1. What is Ballistics?

 Ballistics is defined as the ―science of human motion of projectiles‖. ―Science‖ refers to
the systematized body of knowledge; ―motion‖ refer to movement or mobility; and
―projectiles‖ refer to metallic or non-metallic objects propelled from a firearms.
―Ballistics‖ is a science in itself, because it evolved from systematic knowledge, research
and development, training, experience and education of those who pioneered in this field.

2. What are the different Branches of Ballistics?

A. Interior (internal) Ballistics
 Refer to the properties and attributes of the projectile (bullet) while still inside the
gun. This extends from the ―breech‖ to the ―muzzle‖ of the gun. It involves all
reaction that take place while the bullets is still inside the gun.

B. Exterior (external) Ballistics
 Refer to the attributes and movements of the bullet after it has left the gun muzzle.

3. Origin of Firearms

The development of firearms followed the invention of gun powder in Western Europe
early in the 13th century. Many stories have been told about the discovery of gun powder but
most are legendary and have little support facts. Berthold Schwartz and Roger Bacon, a German
Monk and English Monk, respectively, are both given credited for this invention. It is also often
said that gun powder was first invented by the Chinese and the Arabs, with their advanced
knowledge of chemistry at the time, may we have also developed it independently.

One of the earliest recorded uses of firearms in warfare was an attack in Seville, Spain in
1247. history also showed that Cannons where used by King Edwards III of England in Crecy in
1346 and by Mohammed II of Turkey in his famous conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

The first firearms where inefficient, large and heavy, making it difficult for a common
soldier to carry; hence, the development of cannons proceeded to the invention of a small arm
weapons for almost 50 years now. The tube of a gun then was shape like a barrel and made of
wooden slaves bound together with hoops of iron.

Most reference books credit Roger Bacon, the English Monk and Scientist for the
invention of gun powder in 1248 and Berthold Schwartz, for the application of gun powder
propelling of a missile in the early 1300s. this powder is what we now call ―black powder‖
evidence exists of a much earlier use of a gun powder in a gun. For instance, the moors use of
artillery againts Zaragoza in 1118. early manuscript showed that several Moorish campaign in
which artillery was used all dated prior to Bacon and Schwartz. It is known that General Batu,
Tartar leader, used the artillery leignitz in 1245 when he defeated the Poles, Hungarians, and
Russians. Note that this early instances involve armies influence by Asian culture which tends to
substantiates the belief that the Chinese and the Mongols new of the gun powder existence and
its use as a propellant long before its advantage become recognize in Europe.

It was many years later before the use of gun powder was applied to a portable arm which
could be operated by a single person. The first example seemed to have appeared in 1350.
consisted of a simple iron tube with a stock which was either tuck under the arm of rested against
a support built into a suit of armor. The tube had a hole at the rear end, a touch hole, and a little
extension of pan to hold a small amount of powder, known as priming charge. The soldier
carried a slow burning fuze or a ―match‖ as it was then called. To load the gun, a charge of
powder was dumped down the tube from the muzzle end, and a ball, stone or a special arrow was
pushed down above the charge. The priming charge was place in the pan at the touch hole. To
fire the gun, the burning match was applied to the priming charge manually. This is one of the

studies and development. Alexander John Forsyth Father of the Percussions ignition 8. 13. Thompson Pioneered the making of Thompson submachine gun. Col. Stones 2. 10. The early man in doing some devised ways and means to conquer his environment and deal with his enemies he invented ―crude‖ or ―primitive weapon‖ which were subsequently developed into ―sophisticated‖ firearms of modern times the following are the stages of development of mans weapon: 1. Slingshots 6. Spears and Dart 5. James Wolfe Ripley Stimulated the development of the model 1855 riffle musket.30 M1. Elisha King Root Designed the machinery for making Colt firearms. Goddard M. David ―Carbine‖ Williams Maker of the first known Carbine 7. Eliphalet Remington One of the first rifle makers. 5. Men behind Firearms 1. Man is never satisfied with himself. US Army 2.earliest known types of firearms. Father of Modern Ballistics. . John T. He constantly struggles to improve himself and his surroundings. Browning Wizard of modern firearms and pioneered the Breech loading single shot riffle. 3. Knives 4. and since then through research. Samuel Colt (1814-1862) Produce the first practical revolver. 12. Calvin H. John M. John C. 6. OS. Wesson An associate of partner of Smith in revolver making 4.D. Horace Smith Founded the great firm Smith & Wesson and pioneered the making of the breech-loading rifles. Guns 9. Garand Designed and invented the semi automatic US Rifle. Bows and Arrows 7. 9. firearms manufacturer achieved and developed the present firearms that we now have. Daniel B. Cross Bows 8. John Mahlon Marlin Founder of Marlin Firearms Company. 11. Missile 4. Henry Deringer He gave his name to a whole class of firearms (riffles and pistol) 14. caliber . Clubs 3.

It refers to ammunitions as a ―loaded shell‖ for rifles.877 of the revise administrative code. Vieille developed the first satisfactory smokeless powder. 1835 Samuel Colt. Hiram Maxim. 1350 Small Arms. Gunpowder was first used only in cannons.290 Of the national internal revenue code as well as in sec. muskets. 1498 Riflings. This combine both powder and ball about 1575. 6. It was not until the middle of the 14th century that portable hand firearms were introduced. shotgun. carbines. Flobert developed bullet bridge cap which was in reality the first rimfire cartridge. 1885 Smokeless Powder. Oliver F. Important Dates in Firearms History 1313 GunPowder as a Propellant. Technical Definition . The first reference of rifled barrels happened around this year. 1858 Center Fire Cartridge. In France. In France. The Morse cartridge marked the beginning of the rapid development of the center fire cartridge. D) AMMUNITION A. Although its importance as an aid to accuracy was recognized by some. Rifle.15. forming the basis for all later percussion and cartridge development. 1836 Pinfire Cartridge. The age of gunpowder begun with its first use as a propellant for a projectile. Rifled-bore Firearms  Firearms that have riflings (land and groove) inside their gun barrel. a new propellant which lacked the smoke characteristics of the black powder but was more powerful. Smooth-bore Firearms  Firearms that have no riflings (land and groove) inside their gun barrel. Patented the first practical revolver in which the cylinder rotated by cocking the hammer. These guns were ignited by a handheld hotwire or lighted match.Sec. Built the first fully automatic gun. This generally speeded loading and reduced the hazard to carrying loose powder. bullet. Revolver. The terms also includes ammunition for air rifles as mentioned elsewhere in the code. The Pinfire Cartridge developed by Le Faucheux was probably the first exploding cartridge to come into general used 1845 Rimfire Cartridge. revolvers\ and pistols from w/c a ball. Revolver and Musket. 2. Paper cartridge were developed. Example Pistols. it took many years before rifling was generally used. 1884 Automatic Machine Gun. 1575 Cartridge. Two General Classes of Firearms (according to the Gun Barrel Internal Contruction) 1. Winchester One of the earliest rifles and pistols maker. shot. B. Example Pistol. shell or other missiles may be fired by means of gun powder or other explosives. utilizing the recoil of the piece to load and fire the next charge. 1807 Percussion System. 5. Legal Definition The Legal definition of the word ―ammunition‖ may be found in chapter VII. Forsyth discovered that a certain compounds detonated by a blow could be used to ignite the charge in firearms.

. Such action is called ―percussion‖. .357. Rifle cartridge 4. a cartridge has only four (4) parts: the bullet. is converted to heat gas under high pressure and propels the bullet or shot charges through the barrel and to the target. . Rimless type. C. Cal. w/c when hit or struck by the firing pin would ignite. Cartridge case – the tabular metallic container for the gun powder. 3.‖ The general term ammunition also refers to a metallic cartridges or shot shells. the term ammunition re3fers to a group of cartridges to a single unit or single cartridge. Gunpowder – the powder charges.25. cartridges case. .used in automatic pistols and revolvers 5. grease gun. a cartridge is a complete round of ammunition for a fire arm. Cal.used in revolvers 7. . gun powder and primer. pistols. we shall simplify classification as follows: A. Pistol cartridge 3. CLASSIFICATION OF CARTRIDGE There many ways of classifying small arms ammunition or cartridges.45 pistol. According to Caliber 1. Thomson submachine gun.used in caliber . Cal. since these are the type usually encountered in field of fire arms investigation. Pin-fire cartridges.38 & . Sometimes called ―propellant‖ or ―powder charge. Revolver cartridge 2.22. Rimmed type. However. In our discussion of ammunition we shall be limit ourselves to metallic cartridges and modern shot shell used in small arms.38. c. but for purposes of ballistics and as used in police work or in the field of fire arms investigations. PARTS OF A CARTRIDGE Generally speaking.used in . w/c ignited by the primer flash.380.30. Cal. Cal. Center-fire cartridges a. Cal. Rim-fire cartridges.used in magnum revolvers 9. Shot gun cartridge B. b. According to the type of firearms used: 1. According to location of primers 1.the projectile propelled through the barrel of fire arms by means of the expansive force of gases coming from burning gun powder. revolvers and rifles.used in super .32. 2. Cal. .no longer used (obsolete) 2.used in revolvers Cal.used in revolvers. . cartridge case. The term may also refers to a ― single round. Cal.38s.used in carbines and other rifles 4. Sometimes called‖ shell‖ or ―casing‖. 4.357. Semi-rimmed type.357 revolvers (magnum) 8. Bullet.44. Primer – the metal cup containing the highly sensitive priming mixture of chemical compound.22 pistol. 1. . . 3.used in pistols 6.used in . rifles 2.meaning a complete unfired unit consisting of a bullet.45. technically. Technically speaking. gun powder and primer. Cal.used in automatic pistols .used in pistols and rifles 3.

‖ Jacket Bullet‖-those made of a core of lead covered by a jacket of harder material such as gilding metals. there are two kinds of bullets.solid paper patched G. cylindrical projectile propelled from a firearm by means of the expansive force of gases coming from burning gunpowder. IV. ―slug‖.Another way of classifying bullets is according to ―shape‖ as shown below: a.metal cased H. .Round Nose -Flat base b. According to Types A. PARTS OF THE CARTRIDGE CASE . Definition A bullet is a metallic or nonmetallic.‖ Copper-plated steel may used instead of gilding metal for the jacket of caliber . although strictly speaking these projectiles designed for shotguns are called ―shot‖.Pointed Nose -Baot-tailed c. according to mechanical construction.Wad-Type -Square-base d.solid lead E. the term may also include projectiles propelled from shotguns. Basically. Cal. 10. Another term for ―cartridge case‖ is ―shell‖ or ―casing.50.metal point D.lead.soft B. 1. Some European manufacturers have been known to used steel as a jacket material from time to time. ―Lead Bullet‖. or ―pellets‖.solid hollow point F. a copper-alloy of approximately 90% copper and 10% zinc. The cartridge case is the portion of the cartridge that is automatically ejected from the automatic firearm during firing and this remain at the scene of the crime.metal cased hollow point C.‖ although what he actually means is a bullet‖.50 machine guns (but not used in crimes) E) BULLETS I.rifled slug F) CATRIDGE CASE A cartridge case is a tabular metallic or non-metallic container w/c holds together the bullet. This is a firearm evidence that can help trace a particular firearm w/c it was fired. The primary function of the ―jacket‖ in a bullet is to ―prevent adherence of metal (lead) to the inside of the gun barrel. . 2.45 bullets.‖ The terms can be used interchangeably. gunpowder and primer. B .used in cal.those made of lead or alloys of this metal . In a layman’s viewpoint a projectile fired from a firearm is called ―slug.Semi-Wad -Hollow-base C. Under this definition. Classification A. tin and antimony.w/c is highly harder than pure lead.

CANNELURES.providing a means to prevent the escape of gas to the rear of the cartridge and c. BASE. 1.the ―crimp‖ is that part of the mouth of a case that is turned in upon the bullet. VENTS OR FLASH HOLES.the ―vents‖ or flash holes‖ is the hole in the web or bottom of the primer pocket through w/c the primer ―flash‖ provides ignition to the powder charge. the neck is apparent. It is the ―operating‖ or ―canal‖ that connects the priming mixture w/ the gunpowder. But in the so called ―straight‖ cases w/c involve only a slight taper.that portion w/c support the neck 10.The standard cartridge case HEAD FORMS are: a.Tapered c.shell cannelures are the serrated grooves that are sometimes found rolled into the necks and bodies of the bullet from being pushed back or loosened. This detonation or explosion produces flame w/c passes through the vent or flash hole in the cartridge case.w/c when struck by the firing pin would detonate or ignite. SHOULDER.Rimles G) PRIMERS Definition: The primer is that portion of the cartridge w/c consists of a brass or gilding metal cup. Such an action is called ―percussion‖ Primers are used for igniting the gunpowder or the powder charge.providing a solid support for primer anvils. The shellhead w/c contains the headstamp. it is not. The primer w/c contains the priming mixture . it aids in holding the bullet in place: and b. b.PRIMER POCKET-primer pocket performs three functions: a. The cup contains highly sensitive mixture of chemical compound.EXTRACTING GROOVE. . 8.RIM-the projecting rims of rimmed and a semi-rimmed cases serve the purpose of limiting the for4ward travel of the cartridges into their chambers and thus also limit a clearance.Bottleneck 2.the circular groove near the base of the case or shell designed for the automatic withdrawal of the case after each firing CLASSIFICATION OF CARTRIDGE CASES Small arms cartridge cases may be classified according to CASE SHAPE and HEAD FORM. igniting the gunpowder or powder charge or the propellant. caliber.The ―head‖ and the ―body‖ constitute the ―cork‖ that plugs the breach of the barrel against the escape of the gas. It works two ways: a.holding primers securely in central position b. CRIMP. 3.if any between the heads and the supporting 2. 5. 4. In cases of bottleneck. 7. 9. w/out w/c the latter could not be fired. and year of manufacture.1.Semi-rimmed c.Staight b.There are three general SHAPES of cartridge cases.the ―term neck‖ is applied to that part of the cartridge case that is accompanied by the bullet. NECK. it offers resistance to the movement of the bullet out of the neck w/c affects the burning of the gunpowder. a.Rimmed b. 6.the bottom portion of the case w/c holds: a. The HEAD and BODY.

is converted to gas under high pressure and this propels the bullet or shot charge through the barrel and on to the target. and firmly supported in order to provide the resistance necessary to firing the priming mixture. Primer Cup-this is the container of the priming mixture. charcoal and sulphur in powdered form. depending upon the kind. have either a dull . Potassium nitrate 75% Sulphur 10% Charcoal 15% It is the oldest propellant. to hold priming mixture in place b. Forsyth was a scotch Presbyterian minister but he was also a chemist. Classification&Compsition 1) Black Powder – although black powder features less importatnly. gliding metal. a hunter and a well known authority on firearms. when ignited by the primer flash.piece of small paper or disk of tin foil which is pressed over the printing mixture. Anvil-that portion of the primer against which the priming mixture is crushed by a blow from the firing pin. 2. It is stil loaded in some cartridge types ona limited commercial basis. it is still utilized by some manufacturers especially Eoropeans. Primers are used for igniting propellant powders and the promptness.Origin Alexander John Forsyth is credited w/ being the first to conceive the idea of using detonating compounds for igniting gunpowder charges in small arms by percussion and in 1807 he obtained a patent for this idea. to exclude moisture Composition of the Priming Mixture Ingredients of a Typical riming Mixture Potassium chlorate (initiator & fuel) 45% Antimony sulphide (element & fuel) 23% Fulminate of mercury (initiator) 32% GUNPOWDER Definition The gunpowder or powder charge in a cartridge is the propellant which. adequacy and uniformity w/ w/c these ignite powder charges play a vital role in the performance of the ammunition. Priming mixture-the highly sensitive chemical mixture contained in the primer cup. Primer anvils must be hard. rigid. 4. which depending on the manufacturing process. or copper. It consists of irregular grains. The purpose of this disc of tin foil is twofold: a. This priming chemical itself varies in composition depending upon the manufacturer. Primer cups are made of brass. 3. Parts of the Primer (Center-fire Cartridge) 1. His first successful priming mixture was composed of potassium chlorate. disc.

or spark. In barrels intended for rifles the next step consists of reaming the drilled hole for its entire length. This completes the bore operations on a shotgun. The first step on the process is the drilling. If the barrel is to be rifled. when ignited it will burn by itself without aid from the outside air and this burning is rapid. 2) Double-Base propellants – those having nitrocellulose and nitrocglycerine as their major ingredients. flakes. accompanied by one or more minor ingredients. or other parts. because of the ease with which it can be ignited. or perforated cylindrical grains. It is one of the most dangerous explosives to handle and store. This operation results in a comparatively rough hole of uniform diameter which ext4nds longitudinally from one end of the barrel to the other. it is done by means of several rifling methods. but if kept dry it retains its explosive properties indefinitely. through the center of which lubricating oil is forced under pressure. discs. The reamer removes metal from the entire surface because it is slightly larger in diameter than the drill. Almost all smokeless powder grains have a perfectly definite shape. strips. in burning it gives off a large amount of gas. Classes: 1) Single-Base – contains only pure nitroglycerine gelatinized with nitrocellulose. fastenings. When fired it reduces large volumes of grayish some and considerable residue is left in the barrel. pellets. A special dephole drill is used. All propellants in current use have a nitro- cellulose base and are commonly known as smokeless powder. cutter or reamer is used to finish the muzzle end. 3. are manufactured from a solid piece of metal. a considerable amount of heat is also evolved. When ignited it also burns with reasonable great rapidity. such as small squares. In shotgun barrels which are to have some degree of choke. The interior surface at this stage bears numerous scars and scratches resulting from the irregular cutting of the drill and the metal chips which mark the finish. It is very easily ignited by heat. Some of the rifling methods used to make the rifling inside a gun barrel are the following: 1) Hook-cutter system 2) Scrape-Cutter System 3) Broaching System . flame. Black powder relies for its explosive properties on 3 qualities: 1. thus assuring a high quality product after the various machine operations and heat treatment are completed.or shiny black surface. regardless of the type of the weapon for which they are being made. It is subject to rapid deterioration on absorption of moisture. 2. This removes some of the scars and scratches left by the drilling operation. friction. ARMS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES ELATED TO FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION How the Barrel is made All barrels. The metal may be cylindrical in form or it may have an irregular shape with projecting portions which are later machined into sights. 2) Smokeless Powder It is the most powerful of the propellants. The metal from which the barrel is made is carefully selected for its chemical and metallurgical structure.

The drilling is done by what is referred to as a barrel drill or deep-hole drill. ejectors and firing pins often bear characteristic scars or marks resulting from the manufacturing process. a process known as lapping is done. small imperfections on its surface are transmitted to the surface of the barrel. This is a process consisting of a mixture of oil and abrasive. Comparison of these marking (breech-face markings) is the means of identifying whether or not a particular cartridge case or shell was fired from a particular gun. The fact that no two things are absolutely identical or alike. the inside has spiral grooves on the inner surface extending for its complete length. These will also frequently leave their marks or impressions on a fired case or primer. And in similar manner. broach. If it is a shotgun barrel. As the rifling cutter wears. Similarly to breech-face markings. As this point in the procedure of manufacturing barrel we have a cylinder which has polished hole running from one end to the other. the barrel is lapped. This drill is made of the best and hardest tool steel. and when complete leaves a rough undersize ole. The diameter of this hole is near the size of the desired caliber of the gun. This operation polishes both the land and groove areas of the barrel and removes many of the larger imperfections resulting from the cutting or forming operations. FA identification is actually a refined tool marks identification 2. A hole. 3. The important fact for the firearms technician or examiner to remember is that no matter how many polishing and finishing operations are used by a gun maker. This is done by several types of reamers—the roughing. Taking each separately and beginning with the barrel. is first drilled through the blank. FORENSIC FIREARMS IDENTFICATION Basis of FI: 1. We now have smooth bore barrel. we start with the barrel blank. It is the comparison of these striations on fired bullets which is the basis of bullet identifications. the accumulation of metal chips removed by the cutter will scratch the barrel as it passes along. These microscopic scars remaining in the lands and grooves will make a series of striations on every bullet which passes through the barrel. it is the softer surface that will acquire or be engraved or marked with impressions or scratches from any irregularities on the harder surface. it is not possible to completely rid the interior of the barrel of all the tool markings. 4. THESE SCRATCHES OR STRIATIONS VARY FRO GUN TO GUN. To give a bullet the desired spin. finishing and burnishing reamer. The natural wear and tear of the tools involved. It has only one cutting edge. later called the bore. the spiral grooves methods now available. when a softer surface comes in contact with a harder surface. This drilling process is a very terrific operation. To complete the enlarging process. .4) Button-system The tools used in these methods are called the cutter. The final operation in the finishing of a breech-face consists of filing or sanding which leaves minute or microscopic scratches or striations on the surface of the breech-face of the gun. all of the scars and imperfections on the inside of a barrel are not removed. The cutting edges of the drill and the reamers are irregular since they themselves had to be manufactured and sharpened and it is humanly impossible to sharpen these tools and not leave a few irregularities or nicks on their cutting edge. scrape. AND IT CAN BE SIAD THAT NO TWO GUNS WILL LEAVE THE SAME SCRTCHES OR IMPRESSIONS ON A FIRED CASE OR PRIMER. however. the inside is smooth. This is the rifling operation is completed. This is the polishing operation in which a lead plug closely fitting the inside of the barrel is drawn back and forth on a rod carrying with it a polishing compound. and button. If it is a rifled barrel. the barrel is then reamed out to a larger diameter. Even the button-system imperfections will remain after the lapping and finishing operations are completed. the purpose of which is to eliminate the roughness of the interior of the barrel of the gun. extractors. When these grooves have been cut to the desired depth.

Theimpulsive action of this rapid expansion drives the cartridge case violently against the breech-face of the weapon. 4. rifles. Firing pin marks – are generally found on the primer cup. The breech face of the firearm when finished must have some filing done to completely finish it and remove burrs. 4. Shearing mark – also called secondary firing pin mark are found in the primer near the firing pin mark. Pivotal mark 8. shotgun. Groove marks – caused by the grooves 3. When a cartridge is fired in a firearm. This is true most especially in center-fire cartridges. 2. and irregularities present in this surface leave dentifying impressions upon the receptivel- malleable metallic case and especially upon the primer. and machine guns. which is the central area of the base of the cartridge. are generally found on bullets fired through ―loose fit‖ barrels wherein the riflings are already badly worn out. MARKS FOUND O FIRED BULLETS Generally. Chamber marks – are mostly found around the body of the fired cartridge case and they are caused by irregularities in the inside walls of the chamber. The breech fac mahy appear a . Stripping marks-due to bullet ―jumping‖ the riflings. These breech-face markings exhibit characteristics indicative not only of class with respect to revolver types. Extractor mark . 6. are found in their extracting grooves. the expansive force of thepowder charge creates a tremendous pressure within the chamber of the firearm. 5. Land marks-caused by the lands. The identification of firearms evidence is predicated on the principle that softer metals used in the manufacture of bullets and cartridge cases or shells are indelibly imprinted with the metal patterns of the hard steel surface of the firearms with which they come in contact In the manufacture of a rifled arm. 3. the marks found on fired bullets are: 1. Ejector mark – are generally found in cartridges fired from automatic weapons and they are located near the rim also.‖ These are found on the cylindrical or peripheral surface of the fired bullets and these are caused by the riflings inside the gun barrel. Magazine lips markings – are found at two points of the rim of the base of the shell and these are caused by the magazine lips during the loading of the cartridges into the magazine for firing. 2. Breech face marks – are found most generally on the base of the cartridge case. With one’s naked eye it is difficult to see these file marks on the breech face. are generally found on bullets fired from revolvers. but also of the products of specific manufacturers. MARKS FOUND ON FIRED SHELLS 1. lands and grooves are cut into the interior surface of the barrel for the purpose of twisting the bullet into a spin as it progresses through the gun barrel. These marks serve as a good guide for the firearm examiner in determining more or less the relative position of the cartridge in actual explosion in the chamber of the suspected firearm submitted for examination. land marks and groove marks are called ―rifling marks. These landmarks and groovemarks are distinct and clear on the cylindrical surface of the fired bullets that had passed through a new gun barrel.are mostly found on shells fired from pistols. Skid marks – due to worn out barrel. 7. These marks are found more or less on the anterior portions of the fired bullets and are caused by the forward movement first of thebullet from the chamber before it initially rotates as required by the riflings inside the gun barrel. This filing leaves file marks on the breech face. wherein the priming mixture is contained in the primer cup located in the center of the base.

BASED NOT UPON A FEW MARKINGS. NUMBER OF LANDS AND GROOVES – the number of lands and grooves inside the bore of a given firearm are always the same. but actually when seen and examined under the microscope it will appear t contain microscopic or minute irregularities or striations on its surface. AS IN ALL FIELDS OF IDENTIFICATION. These characteristics are factory specifications and are within the control of man and they serve as basis to identify a certain group or class of firearms. It is the distance measured between two opposite lands inside the bore.. no man can file a piece of work exactly alike twice. DIRECTION OF TWIST - . Likewise. BUT UPON A PATTERN OF MARKINGS OR A COMBINATION OF THESE MARKINGS. regardless of the hardness of the tool steel material. If a bore has six lands. WIDTH OF GROOVES – groove width is measured as the ―shortest‖ distance between the two sides or edges of a groove. groove width and number. CLASS CHRACTERISTICS Class characteristics are those characteristics that are determinable even prior to the manufacture of the firearms. It is not possible for a bore to have six lands and five grooves. therefore due to this wear. Number of lands and grooves is a valuable class characteristics. BORE DIAMETER – it is the diameter to which the bore was reamed. 4. During the manufacture. THE FINAL IDENTIFIACTION OF A FATAL GUN IS. WIDTH OF LANDS – land width is dependent upon bore diameter. 5.. tool markings will be different from one firearm to another. it will also have six grooves. For each of these reasons the markings on the breech faces of different weapons will not be identifical. Grooves – the depressed portions 3. the tools become worn during their passage down the bore and will leave a different markings at one end of the barrel than from the initial cut made to begin the drilling of the barrel These tools must be re-sharpened. Lands – the lands are the elevated portions b. or replaced entirely. giving different set of markings on the cutting edge. The grooves number may run from three to eight or more. Examples of class characteristics are: 1. 2. a. The lands are a ―remainder‖ of the circumference after subtracting all the grooves withs. but most modern firearms have five or six.little bit smooth.