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**Lorentz Reciprocity Theorem
**

Reciprocity is an important concept in antennas because it produced implications when we reverse

the role of transmitting antennas and receiving antennas. A formal derivation of the Lorentz

Reciprocity Theorem begins by considering a volume containing two sets of sources, J 1 and J 2 ,

which each produce fields E 1 , H 1 and E 2 , H 2 , respectively, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Volume containing two electric sources

**Consider the quantity
**

∇ · (E 1 × H 2 − E 2 × H 1 ), (1)

which is expandable using a vector identity as

(∇ × E 1 ) · H 2 − (∇ × H 2 ) · E 1 − (∇ × E 2 ) · H 1 + (∇ × H 1 ) · E 2 . (2)

From Maxwell’s curl equations,

∇ × E1 = −jωµH 1 (3)

∇ × H1 = jωE 1 + J 1 (4)

∇ × E2 = −jωµH 2 (5)

∇ × H2 = jωE 2 + J 2 . (6)

Therefore,

∇ · (E 1 × H 2 − E 2 × H 1 ) = −jωµH 1 · H 2 − jωE 2 · E 1 − J 2 · E 1 (7)

+jωµH 2 · H 1 + jωE 1 · E 2 + J 1 · E 2

= J 1 · E 2 − J 2 · E 1. (8)

Since we took the divergence of a quantity in (1), let us now integrate the divergence over the

volume of interest:

˚ ˚

0

∇ · (E 1 × H 2 − E 2 × H 1 )dv = (J 1 · E 2 − J 2 · E 1 )dv 0 (9)

V V

**Applying the Divergence Theorem to the left hand side:
**

" ˚

0

(E 1 × H 2 − E 2 × H 1 ) · ds = (J 1 · E 2 − J 2 · E 1 )dv 0 . (10)

S V

**Prof. Sean Victor Hum ECE422: Radio and Microwave Wireless Systems
**

Lorentz Reciprocity Theorem Page 2

**A more useful form of this theorem, applicable to antennas, is found by noticing that for electric
**

and magnetic fields observed a large distance from a source (e.g., a sphere of infinite radius

surrounding an antenna),

• E × H points in the radial direction normal to the sphere, n̂.

• E and H are related through H = (n̂ × E)/η.

Using the latter relation, the integrand on the left hand side of (10) can be re-written as

(E 1 × H 2 − E 2 × H 1 ) · n̂dS = (n̂ × E 1 ) · H 2 − (n̂ × E 2 ) · H 1 (11)

= ηH 1 · H 2 − ηH 2 · H 1 (12)

= 0 (13)

Hence, ˚ ˚

0

J 1 · E 2 dv = J 2 · E 1 dv 0 (14)

V V

This is the form of the Reciprocity Theorem that is used in the analysis of receiving antennas.

Prof. Sean Victor Hum ECE422: Radio and Microwave Wireless Systems

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