b.%. Effect of temperature on EFB gasification yield: (a) effect of temperature on product yield. .84 to 14.72 vol. The C2H4 and C2H6 yields were relatively small and the influence of temperature was insignificant. (5). As a result. followed by big peaks around 300 °C. 3.27 to 38. As shown in Fig. (2)–(10) [35. Eqs. The thermal cracking of gas-phase hydrocarbons at high temperature might explain the variation of gas product distribution observed [35]. Therefore. The CO yield was initially increased from 21. reaction.7 wt. The distinction between hemicellulose and cellulose breakdowns was not fully understood but it had been established that hemicellulose broke down at lower temperature compared to cellulose [34]. the gas species generated from biomass at pyrolysis zone could undergo further reactions (secondary reac- tions) such as tar cracking and shifting reaction. whilst CO2 content decreased in general with temperature increasing. From the above analysis.

while char and tar yields increased with increasing was varied to investigate the effect of ER. The air flow rate entering the reactor size increased.4.0 mm. 5b. oxidization reactions are always strong. in this study then dropped to 18. which results 4. too high ER cause low concentrations of H2 CO. 5a.% at ER of 0.35 in increments of 0. with of feedstock particle size. the heating value of total gas products increase steadily as the temperature increases.83 to 2.35 MJ/m3.5 mm.%.12 wt.15 to 0. Effect of equivalence ratio (ER) on product yields in more CO2. Effect of feedstock particle size on product yields The second series of experiment was performed to establish the effect of feedstock particle size on the EFB gasification product yields. H2. LHV ¼ ð30:0xCO þ 25:7xH2 þ 85:4xCH4 þ 151:3xCn Hm Þx4:2 ð12Þ CO. MJ/m ) of the gas products can be calculated using the following equation [21.%. then decreased to and reached to maximum value of 27. respectively. LHV of gas products reached 15. CH4 and other hydrocarbon (C2H2 and C2H6) in the gas product.%. Increase yields and decrease in gases [37]. from 16.%. However.% to <0.66 vol. char and tar yield decreased from 13.5–1. 4a. In this work. 3a. 4. while gas yield in- a given time the core temperature is lower than of the surface. CO increased initially and then de- required for gasification to oxygen (air) required for stoichiometric creased.5 mm obtained the optimum the contrary.0 mm.5–1. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 1555–1561 1559 C þ O2 ! CO2 ð2Þ C þ ð1=2ÞO2 ! CO ð3Þ C þ CO2 ! 2CO ð4Þ C þ H2 OðgÞ ! CO þ H2 ð5Þ C þ 2H2 ! CH4 ð6Þ CO þ H2 O ! CO2 þ H2 ð7Þ CH4 þ H2 OðgÞ ! CO þ 3H2 ð8Þ CH4 þ CO2 ! 2CO þ 2H2 ð9Þ Tar þ H2 OðgÞ ! CO þ H2 O þ CH4 þ H2 þ Cm Hn ð10Þ Cm Hn þ nH2 O ! nCO þ ½n þ ðm=2ÞH2  ð11Þ 3 The lower heating value (LHV.15 to 0. CH4 and CnHm in the above equation are the molar ratio of the CO.% with further increase in ER. 4b showed that the smaller EFB particles produced more quality.75 to 86.38 to 12. In this study.% and 9. keeping final 72. and oxidization reactions of combustible product gases strengthen with ER.25 and 21.74 wt. while the feed. the smallest particle size of <0.5 produced a gas yield temperature of the reactor at 850 °C and feedstock particle size 73. gas turbine or boiler for power generation.0 mm with constant reactor temperature particle size on product gas composition. The total gas yield decreased with feedstock particle at range of 0. creased from 70. of 850 °C. As shown in Fig. H2.79 wt. CH4 and other hydrocarbons traces content were on stock particle size in range of 0.65 to causes greater temperature gradient inside the particle so that at 2. namely <0.3–0. which are similar with our findings.99 and 33.5–1.05 vol. while CO2.55 MJ/m3. H2. while particles size of 0. Through . CH4 and less CO2 than the larger ones. An increase in feedstock particle size increased in ER. As shown in was almost the same (32. for particle size of 0.3–0.3–0. the H2 content increased <0.93 vol.% respectively. However. They found The equivalence ratio (ER) is defined as the ratio of oxygen (air) that with increase in ER. CH4 and other hydrocarbons content were pro- combustion of a given amount of biomass [38]. ER gressively decreased. 4. (b) effect of feedstock 0.33 wt. As shown in Fig. about 2% higher than larger particle size of 0.3 mm produced a gas yield of 74.3–0.3 mm and 0. which belongs to be medium level of heat values for gas fuels that can be directly used for gas engine. Effect of feedstock particle size on EFB gasification yield at temperature of three different feedstock particle size ranges. At 1000 °C.57 vol. while it was observed that the smallest feedstock particle size of the CO2 content increased steadily.3.35.35].%. in ER increases oxidation reaction and decrease the product gas Fig. Mohammed et al.A. As shown in Fig.%) for particles size of Fig. 850 °C: (a) effect of feedstock particle size on product yield.%. which produced a gas yield of was varied from 0.5 mm and 0.3–0. Several groups [39–41] investigated the effect of ER in air gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed gasifier.05.3 mm.37 vol.5 mm.A. It can be explained that in the gasification process.42 vol. The lower heating value (LHV) which possibly gives rise to an increase in the char and liquids of the gases decreased slightly from 15. Also it can be used for the chemical formation of methanol and methane [31]. gas composition and highest LHV of gas product.3 mm obtained maximum yield of gas product.46 wt. with ER varied from 0. M. 36. while hydrogen yields and CO with high CO2 content in the product gas. the experiments were conducted by using Fig.82 wt.

7/kg = $2.69 t/y) Capital Gasifier RM 3119 Furnace RM5865 Construction RM1746 expenditure Total RM10730 Operation Feed RM2592 RM50/t. Conclusions 5.04 LHV gas increased with smaller EFB particle size.25 was found to LHV of gas (MJ/m3) 12. ER had complex CO2 26. The main products of EFB air gasification gasifier are estimated as follows: It is assumed that 6 kg/h (144 kg/ were solid charcoal.A.15 0. decreased. interest.% at .5 mm: (a) effect of equivalence ratio (ER) calculation result of H2 product cost from this system is RM 6.48 kg H2/d = 84.18/Nm3).0 CH4.2 0.18/Nm3 (b) H2 CO CH4 CO2 50 Table 5 Hydrogen cost through different process.1560 M.11 effect on the gasification products.55 MJ/m3 at 1000 °C. biomass particle size and equivalence ratio were tested to scale gasification unit. CH4 16.A.35 0. furnace and con- 0. % 30 $10/kg Electrolyzed hydrogen [42] $4.36 particle size produced more CH4.3–0. Items Data Note Capacity EFB: 144 kg/d (51. The capital 0 cost of this system covers fluidized bed gasifier.%) reached to 15. For comparison.25 0. CO. The operating parameters namely reactor tempera- in this study is given in Table 3. Due to the low efficiency of bench ture.84 be optimum to yield a maximum H2 production of 27. The ER of 0.25. the system needs to be scaling-up. tar and hydrogen-rich gas product. Mohammed et al. Effect of equivalence ratio (ER) on EFB gasification yield at temperature of Based on the operating parameters and data of capital cost.2 including H2. CH4. Table 5 presents other researcher’s cost analy- sis on H2 through different processes. determine their effects on total products yields.11/ cost kg: $0.28/kg Biomass pyrolysis with high-pressure [43] $1. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 1555–1561 (a) Table 4 Basis of cost analysis. liquid oil.5/ y Other 1% of capital cost RM107. was carried out in bench scale fluidized Performance data of fluidized bed biomass gasifier system used bed gasifier.7 for on product yield. the 850 °C and feedstock particle size of 0. Temperature was an important factor in this process. Vol. CO2 and Feed rate of EFB (kg/h) 6.488 kg/d (2.13 Nm3/d). smaller EFB CO 33. maintenance ER and other expenses are assumed as shown in Table 4. liquid and tar yields progressively Performance data on fluidized bed EFB gasifier. High temperature is favorable for the increasing gas products Feed rate of air (Nm3/h) 7. including collection and transportation Electricity RM3000/ RM0. product gas com- cipal costs of H2 production from EFB biomass using fluidized bed position and LHV gas. On top of that. one of the most abundant biomass found in Malaysia.3/ y H2 product RM 6. The prin. air gasification of EFB. it can be understood that the optimum value for ER is 0.70 influence on the total gas yield and gas composition. the analysis on the experimental results of varying ER. 6. 40 H2 cost Process Reference Yield. CO. 5.31 vol. Fig.4 struction expenditure. The gas products mainly consisted of H2.1 0. The LHV gas increased with temperature and Gasifier temperature (°C) 850 Gas composition (vol. (b) effect of equivalence ratio (ER) on product gas composition. Cost analysis In this study.69/kg Biomass gasification with CO-shift [44] 20 $2. CO and less CO2. Costs of operation.052 kg H2/kg EFB (7. As the tem- perature increased from 700 to 1000 °C the gas yield increased sig- Table 3 nificantly whilst solid.11/kg EFB ($0.28/kWh y Interest 10% of capital cost RM1073/ y Maintenance 5% of capital cost RM536.11/kg EFB air gasification This study 10 d) of EFB would be the raw material for gasification process to pro- duce 0.3 0. every kilograms of EFB which is equal to $2.84 t/y) H2: 7. which maxi- mum hydrogen content can be obtained. The EFB particle size had an H2 26.

com/hydrogen_extract.44:1875–84. Spliethoff H. [31] McKendry P. EFB ($2.35:7399–404. Pyrolysis of palm oil wastes for enhanced production of hydrogen rich gases. [33] Rozita O. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2009. Ind Eng Chem Res 1996. Chem Eng Sci 2009. Lee KT. 2007. Kakaras E. Energy Policy fuel gas production. Sanchez JL. [15] Cantrell KB. Ma L. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2003.10]. Air gasification of polypropylene [17] Biagini E. Effects of the composting and the heating rate on biomass gasification. Energy Sources 2005. Kastanaki E. of rice husk using supported nano-NiO/c-Al2O3 catalyst.31:1401–12. biomass as potential substitution raw materials for commercial biomass [34] Vamvuka D. [18] Kalinci Y. Zhou ZQ. Al-Taweel AM. Tong CC.99:7941–> [accessed 05. Zulkifli HS. Heil J.87:935–42. Bioresource Technol selected biomass samples. A study on the economic efficiency of hydrogen 897–909. Effect of cellulose and lignin content on pyrolysis and [6] Demirbas A. Fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches. Mohammed et al.5:179–83. An overview of hydrogen quality of the produced raw gas. Lee DH. Air [14] Navarro RM. Ugursal VI.12:1909–27. Sumathy K.A. 2002. [5] Laohalidanond K. Zhang M.mpoc. [29] Kelly-Yong TL. Energy Convers Manage 2003. Mohamed AR. production for energy supply in Hong Kong.28:939–44. [7] Malaysian palm oil council. palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.32:649–61. gasification with air. Air gasification of agricultural waste in a fluidized bed gasifier: hydrogen production performance. production from biomass.48: processes for hydrogen production from biomass fuels. Thesis.10]. Overview of biomass pyrolysis. Yields of hydrogen-rich gaseous products via pyrolysis from for cellulase production by Chaetomium globosum Kunze. Gonzalez J. Salleh MAM. Am J Appl Sci 2008. Effect of six operational variables on the [13] Ni M. Hamdullahpur F.62:1–9. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2010. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2010. Yan R. characteristics and kinetics of biomass residuals mixtures with lignite. Biomass gasification with air in an rmk9. Luo Z.34:8799–817. Hassan MA. Pena MA. Galvez A. Liang DT. 2006. Kumar S. Fuel Process Technol 2006.99:7911–22.parlimen. Chen H.cfm?&menuid=61> [accessed 07. feedstocks: fossil fuels and biomass. Fuel 2006.batteriesdigest.A.35:1–8. Hanna MA. Gonzalo A. Fuel Process Technol capital cost. Arauzo J. Masoni L. 1997. Bioresource Technol Fuel 2010.6:35–45. Seal D.14:552–7. [43] Iwasaki W. Leung DYC. the estimation cost of H2 from this system is RM 6.80:1885–91. Product yields and compositions. and analysis. Liao S. Wirtegen C. Production of ultrapure hydrogen from biomass Environmental Engineering.5:1–10. Moghadam RA. Oil Palm Ind Econ J Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for 1874–9. product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects. treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre for subsequent use as substrate [36] Demirbas A.10]. Pyrolysis Briquettes production. Sumathy K. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a [30] Abdullah N. Bioresource Technol 2008. Arin G. Chen B. Ph. Orio A. Jones DD. Grammelis. <http://www. time and air ratio on the air gasification of dried sewage sludge in a bubbling [16] Saxena RC.44:2289–96. Yan R. 2005. [10] Umikalsom MS.nitc. Fuel 2001. Based on the operating parameters and data of [21] Yang H. Weller CL. / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 1555–1561 1561 850 °C in this work.101:6381–8. 3.35:2110–20. Gaseous products from biomass by pyrolysis and gasification: from biomass.13–3. Fixed-bed pyrolysis of Cynara [11] The National IT Council Malaysia. et al. Int J Hydrogen Energy Biomass Bioenergy 2008. atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed. Andries J. M. Biomass-based hydrogen production: a review htm> [accessed 07. Aznar MP.10].23:951–7. The palm oil phenomenon. [28] Hamelinck CN. <www.85:2027–33. Chen Y. Leung MKH. Energy Fuels 2009. Fuel [9] Basiron Y. Wu CZ. Andries J. Naruse I. Ma AN. Fast pyrolysis of biomass in CFB reactor. The Energy Fuels 2000.18/Nm3). J Power Sources 2002. References [26] Sheth PN. Faaij A. Zhong Z.43: [44] Lv P. Production of hydrogen energy through biomass (waste wood) gasification. Liu J.82:1949–60. 2010.11/kg EFB = $0. Energy Convers Manage 2003.32:573–81. Gerhauser H. [25] Li J. Corella J. Ro KS. Rohaya Bioresource Technol 778– [38] Narvaez I. Energy Convers Manage 2007. 2000.87:461–72. Future prospect for production of methanol and [2] Demirbas A. Tognotti L.D. Simeh MD. Energies 2009. [32] Gani A.2:258–68.111:1–22. Abrego J. [41] Xiao R. KMITL Sci Technol J 2006. Faculty of Engineering. rich gas from biomass: a review. Carmona JA.pdf > [accessed 07. Gonzalez JF. Fuel Process Technol index. Energy Sources hydrogen from biomass. Universiti Pu. Karim MIA. p. 2008. Hydrogen production reactions from carbon gasification of rice husk in a dual distributor type fluidized bed gasifier. [27] Wang L. Leung MKH.7/kg 2006.17:315–32.89:2166–9. Dincer I. Hepbasli A.33: [20] Chen G. Ghaly AE. Grammelis P. Sulaiman F. Oil palm production. et al. [35] Dai XW. Feng W.27:327–37. Wu C. Comparative study of thermochemical plastic waste in fluidized bed gasifier. Zhou H. Hunt PG. [4] Chew TL. Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass.83:37–46. et al. Ariff AB.64:582–92.68:209–22. [37] Encinar JM. Jin B. Chem Rev 2007. <http://www. Zheng C. Choo YM. The production of synthetic diesel from Bioresource Technol 2002. Babu BV. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for hydrogen rich palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide. 2010. effects of catalyst on hydrogen yield. Bhatia S. Bioethanol from cellulosic materials: a renewable motor fuel from combustion characteristics for several types of biomass. A consideration of the economic efficiency of hydrogen production [19] Demirbas A. Hydrogen-rich gas production by air–steam gasification tra Malaysia for financial support on this project. Mohamad S. production from biomass residues in China. [42] Batteries Digest Website <http://www. Ducey T. Renew Energy biomass. Potential of renewable hydrogen gasification of biomass and its application to electricity and fuel production. Conesa JA. Universiti Putra Malaysia.24:471–82. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2008. Yuan Z. [22] Barneto AG. Alias AB. [39] Mansaray KG.35:5692–701. . Leung DYC. biomass. Potential of hydrogen from oil [3] Chen G. Thermo-chemical routes for hydrogen fluidised bed.107:3952–91. Spliethoff H. Biomass Bioenergy Azali cardunculus L. Energy Convers Manage 2002. [12] The Parliament of Malaysia. Contemporary issues in thermal [1] Ni M. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation [40] Manya JJ. Microwave pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch for synthesis gas [8] Nasrin AB. Bhatia S. Goyal HB. The author’s would like to thank Department of Chemical & [24] Ji P. Acknowledgements [23] Ghani WA. 2007. Fierro JLG. Influence of gas residence opportunities. Renew Energy 2007.