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Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Module 7:
Lecture - 9 on Geotechnical
Physical Modelling

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

2 D shaking system at RPI

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

B V S Viswanadham.View of laminar container at the onset of earthquake during centrifuge test Prof. Department of Civil Engineering. IIT Bombay .

Department of Civil Engineering.New laminar box at Schofield Centrifuge Centre. 2006 Prof. After Brennan et al. B V S Viswanadham. IIT Bombay .

IIT Bombay . B V S Viswanadham.Model container .NUS Prof. Department of Civil Engineering.

if the weight of the laminated container including weight of the model wall and instrumentation transducers is 300 kg. The breadth of the model is 300 mm. The measured radius from the centre of the shaft to the top surface of the model is 4. Department of Civil Engineering. A model vertical wall is constructed with the same soil (as shown in the figure below) is subjected to a constant angular velocity of 104 rpm in a beam centrifuge of radius 4. (iv) frequency in the prototype. if the model is subjected to 10 cycles of 50 Hz frequency with an amplitude of 1 mm. (v) amplitude in prototype. Take bulk unit weight of the soil as 18. Also find (iii) duration of shaking in model and prototype. IIT Bombay .085 m. (i) What will be the thickness of the model wall made of Aluminium plate (Take E = 72 x 106 kN/m2). a KSP-IIA type sheet pile wall section having EI = 24 x 104 kNm2 for retaining a soil having a cohesion of 15 kN/m2 and a friction angle of 32° was used. Prof. Problem 1: In a full-scale structure.2 kN/m3 (ii) What will be the magnitude of exerted dynamic force during shaking. B V S Viswanadham.5 m and is required to be tested for its dynamic behaviour physically. and (vi) error due to Coriolis effect.

IIT Bombay .Problem 1: All dimensions are in mm Prof. B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering.

IIT Bombay . as well as to observe the response of pore and water pressures. stress or displacement changes. B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering. degree of saturation or degree of concentration. Prof. Instrumentation  The aim of model tests in the centrifuge is to locate mechanisms and to get values or ratios for force.

Displacement measurements Contact type – LVDTs. IIT Bombay .Accelerometers .PPTs Acceleration -Strain .Laser LVDTs -Force measurement Load cells – Tension/Compression type -Pore Water Pressure Transducers . Image Analysis.Strain gauges. Department of Civil Engineering. B V S Viswanadham. Instrumentation . Potentiometers Non-contact type . PIV Prof.

Department of Civil Engineering. B V S Viswanadham. IIT Bombay . Instrumentation Linearly Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) Excitation  One primary coil and two secondary coils S connected in series Primary coil opposition Core Secondary coil Output Contact type LVDT Prof.

Department of Civil Engineering. The light reflected from the spot is directed through an optical receiving system onto a position sensitive element. Prof. Instrumentation Laser LVDT (Non-contact type)  Resolution  f (distance between the transducer and measurement area)  Shorter the distance better is the resolution  Measurement principle is based on triangulation – measuring of the refraction of a laser beam)  A laser diode projects a visible spot onto the target surface. B V S Viswanadham.  A digital CMOS & CCD array is used as position sensitive measuring element. IIT Bombay .

Laser distance sensor (Non-contact type) Prof. B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering. IIT Bombay .

B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering.Miniature PPT Transducer Prof. IIT Bombay .

Instrumentation Load cell Miniature contact stress transducer Prof. B V S Viswanadham. IIT Bombay . Department of Civil Engineering.

IIT Bombay .Working principle of Suction PPT Prof. Department of Civil Engineering. B V S Viswanadham.

IIT Bombay . B V S Viswanadham.Strain gauging… Prof. Department of Civil Engineering.

Department of Civil Engineering.Typical installation of strain gauge Prof. IIT Bombay . B V S Viswanadham.

Piezoelectric accelerometers Piezoelectric accelerometers are the traditional transducer used to measure acceleration in dynamic centrifuge experiments. B V S Viswanadham. IIT Bombay . This charge output is converted into a voltage using a charge amplifier. Prof. When they are subjected to vibration. These instruments have a natural inbuilt high pass filter meaning they are ineffective at measuring accelerations at low frequency (approximately below 5 Hz). Department of Civil Engineering. a crystal within the instrument gets squeezed which in turns releases a charge.

Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometers Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometers are small electrical devices which measure acceleration by measuring the force a mass applies to a spring. small weight and significantly lower cost compared to their piezoelectric counterparts Prof. They also measure inertial acceleration as well as dynamic acceleration. They have been used widely in for field monitoring and have been used in 1g testing. IIT Bombay . B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering. More recently their use in dynamic centrifuge tests has been investigated due to their small size.

2014) between the fixed plates.  The proof mass is connected to a fixed frame by spring elements. MEMS accelerometer Schematic representation of the  MEMS accelerometers are typically operational principle of a MEMS fabricated on single-crystal silicon accelerometer wafers using micromachining to etch defined patterns on a silicon substrate. and plates connected to the proof mass move (After O’Loughlin et al. Department of Civil Engineering.  These patterns take the form of small proof masses that are free from the substrate and surrounded by fixed plates.  Accelerations acting on the proof mass cause it to displace. B V S Viswanadham. Prof. IIT Bombay .

B V S Viswanadham. IIT Bombay .  Earlier applications: Motion-activated user interfaces (such as smartphones and game consoles) and protection systems (such as free-fall protection of hard drives in laptops and airbag deployment in vehicles) ⇔ Unlike piezoelectric accelerometers. MEMS accelerometer  This displacement causes a differential capacitance that is measured by integrated electronics and is output as a voltage that is proportional to the acceleration acting on the proof mass. which only measure changes in acceleration. Prof. Department of Civil Engineering. MEMS accelerometers can measure both constant and changing accelerations.

Why Physical Model Tests? •Complex. nonlinear stress-strain behaviour of soil (made of interacting particles. air. water) •Difficulty of numerical simulation of soil and soil- structure systems at large strains and failure •Validate and calibrate numerical methods Prof. IIT Bombay . B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering.

reasonable assumption that strains and deformations are also equal in model and prototype Prof. Why Centrifuge Model Tests?  Small-scale models are cost-effective  Soil properties are highly stress-dependent  Centrifuge produces equal confining stresses in model and prototype. IIT Bombay . B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering. therefore same soil properties  Then.

B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering.Effect of pile installation Why pile installation should be performed in flight? Applied load Installed at Ng Settlement Full Installed -scale at 1g Prof. IIT Bombay .

Department of Civil Engineering. Effect of pile installation Model pile installed at 1g σ σ σ σv σv σh depth depth depth σh σh σv Initial Driving pile Centrifuge  Installation at 1g in dense sand have low stress levels and lead to lo greater dilation and higher K Prof. B V S Viswanadham. IIT Bombay .

B V S Viswanadham. IIT Bombay . Effect of pile installation Model pile installed at Ng σ σ σ σv σh σv depth depth σh depth σv σh Initial at 1g Centrifuge Driving pile  Installation at Ng increase horizontal stress and higher K Prof. Department of Civil Engineering.

Department of Civil Engineering. IIT Bombay .Effect of pile installation Effective stress paths followed by elements close to pile for installation at 1g (ABCD) and Ng (APQR) After Wood (2004) Prof. B V S Viswanadham.

the horizontal stresses may perhaps not change significantly and  The soil will be left with in-situ radial stress. then subsequent consolidation CD will seek to re-establish and stresses may develop close to ko line. IIT Bombay . Prof. B V S Viswanadham.  If the PWP equilibrium is required after pile installation at higher stress level (QR at Ng). Effect of pile installation  The horizontal stress may possibly increase even above the vertical stress so that it falls below zero (BC at 1g and PQ at Ng)  If the above occurs at low stress-level. Department of Civil Engineering. before loading of the pile takes place.

Department of Civil Engineering. IIT Bombay .Excavation in front of the wall Prof. B V S Viswanadham.

Department of Civil Engineering.Excavation in front of the wall Prof. IIT Bombay . B V S Viswanadham.

Department of Civil Engineering. IIT Bombay .Comparison of stress paths for typical element in soil Excavation in stages (APQRS) `excavation' by removal of fluid pressure (ABCDEFG) Prof. B V S Viswanadham.

Excavation in front of the wall  Excavation in stages `excavation' by removal of (APQRS) fluid pressure (ABCDEFG) AP: Consolidation AP: Consolidation at 1g PQ: Overconsolidation BC: Overconsolidation at 1g QR: Installation of wall CD: Installation of wall at 1g RS: Excavation DE: Excavation and replacement of soil with heavy fluid (Prototype) EF: Centrifuge acc. B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering. 1g  Ng FG: Drainage of heavy fluid Prof. IIT Bombay .

3. In a sandy soil it might be as low as 0. desirably. the easiest way to apply a varying load over a deforming surface is to use fluid pressure Prof.Excavation in front of the wall  Excavation in front of a pre-installed wall once again poses robotic challenges  The problem is simultaneously to remove soil-like horizontal stresses and vertical stresses|and. IIT Bombay . to do this in stages leaving real soil below each excavation level  The ratio of horizontal and vertical effective stresses before excavation (Ko) will depend on the soil type and the consolidation history of the soil. in a stiff clay as high as 3. B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering. Practically.

 In a fluid. B V S Viswanadham. This can be addressed by using a combination of heavy fluid with air pressure (to supplement differential vertical stress) at the base of the eventually excavated soil in order to be able to provide separate control of horizontal and vertical stresses. IIT Bombay .Excavation in front of the wall  The unit weight of soil is greater than the unit weight of water so one strategy is to use a heavy fluid such as an aqueous solution of zinc chloride. horizontal and vertical stresses are of course always the same at any level so an assumption might be made that it is more important to maintain the correct horizontal stresses on the pre-installed wall than to maintain the correct vertical stresses on the ground remaining in front of the wall.) Prof. Department of Civil Engineering.

B V S Viswanadham. 240 mm 120 mm 240 mm Miniature PPT Locations of PPTs 20 mm 100 mm 130 mm 100 mm 34 mm P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 10 Initiation of P1 failure 8 Height of Water (m) 6 P2 P3 4 P4 2 Time vs measured PWP  0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (minutes) Prof. IIT Bombay . Department of Civil Engineering.

Department of Civil Engineering. d. Figure below shows phreatic surfaces recorded at the end of 6th day and 12th day during the test. Prof. B V S Viswanadham. The slope portion as well as the base layer was moist-compacted at a void ratio of 0. c. b.38. C. e for the end of 6th day and A. B. IIT Bombay .6 x 10-6 m/s. Co-ordinates of water levels in meters are given in the figure for points a. D. E for the end of 12th day. The value of coefficient of permeability of the soil determined by conducting falling head tests is 1.Example problem Steady-state seepage conditions were simulated for a slope having 12 m height at 50 gravities.

Department of Civil Engineering. Take average particle size of the soil used for constructing the model slope as 0. B V S Viswanadham. Estimate Reynolds number at the end of 6th day and 12th day (using the data obtained from item (i) in both model and prototype dimensions. Prof. iv) Time of seepage.22 mm and kinematic viscosity of the water as 1 x 10-6 m2/s. IIT Bombay . iii) Discharge per unit length of the slope at c – C. ii) Pore water pressure at C.Example problem Determine the following both in model dimensions and prototype dimensions: i) Seepage velocity at the end of 6th day and 12th day between points b-c and B-C.

B V S Viswanadham. Department of Civil Engineering. IIT Bombay .Example problem Prof.