Clean 2008, 36 (5 – 6), 453 – 465 S. J.

Santosa 453

Sri Juari Santosa1
Review
1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of
Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Palm Oil Boom in Indonesia: From Plantation to
Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta,
Indonesia. Downstream Products and Biodiesel
Indonesia has been the biggest producer of palm oil (PO) in the world since 2005. The
total production in 2007 was 17.0 and 1.9 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and
crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), respectively. More than 70% of the CPO was exported
and 87% of the domestic consumption was used for food. The production and subse-
quent refining and fractionation of CPO and CPKO generated biomass by-products
that consists of trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fiber, shell, and palm kernel
meal (PKM), and discharged wastes of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as well as palm
fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The amount of by-products and wastes produced has been
growing very rapidly and efforts to diversify and improve their utilization are a great
challenge. As claimed in many research reports, the by-products and wastes could be
potentially utilized as sources of energy, animal feed, chemicals, paper pulp,
advanced materials, medicines and food ingredients. A more important role may be
played by PO as the Indonesian Government took further steps in 2006 to become the
world's largest producer of biodiesel. As a starting point, Presidential Instruction No.
1/2006 for the Production and Use of Biofuel as Alternative Fuel was issued in January
2006. Responding to this Presidential Instruction, at least 15 companies are planning
to establish new larger biodiesel refineries to enhance the currently produced 82.5
million L of biodiesel. It is planned to start production in 2008/2009 with two new
refineries that have a total capacity of ca. 1,600 million L/year.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Biofuel; Indonesia; Palm kernel oil; Palm oil;
Received: February 20, 2008; revised: March 27, 2008; accepted: April 15, 2008
DOI: 10.1002/clen.200800039

1 Introduction Elaeis guineensis was originally grown in the humid tropics of
Africa, mainly in the coastal belt between 108 N latitude and 108 S
Oil palm trees (Elaeis) belong to the Arecaceae family and comprise latitude. Elaeis oleifera (also known as Elaeis melanococca) is frequently
two species, i. e., Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera. The Elaeis guineensis found at riversides or in swampy areas of tropical Central and South
is native to West Africa while Elaeis oleifera is native to tropical Cen- America. The oil obtained from Elaeis oleifera is used locally for cook-
tral and South America. ing, soap manufacturing, and lamp fuel, but the plant has not been
cultivated on a commercial scale previously. For commercial pur-
poses, the tropical countries in Central and South America grew
Correspondence: Prof. S. J. Santosa, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of
Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip Utara Elaeis guineensis, which was first introduced to Guatemala from
Kotak Pos Bls. 21, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Sierra Leone in 1920, from Malaysia to Panama in 1926 and Hondu-
E-mail: sjuari@yahoo.com ras in 1927, and later other introductions were from Java (Indone-
sia) and Congo [1]. As a result, Elaeis guineensis is now spreading
Abbreviations: BPPT, Agency for Assessment and Application of Tech-
nology; CNO, coconut oil; CNOOC, China National Offshore Oil Corp.; throughout the tropical regions in the world with countries such as
COD, chemical oxygen demand; CPKO, crude palm kernel oil; CPO, Indonesia and Malaysia being the main producer of palm oil (PO)
crude palm oil; EFB, empty fruit bunch; EU, European Union; FFA, free from Elaeis guineensis. In addition to Indonesia and Malaysia, Thai-
fatty acid; FFB, fresh fruit bunches; HDL cholesterol, high-density lipo-
land and Papua New Guinea are the other important PO producers
protein cholesterol; LDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholester-
ol; Lemigas, Center for Oil and Gas Technology; MSG, monosodium glu- in Southeast Asia. Nigeria, Congo, The Ivory Coast, and Cameroon
tamate; NAD, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam; NSP, non-starch polysaccharide; are important countries producing PO in Africa, while Colombia,
Pertamina, state-owned petroleum industry; PFAD, palm fatty acid dis- Ecuador, Honduras, and Costa Rica are the main PO producers in
tillate; PHA, polyhydroxyalkanoate; PIR, Perkebunan Inti Rakyat; PKM,
America.
palm kernel meal; PO, palm oil; POME, palm oil mill effluent; ppm, part
per million; PTP, PT Perkebunan; RBDP olein, refined, bleached, and deo- PO has been an important commodity for thousands of years. It
dorized palm olein; RBDP stearin, refined, bleached, and deodorized may have been traded in Egypt, since archaeological evidence indi-
palm stearin; RBDPK olein, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm ker- cated that PO was most likely available in ancient Egypt. The excava-
nel olein; RBDPK stearin, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm kernel
tion of an early tomb dated to 3000 B.C. at Abydos, revealed a mass
stearin; RBDPKO, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm kernel oil;
RBDPO, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil of several kg of palm oil in a vessel. Even before the first civilizations

i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.clean-journal.com

this introduction did not lead to a plantation industry but only involved ornamental purposes [2].000 ha by 1925. the oppor. increased again during the Reformation Era which replaced the tations. and tations were nationalized and placed under the control of Perusa.1 Plantation Area plantation and a cheaper work force. see Fig. respectively. more and more farmers and small companies the portion of mature oil palm to the total plantation has decreased were attracted to cultivate oil palm.408 ha in been planted in Sumatra and this figure rose to 32. 5% just after the Asian financial crisis in 1997 to 1998 and gradually ernment in this New Order era actively expanded the oil palm plan. kernel husks recovered from the remaining chaff of the palm fruit were used as cattle feed during the industrial revolution [1].454 S. the government established a scheme sia became a net oil importer in July 2004 [7]. By 1919 more than 6. However. and therefore. primarily in North Sumatera to reach 176. Fig. 2002. In the last two years.117. the first foreign investors and domestic business groups for oil palm planta- large-scale oil palm plantation was set up by the Dutch trader Hallet tions. the target to supersede Malay- Over the next five years. The gov. In 2007. Until recently there were The fact that the domestic and world demand for vegetable oil three types of oil palm. respectively. For some years. namely dura. Weinheim www. lion ha. J. pisifera. rainfall. Later. with the availability of much larger areas of land for oil palm 2. four seedlings from Bogor were cultivated in Deli (East Sumatera) and it was Figure 1. has again accelerated the expansion of oil palm plantations in After Indonesia proclaimed and gained its independence in 1945. PO became more widely used during the Industrial Revolu- tion and was utilized as grease and to produce soaps. KGaA. When the price of PO in the international market was expansions in 2006 and 2007 were driven by the efforts of govern- exceptionally high in 1974. seven and nine times larger in 1994. The growth then fell to also led to changes in the policies for the oil palm sector. In addition. tic) companies [6].com . This superiority probably reflected the more optimal soils. where the state-owned companies provided seedlings. doubled again in 1991. 36 (5 – 6). smallholders and private (both foreign and domes- home. six. Since 2005.000 ha in 1985.000 ha. West Java). The mature plantation constituted 64% of the tunity for smallholders (farmers) to possess their own mills was total plantation area in 1998 and reached 76% in 2005. In the 1980s. four. the government handed out vast areas of land to both Southeast Asia. For this purpose.573 ha of state-owned plantations [3]. 2. and sunshine palm area after 1975 was a result of both the state-owned companies conditions for the oil palm in Southeast Asia than in its original and in addition. see Fig. when four seedlings were brought from Nigeria by the Dutch and planted in the botanical gardens at Buitenzorg (now Bogor. and 2006.000 ha had sia. the plantation area expanded from 176.65 million ha or more than ten times palm plantations covered an area of no more than 106. To achieve palm in Deli inspired traders to commercially plant oil palm in this target. five. haan Perkebunan Negara (the State Plantation Company) in 1957. The annual growth of oil palm plantation area from 1986 to 1997 The change of regime from Orde Lama to Orde Baru (New Order) tended to increase from 12 to 14%. greater than that in 1985. PO was eaten by populations living along the coast between Senegal. the mature oil palm area increased from 1. candles and lubricants. and tenera planted in including PO grew rapidly. an increase of mature oil palm plantation. In Europe. tech. efforts were made to increase the PO ment to accelerate the development of biofuel from PO after Indone- production. Malaysia was the world's biggest PO producer in the 1970s. which was followed by a plantation by his friend Fau. and all of the colonial plan. became three. 1. the Until the end of the Orde Lama (Old Order) regime in 1967.000 ha in 1990. Indonesia set a target to over- The relatively high yields and low risks involved in planting oil take Malaysia as the main worldwide producer of PO. Angola and the Congo River basin.clean-journal.83 to 4. From 630. the plantation area had the Dutch plantation system collapsed. 1997. than their counterpart in West and Central Africa. 1979 to 630. known as Perkebunan Inti Rakyat (PIR) or Nucleus Estate and Small. coupled with the need for biofuel as a Indonesia [4]. The accelerated increase in oil palm plantation area also yielded holder.000 ha in 1985. areas in Sumatera but also new areas in the eastern part of Indone- connier in Malaya in the 1910s. As a result. Expansion and annual growth of oil palm plantations in Indone- noticed that the trees grew more quickly and bore a richer fruit sia from 1985 to 2007.408 ha in 1979 Orde Baru in 1998. the growth of oil because of the vast expansion of new oil palm plantations in 2006 i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. the coverage of oil palm plantations in sia as the leading PO producer was still not achieved until the Sumatra was doubled [1]. These sharp bunan (PTP). Using the seedlings from the Deli palms. 1. the oil plantation area reached 6. With this PIR scheme. From the financial crisis nical assistance and finance to smallholders. PO produced in the 1930s to 1940s was 1990s. restricted mainly for use as a lubricant [3]. As a result. 453 – 465 appeared in Africa. tion. including 65. the growth has sharply through direct investment via the state-owned company PT Perke. 2004. 2000. Indonesia. increased to 1. Their crops were then to 2007. increased to 15 and 19% in 2006 and 2007. Tenera is the most widely cultivated palm in the world substitute for fossil fuels with their decreasing reserves and produc- because it gives the highest yield of oil per ha [5]. Santosa Clean 2008.39 mil- purchased by companies' mills [6]. These plantations were not only limited to the traditional in Sumatra. 2 Oil Palm Plantation The oil palm was first introduced to Southeast Asia in 1848. opened.

see Riau. Fig. tion is derived from Malaysian investment. 0. extensively and most of these palms (> 64%) had reached maturity 0.17. No. the proportions of large private Indonesia was in third position. The portion of large private sia. Figure 2. see Fig. Jambi. and the from the largest to the smallest in 2012 will be West Kalimantan. Bengkulu.6 2 China National Offshore Oil Corp. West Sumatera. Raja Garuda this has jumped to 17 million tons in 2007. the privatization of large estates was implemented predominantly Nigeria became the world's biggest PO producer in the 1960s. followed by North Sumatera. and 0. Malaysia. Consumption and Export dominated the oil palm plantation business. 2. e. Kalimantan. South East Sulawesi. the production of PO estates.8 million tons and tively. 453 – 465 Palm Oil Boom in Indonesia 455 Table 1. respectively. South Kalimantan. and Indonesia are the countries that consecu- and was conducted by the government in Orde Baru. The latest news indicates that the Astra Group will expand its oil While Indonesia has cheaper labor and copious quantities of land palm plantations in Sumatera. and 3 million ha. 3. North Sumatera. The breakdown of private estates involved in oil palm plan.2 Plantation by Company As described earlier.0 10 Surya Dumai Group 154. With the increasing demand for domestic consump- to reach 8. respectively. The proportion of PO production in estates. Central Kalimantan.000 that nearly 25% of Indonesia's current crude palm oil (CPO) produc- ha in 2008 [9]. This was caused by the Mas. (CNOOC) 1000.8 5 Raja Garuda Mas 259. see Fig.98 million ha was run by these taken by Indonesia in 2005. Riau.19. In by later governments in the Reformation Era. Mature oil palm area and its proportion of the total area under Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD). the PO production of Malaysia surpassed that of Nigeria. Sampoerna fact that in that period. Banten and West Java. Wilmar Holding. 33. see Fig. Nigeria. In 1998. This expansion that is planned export. Central Sulawesi. 4. while of oil palm plantations in 2006. as shown in Fig.com . PBB Oil Palm Bhd. to give a maximum production yield. more their ambition is to become the world's largest biofuel producer. the production of PO was 5. 0. in Indonesia began just after the financial crisis in the mid 1990s. Privatization by small- holders (farmers) occurred during the PIR scheme starting in 1975 Nigeria. South Sumatera. 5. 248 thousand tons for Malay- ca. South Sulawesi. the state-owned company 3 Production.Clean 2008. respectively [6]. South East palm. Malaysia was estates in 2007 was more than 50%. East Kalimantan.27. 36 (5 – 6).5 4 PBB Oil Palm Bhd 274. Private estates involved in oil palm plantation projects in 2007. Pupuk Kaltim will also enter the PO business by running 20.0 3 Sinar Mas 320.8 million tons for Malaysia. the ambition of the Indonesian government have long complained that Indonesia served as merely a source of to be the world's largest PO producer was achieved in 2005. the PO produced by Indonesia was mostly for sion of the oil palm plantation area. mature oil palm area is also estimated to increase significantly. and state-owned company involvement were in these three countries was 598.26 million ha in 2008 [8]. able to maintain its leading position until 2004 before being over- tation area of 6. The vast extension will be implemented in West Kalimantan. 4. (CNOOC) with plantation areas of 1. during the Orde Lama. Lampung. Efforts to reach this ambition involve pursuing the further expan. the order of oil palm plantation by province oil palm will be enlarged from 6. Central Sulawesi. e. respec. 3.26. The largest estates 14.. This fact was proven by the fact PT. Astra Group. 2.4 9 Sampoerna Agro 170. and Sulawesi to give a compared to Malaysia. Other estates. how to maximize these advantages. Sulawesi. and now raw material and cheap labor for Malaysia's better-funded. South Sumatera.90 million ha.. 1. Papua. The only areas where extension prospects are not available are Banten and West Java Prov- and 2007.65 to 8. sophisticated and considerably more profitable operations [10]. Bangka Belitung. respectively. In that year.1 6 London Sumatera 245. and Bangka Belitung Provinces.07 mil. smallholders.16 and 1. and 17%. Weinheim www. The sharp increase of PO production were the Salim Group and China National Offshore Oil Corp. i.. Estate Area (103 ha) 1 Salim group 1155. which has still not been accompanied by increased levels of i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. i. Lamp- ung. 0. tion. and East Kalimantan Provinces with 1 mil- lion ha each.1 lion ha in 2020. since from a total oil palm plan. 3.25. From 1965 to 1977. and eventually. Smaller extensions will also be implemented in West Sumatera.15 million ha. 1. and Surya Dumai Group are running plantation areas of 0. 0.90 million ha in 2012 will be extended again to 26.0 million tons for Indonesia and tation projects in 2007 is summarized in Tab.6 7 Wilmar Holding 210. Central Kalimantan. Fig. From 2007 to 2012.00 million ha. From 5. the total area for inces.32. Indonesian nationalists As mentioned above.21.6 million ha 1970. and a new player.65 million ha. Jambi. NAD. London Sumatera. 2005 by the two countries was 15.0 8 Astra Group 192. South Sulawesi. 50. 432. In summary.clean-journal. the oil palm plantation area was expanded Agro. and Papua Provinces with 5. tively occupy the position as the biggest PO producer in the world. Sinar Mas. and Indonesia. 0. KGaA. Bengkulu. it still lacks the capital and technical know- combined total of 0. South Kalimantan.

followed by that to is listed in Tab. In addition to PO. which is used in ing the price of petroleum. 453 – 465 Figure 3. Santosa Clean 2008. Indonesian people are accustomed to nally from Indonesia [13]. while the domestic consumption capacity.7%. (5.35 billion US$ in 2003. Egypt. The exported PO consists of crude and processed PO.com . Total crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) makes a greater contribution to the exports consisting of 2. the proportion of these products to the total exports from 2002 to 2005 export of CPO to India accounted for 37. 6. These tions. from 1965 to 2005. Germany. The Netherlands (8. 2 [6]. and other Figure 5. for frying oil. with aggressive expan. There are many varieties of fried foods in Indonesia. Nigeria. Approximately 80% of CPO imports into India are origi- for industry was only 11%.clean-journal. The remaining CPO was exported to the Indonesia also exports palm kernel oil (PKO). After 1998. and Pakistan (5. With a total export of CPO worth 2. J.0%). The Fig. and domestic consumption balanced the export requirements in the nearly all these foods need oil for their preparation. is twice that of its production growth domestic consumption in 2005. China (15. since the price of CPO at that time was US$ Indonesia's exports of PKO.. 36 (5 – 6). follow- of Indonesia's exports of palm kernel meal (PKM). India was the main CPO importer in the world in 2003/2004. China.5%). the price of CPO has climbed to US$ 915/ton. Malaysia (7. period between 1977 and 1998. The domestic consumption of PO is mostly for food The recent growth in consumption of edible oil in India. Bangladesh. Weinheim www. Europe typically buys 61% of 2. Singapore essed PO to exports is higher than that of CPO. i.0%). Malaysia. lowed by the European Union (EU). the fried foods. Today. Unlike the PO.5%). Exported and domestic consumption of palm oil in Indonesia countries. the USA. fol- sion of oil palm plantations and the dominance of mature planta.456 S. This accounts for 87% of total from 700 to 800 million tons. countries were also the destination for Indonesian CPO export. primarily for use in cosmetics. It appears that the contribution of the proc. and Saudi Arabia. exports once again significantly surpassed domestic con. As a competitor of India in consuming i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. and Pakistan [12].35 billion US$ were achieved in 2003 from total export than the processed oil. which has exceeded US$ 100/barrel [13].7%). e. Italy. and more precisely. production due to the oil palms that were newly planted.89 million ton of CPO. Figure 4. The existing and planned exten- sion of oil palm plantation area by province in Indonesia. KGaA. and 87% 813/ton. see sumption. animal feed [11]. Palm oil production of Indonesia.

The normally expected range of production varies between 20 tion should produce PO with a moisture content of 0. edible oil. and cultivation practices.1 Processing then dried using steam so that the water content is reduced to 7% The FFB have to be processed within 24 h or otherwise free fatty [6].52 706 198 904 36. depending on genetic characteristics impurities of 0. yield their oil content.94 770 230 1000 10.08% and to 25 tons of FFB per hectare. which is then suitable for export [6]. Before the oil palm fruits are extracted to pared to the same period in 2006. The extraction is typically performed by pressing with a screw-type press to release the oil.49 6. Weinheim www.97 2005 4. and enzymes. and by-products of empty bunch.82 4.66 35. and then the dissolved Oil palm is harvested as fresh fruit bunches (FFB) throughout the water in the oil is removed by vacuum evaporation. tle to loosen the mesocarp. In order to avoid the action of the duce CPO and kernel.38 0. All CPO and kernel were cm2 and then the fruits are separated from the bunch stalk [6].84 8. The kernels are 4.30 18.34 million tons during [14].53 6. they are first reheated in a steam-heated ket- rently mainly from Malaysia and Indonesia. separated. which contains PO. The fiber and shell by-products are used as fuel for the boiler sta- acids will be built-up rapidly due to the action of fat splitting tion.02%. i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.89 3.57 2004 3. 453 – 465 Palm Oil Boom in Indonesia 457 Table 2.34 – 595 143 738 – 2003 2.clean-journal. which contains PKO. The oil is then purified to remove the water and Utilization impurities to produce CPO. This represents a 4. The import of China's CPO is cur.81 3. since there was no kernel crushing plant or refin- separation process following the sterilization is known as stripping ery plant for CPO and CPKO in Indonesia. the nuts are fed into a nut cracker and the mixture of kernels and shells exiting this nut cracker is sep- arated by use of a winnower and hydro-cyclone. After sufficient drying. The extracted oil contains water and impurities originating from the mesocrap and other veg- 4 Processing. see Fig. It is transported by the screw-type cake breaker con- mesocarp in the outer part. oil palm in Indonesia was only processed to pro- enzymes in the mesocarp. The water and the impurities are first removed by settling and centrifugation. Before 1980.4% increase com. The oil palm fruit composes of nuts and fibers. and kernel with veyor to a separating column and fiber cyclone where the nuts are hard shell in the inner part. 36 (5 – 6).com . KGaA. the FFB must be sterilized by steaming at a pressure 3 kg/ shell for use as fuels for the boiler stations. Refinery and Product etable materials.54 5. The rate of oil extraction averages between 21 and 23%. The empty bunches are then sent to the boiler station to be the last nine months of 2007.76 10. 7. Good clarifica- year. This directly exported. fiber. Main exports (higher than 100 million US$) of Indonesian crude palm oil (CPO) by country in 2003.95 523 137 660 – 10. used as fuel. Export of palm and palm kernel oils from Indonesia for 2002 to 2005. The FFB is brought by trucks or other The cake produced as a residue of the oil extraction consists of modes of transport to the PO mills.62 Figure 6. Year Palm oil (106 ton) Palm kernel oil (103 ton) Crude Processed Total Growth (%) Crude Processed Total Growth (%) 2002 2.Clean 2008. China raised its import of CPO to 3.

which melts to a brown liquid on heating. Vitamin E can be extracted from PFAD [15]. e. used in the manufacture of margarines and shortenings. cosmetics. KGaA. Hence. shortenings. This separates a clear yellow liquid at room temperature. It is used for industrial frying oil. see Fig.com . detergents. named as a refined. As with most other vegetable oils. in the production of margarine and shortenings only between 4.. bleaching. ice cream. 36 (5 – 6). i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. a refined.5%. 453 – 465 tralize free fatty acids that may develop a rancid taste due to their reaction with oxygen in the air. RBDP stearin for edible uses is used for 4. A portion of the RBDPKO downstream products of CPO and CPKO have also been generated. their properties need to be modi- fied in order to extend their range of utilization. in the soap Kernel crushing plants as well as CPO and CPKO refineries were and oleochemical industries [3]. Current process operation and products of palm oil mills and RBDP olein and RBDP stearin are used for different end-products. PFAD is used in the soap and animal feed indus- tries as well as a raw material for oleochemical industries. CPKO and palm kernel meal As for PO. bleached. shampoos.458 S. and deodorizing. RBDPKO is used in edible between 21 and 23%. RBDP olein for edible applications is sold as cooking oil. include its use in the production of soaps. it is a light brown solid at room temperature. and deodorized palm (RBDP) olein from a white solid at room temperature named as RDBP stearin. and in the industrial frying of processed foods. a source for producing specialty fats for coatings in confectionery. bleached. Neutralization is required to neu. kernel crushing plants in Indonesia. Figure 7. Downstream products obtained from crude palm oil (CPO) and crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). g. detergents. While the average rate of oil extraction from mesocarp is RBDPK stearin as the solid component. RBDPK stearin is widely used to substi- tion.2 Refinery and Product Utilization margarines and shortenings.. The refining of CPO and CPKO primarily consists of neutraliza. and other products [3]. g. In the case of PFAD. PKM as a by-product of CPKO is currently and in non-edible areas. This means that the PO is cooled under controlled conditions. 8. (PKM) have been domestically produced. established in the 1980s. palm oil mill commonly used as cooking and frying oil and as the base oil for the effluent (POME) is generated as waste. separating the high melting point components in the oil from the low ones. soaps. POs in its original condition have a limited application. soap. Through neutralization. is fractionated into RBDPK olein as the liquid component and see Fig. tute for the more expensive cocoa butter in many of its traditional Figure 8. The applications in non-edible fields carded to ponds or used as landfill filler. POME is only dis. Santosa Clean 2008. To date. In addition to PKM. Weinheim www. bleaching. Fractionation is the most common secondary process undertaken in most oil refin- eries. manufacturing of margarine.clean-journal. condensed milk. margarines. and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) is obtained from CPO and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is produced as a by-product. This is achieved by blowing steam through the heated oil and a vacuum draws off the steam along with the smells and tastes [3]. the refining of CPKO firstly yields refined. RBDPK olein is discarded due to its grittiness.5 and 5. 7. e. and various and deodorized palm kernel oil (RBDPKO). and lubricants [3]. Deodorizing is performed to remove any smell and taste in the oil. RBDPO is a light yellow liquid or semi-solid at room temperature. J. and deodorizing. the average rate of extraction from kernel is applications. and for non-edible uses. Bleaching is used to remove color and dissolved impurities. Since then. bleached. An adsorbent such as zeolite may be employed for this purpose. etc.

confectionery. cocoa butter substitute. (4). the oils from oil palm can be extracted from In spite of the fact that PO and PKO only originate from different the mesocarp and kernel. On the other hand. http://palmoilis.8 326 0. Weinheim www. The domination of long chain saturated fatty Pharaohs in ancient Egypt. dated to 3000 B. One hectare of oil palm may yield 3. soybeans [2]. and linoleic acid.880 0. but they are highly different in their major CPKO is removed from the kernel. 5 Chemical Composition and Product (3) Diversification Oil palm is the most productive tree for producing oil.mpob.1 * International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry applications.920 – 0.com. www.853 44.8 0.clean-journal. fiber.6 383 0. CPO is obtained from the mesocarp.my/publications/pod35-pantzaris. RBDP olein.12-octadecadienoic (16 mmHg) acid Others – – – – – 0.12-octadecadienoic acid CH3(CH2)4CH=CH(CH2)CH=CH(CH2)7COOH –5 229 0. and hence. thus producing fats with different melt. acid.wikipedia. hydrogen is added to unsaturated fatty acids to convert them to saturated fats. As will be described later. and sesame seeds [17]. azelaic. as well as a mixture of ance superior to that of cocoa butter.org).3 Caprylic acid Octanoic acid CH3(CH2)6COOH 16 – 17 237 0. sunflowers. Hence. In some instances. and other food ingredients for acid is the most dominant fatty acid in PO.com . (3) and pimelic acids. chocolate. 5].chemblink.6 Palmitic acid Hexadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH 63 – 64 351 – 352 0. RBDPKO. In the refinery plant.2 48. followed by saturated myristic acid (16%) and monounsatu- PO has likely been an important commodity even in the times of the rated oleic acid (15%). the analyst con- baking.gov. 3. Rearrangement (interesterification) is a process that alters the distribution of fatty acids in the glycerol moiety of the triglyceride. (1) and glycerol.htm.1 Chemical Composition As described before. lyzed and oxidized during its long storage [1]. followed by monounsaturated oleic acid and di-unsaturated RBDPO.4 1.1 7. The by-products of oil extraction chemical composition. The latter compounds are normal For certain purposes such as in manufacturing margarines. shell. www. RBDPK stearin exhibits perform. partly hydro- further processes such as hydrogenation and rearrangement (inter. (2) ing and crystallisation characteristics compared to the non-interes- terified fat [16].862 1.8 is-9-octadecenoic acid Linoleic acid (Z)-9. ice cream.7 Myristic acid Tetradecanoic acid CH3(CH2)12COOH 58. In hydrogenation. snacks. see Tab. coconuts. and POME. the oils and fats can be (1) modified to yield products of varying degrees of hardness. This value is much higher than that of rapeseed.inchem. Major chemical constituents of palm and palm kernel oils (compiled from [3. esterification) are required. to increase the oxidative stability and melting point of the oils. PO is rich in saturated palmitic include EFB. peanuts.7 tons of CPO. Since the long-chain saturated fatty acids are i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. while parts of the same fruit. http://en. 36 (5 – 6). cluded that the original material was probably PO.5 Stearic acid Octadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH 69. 453 – 465 Palm Oil Boom in Indonesia 459 Table 3.0 14.1. mainly of palmitic acid. A chemical analysis of a sample of the acids in PKO makes PKO stable towards oxidation and gives it sharp tomb at Abydos. PKO is richest in saturated lauric acid 5.900 10.895 39. oxidation products of fatty acids. RBDPK olein.8 Oleic acid (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH 13 – 14 360 0. palmitic enings.7 Lauric acid Dodecanoic acid CH3(CH2)10COOH 44 – 46 298 0. jojoba. found that the sample consisted melting properties.sjlipid. short.1 Palm and Palm Kernel Oils (49%). and biscuits.910 – 4. (2). (4) 5.C.893 – 3. Since its proportion of unsaturated fatty acids is some- RBDPK stearin are obtained with PFAD as the by-product. what higher than saturated ones. RBDP stearin. PKM.6 2.6 Cia. KGaA.847 4.Clean 2008. PO is relatively unstable towards oxidation. thus giv- ing a wider range of utilization.cis-9..org/documents/icsc/icsc/ eics530. www.1 15. Depending on the extent of hydrogenation.pdf). Constituent IUPAC* Name Molecular Physical Property Content Formula (%) Melting Boiling Density Palm Palm Ker- point (8C) point (8C) (g/cm3) Oil nel Oil Caproic acid Hexanoic acid CH3(CH2)4COOH –3 202 – 203 0.com.2 Capric acid Decanoic acid CH3(CH2)8COOH 31 269 0. fats.

ubiquinone. i. e. etc. (6) Ubiquinone. function as antioxidant synergists and as a sur. 1% of minor substances such as phospholipids. is a substance responsible for the production of the body's own energy.3-squalene terol) and reduced the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) choles- oxide which undergoes enzyme-catalyzed cyclization to produce terol (bad cholesterol) in the blood. (8). Unfortunately. squalene. PKO may be heated without the risk of creating harmful trans-fatty acids. myristic. four an anti-oxidant and can be used to sequence damaging free radicals tocopherols and four tocotrienols. g. The three ali- phatic unsaturated bonds are responsible for this effect. g.com . [21. PO also contains ca. Saturated fatty acids such as lauric. Therefore. inhibition of the entry of white blood cells into arterial walls to become devouring phagocytes. Therefore. unsaturated fatty acid dominated oil must be processed by hydrogenation. It is the substance responsible for the reddish color of gen atom to reduce free radicals such that they are good anti-oxi- PO.. (6). From the point of view of fatty acid composition. PKO is very similar to coconut oil (CNO). in order to meet the desirable texture and stability. (9). high concentrations of coenzyme Q are found in organs having high energy requirements. Natural vitamin E may exist in eight different forms. vitamin A. Oxidation of its terminal double bond yields 2. a-. regression of atheroscler- otic plaques in stroke patients.clean-journal. (7). Hydrogenation not only transforms unsaturated (8) fatty acids to saturated ones but also generates unnatural monoun- saturated trans-fatty acids. especially against skin and breast cancers. this substance is unstable at elevated tempera. and lungs..460 S. KGaA. In addition to anti-oxidant and anti-cancer efficacy. 22]. (10). and Tab. the risk of monounsaturated trans-fatty acid formation is acid (retinoic acid). b-carotene. 36 (5 – 6). Santosa Clean 2008. Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. the fractionation of PKO yields RBDPK stearin as the major fraction. The major form is an alcohol is not so important for the saturated fatty acid dominated PKO. As summarized from various sources by May [23]. In each human (10) cell. b-. 4. followed by cholesterol and other steroids. i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. inhibition of blood clot formation in the bloodstream (anti-thrombotic effect). In addition to fatty acids as the major (9) component. This substance is also known as coenzyme Q in which Q refers to the quinone chemical group. As a form of retinol. The improvement of stability achieved for unsaturated fatty acids Vitamin A exists in several forms. Among the 17 major oils and fats in use for world trade. (5). Tocotrienols have also anti-can- cer effects. and protec- tion of skin from damage by the ultra-violet rays of the sun [24]. tures. e. b-carotene. the heart. is also nols. absent. liver. Vitamin E is a series of compounds consisting of methylated phe- face active agent to disperse impurities in oil. and d-tocotrienol. is a biochemical precursor to the entire family of that PO intake increased the levels of HDL cholesterol (good choles- steroids. It is claimed that the consumption of mono trans-fatty acids increases harmful LDL cholesterol levels in the blood. Natural tocotrienols exist in four different isomers. J. This claim by the WHO was con- tested by Chu-Sing [20] who cited many research outcomes showing Squalene. PKO and CNO are the only (7) two vegetable oils enriched in lauric acid [18]. As mentioned above. lowering of blood cholesterol levels. and palmitic acids had been claimed by the WHO in 2003 to have effects such as increasing blood cholesterol and total to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio levels. e. Phospholipids. the concentration of these minor components in CPO is typi- cally in the range of tens to hundreds of parts per million (ppm). c-. All of them can donate a hydro- in the body. It can also exist as an aldehyde (retinal) or as an result. dants. This makes PKO more acceptable for use in edible applications and justifies its generally higher price com- pared with most other oils.. and vitamin E. many studies have demon- (5) strated that tocotrienols have amazing beneficial health effects. i. food energy is converted into energy in the mitochondria with the aid of coenzyme Q. thereby preventing early plaque formation. Weinheim www.. lanosterol. 453 – 465 solid at room temperature. Type of phospholipids where R1 and R2 are alkyl chains. with a concomitant increase in the risk of coronary heart disease [19]. e.

. bleached. 60% in fiber [26]. and other compounds (0. and ash (4. nents such as b-carotene.7 37. group of the glycerol is replaced by a fatty acid radical.27 to 2. the proportion of fatty acids as the main component will 3 c-tocotrienol CH3 CH3 H 4 d-tocotrienol CH3 H H be somewhat enhanced in RBDPO and RBDPKO than their precur- sors.clean-journal.3 8. 80% in EFB [25]. e.2 0. and thus. and shell have similar major elemental composition with carbon as the most abundant element. and tocopherol.0%). The structure of the four different isomers of tocotrienol with their 5. its hydrogenated forms (phytostanols).3 the stearin fraction has more high melting components such as Ash 7. and their Table 6. linoleic acid. The similarity is also observed in their major chemical com. Holocellulose is the dominant compound with an abun. 5. The content of essential amino acids in palm wide applications in nutraceuticals and functional foods.17 0.27 0.000 ppm and total solids level of 4% tosterols reduced the cholesterol absorption and lowered total [29]. PFAD contains a variety sources.0%). and Deodorized Palm and Palm associated R-groups. oil phytosterols contained in PFAD was mainly in the form of b-sitos- (5. fiber.28 Histidine 0. (11).1.77 Isoleucine 0. crude protein (9. Composition of essential amino acids in palm kernel meal (PKM) and palm oil sludge (POS).com . the material Phytosterols present themselves as compounds having anti-cancer that remains after decanting the POME.6%) [33]. and 75% in shell [27]. Lignin is the most common other compound in these three materi. Palm Oil Mill Effluent EFB.6 melting point components such as oleic and linoleic acids. RBDPO olein produced by the Daabon Group. 3% higher than the amount in PO.60 Tryptophan 0. vitamin A. 13% [32]. and may be used directly serum and LDL cholesterol levels in animals and humans [34.0%).8%).4 Palm Fatty Acid Distillate quence. which is ca. Amino acid Content (%) Amino acid Content (%) PKM POS PKM POS Arginine 2. and phytosterols als. Minor compo- Table 5.3 0.34 Leucine 1. Weinheim www.1. The use of oil sludge is typically smaller than that in PKM.2 1. while O 36. see Tab. and tion range of 0. tosterols.2 Empty Fruit Bunch.14 Phenylalanine & tyrosine 1. of different compounds such as free fatty acids (FFA).05 0. FFA is the main dance of ca.90 0.54 0. 35]. diacyl. and lauric acids. palm oil sludge.8 47.63 0. also contains many kinds of and cholesterol-lowering properties. squalene. KGaA. glycerols.6%). phytosterols. The solid in PKM. EFB Fiber Shell bleaching.0 6. while the RBDPO stearin produced contains palmitic acid levels that are 12% 5. Ash and major elemental composition of empty fruit bunch (EFB). myristic. neutralization. and deodorized oils.20 0. proteins (3. fiber (13. terol (58%).2 52. As a conse. Unlike the major constituents. Fiber.21 Valine 0. as fertilizer [30]. (12).4 Fractionation. OH groups of glycerol that are replaced by fatty acid radicals. fiber also contains lipids (0.3 ponents in neutralized. According to Koba and Ishizaki [26]. and the remainder are campesterol (26%). As an example.3 Refined. 5 [14].36 i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. and deodorizing may affect the existence of minor com- H 6. stigmasterol (16%). fiber. b-caro- Element Contents (%) tene can be thermally degraded to hydrocarbons and removed by the deodorization step in refining [21].3 6. and triacylglycerols) compose ca.56 0.20% can also be found.12 Lysine 0. i.19 Methionine & cystine 1. phy- positions. PKM typically con. these materials are basically suitable for use as good fuel As a by-product of CPO and CPKO refining. Hence. palmitic.0%). 36 (5 – 6). The olein fraction contains more low N 0. squalene.Clean 2008. and higher than the original content in PO [31].5%). they are finding essential amino acids. the proportion of minor constitu- ents may be considerably changed after the refining. see Tab. and shell (dry basis). and vita- min E are generally sensitive to treatment such as bleaching.2 stearic.7 36. PKM is useful as a source of protein in compounding animal feed diacyl and triacylglicerols are substances with two and three H on and has favorable calcium to phosphorus ratio. respectively. component with a proportion of ca. Many essential amino acids in the concentra. Columbia contains oleic acid (42. Bleached. The tains carbohydrates (48. Palm Kernel Meal.4 0. Shell. Kernel Oils No Type R1 R2 R3 The major constituents of RBDPO and RBDPKO should be similar to those of CPO and CPKO. Since the impurities are 1 a-tocotrienol CH3 CH3 CH3 removed during the refining of CPO and CPKO to RBDPO and 2 b-tocotrienol CH3 H CH3 RBDPKO.9%). (13) [33].98 0.28 0. glycerols (monoacyl. ubiquinone. see Tab.35 Threonine 0. 453 – 465 Palm Oil Boom in Indonesia 461 Table 4. POME is composed of water (96%) with a typical chemical oxygen Several studies have demonstrated that the consumption of phy- demand (COD) of more than 40. Similarly. on the other hand. 84%.70%). 6 [28].4 3. modifies the major compo- S 0. The solid has a high nutrient content.1. C 48. 6.2 nents of RBDPO and RBDPKO. Monoacyl glycerols are substances where one H on OH (1.

namely i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.1. Weinheim www. From 70. used boiler type is the low pressure water tube boiler. respectively. The effect of mass distribution on the production of palm and palm kernel oils. palm plantation.3. and POME. ponds of POME. The burning of EFB pro. trunk and fronds are also just stored or Expanding very rapidly in size and number. Santosa Clean 2008.39 million ha of it being mature oil and EFB are not available.com . 453 – 465 esters in functional food formulations as a cholesterol lowering agent has now been well-accepted by consumers.462 S. i. 20. burned on the farms to give organic and inorganic nutrients for use sents another opportunity for improved utilization of its by-prod. It is technologically million tons of FFB and ca. fiber. Indonesia had ca. see Fig. The plantations in 2007 produced 70. 5. 9.3. It is estimated that ca.1 million tons) and frond (57.5 million tons of EFB. and thus. In 2007. PKM has 5.. 5. especially in the off season when fiber. such as dairy and beef cattle require two types of feeds. EFB. reduces pathogenic bacteria and increases the population of fuel for the boilers. fiber and kernel levels of at least 40% in the diet. [36]. which is a valua- ble source for animal feed. the PO industry repre. PKM. shell. 5.2 Product Diversification As happens for EFB. 6. PKM and PFAD can be used incinerators at the PO mills with no heat recovery or just burned on in animal diets with some beneficial effects. Both mannose ture is determined by the type of boiler used. Ruminant animals consumption [14].8 mil. The addition of PKM in the chicken shell can be used to produce energy. 36 (5 – 6). (11) (12) (13) Figure 9. Alternatively.2. of palm kernel meal non-starch polysaccharide (NSP). 64 million tons of biomass in the form of possible to harvest biogas from anaerobic digestion of effluent trunk (6. J.9 million tons).5. another waste. lipid peroxidation in muscles that would translate to longer shelf- vides beneficial ash as fertilizer to the palm fields but generates air life for seafood products. were generated as the by-products and wastes Fig. The ratio between fiber and shell in the fuel mix. A mixture of fiber and shell is diet reduces the feed digestibility due to he high dietary fiber of the main solid fuel used by PO mills to produce the steam used to PKM but increases the feed intake.000 m3 of biogas could be lion tons of FFB. e. pollution. shell.2 Animal Feed The palm industry produces PKM as a by-product. Wing-Keong et al. The inclusion of PKM in the diet improves the immune system of While the fiber and shells are currently being used entirely as birds.2.8 POME may be utilized to produce gas energy. 2. KGaA. [37] the farms.65 million ha of total for power production. were obtained as the main products and 16. According to Sundu et al. The most commonly and manno-oligosaccharides have been reported to act as prebiotics. 2. It is possible that fibrous by-products such as EFB and fiber could mentary fuel to ensure sufficient supplies of solid fuel for boiler be used as a feedstuff for ruminant animals.clean-journal. 8.1 Energy Sources no anti-nutritional properties. EFB is disposed of on the farms as a source claimed that PFAD in catfish diets could offer protection against of organic matter after its decomposition. is usually burned in non-pathogenic bacteria in the intestine. 17 million tons of PO and 1. Mannan is the main component process the FFB. and 47. It has been proposed that EFB could be used as a supple.9 million tons of PKO obtained per day from a 60 ton FFB mill operating for 20 h. These trunks and fronds can actually be used as fuel ucts and wastes. on the fields. its inclusion is safe up to The biomass generated at the PO mills such as EFB. oil palm plantations with 4.

and Use of Biofuel as Alternative Fuel. linoleic acid. Malaysia.2. furan. universities. and iron [29]. The recovery of these compounds from PFAD is big concern and is the subject of intensive research. sia took further steps in 2006 to become the world's largest pro- ble to those of hardwood kraft pulps.7 Biofuels 5. Miura et al. and tocopherol. For years.2. and environmentally cleaner (clean tant uses of EFB in the future. in January 2006. in 1996 [42]. 5. resins alkyl esters. a memorandum of understanding (MoUs) was signed tion with ZnCl2 and subsequent pyrolysis. The lignin fraction of oil palm biomass is a alcohol such as methanol and ethanol can be used in creating the potential source of phenolic resins. see reaction (14).clean-journal. the President of Indo- pulp might be used as a reinforcement component in newsprint nesia issued Presidential Instruction No. The cellulose component can be hydrolyzed to process of conversion of PO into biodiesel involves transesterifica- yield glucose from which ethanol.2. 2007. heart disease and obesity. Since then. 453 – 465 Palm Oil Boom in Indonesia 463 roughage (high fiber but low protein) and concentrates (high pro. squalene. citric acid. including the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources 5. [38] also pointed out that a molecular been putting greater effort into attracting foreign investors. A combined research group from Japan. However. KGaA. the govern- More advance research has also been conducted for frond. as an essential part of the overall fight against global warming. alcohols.2. a major player in the global biofuel industry. different national and polymer through a freeze concentration pretreatment of POME and private banks and credit institutes have financed the opening of subsequent cultivation using bacteria such as Rhodobacter has been new oil palm and jatropha plantations. The solid concentrate of POME is rich in essential amino acids dient and may help manage and lower the risk of diabetes. giving instruction to various ministries.4 Paper Pulp Due to the increase of fossil oil price and the depletion of its reserves. and Indonesia has successfully obtained high quality pulp from EFB The Indonesian government is preparing plans to make Indonesia using both acetosolv. calcium. logically. 5. Both types of feeds are in high demand espe. the technology and economics of this particular application can replace fossil fuels in transportation and the plants from which are not yet clear. Similar cal pulping such as sulfite. by blending EFB with many types of materials such as polypropy- tein and low fiber). lene [40].5 Advanced Materials and the Ministry of Agriculture. hot water treatment and a two-stage liquid phase oxidation [38]. As a start. fatty acid alkyl esters. soda-sulfite and soda processes. Many types of and furfuryl alcohol. the moisture content palm fiber extracted from the trunk has been shown to be an excel- of this material is likely to be too high to render it an economical lent antioxidant and is thought to promote glucose metabolism source of feed. furfural. renewable. 5. vitamins. phytosterols. potassium. colon and inorganic nutrients such as sodium. Fiber ment has backed research into biofuel that was initially pioneered strands from the frond of oil palm were examined relative to their by the Center for Oil and Gas Technology (Lemigas) and the state- physical and chemical characteristics and their response to chemi. obtained through chemical transformation. Pertamina. the frond fibers are comparable to those of hardwood. The biggest potential is in Oil palm biomass may be a potential feedstock raw material for respect to the conversion of PO into methyl esters (biodiesel). Weinheim www. How. 1/2006 for the Production production by using softwood thermomechanical fibers [39]. On Jan- sieving carbon could be obtained from kernel shell after impregna. creating fatty acid upon hydrolysis. research is now extending to many research institutes. 36 (5 – 6). Hemicelluloses. Morpho.3 Chemicals PO is a good raw material for liquid fuel. The government has also conducted [38].com .4 billion in biofuel in Indonesia. Indone- soda process exhibit acceptable papermaking properties compara. It is more efficient. the biodiesel is produced absorb CO2 as they grow. biodiesel has shown potential as a substitute for fossil fuel.6 Medicine and Food Ingredients The condensate from POME is another possible source of animal Oil palm trunk fiber has shown potential as a functional food ingre- feed. to speed up the production and use The production of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) bio-degradable of biofuel as alternative fuel [43]. cially as the availability of grazing land is now becoming extremely limited. It has been hailed that the paper pulp quality obtained from EFB is favorable. and butanal can be tion of the triglyceride to fatty acid alkyl esters.and ethanosolv-processes [38]. The major investors i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. owned petroleum industry. which plex fatty acid. The study showed that frond ducer of biodiesel. nology (BPPT). mag. and other possible products. cancer. The chemical industries. Chemical pulps of 45 to 50% yield produced either by soda-sulfite or After becoming the world's biggest PO producer in 2005. and removing the glycerol by-product. As described previously. Another finding stated that oil nesium. and the state-run Agency for Assessment and Application of Tech- They contain a high content of holocellulose but are low in lignin. also Transesterification involves taking a triglyceride molecule or a com- present in the biomass can yield pentoses especially xylose.2. glycerols. PFAD contains various valuable different com- pounds such as FFA. the resulting biodiesel is Small molecule fatty acids and pure cellulose were successfully fatty acid methyl ester which has suitable viscosity. If methanol is used. can be converted to xytitol. Some preliminary research has shown burning and does not produce net CO2 emission). Various composites with by a total 59 energy firms and institutions for their commitment to excellent physical and chemical properties have also been afforded invest US$ 12. neutralizing the free fatty acids. manganese. Condensates from (14) the PFAD have also been examined as substrates for fermentation processes to produce ethanol. It appears that paper pulp may be potentially one of the most impor.Clean 2008. It ever. boiling point recovered from oil palm shell by using a new method combining a and a high cetane number for use as a fuel. monosodium glutamate (MSG). uary 9. and manage healthy cholesterol levels in sufferers of diabetes [41].

Instead of involving ucts. 36 (5 – 6).9 million tons) as well as 16. ronmental care for the common Indonesian. The planting concessions and planned pro. ca. CPO is the main upstream product total production capacity in 2006 was 82. Studies on the conversion of PO to to their mixes. 7. Various research findings show that they can and the Indonesian government is also intending to create eight potentially be diversified into sources of energy. chem- additional small refineries. Indofood Asianagro Sumiasih Sumatera. and year.5 million tons of EFB.. EFB. Domestic biodiesel retail sales in Indonesia are now estimated at More recently PO has played an important role in the develop- one ton per day. The refining of CPO and CPKO and subsequent where the capacity of each refinery is smaller than 70 million L/ fractionation produces RBDP olein. are traditionally used as industrial scale use.8 million tons in 2005 to 15. e. in today's life. KGaA. Pupuk Kaltim.000 rial sources for the oleochemical industry. Investors proposing the large-scale production of biodiesel in Indonesia by 2007. advanced materials. The state-owned oil company. With a pro- increased to reach 2. The total production capacity in 2006 was 82. After becoming the world's largest PO pro- in one fuel station in Jakarta.3. The production in 2007 was common utilization of glycerol in Indonesia to date is in the oleo. trunk. this means tion. farms.5% of bio-premium type and Pertamina in 1996. in January 2006 the tively [45]. 453 – 465 Table 7. Approxi- and PT. shell. Extraction of these oils from the palm fruit Energy and CNOOC committed to investing 5. expected to start production in 2008/2009 [45]. The biomass by-prod- tons in 2001 [3] to 950. PFAD. fiber. 8.5% biodiesel and its blending to fossil diesel were initiated by Lemigas of biodiesel-type in 210 fuel stations and 2. The instruc- tion ordered various ministries including the Ministry of Energy 6 Summary and Mineral Resources and the Ministry of Agriculture. products and wastes are urgently required in Indonesia.5 billon US$.000 tons in 2007 [46]. The portion of glycerol co-produced during the production lion tons of PO was obtained from 6.65 million ha of total oil palm of biodiesel is typically 10%. for three years from 2007 [47].39 million ha of it was mature oil palm planta- projected to reach 2. POME. were generated by the palm oil mills in Indonesia in 2007. Kalimantan 180 1000 2 Bakrie. the most important com. Indonesia replaced Malaysia as the Although the effort to become the largest biodiesel producer in world's biggest PO producer in 2005. Production reached 17. With the total production of biodiesel plantation where 4. Kalimantan 100 – 6 Aprobi Group Kalimantan 100 – 7 PT. capacity (106 L/year) Location Area (105 ha) 1 Wilmar Group Sumatera. to speed up Oil palm is a tropical plant which has become extremely important the production and use of biofuel as an alternative fuel. RBDP stearin. Papua. paper pulp. medicine. and food ingre- panies are Wilmar Group. These biomass by-products.5. i. dients. and first two refineries built by the Wilmar and Bakrie Groups are 47. Aprobi Group. Indonesia has only small biodiesel refineries and the oils and fats. etc.4 million tons in 2007. three times higher compared to 1998. e. and PFAD by-product. Santosa Clean 2008. The sharp increase of PO production in Indonesia began just that there will be ca. due to produced in 2007 was exported. uses varying from cooking oil to soap. sumption was for food. animal feed. The total biodiesel and biopremium ducer in 2005. PKM. This 17. mately 64 million tons of biomass in the form of trunk (6. respec.000 million L in the next five years. and POME.com . As a start. BP Indonesia. and Genting Energy made a commitment of 3 billion US$ [44]. PKM. while the production of Malaysia increased from accompanied by strategic plan to utilize the main by-product. The RBDPK stearin. fiber. More than 70% of the PO chemical industry as raw material for soap. and Genting Energy. and tute. Retailers are allowed to blend up to 10% biodiesel ment of alternative fuel sources. from lubricants to raw mate- tion of all oleochemical industries only increased from 712. wastes of POME as well as trunk and frond biomass generated in oil Indonesia has already possesses some smaller biodiesel refineries palm plantation. 5. The total produc.0 mil- glycerol.0 million tons. 1/2006 for the Production and Use of Biofuel as Alternative Fuel.0 mil- the world has been enthusiastically programmed. fiber.5 million L.clean-journal. Bakrie Indofood Asianagro Sumiasih. Pupuk Kaltim Kalimantan 20 – were Hong Kong Energy.700 million L. shell. the oleochemical The products of oil palm are multifunctional materials with their industry in Indonesia has expanded very slowly. Along with CPKO. and frond. The tons) and frond (57. 2. it has not been lion tons in 2007. a research collaboration for the utilization of a fuel for boilers of palm oil mills or just stored and/or burned on glycerol has been initiated between BPPT and the Fraunhofer Insti.1 million duction capacities of the companies are summarized in Tab. It is the world's leading raw material supply of edible Currently. i. No Investor Plantation Prod. 14. Indonesia made further steps in 2006 to become the sold by Pertamina in 2006 was 215. President of Indonesia issued Presidential Instruction No. Weinheim www.5 million L.000 million L [45]. icals. J. Germany. shell.730 and 1. Unfortunately. total production in the next five years (2007 to 2011) will be Indonesia is now the largest PO producer in the world. while 87% of the domestic con- the high investment costs coupled with the low awareness of envi. RBDPK olein. At least fifteen i 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.1. world's largest producer of biodiesel. along with PKM. Among them.. Hong Kong obtained from oil palm. Efforts to utilize and diversify the function of palm oil by- Sweden Bioenergy. 600 3 Sweden Bioenergy East Nusa Tenggara 100 350 4 Multing Group Merauke (Papua) 290 – 5 BP Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara. duction of 15. Multing Group. are now becoming the subject of intensive research for their At least fifteen companies are planning new biodiesel refineries valuable utilization. The most after the Asian financial crisis in 1998. 200 million L of glycerol produced. Java . respectively.464 S. CNOOC.3. while also yields the biomass by-products of EFB. Pertamina sells 2.

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