JENIS – JENIS KALIMAT

Kalimat ada dua macam:

1. Kalimat Nominal
2. Kalimat Verbal,
Perbandingan Kalimat Nominal Kalimat Verbal

Bhs. Indonesia Predikatnya bukan kata Predikatnya berupa kata
kerja (Kata sifat, kata kerja
kerja benda, kata
keterangan)

Bhs. Indonesia Ordinary Verb/ Kata kerja Ordinaru Verb/ Kata kerja +
utamanya berupa To be O utamanya bukan To be
Rumus dasar :
Rumus dasar
S + To be + 3C/ANA
S + V non to be + O
Ord.V .O
Ord. V

Ex. Kalimat Nominal

 Saya bahagia. I am happy.

S P (kt sifat) S Ord O (adjective)

 Dia seorang perawat. She is a nurse.

S P Oct benda) S Ord. O (noun)

 Mereka di rumah They are at home.

S P (kt keterangan) S Ord. O(adverb)

Notes:

Object dalam kalimat nominal berupa object complement yang terdiri dari:

1. Adjective
2. Noun 3C/ANA
3. Adverb

Ex. Kalimat Verbal

 Saya membaca buku. I read a book.

S P O S Ord O

 Kamu menulis surat. You write a letter.

S P O S Ord. O

TENSES

Pengertian : Tenses adalah bentuk -bentuk kata kerja yang menunjukkan
terjadinya suatu peristiwa.

Examples:

Aku belajar Bahasa Inggris tiap hari I study English everyday

Aku belajar Bahasa Inggris saat ini I am studying English now

Aku belajar Bahasa Inggris kemarin I studied English yesterday

Aku belajar Bahasa Inggris besok I will study English tomorrow

Secara global ada 3 golongan tenses :

Past (Lampau) Future (Akan datang )
Present (Saat ini)

Jumlah tenses dalam bahasa Inggris 16:

1. Simple Present Tense
2. Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense
3. Present Perfect Tense
4. Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense
5. Simple Past Tense
6. Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense
7. Past Perfect Tense
8. Past Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense
9. Simple Future Tense
10. Future Continuous ( Progressive) Tense

I I . Future Perfect Tense

1. Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense
2. Past Future Tense
3. Past Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense
4. Past Future Perfect Tense
5. Past Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense

1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

1. Pattern / Bentuk / Rumus

Verbal

(+) S + V1 (s / es) + 0 + Adv

ord

(-) S + do / does + not +V1+ O + Adv

aux ord

(?) Do / does + S + V1 + Adv ? Yes, S do / does

aux. Ord. No, S do / does + not

(?) Do / does + S + not + V1 + O + Adv ?

Don’t /doesn‘t + S + VI + O + Adv ?

aux. ord.

Notes:

 V1

You, They, We, Org III jamak (ex. Ana & Ani)

 Do

 V l+ s/es

She, He, It, Org III tunggal (ex. Ana)

 Does

Ex. Verbal

1. (+) They study English everyday.

S ord 0 adv.

( -) Do They do not / don’t study English everyday.
aux S ord

(?) Do they study English everyday? Yes, they do
aux S ord. No, they don’t.

(?-) Do they not study English everyday?

Don’t they study English everyday?

1. (+) She studies English everyday,

S ord O adv.

( -) She does not / doesn’t study English everyday.
S aux ord

(?) Does she study English everyday? Yes, she does.

Aux ord No, she doesn’t.

(?-) Does she not study English everyday?

Doesn’t she study English everyday?

Nominal

(+) S + be (am, is, are) + 3C

ord O

(-) S+be(am,is,are)+not+3C

ord

(?) Be (am, is, are) + S + 3C ? Yes, S + be (am, is, are)

ord No, S + be (am, is, are) + not

(?) Is, am, are + S + not + 3C?
Isn’t /aren’t +S+ 3C?

Notes:

 Am: I

 Is : She, He, It, Org III tunggal (ex. Ana)

 Are : You, They, We, Org III jamak (ex. Ana & Ani)

Ex. Nominal

I. (+) I am a student II. (+) She is a student

Ord O Ord O

(-) I am not a student ( -) She is not a student

(?) Are you a student ? (?) Is she a student ?

Yes, I am Yes, She is

No, I am not No, She isn’t

(?-) Am I not a student ? (?-) Is she a student ?

Aren’t I a student ? Isn’t she a student?

Aturan Penambahan s / es

1. Verb berakhiran: ss, sh, ch, x dan o ditambah es. Examples :

Kiss - Kisses : mencium

Watch - Watches : menonton

Go - Goes : pergi

Box - Boxes : memasukkan ke dalam kotak

1.
o She kisses her baby
o He watches television
o Andy goes to Mahesa
o He boxes these pencils
2. Verb berakhiran y yang sebelumnya konsonan (huruf mati) y diubah menjadi
ditambah es.

Examples

Carry - Carries : membawa

Study - Studies : belajar

Hurry - Hurries : tergesa-gesa

Cry - Cries : menangis

1.
o She carries a bag
o He studies English
o He hurries to go home
o She cries
INFORMATION QUESTION (WH Question)
1. Kalimat Berita

menanyakan kepemilikan What : apa – menanyakan benda / pekerjaan How : bagaimana . ex. I don’t”.menanyakan subyek orang (formal) & object orang (informal) Whom : siapa -menanyakan obyek orang (formal) Whose : milik siapa . X: “Do you study hard?” Y: “Yes. How are you? . Ex. 1.menanyakan tempat Why : mengapa .menanyakan cara Ex : How do you come here? . Kalimat Perintah (Imperative) (+) Perintah.menanyakan reason / alasan Which : yang mana . Kalimat Tanya (Question Sentence) 1. (Statement) (+) She writes a novel (-) She doesn’t writes a novel 2.menanyakan keadaan Ex. Verb di awal kalimat. ex. Don’t be noise! 1. WH Question Jawabannya berupa informasi dan cara membuatnya dengan menggunakan Question Word (kata Tanya) Ex. I do / No. Come here! (-) Larangan. Yes – No Question Jawabannya Yes / No dan cara membuatnya dengan meletakkan Aux. X: “What is your name?” Y: “My name is Meta” THE QUESTION WORDS (QW) QW Arti Penggunaan When : kapan ..menanyakan waktu Where : di mana/ ke mana .menanyakan spesifikasi pilihan Who : siapa .

menanyakan umur dsb.V 0 Adv (?S) Who writes a letter every week? .Setelah QW susunannya seperti Yes/No Question tetapi yang ditanyakan dihilangkan. Menanyakan selain Subyek Aturan : . S Ord. How big : seberapa besar . menanyakan Verb ordinary verbnya diganti dengan do (mengerjakan) Examples Kalimat Nominal:  They are at home Where are they? She is sick How is she?  I am student What are you? Kalimat Verbal: You write a letter every week.menanyakan ukuran / besar How old : seberapa tua .Bile. Menanyakan Subyek Aturan :  Setelah QW susunannya kalimat berita (QW + Kai. . Berita)  Aturan verb menggunakan verb untuk orang ke 3 tunggal Examples Kalimat nominal:  They are lazy Who is lazy?  She is at home Who is at home?  I am a student Who is student? Kalimat Verbal:  I write a letter Who writes a letter?  You go to school Who goes to school?  She sleeps Who sleeps?  You don‘t ask me a question Who doesn’t ask me a question? 1. How Long : seberapa lama/panjang – menanyakan ukuran (panjang) & durasi waktu Aturan WH – Question 1.

QW Vls/es 0 Adv (?V) What do you do every week? QW aux S ord Adv (?O) What do you write every week? QW aux S ord Adv (?A) Howoften do you write a letter? QW aux S ord O 2 . PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE A. is. is. are +Ving + O + Adv aux ord (-) S+ am. are + S + Ving + O + Adv? Yes. is. is. Pattern Verbal (+) S + am. are + not (?-) Am. are + not + Ving +O+Adv aux ord (?) Am. Verbal (+) I am writing a letter aux ord ( -) I am not writing a letter (? ) Are you writing a letter? Yes. are + S + not + Ving + 0 + Adv? Isn’t / aren’t + S + Ving + 0 + Adv? Ex. S + am. is. S + am. is. I am not (?-) Are you not writing a letter? . I am No. are aux ord No.

Verb yang berakhiran L dan sebelum L satu huruf vokal. Visit Visiting Read Reading 1. Verb satu suku kata dengan 1 vokal dan berakhir dengan single konsonan (pola kata kerja KVK) maka konsonan didobelkan dan ditambah ing. langsung ditambah ing. Verb lebih dari 1 suku kata. maka konsonan didobelkan dan ditambah ing.Aren’t you writing a letter? Note: Nominal Pr. agree agreeing . Verb yang berakhir dengan single e langsung diganti oengan ing. C. enter entering 1. Verb yang berakhiran ee. Pr. smile smiling write writing 1. Ex. Ex. see seeing 1. lama dengan Nominal S. Ex hit hitting stop stopping run running 1. Aturan Perubahan Vt menjadi Ving 1. Ex. maka L didobelkan“ Ex“ travel travelling . maka hanya ditambah tanpa mendobelkan konsonan terakhir. akhir suku kata hanya ada 1 vokal dan berakhir d 1 konsonan. (Jika tekanan jatuh akhir suku kata) Ex. begin beginning prefer preferring admit admitting jika tekanan kata kerja terletak pada suku kata pertama. Ving dibentuk dari Vi + ing Ex.

Understand : mengerti .Think : believe . reveal revealing conceal concealing Verb – verb yang tidak dipakai dalam Tenses Continuous > Be: am.Have . Time Signal Menggunakan spesifik Time Signal  Now  Right now  At present Sekarang / saat ini  At this moment  This semester : Semester ini  Look! : Lihat !  Listen! : Dengar!  Hear! : Dengar! . signal signalling quarrel quarrelling Bila sebelum huruf L terdapat 2 huruf vokal.Belong : Milik .Believe : percaya .Possess . maka langsung ditambah ing tanpa mendobelkan L.smell : berbau .Mean : maksud B.Know : mengetahui – Recognize : mengenal .hear : mendengar . are > Possession > Sense . Ex.taste : terasa .Own Mempunyai .Remember : mengingat . is.see : melihat Mental activity (Kondisi Mental) .Forget : lupa .

Aktivitas yang terjadi pada saat ini bersifat:  1. Long Term Activity Pada saat bicara aktivitas itu tidak harus terjadi.She always reads many books. . ( Dia sedang makan saat ini)  1. mengandung makna jengkel / terganggu. (Mereka mengejar bahasa Inggris di sekolah itu saat ini) B x x x agan:  1. (tidak ada rasa kagum)  . Short Term Activity Pada saat bicara aktivitas itu sedang berlangsung. tetapi aktivitas itu dalam kerangka proses. They are teaching English in the school now.She is always reading many books.He is always disturbing my sister. Ex : She is eating now.He always disturbs my sister. Menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung saat ini. Penggunaan  1.C. 1. bisa juga untuk menunjukkan rasa kagum. Ex. (tidak ada rasa jengkel) . (ada rasa kagum) . 1. ulang. Ex. Digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang berulang. (ada rasa jengkel) .

1. S + did + not/ didn’t (?) Did+S+not + V1 +O+Adv? Didn’t + S +V1 +0+Adv? aux ord Notes: V2 : (+) . S + did aux ord No.The birth rate in Indonesia is increasing. (Penduduk dunia ini bertambah sangat cepat) . (Angka kelahiran di Indonesia meningkat)  1.  1. . Menyatakan Future Condition / sesuatu yang akan terjadi/ dilakukan di masa yang akan datang dan sudah direncanakan sebelumnya Ex. Menyatakan situasi – situasi yang berubah Ex. – We are living in Pare at the moment. t I am visiting you tonight. Menyatakan kebiasaan yang bersifat sementara Ex.The population of the world is rising very fast. (Menetap) 3. SIMPLE PAST TENSE Pattern Verbal (+) S +V2 + 0+Adv ord ord (-) S + did + not + V1+ O + Adv aux ord (?) Did + S + V1 + 0 + Adv ? Yes. (Sementara) – We live in Pare.

aux ord ord (?)Did she cry? (?) Was he lazy ? Yes. he wasn’t (?-) Did she not cry? (?) Was he not lazy? Didn’t she cry? Wasn’t he lazy? . S + was. Ana & Ani) Ex. It.v l : (. : You. she did Yes. She. She didn’t No. were + 3C ord (-) S + was. S + was. Orang III tunggal (ex. Verbal Ex. Nominal (+) She cried (+) He was lazy ord ord ( -) She did not / didn’t crv. We. he was No./ ? / ?-) All Subject Did -/?/?-) Nominal (+) S + was. He. were + not (?) Was / were + S + not + 3C ? Wasn’t / Weren’t + S + 3C ? ord Notes: Was : I. were ord No. They. (-) He was not / wasn’t lazy. Orang III jamak (ex. Ana) Were. were + not + 3C ord (?) Was / were + S + 3C ? Yes.

cried : menangis carry .tried : mencoba study . Verb yang terdiri dari 2 suku kata yang berakhiran huruf ‘L’.robbed : merampok wrap – wrapped : membungkus 1. maka konsonan terakhir ditulis rangkap kemudian ditambah “ed”.occurred : terjadi 1.cancelled : membatalkan quarrel .quarelled : bertengkar travel . Examples: transfer . Examples: Cancel .transferred : memindah offer . Verb yang terdiri dan satu suku kata dengan pola KVK (Konsonan Vokal Konsonan). maka L ditulis rangkap kemudian ditambah ‘ed’. maka y diubah menjadi “i” lalu ditambah “ed” Examples: try . Examples: rob . Verb yang terdiri dari 2 suku kata dimana suku kata kedua berpola KVK.offered : menawari occur .Aturan Perubahan Verb V1+ V2 + V3 a. konsonan terakhir ditulis rangkap kemudian ditambah “ed’. Regular Verb (Beraturan) VI + died Aturan perubahannya adalah: 1. Verb berakhiran “y” yang didahului dengan konsonan.carried : membawa .cer-`-olled : mengendalikan 1.travelled : bepergian control .studied : mempelajari I belajar cry .

: tadi malam •Yesterday : kemarin • Last week : minggu lalu •2 days ago : 2 hari yang lalu • Last month : bulan lau •The other day : dulu • Last year : tahun lalu 1.realized : menyadari a. Kebiasaan di waktu lampau dinyatakan dengan : Always + V2 ex. maka tinggal ditambah “d” Example: love .typed : mengetik decide . He used to teach us Be + used to + Ving ex. Time Signal Memakai General Time Signal: •This morning : tadi pagi • Last night . Menyatakan perbuatan yang terjadi di waktu lampau. 1. Irregular Verb (Tak beraturan) (lihat daftar) 1.liked : menyukai type . He would teach us Used to + Vbi ex. Penggunaan 1. Selain verb-verb di atas. He was used to teaching us . Menyatakan kebiasaan di waktu lampau. B x agan: 1. 1. He always taught us Would + Vbi ex.loved : mencintai like .decided memutuskan realize .

Ex. lama dengan Nominal S. were + not (?) Was. Ps. Time Signal Menggunakan specific time signal  At this time yesterday : Pada saat seperi ini kemarin  At 7 o’clock last night : Pukul 7 tadi malam C. weren‘t + S + Ving + 0? Notes : Nominal Ps. were + S + not + Ving+ 0? Wasn’t. S + was. C. he wasn’t (?) Were you not sieeoing? (?) Was he not sleepy? Weren’t you sleeping? Wasn’t he sleepy? B. I wasn’t No. S + was. Penggunaau . PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE A. Verbal Ex. Nominal (+) I was sleeping (+) He was sleepy aux ord ord (-) I wasn’t sleeping (-) He wasn’t sleepy (?) Were you sleeping? (?) Was he sleepy Yes. Pattern Verbal (+) S + was. was. Digunakan dalam konsep 2 kejadian. were aux ord No. were + S + Ving + 0? Yes. were 1. were + Ving + 0 aux ord (-) S + was. 4. I was Yes. he was No. were + not + Ving + 0 (?) Was. 1.

has aux ord No. Pada saat seperti ini tahun lalu. hasn’t + S + V3 + 0? Nominal (+) S + have. Bagan : Examples: At eight o’clock last night. Menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. S + have. kami sedang merayakan pesta perpisahan. S ‘ have. has + S + V3 + 0? Yes. has+not + been + 3C (?) Have. Digunakan dalam konsep dua kejadian 5. Pattern Verbal (+) S + have. she was watching TV At this time last year we were holding the farewell party Meaning Pada jam 8 tadi malam. has + S + not + V3 + 0? Haven’t. has + V3 + 0 aux ord (-) S + have. has + not + V3 + 0 (?) Have. has + S + been + 3C? Yes. has – not . PRESENT PERFECT TENSE 1. 1. has + been + 3C aux ord O (-) S+ have. 1. has + not (?-) have. dia sedang nonton TV. S + have. S + have. has aux ord No.

Verbal Ex.Yet : belum Never : tidak pernah So far Urttil now sampai saat ini Up to now . She has No. Time Signal – Just : baru saja Already : sudah Not…. They have Yes. has +S + not + been + 3C? Haven’t. Nominal (+) They have left for Bali (+) She has been a teacher aux ord aux ord (-) They haven’t left for Bali (-) She hasn’t been a teacher (?) Have they left for Bali? (?) Has she been a teacher? Yes. They haven’t No.. Ana & Ani) Ex. Ana) (ex. hasn’t S been + 3C? Notes l She You He They have It has We Tunggal Jamak (ex. (?-) Have. She hasn’t (?) Have they not left for Bali? (?) Hasn’t she been a teacher? Haven’t they left for Bali? Has she not been a teacher? 1.

Since January : sejak Januari .Since 3 days ago sejak 3 hari yang lalu . For (Selama) diikuti oleh period of time / quantity of time Ex. Ex.Up to the present Ever since :sejak saat itu All day / night / week : sepanjang hari / malam / minggu All my life : sepanjang hidupku Recently : baru – baru ini Lately : akhir – akhir ini  Menggunakan time duration / durasi waktu / Iamanya waktu melakukan pekerjaan: Since (sejak) diikuti oleh: 1. Kalimat (Since + Simple Past) Ex. For 3 days : selama 3 hari For a year : selama 1 tahun For ten weeks : selama 10 minggu . .Since 1980 sejak tahun 1980 . Point of time/the beginning of time/awal terjadinya suatu peristiwa. Since I left school : Sejak aku lulus sekolah Since my mother came : Sejak ibuku datang Since she lived in Surabaya : Sejak dia tinggal di SBY 1.Since the last ten years sejak 1U tahun terakhir 1.Since last year : sejak tahun lalu .

I have just washed the car. Time Signal yang menunjukkan makna sesuatu yang masih berlangsung sampai sekarang. Menyatakan sesuatu yang dimulai di waktu lampau clan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang. Aku baru raja mencuci mobil itu (Mobilnva masih bersih) 1. They have lived in Pare for a year.They have already eaten. study. Bagan: Note: Untuk penggunaan ini Pr. . He has smoked since he left school. Pf tidak boleh menggunakan Time Signal yang menunjukkan makna sesuatu yang masih berlangsung sampai sekarang. For 10 years : selama 10 tahun 1. teach. Mereka sudah makan (Mereka masih kenyang) . 1. Verb Long Term Activy. He has worked for the family all his life. Ex. 1. . 1. 2. work. Menyatakan sesuatu yang telah selesai dilakukan tetapi hasilnya masih dirasakan sampai sekar B Finish agan: Note : Untuk penggunaan ini Pr. Penggunaan 1. She has worked for the company since 2 years ago. harus menggunakan: 1. Ex. Pf. We have learnt English for 3 months. ex Live.

Verbal (+) They have been building the bridge. S + have. + S + been + V ing + 0? Note: Nominal Pr. has aux ord No. (Sampai saat ini masih bekerja untuk keluarga itu) Dia merokok sejak dia lulus sekolah. lama dengan Nominal Pr. Makna: Kami sudah belajar bahasa hnggris selama 3 bulan. hasn’t. has + S + been + V ing + 0? Yes. has + not (?-) Have. (Sampai sekarang masih bekerja di perusahaan itu) Dia bekerja untuk keluarga itu sepanjang hidupnya. (?) Have they been building the bridge? Yes. has + been + V ing + 0 aux ord (-) S+have. Pf. has + S + not + been + V ing + 0? Haven’t. S + have. Pattern Verbal (+) S +have. Ex. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. has+not+been+V ing +0 (?) Have. aux ord (-) They haven’t been building the bridge. Pf. they have . (Sampai saat ini masih belajar) Mereka sudah tinggal di Pare selama setahun. C. (Sampai scat ini masih merokok) 6. (Samai saat ini masih tinggal di Pare) Dia sudah bekerja di perusahaan itu sejak 2 tahun yang lalu.

all morning o Lately o Recently 2. How long have you been here? Makna: Akhir-akhur ini dia tidur di lantai. (sampai saat ini masih tidur di lantai). they haven’t (?) Have you not been building the bridge ? Haven‘t you been building the Bridge? 1. (masih hujan saat bicara) Sejak saat itu aku belajar memasak. Hujan turun sepanjang hari. They have been studying English in Pare so far. Bagan: Ex. Penggunaan Menyatakan sesuatu yang dimulai di waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang. . I have been learning to cook ever since. It has been raining all day. We have been waiting for her since ten o’clock. (masih belajar memasak sarnpai sekarang) Sarnpai saat ini mereka belajar bahasa Inggris di Pare. Time Signal o Since o For o So far o Ever since o All day.aux aux ord No. She has been sleeping on the floor lately.

Present Perfect (dengan time duration. Present Continuous Perbedaan 1. Tidak ada Time Duration 7. LTA) 1. Pattern Verbal (+) S+had + V3 + O . 4. (masih menunggu sampai sekarang) Sudah berapa lama Anda tinggal di sini? (menanyakan durasi waktu / time duration) Notes: Persamaan dan Perbedaan beberapa Tenses 1. Present Perfect Continuous Aktifitas masih berlangsung (dengan time duration STA. I am studying English. I have studied English. 5. 2. Present Perfect Aktifitas stedah selesai (tanpa time duration) 1. LTA) 1. Tidak memperhatikan basil 2. 3. 5. Simple Past 2. PAST PERFECT TENSE 1. I have been studying English for 3 months 5. I have studied English for 3 months. Tenses Persamaan 1.(masih belajar sampai saat ini) Rita sudah menunggunya sejak jam 10. Menggunakan Verb STA/LTA disertai atau tanpa Time duration. I studied English. Menggunakan verb (STA) dan Time Duration 4. Memperhatikan hasil 3.

S + had aux ord No. aux ord (-) S+ had +not+V3 +O (?) Had + S + V3+ O? Yes.S+had+not (?) Had + S + not + been + 3C ? Hadn’t + S + been +3C? Note : Auxiliary Had untuk semua Subject Ex. Verbal (+) She had finished the work. (?) Had she finished the work? Yes. She hadn’t (?-) Had she not finished the work? Hadn’t she finished the work? Ex. Nominal . She had aux ord No. S + had aux ord No. S + hadn’t (?-) Had + S + not + V3+ O? Hadn’t + S+ V3 + O? Nominal (+) S + had + been + 3C aux ord . (-) S + had + not + been + 3C (?) Had + S + been + 3C ? Yes. aux ord ( -) She had not/ hadn’t finished the work.

Bagan : Finish Ex. aux ord No. I had. . .My father taught Biology in the school last year. (+) You had been a nurse aux ord ( -) You hadn’t been a nurse (?) Had you been a nurse? Yes.My father teaches Biology in the school. (?-) Had you not been a nurse? Hadn’t you been a nurse ? 1. I hadn’t.: Just Already Since For 1. sedangkan past perfect digunakan di dunia lampau yang tidak ada hubungannya dengan saatini. Time Signal Menggunakan beberapa Time Signal Present Perfect. Ex. . Bedanya: present pefect masih berhubungan dengan masa sekarang.He had taught in the school since 3 years before. 1. . tetapi penggunaannyt disesuaikan dengan waktu lampau.He has taught in the school since 3 years ago. . Past perfect penggunannya ‘setara’ (Equivalent) dengan Present Perfect. Penggunaan 1.

Ex. (?) Had + S + been. aux aux ord ( -) S + had + not + been + Ving+ O. .Nominal Ps. Pf. Had digunakan untuk semua Subject. (?-) Had + S + riot + been + Ving+ 0? Hadn’t + S + been + Ving + O? Notes: . S + had aux aux ord No. (?) Had they been studying English? Yes. Menyatakan peristiwa yang sudah terjadi sebelum terjadinya peristiwa yang lain pada waktu yang lampau (Konsep dua kejadian Type 4). 1. 1. Pf.+ Ving + O? Yes. they had. C. they hadn’t (?) Had they not been studying English? Hadn’t they been studying English? 1. Time Signal Since .Aux. 8. Aux aux ord No. S + hadn’t. 1. lama dengan Nominal Ps. Pattern Verbal (+) S + had + been +Ving + O. 1. Aux ord (-) They had not/ hadn‘t been studying English. PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE 1. 1. Verbal (+) They had been studying English.

maka keduanya menggun tenses Past Continuous. Penggunaan 1. Pf..Kami telah menunggunya sejak jam 7. Makna: .C . 1.She finally picked us up at ten o’clock.C agan: Conjunction: When : ketika A II: Ps.Dia akhirnya menjemput kami pada jam 10. . C.We had been waiting for her since seven o’clock. _ . 1. 1. For 1.: .) Bagan: Ex. 1. BERSAMAAN Bila ada 2 kejadian berlangsung setara bersamaan. B I : Ps. 1. KONSEP DUA KEJADIAN 1. Menyatakan peristiwa yang telah berlangsung dalam durasi waktu tertentu sebelum terjadi peristiwa lain di waktu lampau (Konsep duakejadian type 3). 1. Menyatakan perbuatan yang terjadi di waktu lampau dengan penekanan pada durasi waktunya (setara dengan Pr.

When .s : ketika While sambil (bila subject saml) . Ps Conjunction: . Bila ada 2 kejadian.As ketika - II: S.Pf. Bagan: I : Ps.C II: S. I was reading a book while I was listening to the radio. Maka kejadian pertama memakai Past Perfect Continuous dan kejadian kedua Simple Past. Bila ada 2 kejadian. kejadian pertama sudah berlangsung dalam durasi waktu tertentu ketika kejadian kedua terjadi. BERURUTAN 1. 1.C Conjunction: . 1. kedua terjadi. sementara (bila subject beds Examples: My mother was cooking when I was watching TV. Bagan: I : Ps. 1. Maka’kejadian Tertama memakai tenses Past continuous kejadian kedua Simple Past. kejadian pertama sedang berlangsung ketika keja. When he visited me. Ps While Examples: I was writing a letter when the bell rang. I was eating.

1. Maka keduanya menggunakan tenses Simple Past. .While Examples: I had been writing a letter for an hour when the bell rang. When he visited me.As ketika . . Ps onjunction: .When : dengan kejadian I/II Examples : When I reached the station. Bila ada 2 kejadian. We went on holiday after he had taken the exam.When . I : Ps. Ps Conjunction : .Before : dengan kejadian kedua . 1. I had been eating for five minutes. Maka kejadian pertama memakai Past Perfect dan kejadian keduanya memakai Simple Past. 1. kejadian pertama sudah selesa ketika kejadian kedua terjadi.After : dengan kejadian pertama .Ps II: S.Pf II: S. 1. the train had left. Bila ada kejadian. Bagan: C I : S. kejadian pertama sudah selesai ketika kejadian kedua terjadi.

We British Will : selain I. are) + going to + Vbi Nominal S + will/shall + be + 3C aux ord O S + be (is. We went on holiday after he took the exam. are) going to + 3C Notes: Shall : I. am. am. Pattern Verbal S + wil/shall + Vbi + O aux ord S + be (is. are) about to + be + 3C S + be (is.. are) about to + Vbi S + be (is. am. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE 1. the train left. am.After : dengan kejadian pertama . Verbal Ex. 9. Nominal: . We Will : untuk semua subject — American Will not = Won’t Shall not = Shan’t Ex.Whep : dengan kejadian pertama Examples: When I reached the station.Before : dengan kejadian kedua .

10. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang akan terjadi/dilakukan di masa yang akan datang.She will go She will be at home S aux ord S aux ord O She is about to go She is about to be at home She is going to go She is going to be at home 1. She is about to leave for the Airport. FUTURE CONTINOUS TENSE  1. Bagan: Examples:  X : “The phone is ringing” Y : ” I will get it”  Meta’s bags are packed. She is wearing her coat. Penggunaan 1. Time Signal Menggunakan General Time Signal Tomorrow : besok Tonight : nanti malam This weekend : akhir pekan ini Soon : segara Later : nanti Next week/month /year : mingggu/bulan/tahun depan 1.  I will visit you tonight. Pattern Verbal .  X : “Why did you buy this paint?” Y : “I am going to paint my bedroom tomorrow”.

Aux ord ( -) We won’t be visiting you tomorrow morning (?) Will we be visiting you tomorrow morning? (?-) Will we not be visiting you tomorrow morning? Ex. aux ord O ( -) We won’t be there tomorrow morning (?) Will we be there tomorrow morning? (?-) Will we not there tomorrow morning?  1.(+) S + will/shall + be + Ving + 0 aux aux ord ( -) S + will/shall + not + be + Ving + O (?) Will/shall + S + be + Ving + O? (?-) Will/shall + S + not + be + Ving + O? Nominal (+) S + will/shall + be + 3C aux ord O ( -) S+ will/shall + not + be + 3C (?) Will/shall + S + be + 3C? (?-) Will/shall + S + not + be + 3C? Ex. Time Signal Menggunakan Spesifik Time Signal . Nominal (+) We will be there tomorrow morning. Verbal (+) We will be visiting you tomorrow morning.

1. Penggunaan 1. (?) Will/shall + S + have+ V3 + 0? (?-) Will/shall + S + not + have +VL + O? Nominal (+) S + will/shall + have + been + 3C aux aux ord O . Menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang terjadi di waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang. Pattern Verbal (+) S + will/shall + have+ V3 + O. I will be watching TV at 7 o’clock tonight. Menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang berlangsung ketika sesuatu yang lain terjadi di masa yang akan datang.At 7 o’clock tomorrow (pada pkl 7 besok) At this time next week (pada saat seperti ini minggu depan) From 7 to 10 o’clock tomorrow (dari pkl 7 s/d 10 besok) Tomorrow morning (besok pagi)  1. aux aux ord ( -) S+ will/shall + not + have+ V3 + O. I will be doing the homework when you come to my house. (Saya akan sedang mengerjakan PR ketika tamu dating ke rumahku) 11. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE 1. Bagan: Ex. Ex. ( Pada pkl 7 nanti malam saya sedang nonton TV)  1.

aux ord ( -) He won’t have been a student of University by next year. Penggunaan 1. Time Signal By next month (menjelang bulan depan) By the end of this week (menjelang akhir minggu ini) By this weekend (menjelang akhir pekan ini) 1. (?) Will he have been a student of University by next year? (?-) Will he not have been a student of University by next year? 1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang telah selesai dilaksanakan di waktu yang akan datang. aux ord ( -) He won’t have studied English by next month (?) Will he have studied English by next month? (?-) Will he not h we studied English by next month? Ex. ( -) S + will/shall + not + have + been + 3C (?) Will/shall + S + not + have + been + 3C? (?) Won’t/shan’t + S + have + been + 3C? Ex. B Start Finish agan . Nominal (+) He will have been a student of University by next year. Verbal (+) He will have studied English by next month.

1. I will have studied English. C. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE 1. sama dengan Nominal F. Pf. Time Signal By for…. we will have been studying English for a month. we won’t have been studying English for a month (?) By next month. will we have been studying English for a month? (?-) Won’t we have been studying English for a month by next month? Note: Nominal F. Pattern Verbal (+) S + will/shall + have + been + Ving + O. Pf. By next week… for a month (menjelang minggu depan selama sebulan) 1. Ex. Aux ord ( -) By next month. 1. Inggris) 1. Verbal (+) By next month. I will have done the homework when you come to my house (saya sudah akan selesai mengerjakan PR ketika kamu datang ke rumahku) 12. (?) Will shall + S + have + been + Ving + O? (?) Won’t/shan‘t + S + have + been + Ving + O? Ex. Ex. Penggunaan . Ex. By the end of next month. aux aux aux ord (-) S + will/shall + not + have + been + Ving + O. Menyatakan sesuatu yang sudah terjadi sebelum sesuatu yang lain terjadi di masa yang akan datang. (Menjelang akhir bulan depan. saya sudah akan selesai belajar Bhs.

Bagan: . Ex. A.Kalimat penggagal bertenses Simple Past. Ps. : S + would/should + Vbi  Ps. : S + would/should + be + 3C  Ps. F. C. Notes: – Kalimat penggagal hams disebutkan. F. 1. Untuk menyatakan sesutu yang sedang berlangsung dalam durasi waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang. F. : S + would/should + have + been + 3C B. Pf. I will have been studying English for 2 years (Menjelang akhir tahun depan. pf. . Time Signal Menggunakan Time Signal miliknya tenses Simple Past 1. : S + would/should + have + V3  Ps. C. Inggris) 1. 1. : S + would/should + be + Ving  Ps. Pattern Verbal  Ps. C. : S + would/should + be + 3C  Ps. Ex. F. Menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang berlangsung dalam durasi waktu ketika sesuatu yang lain terjadi di masa yang akan datang. s/d Ps. (Saya sudah mengerjakan PR selama 2 jam ketika kamu dating ke rumahku) 13 s/d 14. Pf. F. F. Menyatakan sesuatu yang seharusnya akan terjadi/ dilakukan di masa lampau tetapi gagal karena ada sesuatu yang menggagalkan. I will have been doing the homework for 2 hours when you con house. : S + would/should + have + been + 3C  Ps. C. Pf. F. F. Pf. C. F. F. . By the end of next year. Penggunaan  Ps. F. sudah 2 tahun saya belajar Bhs. : S + would/should + have + been + Ving Nominal  Ps.

are o Simple Past : was. Ps. 1. F. Digunakan dalam Bab Direct-Indirect Speech. am. F. Pf. F. 2.  Ciri Dasar : Be + V3 o Simple Present : is. (Seharusnya saya sudah menjadi mahasiswa UGM tetapi s gaga) UMPTN 3 tahun yang lalu). Ex. (Sebetulnya aku akan mengunjungimu tetapi kemarin sepedaku rusak) 1. Menyatakan sesuatu yang seharusnya sudah terjadi di masa lampau tetapi gagal karena ada sesuatu yang menggagalkan. I would visit you but my bike was broken yesterday. Pf.  Ps. Digunakan sebagai Main Clause dalam Conditional Sentence Type II.  Ps. PASSIVE VOICE  Definisi Passive voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang subjectnya dikenai pekerjaan. F. Digunakan dalam Bab Direct-Indirect Speech. I would have been a student of UGM but I failed in UMPTN 3 years ago. were o Simple Future : be o Perfect : been o Continuous : being  Syarat-syarat Kalimat : Kalimat Verbal Verb : Transitive Verb . C. Ps. Ex. 1. Kalimat penggagal: S.  Ps. Digunakan sebagai Main Clause dalam Conditional Sentence Type I 2. Digunakan dalam Bab Direct-Indirect Speech. Digunakan daalam Bab Direct-Indirect Speech. C.

S. Bentuk “be” disesuaikan dengan tenses dan subject Passive Voice. am. Pr. + by? .  Ex. : S + wil/shall + be + V3 + by + O S + is. Bila dalam Active Voice tidak ada “be” maka tambahkan “be” dalam Passive Voice. F. Pr. S. 1. Pr. Pf. Ps.write. were + being + V3 + by + O 5. F. am. : S + wilUshall + have + been + V3 + by + O  Aturan merubah Active Voice menjadi Passive Voice 1. : S + was. : S + is. are + being + V3 + by + O 4. S. AV  PV SO OS 1. Pf.am. Pf. : S have/has + been + V3 + by + O 6. Tambahkan “by” sebel.um object Passive Voice. Letakkan kata kerja utama (ordinary verb) dalam bentuk V3 setelah “be”. Tenses 1. are + V3 + by + O 2. : S+ had + been + V3 + by + O 7. S. were + V3 + by + O 3. Ps. (AV) : You . Pr. : S + was. are + going to + be + V3 + by + O 1. a letter S ord v O (PV) : A letter is written by you S be V3 O  WH Question PV Rumus: (?S) QW + aux (org III tunggal) + V3 + by + O + Adv? (?V) QW + aux (org III tunggal) + done + by + O + Adv? (?O) By+QW+aux +S+V3+Adv? QW + aux + S + V3 + Adv. 2. C. + by? QW + aux + S + V3 + Adv. Ps. C : S + is.

(?A)QW+aux+S+V3+by+O? Ex.  Pola Dasar Main clause : Simple Future If clause : Simple Present Reality : – Example : . You are visited by him every night. Pembagian Conditional sentence terbagi menjadi tiga type: Type I  Fungsi Untuk menyatakan pengandaian tentang sesuatu yang mungkin tcrjadi jika syaratnya terpenuhi. 1. Pengertian Conditional Sentence adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk pengandaian. S aux V3 O Adv (?S) Who is visited by him every night? QW aux V3 O Adv (?V) What is done by him every night? QW aux V3 O Adv (?O) By whom are you visited every night? whom are you visited every night by? who are you visited ever/ night by? QW aux S V3 Adv (?A) How often are you visited by him? QW aux S V3 Adv CONDITIONAL SENTENCE 1.

.F. MC: S. Tvpe II  Fungsi Untuk menyatakan pengandaian tentang sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan fakta di masa sekarang. Ps. F. Type III  Fungsi  Untuk menyatakan pengandaian tentang sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan fakta di masa lampau. Pr.  Pola Dasar  Main Clause : Past Future Perfect  If Clause : Past Perfect  Reality : Simple Past Example : . Pr. .You will pass you test if you study hard MC: S.If he has many problems. If C: S.  Pola Dasar  Main Clause : Past Future  If Clause : Simple Past  Reality : Simple Present Example : I would be in time for work if I lived near my office MC: Ps. S. If C: S. F. Pr. Reality: I don’t live near my office.  Menyatakan penyesalan tentang sesuatu yang telah terjadi di masa lampau. I will help him If C: S.

F. Pf. Pf. 1. pengandaian dan pernyataan yang tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan. 1. Present Subjunctive  Fungsi: Untuk menyatakan pengharapan. 1. 1.Ps SUBJUNCTIVE 1. 1. so I didn’t meet vou. Pembagian Subjunctive 1. 1. 1. Past Example : I wish (that) he were rich Reality : He isn’t rich / he is poor poor 1. Definisi Subjunctive adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan pengharapan.  1. wish S + wish (that) S + S. would rather S + would rather + S + S Past Example I’d rather they studied hard Reality : They don’t study hard . Reality: I didn’t know. If I had known that you were coming. I would have met you at the airport MC: Ps. 1. If C: Ps. pengandaian dan pernyataan tentang sesuatu yang tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan sekarang. S.  Bentuk: 1.

1. Ps. 1. 1. 1. He isn’t at home 1. Example: If only he were at home Reality. Wish S + wish (that) S + Past Perfect Example : I wish I hadn’t been absent yesterday Reality : I was absent yesterday 1. 1. Bentuk 1. 1. pengandaian dan pernyataan tentang sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan kenyataan di masa lampau. + S. Past Example: She acts as if she were rich Reality : She isn’t rich 1. 1. 1. if only If only + S.  1. . Past Subjunctive  Fungsi unruk menyatakan-pengharapan.  1.  1. 1. as if / as though S + V1 + as if/as though + S + S. 1.

Future Subjunctive Fungsi : untuk manvatakan pengharapan tentang peristiwa / keadaan yang mungkin tidak mungkin terjadi di masa yang akan datang.  1. 1. 1. 1. if only If only + S + Past Perfect Example: If only you had invited them Reality : You didn’t invite them 1. 1. Past + as if / as though + S + Past Perfect Example : She acted as though she had been rich Reality : She wasn’t rich 1.” .  1. would rather S + would rather + S + Past Perfect Example : I would rather you had been serious Reality : you weren’t serious 1. 1. Example: X : “will you stop smoking ?” Y : “………. 1. 1.  1. as If/ as though S + S.

Causative Active S + make + O + Vbi  Force S + have + O + Vbi  Request/ask S + get + O + to inf  Persuade any tense usually person remain Example : Mr. Anto has forced his son to sleep. . non CV O to inf. X : “I wish you would stop smoking” X : “Will you stop smoking ?” Y : “No. baik dengan permintaan. have dan get 1. paksaan atau rayuan. Definisi Causative verbs adalah sekelompok kata kerja yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang menghendaki orang lain untuk melakukan sesuatu. He had me open the door yesterday.” X : “I wish you would stop smoking” CAUSATIVE VERBS 1. Non CV O to inf The students got the teacher to dismiss class early. CV O to inf. S CV O Vbi Mr. Causative verbs terdiri dari: make. I won’t stop smoking. Pembagian Causative 1. Anto has made his son sleep. CV O Vbi He requested/asked me to open the door yesterday.

to do I am assisting my friend to do his work. QUESTION TAGS 1. • The students got class dismissed. I am helping my friend do his work. • He had the door opened. Fungsi: Untuk meminta persetujuan pendengar . Causative Passive S + Have + O + V3 S + Get + O + V3 any tense usually remain non person Example: . Note: Ada dua Verb non Causative yang selalu dibahas bersama Causative Verb yaitu Let & Help. Pengertian Question tag adalah suatu pertanyaan singkat (short question) yang ditempatkan setelah pernyataan (statement) 1. S + Let + O + Vbi  allow/permit S + Help + O + Vbi  assist any tense usually to inf person Example : The teacher let the students leave the class The teacher allowed/permitted the student to leave the class. 2.

nothing. Jika dalam statement terdapat “Im-’. Aturan Khusus 1. aren’t I? 5. no body.Untuk meminta penegasan pendengar tentang sesuatu yang belum meyakinkan pembicara. Bila statement (+). Negative tag harus disingkat 4. 1. we. those. maka tag (-) 2. you. gunakan “be” juga dalam tag-nya. Toton visited Cahya. that. Jika dalam statement terdapat kata-kata yang bermakna negative (-). Jika dalam statement terdapat “aux”. maka tag- nya hams positive (+) Seldom : jarang Rarely : sangat jarang • Nothing Hardly • Nobody . she it) Notes: It digunakan sebagai pengganti Subject dalam kalimat yang berupa: Everything. Jika tenses dalam statement Simple Present/ wimple Past (Verbal +). no one. 1. isn’t it? 1. gunakan “aux” dalam tag-nya. maka tag (+) 3. Aturan Umum 1. Example: Everyone doesn’t come here. someone. somebody. Subject Tag harus berupa pronoun (I. these. Jika dalam statement terdapat verb “be”. every body. 1.-gunakan “aren’t I” dalam tag-nya. he. gunakan “aux (do/does/did)” dalam tag-nya: Example: Dodi visits Cahya’doesn’t he? ‘. Example: Everything is OK. his…(plural noun). didn’t he? 1. Example: I am student. his……… (singular noun) They digunakan sebagai pengganti Subject dalam kalimat yang berupa: Everyone. do they? 1. Aturan-Aturan 1. this. they. Bila statement (-).

Rudi has 3 books. . I have 3 books. and so is Joni. Scarcely hampir tidak • No one Barely Ex : He hardly comes here.: – Don’t cheat. will you? . gunakan “will you” dalam tagnya Ex. do they? 6. shall we? ELLIPTIC SENTENCE 1. I shall go to Jakarta. She will go to Jakarta. will you? 7. Jika dalam statement terdapat ajakan let’s.  Rudi has 3 books. 1. Susi is a student. Menggunakan “so/too” (begitu juga) Untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat ositive (+) Ex. Pengertian Elliptic adalah kalimat yang dibentuk dengan cara menghilangkan bagian yang sama dengan tidak merubah makna aslinya.  Susi is a student.Study hard. and Joni is too. does he? Nobody comes here. gunakan “shall we” dalam tagnya Ex : Let’s study hard.  Susi is a student. Syarat Tenses harus sama 1. Pembentukan Elliptic 1. Jika kalimatnya berupa imperative + / -. I shall go to Jakarta. and I do too. Joni is a student. and she wil too. and so will she  I shall go to Jakarta.

Toni is happy. 1. Menggunakan: Both…. Rudi has 3 books. Not only…but also….maupun……. Untuk menyatakan dua point tercapai. Dodi is happy. and so do I. Menggunakan “but” (tetapi) Untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat yang berlawanan. Doni has not studied. Totok has studied but Doni hasn’t. Cica speaks English. Ex. 1. Santi doesn’t speak English but Cica does. He hasn’t gone and I haven’t either He hasn’t gone and neither have I  I wasn’t a nurse. 1..  Santi doesn’t speak English. Ani wasn’t a nurse. 1. Both Dodi and Toni are happy. I wasn’t a nurse and Ani wasn’t either.tetapi juga….keduanya) Both … S … and … S + V (plural) Ex. 1. I wasn’t a nurse and neither was Ani.  Totok has studied.  He hasn’t gone.and… (……dan…. Menggunakan “either/neither” (begitu juga) Untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat negative (-) Ex. (baik . 1.../ tidak hanya….) .. I haven’t gone.

Menggunakan: Neither……nor….) Neither……. Cirinya. 1. 1.S (singular)….(baik…maupun…tidak….+ V (singular) Neither ……S……nor……. . Or Tino visits Cahya.but also… S (plural) + V (plural) Ex. Either Andy or they visit Meta DIRECT INDIRECT SPEECH 1.i visit Cahya. S (plural)…… + V (plural) Ex. DEFINISI o Direct Speech (kalimat langsung): kalimat yang digunakan untuk menngulang perkataan orang lain deengan menggunakan susunan kalimat yang sama.Dodi visits Cahya. 1. 1. Not only…… S….or….but also…. .Andy visits Meta. Tino doesn’t visit Cahya. His friends don’t visit Cahya. Either Dodi or Tino visits Cahya. Untuk menyatakan dua point tidak tercapai. Untuk menyatakan salah satu point tercapai.(Dedi doesn’t visit Cahya Neither Tino nor Ded. Or they visit Meta. Dodi visits Cahya Toton visits Cahya Not only Dodi but also Toton visits Cahya. jika dalam tulisan diletakkan dalam tanda kutip. S (singular) + V (singular) Not only …… S….+ V (singular) Either S….or…. Neither Tino nor his friends visit Cahya.S (plural) + V (plural) Ex .S……nor…… S (singular)…. Menggunakan: Either….or…(kalau tidak…tentu…) Either S…. Tino doesn’t visit Cahya.

Pr. maka SCDirectdalam lndirect akan mengalami perubahan pada tiga hal (Pronoun. S. your. Pf. 1. Pf. C. mine maka kembali keSubject MC. C. Jika dalam Sub Clause Direct terdapat pronoun: You. Tenses. Present Perfect. Adverb) Notes: 1. Pf. C. Ps. C. Pr. menggunakan Conjunction/kata sambung dan dalam tulisan tidak diletakkan dalam tanda kutip. me. Simple Future maka Sub Clause (SC) Direct dalam Indirect akan mengalami perubahan hanya pada pronoun. Pr. Pf. Ps. Jika MC bertenses Past. o Aturan Perubahan Tenses D D I I Ps. Jika dalam Sub Clause-Direct terdapat pronoun: I. Pr. D D I I . yours maka kembali ke Object MC. Jika Main Clause (MC) bertenses: Simple Present. o Indirect Speech (kalimat tidak langsung): kalimat yang digunakan untuk mengulang perkataan orang lain dengan susunan kalimat yang berbeda. Ps. Ps. Pf. S. Pf. 1. Cirinya. ATURAN PERUBAHAN 1. my. o Aturan Perubahan Pronoun 1. 2. 1. C. Ps. 2.

Pf. F. F Pf. Pf. F. F. F. Ps. o Aturan Perubahan Adverb Direct Indirect Now Then (saat itu) This That Here There Ago Before Yesterday The day before Yesterday morning The morning before Last night The night before Last week The week before Last month The month before Last year The year before Tonight That night Tomorrow The next day/ the following day Tomorrow morning The next morning / The following morning Next week The following week Next month The following month Next year The following year Examples: 1. “I called you yesterday. F.C.Ps. Direct : She says to me. S. F Pf. F. F. 1. Ps. Pf. C. C. F.” . C. C. Ps. Ps. Pf. Ps.

Pr. conj. maka dalam Indirect.” said Meta. C. Notes: 1. S C: Pr. SC: S. Direct : He has said to me. SC: S. SC: S. MC: S. C. SC: Pr. Direct : She will say. 1. Ps. I : Meta said (that) she would go to Malang the next day. F 1. “I am reading a magazine now. D : “I will go to Malang tomorrow. Pr. F. MACAM MACAM SUB CLAUSE 1. SC berupa kebenaran umum. F. I : The teacher said (that) the sun rises in the East . Ps. MC: S. Indirect : He said (that) he was reading a magazine then. SC: Pr. 1.” MC: Pr. MC: S. MC: S. MC: S. Ex. Ps. MC: S. 1. SC: S. F. Direct : He said.” MC: S. Jika dalam Direct. “I am reading a magazine now” . Indirect : He has said to me (that) he will visit me tonight. F. C. SC tidak mengalami perubahan tenses sekalipun tenses MC Past. Statement (kalimat berita) Dalam Indirect menggunakan conjunction “that” (bahwa) Ex. said the teacher. Pr. Ps. D :”The sun rises in the East”. Pf. Indirect : She will say (that) she is reading a magazine now. “I will visit you tonight. Indirect : She says to me that he called me yesterday. SC: S.

maka dalam Indirect SC mengalami perubahan tenses hanya pada kejadian pertama. Jika dalam Direct MC menggunakan verb say maka dalam Indirect berubah menjadi: Ask MC berobject ataupun tidak wonder Inquire MC tidak berobjec Want to know 1. D: Andy said. “will you visit me tonight?” I : Meta asked me if I would visit her that night. Ex. 1.” I : Andy said (that) he had been reading a book when the phone rang. SC uerupa konsep dua kejadian berurutan & MC bertenses Simple Past. I : Andy said (that) he was reading while he was eating. Jika dalam Direct. “I was reading while I was eating. Jenis-jenis Question 1. SC berupa konsep dua kejadian bersamaan & MC bertenses Simple Past.’ (apakah) Ex. 1. “I was reading a book when the phone rang.1. Dalam direct SC berupa kalimat Tanya. 2. 1. WH Question . Yes/No Question Dalam Indirect menggunakan conjunction `if/ whether. D : Meta said to me. dalam Indirect berubah menjadi kalimat berita. SC boleh mengalami perubahan tenses dan boleh tidak Ex. 1. Jika dalam Direct. D : Andy said. Question (Pertanyaan) Aturan-aturan 1.” I : Andy said (that) he had been reading while ha had been eating. maka dalam Indirect.

Imperative Negative (larangan) Dalam indirect menggunakan bentuk: 1 MC + to inf. 1. D: “Don’t cheat!” the teacher said to his students. Imperative positive (perintah) Dalam Indirect menggunakan bentuk: MC + to inf. 1. D : “When did you come here?” Meta said to me. I : The teacher warned his students not to cheat. Jika dalam Direct. I : Meta asked me when I had come there. Ex. Dalam Indirect menggunakan conjunction berupa `QW’ (Question Word) yang ada pada SC. I : The te1acher forbade his students to cheat. Imperative Aturan-aturan 1. Ex. Ex. D: “Forgive me!” She said to me. 3. . S+V+O+not+to inf. S+V+O+to inf. MC menggunakan verb say maka dalam Indirect berubah menjadi: Advise Command Invite Recommend Ask Encourage Tell Forbid Beg Entreat Urge Remind Order Implore Request Warn 1. I : She begged me to forgive her. 1. SC tidak mengalami perubahan tenses sekalipun tenses MC Past. Jenis-jenis imperative 1.