THE ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE ON THE

GOVERNANCE OF HERBAL MEDICINE IN INDONESIA

R. Widya Setiabudi Sumadinata1 Affabile Rifawan2
1
Department of International Relations, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas
Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Jatinangor Km.21, 45363, Jatinangor, Indonesia
wsetiabudi@yahoo.com; w.setiabudi@unpad.ac.id

Abstract

The abundance of Indonesia’s biodiversity is a blessing. As second largest biodiversity in the world, Indonesia
has a lot of potent in natural resources of herbal medicine. The ability of Indonesia’s technology to extract this
source is capable. However, there are some political issues that needs to be adressed in using this potent. In
environmental security perspective, the potentiality and sources of herbal medicine are one of the way to
preserve biodiversity in Indonesia. Moreover, it will be very useful if it is utilized efficiently by Indonesian side.
Herbal medicine is national assets, under this consideration, to describe governance of herbal medicine in
Indonesia through environmental security perspective, this paper using descriptive case study from interview
and literature review to present broader issues in this matter.

Keywords: Herbal medicine, Environmental security, governance, Indonesia.

1. Introduction
Herbal medicinal practices in Indonesia have been in use long before modern
medicine from western world. In addition, its extension, cosmetic and physical maintenance,
have also been used long before Dutch colonialization times. By the closing years of the
2000, medical preferences of the Indonesian public had changed. Indonesian society began to
demand more choices and increased participation in decisions about their healthcare—and in
particular they demanded increased access to herbal medicine. They were not abandoning
modern western medicine, but rather requesting additional interventions with herbal
medicine. Especially at present, one could buy easily readymade jamu which had produced
by industry in the form of powder, pills, capsules, or drinking liquid [1] [2].
Although early attempts to establish a system of state-endorsed medicine was
vigorously contested, by the early decades of the 2000, the fortunes of the herbalists were
beginning to fade as those of medical practitioners and the herbal medicine corporation rose
due to demand from the society[2]. In herbal medicine context, the environment serves
various purposes, including the space for the medical landscape. This landscape includes the
built environment as the source of medicinal flora, fauna, and minerals, and the places where
interactions among practitioner, compound, and patients occur. In addition, the quality of the
environment will influence the health conditions of the people and thus help to define the
number of people seeking medical care services. However, this environment is threatened by
many different conditions.
The opportunities environment provide for future development of herbal medicine,
however, are threatened by serious and increasingly environmental problem. In international

1
Department of International Relations, Universitas Padjadjaran
2
Department of International Relations, Universitas Padjadjaran

trafficking of flora and fauna which has medicine potential. Likewise the transnational environmental crime. It is a rapidly rising threat to the environment where sustainable development of herbal medicine becomes more increased in demand [3]. From this big number. and the need for environmental security. For instance.53%) have been using herbal medicine. deforestation. a half of Indonesian peolpe (49. taking only a few branches or some bark as compound in herbal medicine they usually used. exploitive and extractive industries have become focal points for environmental security of herbal medicine. Knowledge about the medicinal value of indigenous plants plays a central role in the health and well-being of Indonesian people. [6] The dependence on traditional herbal medicine illustrates how the destruction of the environment not only threatens biodiversity. and dumping of toxic waste which destroy herbal medicine environment of live. Result Environmental conditions and social processes impact people’s health and traditional herbal medicine arrangements in many different ways. economic. It has been provoking the debate about risky society. as well as their access to medically- important flora and fauna. Many herbal medicine practitioner and user are well aware of the value of the environment and how to care for the plants they depends upon. economic and environmental changes that are influenced by local and globalization forces. Herbal medicine roles are also becoming important as the needs for collaboration in health become more prominent. and 45. Indonesian people exhibit a wide range of health based on herbal medicine that are widely linked to social. but also has severe ramifications for local people.17 % consume herbal medicine when necesary or they intent to consume it. In implementing the social objective laid down by the State. 4. it has hub for smugglers to distribute its products to be traveled globally. curative and rehabilitative services to raise the health status of the Indonesian population. transnational environmental crime include illegal logging. Like other urbanizing cities in the developing world is recording numerous health changes on multiple fronts such as diseases that are directly linked to poverty and also related to living in a contaminated environment.16 % consume liquid herbal medicine 43. They never cut the whole tree. and environmental conditions. They are also vulnerable to changes happening in the environment and policies aimed at protecting threatened biological resources that are widely used in traditional herbal medicine practices. capsule and external usage. Factors such as over-grazing. Moreover. and created opportunities for herbal medicine which can be found in environmental neighborhood to intervene to support health programs. preventive. such as. According to Indonesia Health Research in 2010. The combined environmental and health issues in Indonesia are only now beginning to receive adequate security attention. due to the lack of herbal medicine resources. If the government can develop effective program and policies to promote sustainable production of these indigenous plants it can lead to maintain societal health [5]. rest of it consume herbal medicine in many ways. This acts as a great incentive for conservation and careful nurturing of the environment. and extreme . the Ministry of Health of Indonesia is taking the responsibility of providing promotive.relation level. the intensification of economic activities. 2.36 % consume herbal medicine routinly every day. Herbal medicine is not immune from vulnerabilities that caused by political. These health challenges have overwhelmed the existing medical facilities. Many regions of herbal medicine environment in the world now have become vulnerable to environmental risks.99 % in powder compound. cultural. A half from them 55. most of conservasionist said that South East Asia is the most acute problem in ilegal wildlife[4]. The selection of traditional medicine is directly and indirectly linked to economic conditions and that are largely determined by the globalization process [4]. and the National Health Policy.

It is also scare biodiversity in Indonesia because Indonesia is the heaven of rainforest in the world which most of every species in the land very dependent to the existence of rainforest in Indonesia. Beside those strategic planning. traditional knowledge and modern science are combined to provide a unique meeting of patient. the big issue for the development of herbal medicine in Indonesia is illegal and uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources. Unless. This knowledge had been decrease by time. creating medical plant garden within a public parks or botanic gardens can be used by society to treat and learn herbal medicine plant. Practically. Evidence based medical science—provides on medicinal plants used by herbal medicine or jamu can be understood as ‘folk knowledge’. This plan could also to promote the cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants. bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides.weather as a result of climate change. practitioner and plant. Government action to protect herbal medicine plant needs public support and public understanding. the state government have been took early steps to develop a comprehensive view on the sustainable use of state's natural resources and for the conservation of its rich biodiversity. for instance. government can create a citywide cultures by facilitate herbal clinic and clinic garden in neighborhood environment. it could be claimed or developed by other countries with little benefit for Indonesia. illegal wildlife trafficking is also the obstacle for the biodiversity in Indonesia. cultivation and harvesting [7] are all included in the development of an understanding the herbal medicine. The Government Indonesia has a commitment for the socioeconomic development of the citizens of the State through herbal medicine which has been being combined with contemporary modern medical science from western world in some hospital in Indonesia. information about habitat. For instance. In addition. To create resilience in herbal medicine in an urban environment. Tigers is not only one species that to be hunted and killed. Conservation of the state's rich biodiversity. . It is must be securitized and raising its awareness of local people that every species in Indonesia is national asset and must be preserved. The purpose is to attract people to see the plants growing in their natural environment and its knowledge of herbal medicine utility in Indonesia. literature and popular culture. However. the practical security action for herbal medicine environment can be done through eco-friendly agriculture involving a practices based on locally available biodegradable waste. but also the others species that very valuable for the herbal medicine utilization in China. referent object in this case is national biodiversity that must be protected and it can cause threat for the environmental security. Deforestation rate in Indonesia is the biggest rate of clearing forest nation in the world in 2012 [8]. it is more advantegous for Indonesia to establish cooperation transnationally to combat illicit wildlife trafficking as transnational crime. its sustainable use for expanding livelihood security and ensuring equitable sharing of its benefits have been part of this larger commitment of Indonesia government. It will be used as indregients for herbal medicine in China. This knowledge references is to myths. a lot of Indonesian tigers are caught and being killed by hunters to be sold in black market in China [9]. It needs awareness from Indonesian government to protect its biodiversity and practically. especially in urban area or big cities in Indonesia. Within contemporary herbal medicine. The high demand from China for herbal medicine extract from animals in Indonesia. It is now widely recognized as a significant threat to both the environment and to sustainable development. severely threaten the environmental where the herbal medicines can growth.

Thirdly. the development of herbal medicine has been centralized only in Java Island. Research budget in Indonesia only 0. the threat of exploitation its biodiversity potential. Indonesia has lack of capable human resources in herbal medicine. As a result. especially the lack of middle skill workers to support that. It is very smaller than China which in 1. Firstly. However. Every island in Indonesia should has at least one research center for developing herbal medicine and its biodiversity to secure every natural sources that can be useful for herbal medicine. business sector tend to save its investment by only reach standarized herbal drugs in its product as a respond to its low integration and low real commitment of the government in this sector. There are 70 percent of it [12]. but cannot integrate every aspect and stakeholders in this field to work together. traditional health workers yet cannot qualify professional health workers. The research funding for phytopharmaca medicine is approximately 1-5 billion rupiah [11] which is very costly for Indonesian researcher. There are no good sense of belonging between stakeholders in Indonesia to develop herbal medicine and its natural resources togetherly. only two universities in Indonesia which offer the study that clearly focus on herbal medicine development. it is inevitable for Indonesian researcher to accept funding from abroad to develop its herbal medicine with the possible of patent losses of plants or tablets. On the other hand. Therefore. There are a lot of expert in developing herbal medicine and also big industry in this field. the gap between the development in Java and the other islands in Indonesia can be the factor of increasing vulnerability to the biodiversity in Indonesia. Many leaders only prioritize jamu or herbal medicine as the material of its political campaign. Secondly. It is surpassed European Union. With the lack of sources of research funding in herbal medicine development. the workers in herbal medicine health workers is only graduated from elementary school predominantly. University of Indonesia and Airlangga University. the potential of Indonesia’s biodiversity are threatened by the high demand of herbal medicine abroad. the application of herbal medicine in health system still get big obstacle. this such gap is filled with the national policy that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the part of national health system and national education for health workers in China.09 percent of GDP [10]. It also has to save its investment by only spending a research and development budget until standarized herbal drugs. Every party seems to work in its criteria and cannot cooperate so well. Tawangmangu research center for herbal medicine in difficulty now to suplly raw materials of herbal medicine in all over Indonesia. Discussion As the second largest biodiversity in the world. only one university that really can provide middle skill workers in herbal medicine that provide diploma in herbal medicine specialist. in China. Most of Indonesian researcher said that the biggest obstacle to develop herbal potential in Indonesia is funding. It is endanger the ownership of local people in their environment and tend to evoke exploitation of Indonesia natural resources by foreigner without giving a lot of added value to its environment. The problem root is in its political will of leadership. Fourthly. the dynamics of politics in herbal medicine has been stalling since 2012 in parliament with no clear vision [13]. for example Jamu drinking campaign. . It needs more than one research center for huge potential of biodiversity in Indonesia especially for herbal medicine. Moreover. Indonesia has to deal with a lot of things that can preserve its biodiversity.3. Moreover. According to basic health research report from health ministry. This policy makes China can develop its TCM easier and be supported by its human resources.98 percent of GDP [10]. there are only one integrated research centre for herbal medicine in Indonesia and it is located in Java island. Although there are stated in the regulation of health workers in 2014. In addition. Consequently.

Indonesia is heaven for every herbal medicine company to develop its product. The Role of African Indigenous Plants in Promoting Food Security and Health. Moreover. BMC Public Health. Foreign affairs minister also have to establish and strengthen the existence of international cooperation that to establish and combat wildlife trafficking as national interest in Indonesia’s foreign policy. The protection of Indonesia’s herbal medicine product abroad also must be prioritized by its trade attache in every embassy of Indonesia.273-287 Available from: http://pubs. Reference [1] Sangga Sarana Persada. The environmental security matters in this term can be securitized by the strengthening and integrated of Indonesia policy of herbal medicine.Valérie R Louis. and Rainer Sauerborn.Working Paper 1. 2013:1127:pp.org/the-triumph-of-jamu.nlm. there are a big challenge to preserve its natural resources with the high demand of herbal medicine raw materials internationally. http://www. “Jamu . Available from. However. Indonesia needs to anticipate it by securitizing its environment and biodiversity richness with the rising political commitment and cooperation between stakeholders nationally. Health ministry will emphasize herbal medicine in preventive and promotive sectors in health system. the dynamics of politics will change if there are ruling of integration between health services and herbal medicine. Cordeiro. there are must political will from every ministry in Indonesia to integrate every aspect in developing herbal medicine in Indonesia.html [2] Hans Pols. Transnational Environment Crime Project . in this end year there will be ASEAN Economic Community which increasing its vulneravility in international politics and economy. “The triumph of jamu. In soft approach. [4] Md Aminul Haque.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3974044/ [5] Lorraine S.acs. With the richness of its biodiversity. Policy Responses to Transnational Wildlife Crime in The Asia- Pacific. 4. Available from. 2010. For the security sector in hard approach. American Chemical Society. available from http://www. business sector can cooperate with academician to develop its product and also can empower local farmers to preserve its nature potential in Indonesia.org/doi/abs/10. Revati Phalkey.Traditional Herbal Medicine . Conclusion Herbal medicine is the reliable potential source for Indonesia. Unless. The high demand of Indonesia natural resources for herbal medicine development abroad is the crucial factor that is unavoidable for Indonesia government to protect all aspect of Indonesia biodiversity in herbal medicine development. Classical issue such coordination intra and inter ministry such as in health ministry itself to integrate or at least to introduce herbal medicine in health system still get a low respond from its stakeholders. 2013.nih. http://www.1021/bk-2013-1127. It is more pathetic that to know in the strategic plan of health ministry for the next five years itself. police and immigration officer must prosecute every activities that illegally endanger biodiversity in Indonesia nationally and transnationally. [3] Dylan Horne.id/jamu. However.” [cited 2015 Sept 12]. It will not be the initial step from health ministry to develop herbal medicine in Indonesia.ch017 .joglosemar. To preserve its natural resources and biodiversity.ncbi.” [cited 2015 Sept 12].co. Use of traditional medicines to cope with climate-sensitive diseases in a resource poor setting in Bangladesh. there are no stated of herbal medicine development.and Traditional Cosmetic. 2014:14 [cited 2015 sept 14].insideindonesia. 2000. The main problem is in bureaucrat itself as leading sector for developing herbal medicine.

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