16 January 2004
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copyright holder.
This UFC supersedes TM 5-852-6, dated 25 January 1988. The format of this UFC does not
conform to UFC 1-300-01; however, the format will be adjusted to conform at the next revision.
The body of this UFC is the previous TM 5-852-6, dated 25 January 1988.
UFC 3-130-06
16 January 2004
FOREWORD
\1\
The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system is prescribed by MIL-STD 3007 and provides
planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and applies
to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities in accordance
with USD(AT&L) Memorandum dated 29 May 2002. UFC will be used for all DoD projects and
work for other customers where appropriate. All construction outside of the United States is
also governed by Status of forces Agreements (SOFA), Host Nation Funded Construction
Agreements (HNFA), and in some instances, Bilateral Infrastructure Agreements (BIA.)
Therefore, the acquisition team must ensure compliance with the more stringent of the UFC, the
SOFA, the HNFA, and the BIA, as applicable.
UFC are living documents and will be periodically reviewed, updated, and made available to
users as part of the Services responsibility for providing technical criteria for military
construction. Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities
Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) are
responsible for administration of the UFC system. Defense agencies should contact the
preparing service for document interpretation and improvements. Technical content of UFC is
the responsibility of the cognizant DoD working group. Recommended changes with supporting
rationale should be sent to the respective service proponent office by the following electronic
form: Criteria Change Request (CCR). The form is also accessible from the Internet sites listed
below.
UFC are effective upon issuance and are distributed only in electronic media from the following
source:
Hard copies of UFC printed from electronic media should be checked against the current
electronic version prior to use to ensure that they are current.
AUTHORIZED BY:
______________________________________ ______________________________________
DONALD L. BASHAM, P.E. DR. JAMES W WRIGHT, P.E.
Chief, Engineering and Construction Chief Engineer
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Naval Facilities Engineering Command
______________________________________ ______________________________________
KATHLEEN I. FERGUSON, P.E. Dr. GET W. MOY, P.E.
The Deputy Civil Engineer Director, Installations Requirements and
DCS/Installations & Logistics Management
Department of the Air Force Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense
(Installations and Environment)
ARMY TM 5-852-6
AIR FORCE AFR 88-19, Volume 6
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Paragraph Page
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . ..... .... ..... . 1-1 1-1
References and symbols . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . ..... . .... .... . . 1-2 1-1
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . ..... .... . .... . 1-3 1-1
CHAPTER 2. DEFINITIONS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
Figure 2-1 . Average thermal conductivity for sands and gravels, frozen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2-2. Average thermal conductivity for sands and gravels, unfrozen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
2-3 . Average thermal conductivity for silt and clay soils, frozen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
2-4. Average thermal conductivity for silt and clay soils, unfrozen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
2-5. Average thermal conductivity for peat, frozen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
2-6. Average thermal conductivity for peat, unfrozen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
2-7. Average volumetric heat capacity for soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8
2-8.7dolumetriclatentheatforsoils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9
2-9. Average monthly temperatures versus time at Fairbanks, Alaska- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
2-10Relationship between wind speed and n-factor during thawing season. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2-11.Relationship between mean freezing index and maximum freezing index for
10 years of record, 1953-1962 (arctic and subarctic regions). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
2-12Relationship between mean thawing index and maximum thawing index for
10 years of record, 1953-1962 (arctic and subarctic regions). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
3-1 . .1 coefficient in modified Berggren formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3-2. Relationship between (x/2;att-) and erf (x/287_1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3-3. Sinusoidal temperature pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . 3.9
3-4. Indexes and equivalent sinusoidal temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3-5. Average monthly temperatures for 1949-1950 and equivalent sine wave,
Fairbanks, Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3-6. Long-term mean monthly temperatures and equivalent sine wave,
Fairbanks, Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3-7. Schematic of ducted foundation. . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 3-14
3-8. Properties of dry air at atmospheric pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
4-1. Illustration for example in paragraph 4-la. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4-2. Temperature around a cylinder having received a step change in temperature. . . . . 4-3
4-3. General solution of slurry freeze-back . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4-4. Specific solution of slurry freeze-back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4-5. Freezeup of stationary water in an uninsulated pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4-6. Temperature drop of flowing water in a pipeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 . Specific heat values of various materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ . . .... . . .. 2.2
2-2. Thermal properties of construction materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... . . . ... . . . .. 2.6
2-3. Calculation of cumulative degree-days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... . . .... . . .. 2.9
2-4. n-factors for freeze and thaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... . .. .... . .... 2 .11
3-1. Multilayer solution of modified Berggren equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . ..... . .... 3.5
3-2. Thaw penetration beneath a slab-on-grade building constructed
on permafrost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .. . ..... . .... 3.13
3-3. Insulated pavement design, no frost penetration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .. . . . ... . .. . 3.20
3-4. Insulated pavement design, frost penetration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .. . ..... . ... 3.20
B-1 . Thermal, fluid and electric analogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. . . . .... . . .. B-2
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL
CHAPTER 2
Specific heat values shown to nearest 0.01 . Average values listed where temperature is not shown .
2-2
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
Society of Heating and Air Condition- dry unitweight of1201b/ft 3 and awater
ing Engineers for the specific heat content of 15 percent. Its volumetric
values of common materials . latent heat of fusion, L, is (144 X 120 X
c. The thermal conductivity of soils 0.15 =1 2592 Btu/ft3 and its average volu-
is dependent upon anumber offactors: metric heat capacity, C, is (120[0.17 +
density ; moisture content; particle 0.75 X 0.15] =) 33.9 Btu/ft3 OF. The quan-
shape; temperature ; solid, liquid and tity of heat required to change the
vapor constituents; and the state ofthe phase of pore water in 1 ft3of this soil at
pore water, whether frozen or unfrozen. 32F is the same as that required to
Average values, expressed in Btu/ft cause a temperature change of
hour F, for frozen andunfrozen granu- (2592/33 .9 =) 76 .4'F when a phase
lar soils, silts and clays should be read change is not involved.
from figures 2-1 through 2-4. The 2-3 . Fundamental considerations.
charts for sands and gravels are applic-
able when the silt and clay content a. Theoretical basis. The freezing
together make up less than 20% of the or thawing of soils is the result of re-
soil solids. The charts for silt and clay moving or adding heat to an existing
are applicable when that fraction is at soil mass . The movement of heat is
' least 50%. For intermediate silt-clay always inthe direction of lower temper-
fractions, it is recommended that the ature. The time rate of change of heat
simple average of the values for the content depends on the temperature
two sets of charts be used. In all cases, differential in the direction of heatflow
the error in the thermal conductivity and on the thermal properties of the
estimates may be 25%, and even soil.
higher when the percentage of quartz b. Physical factors and data re-
grains in the soil is exceptionally high quired. Calculation of the depth of
or low. Figures 2-5 and 2-6 presentesti- freeze or thaw is based on knowledge
mates of the average thermal conduc- of the physical and thermal properties
tivity of frozen and unfrozen peat. An of the soil in the profile, the existing
excellent source of data for dry con- thermal regime, and the nature and
struction materials is the ASHRAH duration of boundary conditions
Guide and Data Book. Thermal con-
ductivity values for a number of com-
mon construction materials are listed 150
in table 2-2. 0I I
d. The latent heat of fusion is the 14
2-3
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
nK"li
~.eGil~y .yrnHl
130
120
;'
E~
BEEN, rrrr
INNOM
/1I usit POW
140
W 100
v
a
90
130
La
u
W 3 80
70
i
0 60
3 50
H
2 WIV 40
i 300
3- 100
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
' 1- Moisture Content (/,)
w
90 d 90 120 100% saturated
LIM 50 N/A N/A 1 .20
40 1.00 N/A 1 .23
so 30 0 .98 1 .26
0 10 20 30 40 20 0 .61 1 .26
pure ice 1 .26
MOISTURE CONTENT, Percent Thermal
conductivitY K is expressed'iq :$tu perhour per square foot per
(U .S . Army Corps of Engineers) unit thermal gradient in F per foot.
Dashed line represents extrapolation .
Figure 2-2. Average thermal conductivity for sands andgravels, unfrozen .
iav
20111 I"
.r H. hr .MI lMrwal
4 rs~
.~
i
w 110 I"
NE
I 00 1111,101k0m --
C7
3 90
z
so 111W 0
70 01,,
_ ' ~~-
aa ""
0 10 t0 30 40
2-4
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
_0
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Water Content (%dry weight)
causingachange in the thermal regime . sional heat flow may be assumed, there-
Data pertinent to the soil profile in- by simplifying the problem and its
clude grain-size distribution, classifica- solution.
tion, density, water or ice content, and
temperature of each soil stratum . 2-4. Freezing and thawing indexes.
Knowledge of the thermal properties a. Physical concept and quantita-
of all the materials in the heat flow tive measurement. The penetration of
path is also required . Measured or as- freezing or thawing temperatures into
sumed temperatures within the soil soil partly depends on the magnitude
mass determine the initial conditions . and duration of the temperature dif-
Ifsurface temperatures can be assumed ferential at the air-ground interface.
to be spatially uniform and the thermal The magnitude of the temperature dif-
influence ofany buried structures can ferential is expressed as the number of
be considered negligible, one-dimen- degrees that the temperature in the. air
2-5
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
k K
conductivity conductivity
Type of Unit weight (Btulft2 -hr" F (Btulft "
material Description (Iblit3) per in .) hr-OF)
Values fork are fordrybuilding materials at a mean temperature of 75F except as noted; wet conditions will adversely affect values of
many of these materials.
t Mean temperature of 60 F.
Mean temperature of 320 F.
W
90
130 -40
Btu/cu ft F
120-" SO
30
40
-20
100 -
30 RC .C .
28 A.C .
90 --
!- 10
20
16 -5
7'o -L- -
r
W
Ib/cu ft
L
140 -I
0 Btu/cu ft -t- 40
130-
KEY
120-
too-
too-
90-
Go-
-PO -"A.-
1 29 1 15 -17 -473 *
2 9 -11 - 1 -33 -506
3 10 - 8 1 -31 -537
4 15 - 1 7 -25 -562
5 30 16 23 - 9 -571
6 38 30 34 2 -569
7 30 18 24 -8 -577
2-9
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
60
50
W 40
w
S
I-
Q 32
30
W
0-
M
W
E-
20
JS
I-
Z
O 10
W
Q
S 0
W
Q
-20
Incoming shortwave radiation may in- in figure 2-10 and are based on field
troduce heat into the surface to an studies conducted in Alaska and
extent that the surface becomes a Greenland. The n-factors given for
source ofheatconducted notonly down- average conditions in table 2-4 should
ward but upward into the air. In such a be used to convert air thawingindexes
case the n-factor may become signifi- to surface thawing indexes in the ab-
cantly larger than 1.0 . The effect of sence of specific measurements at the
latitude is not particularly significant planned construction sites.
in arctic and subarctic areas, but con- e. Design indexes. For design ofper-
sideration should be given to the effect manent pavements, the design freezing
of wind speed. Recommended curves (or thawing) index should be the aver
for n-factors versus wind speed for age air freezing (or thawing) index of
portland-cement-concrete and bitu- the three coldest winters (or warmest
minous-concrete pavements are shown summers) in the latest 30 years of
Table 2-4. n-factors for freeze and thaw (ratio of surface index to air index)
(U.S. Army Corps of Engineers).
Snow surface 1 .0 _-
Portland-cement concrete 0.75 1 .5
Bituminous pavement 0.7 1 .6 to 2t
Bare soil 0.7 1 .4 to 2t
Shaded surface 0.9 1 .0
Turf 0.5 0.8
Tree-covered 0.3** 0.4
Surface exposed directly to sun or air without any overlying dust, soil, snow or ice, except as noted otherwise, and with no building
heat involved .
t Use lowest value except in extremely high latitudes or at high elevations where a major portion of summer heating is from solar
radiation.
Data from Fairbanks, Alaska, for single season with snow cover permitted to accumulate naturally .
3.0
I
X
2.6
I
S CANCRETE
a~rc 2.0 ~~ ,
N
C
`PoWTCAA9 CEMENT CONCRETE
1.0
0 2 4 6 6 10 12 14 16
AVERAGE WIND SPEED, mph, DURING THAWING SEASON
record . If 30 years of record are not struction need not be changed more
available, the air freezing (or thawing) often than once in 5 years unless the
index for the coldest winter (or more recent temperature records in-
warmest summer) in the latest 10-year dicate a significant change. The distri-
period may be used. For design of bution ofdesign freezingand thawing
foundations for average permanent index values in North America is
structures, the design freezing (or presented in TM 5-862-1/AFR 88-19,
thawing) index should be computed Volume 1. Therelatively linear relation-
for the coldest (or warmest) winter in ship between recorded maximum in-
30 years of record or should be esti- dexes and mean freezing and thawing
mated to correspond with this fre- indexes shown in figures 2-11 and 2-12
quency ifthe number of years of record may be used in conjunction with dis-
is limited . Periods of record used tribution of mean and freezing and
should be the latest available. To avoid thawing indexes in TM 5-862-1/AFR
the necessity for adopting a new and 88-19, Volume 1 to determine the design
only slightly different freezing (or index values for arctic and subarctic
thawing) index each year, the design regions.
index at a site with continuing con-
I Cg000
I (BARROW!o
W
h
(rHIXE) o
9000
/6(Fr YUKON/
. e0001-
x (NORrNWAY) o
(BETTLES)
W
O
Z
Z 7000F-
N
W
W / o(KOrZESUE)
(FAIRBANKS!
W
(6ULKANA) o
6000
(B/6 DELTA! o,
Q
(AmAloo
X 5000
Q o(BEMEL )
Figure 2-11 . Relationship between mean freezing index and maximum freezing index for 10
years of record, 1953-1962 (arctic and subarctic regions) .
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
4000
(BW OELW T
(FAIRBAAWS)
IL 3500
(FT. YUIfQY)
r
(ANIAK) 0
Ir (MOPrHWAY1
(BETNEL) a' VG7/LKANA)
3000 0 wrnESI
z 2500
Z
0(KOTIEBUE)
1500
X ( THUL E) 0
Q
1000 -IBARROWI 0/
500 Imo_- L. j I 1 I 1 I I I t
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
CHAPTER 3
IIIMIdMI M%I/
ImpAPEFAMUFAF
I19,aPAPIMAPOAF
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;
,
lI/I%/I%I MEN
.MMwMII0;WAMIIW,I "
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FOR JIPPAFA
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3-2
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
remains permanently thawed, or to -Surface freezing index (nF) _
determine thaw penetration in areas 2600 degree-days.
where the ground below a depth .of -Length of freezing season (t)
several feet remains permanently = 160 days.
frozen. These two conditions are simi- -Soil properties: yd =1001b/ft3, w
lar in that the temperature gradients = 16%.
are of the same shape, although re- The soil thermal properties are as
versed with respect to the 32F line. No follows:
simpleanalytical method exists to deter-
mine the depth of thaw in seasonal -Volumetric latent heat of fusion,
frost areas or the depth of freeze in L = 144(100)(0.16) = 2160 Btu/ft3. (eq. 3-2).
permafrost areas, and such problems , -Average volumetric heat
should be referred to HQDA (DAEN- capacity,
ECE-G) or HQ AFESC . Numerical tech- Cavg =100[0.17++(0.75X0.l5)]
niques and computer programs are = 28 .3 Btu/ft3 -F . (eq 3-3)
available to solve more complex prob- -Average thermal conductivity,
lems. Appendix B discusses some ther- Kf = 0.80 Btu/ft hr F (fig. 2-3)
mal computer models for computing Ku = 0.72 Btu/ft hr F (fig. 2-4)
freeze and thaw depths. The modified
Berggren equation cannot be used suc- Kav = 1/2 (K u + Kf) --' 0.76 Btu/ft
cessfully to calculate penetration over hr f'.
parts of the season. The modified The ,l coefficient is as follows:
Berggren equation does not account -Average surface temperature
for any moisture movement that may differential,
occur within the soil. This limitation vs = nF/t - 2600/160
would tend to result in overestimated - 16.6F (16.6F below 32F). (eq 3-4)
frost penetration (if frost heave is sig- -Initial temperature differential,
nificant) or underestimated thaw
vo - MAT -32 - 37.2-32.0 =
penetration. 6.2F (6 .2 above 32F). (eq 3-6)
(3) Applicability. The modified
Berggren equation is most often applic- -Thermal ratio,
able in either of two ways: to calculate a = vo/vs = 6.2/16.6 - 0.33. (eq 3-6)
the multi-year depth of thaw in perma- -Fusion parameter,
frost areas or to calculate the depth of p - vs (C/L) - 16.6(28.2/2160) - 0.20. (eq 3-7)
seasonal frost penetration in seasonal -Lambda coefficient,
frost areas. It is also sometimes used to
calculate seasonal thaw penetration .1 - 0.89 (fig. 3-1) . (eq3-8)
J
(active layer thickness) in permafrost Estimated depth of frost penetration,
areas . 48(0.76)(2600)
48 K nF
X =~ = 0.89 5.8 ft
L 2160 (eq 3-8
3-3. Homogeneous soils.
The depth of freeze or thaw in one 3-4. Multilayer soils.
layer ofhomogeneous soilmay be deter- A multilayer solution to the modified
mined by means of the modified Berggren equation is used for non-
Berggren equation. A thin bituminous homogeneous soils by determining
concrete pavement will not affect the that portion of the surface freezing (or
homogeneity of this layer in calcula- thawing) index required to penetrate
tions, but a portland-cement-concrete each layer. The sum of the thicknesses
pavement greater than 6 inches thick of all the frozen (or thawed) layers is
should be treated as a multilayered the depth of freeze (or thaw) . The
system . In this example for homoge- partial freezing (or thawing) index re-
neous soils, determine the depth of quired to penetrate the top layer is
. frost penetration into a homogeneous given by
sandy silt for the following conditions: Lid, Ry
-Mean annual temperature F1 (or 11) - 2 ( ) (eq 3-10)
(MAT) = 37.2F. 24a 1 2
3-3
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
where Since a wind speed of 7-1/2 mph results
dl = thickness of first layer (ft) in an n-factor of 2.0 (fig. 2-10), a surface
R1 = dl/K1 = thermal resistance of thawing index nI of 1560 degree-days
first layer. is used in the computations . The vs, vo
and a values are determined in the same
The partial freezing (or thawing) index way as those for the homogeneous case:
required to penetrate the second layer vs- 1560/105 = 14.8F (eq 3-15)
is
L2d2 vo= 12.0 - 32.0 = 20.0F (eq 3-16)
R2 a s 20.0/14 .8 - 1.35.
F2 (or I2) = . (111+ -) . (eq 3-11) (eq3-17)
24x2 2 The thermal properties C, K and L of
the respective layers are obtained from
The partial index required to penetrate figures 2-1 through 2-8.
the nth layer is: b. Table 3-1 facilitates solution of
the multilayer problem, and in the fol-
Lnd n Rn lowing discussion, layer 3 is used to
Fn (or I n) - (MR + - ) (eq 3-12) Illustrate quantitative values. Columns
24.12 2 9, 10, 12 and 13 are self-explanatory.
Column 11, T:, represents the average
where IR is the total thermal resistance value of L for a layer and is equal to
above the nth layer and equals ELd/ld (2581/5.0 = 517). Column 14, Zs,
represents the average value of C and
R1 + R2 + R3 ... + R n.1 " (eq 3-13)
is obtained from XCd/ld (145/5.0 = 29).
The summation of the partial indexes, Thus T: and -C represent weighted
values to a depth of thaw penetration
F 1 +F2 + F3 .. .+Fn(orI 1 +I2+13 ... given by Ed, which is the sum of all
+ In) (eq 3-14) layer thicknesses to that depth .
The fusion parameter p for each layer
Is equal to the surface freezing index is determined from
thawing index) .
a. In this example, determine the v 8 (C /L) = 14.8 (29/517) = 0.83 . (eq 3-18)
depth of thaw penetration beneath a The A coefficient is equal to 0.508 from
bituminous concrete pavement for the figure 3-1. Column 18, Rn, is the ratio
following conditions: d/K and for layer 3 equals (3.0/2.0) or
-Mean annual temperature (MAT) 1.5. Column 19, FR, represents the sum
= 12F. of the Rn values above the layer under
consideration . Column 20, IR + (Rn/2),
-Air thawing index (I) equals the sum of the R n values above
= 780 degree-days. the layer plus one-half the Rn value of
-Average wind speed in summer the layer being considered . Fog ,ayer 3
7.5 miles per hour (mph). this is [1.32 + (1.50/2)] = 2.07. Column 21,
-Length of thaw season (t) nI, represents the number of degree-
= 105 days. days required to thaw the layer being
-Soil boring log-. considered and is determined from
3-4
TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
Table 3-1, Multilayer solution of modified Berggren equation (U .S . Army Corps of Engineers) .
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22)
R w
Layer Yd w d Ed C K L Ld ELd L Cd Md C It .~ ~2 Rn BR D2 +2 nl PnI
c
1 138 -- 0,4 0,4 28 0,86 0 0 0 -- 12 12 -- -- -- -- 0,46 0 0,23 -- -- m
2 156 2,1 1,6 2,0 29 1,85 470 751 751 376 46 58 29 1,15 0,455 0,207 0,86 0,46 0,89 134 134
3 151 2,8 3,0 5,0 29 2,00 610 1830 2581 517 87 145 29 0,83 0,508 0,258 1,50 1,32 2,07 612 746 0
4 130 6,5 1,0 6,0 28 1 .65 1220 1220 3801 633 28 173 29 0,68 0,537 0,288 0,60 2,82 3,12 551 1297
5a 122 4,6 1,0 7,0 25 0,64 808 808 4609 658 25 198 28 0,63 0,552 0,305 1,56 3 .42 4,20 465 1762
5b 122 4,6 0,6 6,6 25 0,64 808 485 4286 650 15 188 28 0,64 0,550 0,303 0,94 3,42 3 " 89 260 1557 "
3
0
a
a = 1,35 vs = 14,8F ni = 1560 degree-days
__ (470) (1,6)
12 (24) (0,207) (0 " 89) = 134
(610)(3,0)
I = (2,07) = 612
3 (24) (0 .258) o
_ (1220)(1,0
(3'12) = 551
14 (24) (0,288)
(808)(1,0)
1 5a (24) (0,305) (4 " 20 ) = 465
70
_ (808)(0,6)
1 5b 24) (0,303) (3 " 89) = 26
Unit K
weight (Btulft) C L
Region (Iblft 3 ) hr F) (Btulft 3 F) (Btulft 3 )
Canadian Archipelago,
N . Alaskan coast,
and temperate regions 20 0.18 10 2880
3-6
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
where a = thermal diffusivity of the
mass (ft2/day = K/C)
T (X,t) = temperature at depth x, at
time (F) t = time after application of
sudden change in surface
TS = suddenly applied constant temperature (days).
surface temperature (F) Figure 3-2 gives the relationship be-
To =initial uniform tempera- tween (x/2 at) and erf (x/2 1rat). The
ture of the mass (F) expression for the error function is
erf =mathematical expression, shown in appendix A and figure 3-2.
- termed the error function, In thisexample ofasudden step change,
which is frequently used a highly frost-susceptible subgrade is
in heat flow computations covered with a 2-foot thick, non-frost-
(dimensionless) susceptible gravel pad. Both soils are
x = depth below surface (ft) at an initial temperature of 20F . If the
I 0
N
h64'
1
t0
O
..
v
N
O M
b0
G
W
W
O
A.
H
O
U
Figure 3-2. Relationship between (x/2 Y-a-t) and erf (x/2 at).
3- 7
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
surface ofthe gravel is suddenly heated the concrete . The average annual tem-
to and maintained at 70F fora number perature is [60 + (-40)1/2 = 10F and the
of days, estimate the temperature at surface amplitude is (60 - 10) = 50F.
the gravel-subgrade interface after one The amplitude at an 8-foot depth equals
day. The gravel material is very dry
and latent heat may be ignored . The
thermal conductivity of the gravel is
50 exp [-8
.V (1.0)(365)
= 50 e'0.742
TIME
(U.S . Army Corps of Engineers)
Volumetric
Dry Unit Thermal heat Thermal
weight, Water conductivity, capacity, diffusivity,
yd content, K C a = K/C
Material (Ib/ft) w (%) (Btulft hr F) (Btulft3 F) (ft2/hr)
Concrete -- -- 1 .0 33.0 0.033
Sand 120 2 0.8* 23 t 0.035
Gravel 135 4 1 .5* 28 tx 0.054
From figure 2-2 .
tC = y d (0 .17 + w/100) .
Thermal
Thickness diffusivity Equivalent gravel
Material (ft) (ft2lhr) thickness (ft)
Concrete 1 .75 0.033 1 .3 2.3 (1 .3 X 1 .75)
Sand 0.50 0.035 1 .2 0.6
Gravel 2.50 0.054 1 .00 2.50
Total thickness 4.75 5.4
The subscript g refers to the gravel layer and the subscript m refers to the other material layer .
3-9
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
w
T
4
N
P
O
x
W
0
Z
0
EWA VAF,FA :~ ~ ~~~NIMIN&e Z
INIMA iurua~ L11 ~RAM RAW\TAXU
a
2ManiMriiM "t~~n llWIW1 11R 0
MANFAM iiINTERIM""~~~~ ~NaI Z
a
I WHEN N
O Of N O r ON f?
b 10
10 M f W~ M N
3- 10
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
TT--T_ - _i
50
IJL
0
THAWING INDEX
W 4 3400 DEGREE-DAYS
MEAN TEMPERATURE
Q 32
W 30
a MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE
26 .2
W
H
J 20 FREEZING
5300 DEGREE-DAYS
INDEX
H
Z
O
IO
Z
W
0
SEPT I OCT I NOV -I DEC JAN I FEB I MAR I APR I MAY JUNE__ 1 JULY 1AUG A SEPT OCT
m
a
R 3
~2 R
Layer d w d Ed C K L Ld ELd L Cd Xd C u n )R ~R +2 nl Fn I ""
w
J
Floor -- -- 1,5 1,5 24 -- 0 0 0 0 36 -- - -- -- 11,20 0 0 -- -- m
Sand 133 5 .0 5,0 6 .5 28 1,54 960 4800 4800 738 140 176 27 1 .21 0 .68 0 .463 3,25 11,20 12,82 5540 5540 m
Silt a 72 45 .0 1,5 8,0 37 0 .90 4650 6970 11770 1470 55 231 29 0,65 0,77 0,593 1,67 14,45 15 .29 7480 13020 w
Silt b 72 45,0 1,3 7,8 37 0,90 4650 6050 10850 1390 48 224 29 0,69 0,765 0 .586 1,44 14,45 15,17 6520 12060
a
0
v0 = 32 - 20 = 12F vs = 65-32 - 33F a = 12/33 = 0 .36
dn.
6970
nI(Silt a) = (15 .29) = 7480 degree-days
24(0 .593) ma
0
6050
ni(Silt b) - (15,17) - 6520 degree-days m N
24(0 .586)
3m a
Total thaw penetration = 7,8 feet oN
70
w
w
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
3-14
`TM 5-852-61AFR 88-19, Volume 6
where pad surface temperature at the outlet
K = average thermal conductivity of end equals the ratio
gravel Required freezing index
=1/2(0 .7 + 1.0) = 0 .85 Btu/ft hr F Length of freezing season
RT = thermal resistance of floor 1420
system
18 4 12 215
= 6.6F below 32F or 25 .4F.
12(1 .0) 12(0.033) 12(1.0)
12.5 ft2 hr F/Btu The inletair during the freezing season
(eq 3-30
has an average temperature of
(In the computations the dead airspace Air freezing index 4000
is assumed equivalent to the thermal
resistance of concrete of the same Length of freezing season 215
thickness.) = 18.6F below 32F or 13.4F.
=factor in modified Berggren
Therefore, the average permissible tem-
equation = 0.97 (conservative
assumption) perature rise TR along the duct is
(25.4 - 13.4) = 12.0F.
I f = thawing index at floor surface (c) The heat flowing from the
= (60 - 32)(150) = 4200 degree- floor surface to the ductair during the
days winter is equal to the temperature dif
L=latent heat of gravel = ference between the floor and duct air
144(125)(0 .025 = 450 Btu/ ft3 divided by the thermal resistance be-
then (48)(0 .97) 2'(4200) * tween them. The thermal resistance R
X - (0.85(12 .5) [ _ 1 + .11 is calculated as follows:
(0.85)(450)(12 .5)2 Xe Xi 1 14
R
- 1.1.0 ft. (eq 3-31) Ke Ki hre (12)(1 .0)
(b) Thus the total amount of heat + 4. +1
to be removed from the gravel pad by (12)(0 .033) 1.0 = 12.3 hr ft2 OF/Btu (eq 3-33)
cold-air ventilation during the freezing where
season with ducts open is equal to the XC = thickness of concrete (ft)
latent and sensible heat contained in Xi = thickness of insulation (ft)
the thawed pad. The heat content per hre =surface transfer coefficient
square foot of pad is determined as between duct wall and duct
follows: air
- Latent heat, (X)(L) = (11.0)(450) (For practical design, hrC = 1.0 Btu/ft2
= 4950 Btu/ft2 hr F and represents the combined
- Sensible heat (10 percent of effect of convection and radiation . At
latent heat, based upon ex- much higher air velocities, this value
perience) = 495 will be slightly larger; however, using
- Total heat content: a value of 1.0 will lead to conservative
5445 Btu/ft2. designs). The average heat flow be-
The ducts will be open during the tween the floor and inlet duct air is
freezing season (215 days),and the aver- [(60 - 13 .4)/12 .3] = 3.8 Btu/ft2 hr, and be- -
age rate of heat flow from the gravel twe.en the floor and outlet duct air is
during this season is equal to 5445/215 [(60 - 25.4)/12 .3] = 2.8 Btu/ft2 hr. Thus
X 24 = 1.0 Btu/ft2 hr. The average thaw- . the average rate of heat flow from the
ing index at the surface of the pad is gravel pad to the duct air is 1.0 Btu/ft2
hr. The total heat flow 0 to the duct air
L X2 (450)(11 .0) from the floor and gravel pad is
= 1420 degree-days.
4812 K = 48(0.97) 2(0.85) (eq 3-32) (3 .3 + 1.0) = 4.3 Btu/ft2 hr. The heat flow
This thawing index must be com- to the duct air must equal the heat
removed by the duct air-
pensated for by an equal freezing index
at the duct outlet on the surface of the Heat added - heat removed
pad to assure freeze-back. The average O fm . 60V Ad p e pTR. (eq 3-34)
3-15
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
3-16
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
3-18
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6 '
Table 3-3. Insulated pavement design, no frost penetration. Table 3-4. Insulated pavement design, frost penetration .
3-20
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
CHAPTER 4
4-1 . General
= . r3 radius to outer edge of insula-
Radial flow of heat is considered in tion
thermal =problems involving the design r4 radius to outer edge of gravel
of pile foundations in permafrost (TM K1-2
5-852-4/AFM 88-19, Chapter 4), the con- thermalconductivity ofconcrete
struction of utility supply lines for the K2-3 = thermal conductivity of insula-
transport of waterand sewage in perma- tion
frost areas and seasonal frost areas K3-4 =thermal conductivity of gravel.
(TM 5-852-5/AFR 88-19, Volume 5), and 1 r2 1 r3
the design ofartificially frozen ground R-0.367( - log + - log (eq 4-1)
'1 -2 r K2-3 r2
for retaining structures during con- 1 r4
struction. A number of the basic con- + - log -
cepts and techniques used to calculate K3-4 r3
radial heat flow from cylindrical sur- 1 5.5 1 5.83 1 9.83
faces are discussed below. =0 .367 ( - log - + - log _+_109 -+)
1.0 5.0 0.033 5.5 1.5 5.83
a. ThermalResistance. In analyzing
heat flow for areas with cylindrical -0.367 (0.041 + 0.767 + 0.151) -0.352 ft.2 hr F/Btu.
cross sections, the effective thickness
for radial flow from a unit length of the If the temperature in the conduit were
cylinder is 45F and the temperature at the outer,
1 r2 r2 face of the gravel were 35F, the heat
In -,I or0.367log r flow per linear foot of conduit would
27r 1 1
equal
where
rI = inside wall radius (ft) (45 - 35) - 28.4 Btu/hr. (eq 4-2)
r2= outside wall radius (ft) . 0.352
The thermal resistance R is equal to b. Temperature field surrounding
the effective thickness divided by the a cylinder. The sudden or step change
conductivity of the material between in surface temperature discussed for
the two radii. As an example, a concrete semi-infinite slabs in paragraph 3-6a
conduit with a wall thickness of 6 has application to heat-flow problems
inches and an inside diameter of 10 feet associated with pile foudations in
is surrounded by 4 inches of cellular permafrost. A mathematical solutiop
glass insulation and 4 feetofdry gravel. is available for the problem where the .
Calculate the thermal resistance be- surface temperature of a cylinder is
tween the inside concrete wall and the suddenly changed from the uniform
outer edge of the gravel material . The temperature of the surrounding
following thermal conductivities are medium, as long as there is no phase
given: change. Figure 4-2 is used to determine
- Concrete, K =1 .00 Btu/ft hr F. the temperature T at a distance r from
- Insulation, K = 0.033 Btu/ft hr the center of acylinder of radius rh at a
F. time t after the surface temperature of
- Gravel, K = 1.5 Btu/ft hr F. the cylinder is changed from To to T8.
The temperatureTorepresents the uni-
Let (see fig. 4-1 for values of rI - r4) form temperature of the medium prior
=
rI radius to inner wall of conduit to the sudden change in surface
=
r2 radius to outer wall of concrete temperature.
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
Figure 4-2. Temperature around a cylinder having received a step change in temperature.
4-3
'TM 5-852- 6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
4-4
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
4-5
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
for varying pile shapes and preaugered permafrost temperature rise for the
hole diameters. To minimize the heat volumetric latent heat of the slurry
introduced by the slurry, the water backfill introduced into the drill hole .
content should be the minimum re- A family of curves may be developed to
quired for complete saturation. This account for variation of slurry volumet-
can be bestaccomplished by backfilling ric latent heat.
with the highest dry unit weight mate- (2) In this example the slurry back-
rial that can be processed and placed, fill was placed ata temperature slightly
i.e., a well-graded concrete sand with a above freezing (33 .5F) and, theoreti
6-inch slump. cally, the sensible heat of the slurry
c. Pile Spacing. The effect of pile should be considered . The volumetric
spacing on the overall rise of perma- capacity of the unfrozen slurry was
frost temperature resulting from instal [72(0.17 + 1.0 X 0 .45) _] 44.6 Btu/ft3 F,
lation of piles in preaugered holes is and with a temperature difference of
found by equating the latent heat of (33.5 - 32 =) 1 .5F, this represents a
slurry backfill with the allowable sen- sensible heat of (1.5 X 44.6 =) 67 Btu/ft 3 .
sible heat (temperature) rise of the sur- A comparison of this quantity with the
rounding permafrost . For example, volumetric latent heat of the slurry
calculate the minimum allowable pile (4670 Btu/ft 3) shows that its heat may
spacing in the preceding example so be considered negligible, as long as it
that the permafrost temperature will near the freezing point.
not rise above 31F.The following equa- d. Artificialfreeze-back time. Ifper-
tion, equating the latent heat of the mafrost is temperatures are marginal,
slurry to the change of sensible heat in it may be necessary to refrigerate the
a permafrost prism of side S, is used to pile to accelerate slurry freeze-back
determine the pile spacing: time and to have refrigeration available
Q if permafrost temperatures rise after
s = (nr2) + C AT (eq 4-14) construction. The following example
shows calculations required to deter-
where mine the amount of heat to be extracted
S = grid pile spacing (ft) from the ground . The average volume
r2 = radius of augered hole (ft) of slurry backfill for a group of piles is
Q = latent heat of slurry per lineal foot 31 cubic feet each. The slurry is placed
(Btu/ft) at a n average temperature of 48F and
C = volumetric heat capacity ofperma- must be frozen to 23F. A silt-water
frost (Btu/ft3 F) slurry of SO lb/ft 3 dry weight and 40
percent water content is used as back-
AT= temperature rise of permafrost fill material, and an available refrigera-
(F). tion unit is capable of removing225,000
Substitution of appropriate values from Btu/hr. Calculate the length of time
the above exampleand a maximum allow- required to freeze back a cluster of 20
able permafrost temperature rise AT piles .
of 4F give a minimum pile spacing S of -Volumetric latent heat of back-
4280 fill:
(3.14)(0.75) 2 + = 6.4 ft. (eq 4-15) L = (1-14 X 80 X 0 .40) = 4600 Btu/ft3. (eq 4-16)
(27.7)(4)
This spacing may not keep local tem- -Volumetric heat capacity of
perature from rising to more than 31F; frozen backfill :
Cf = 80 (0 .17 + (0 .5X0 .4)) = 29 .6 Btu/ft 3 F .
however, itwill keep the entire mass of (eq 4-17)
permafrost from reaching that tempera- -Volumetric heat capacity of un-
ture. frozen backfill :
(1) Numerical analysis ofa number Cu = 80 [0.17 +(1 .0X0 .4)) = 46 .6 Btu/ft 3 F .
of pile installations indicates that pile (eq 4-18)
spacing should be at least five diam -Heatrequired to lower the slurry
eters of the drill hole size. A plot, similar temperature to the freezing point-
46 .6 X 31 (48 - 32) = 22,618 Btu/pile . (eq 4-19)
to that shown in figure 4-4, may be -Heat required to freeze slurry:
prepared to relate pile spacing and 31 X 4600 = 142,600 Btu/pile . (eq 4-20)
4-6
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
ficient flow velocity such that the water (2) Once the water temperature
temperature at the terminus ofthe pipe- has been lowered to the freezing point,
line does not reach the freezing point ice begins to form in an annular ring
or 3) heating the water at the intake or inside the pipe. The following assump-
at intermediate stations along the line . tions are made to solve this problem:
A layer of insulation around a pipeline -The water is initially at 32F .
will retard, but not prevent, freezing of -The heatreleased bythe freezing
standing water in a pipe. The thermal of water does not affect the sur-
analysis of a pipeline buried in frozen rounding ground temperatures .
ground is complicated by the changing -The volumetric heat capacity of
thermal properties, ice content, sea- the ice may be ignored .
sonal and diurnal changes of tempera- -The thermal resistance of the
ture and the intermittent water flow. pipe wall is negligible.
Some calculation techniques applic- The solution predicts the time required
able to the problem of buried utilities to form an annulus of ice around the
are presented below for standing and inner wall of the pipe. Knowledge of
for flowing water. Additional tech- pipe radius, insulation thickness and
4-7
'TM 5-852- 6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
and thermal properties, thermal con- inches and the time required to com-
ductivity of ice, latent heat of fusion of pletely freeze the water. Assume the
water, and surrounding ground tem- rate of flow does not influence freezing.
peratures are necessary to solve this The time required to reduce the bore
problem. The temperatuze of ground to 6 inches will be
surrounding the pipe and the time 9000 (0.5)2 1.33 0.75
during which the ground remains t= r
.50 + 0..~)
below freezing is difficult to estimate. 2(1.33)(32-38) [( 0.033 1n 0
The relationship between time and the 0.252 0.25 2 0.50
1_
radius of ice formed inside an insulated 6.502)- ( 0.50 ) in0.25
pipe is given by the expression - 2640 hours. (eq 4-30)
T [( rp )In P-].
KL r2 r ri 2 2 r
t= -1n-+1/2)(1--
r2 )-( The time required to completely freeze
2K0 i p p the water in the pipe will be
(eq 4-26)
where 9000 (0.5)2 1 .33 0.75
t = time (hr) t
2(1.33)(32-38) [( 0.033 1I~ 0.50 +
0.5)
L = latent heat of water (9000 O O 0 .50
Btu/ft3) (1-0
.502)-( 0.50 )21 ol
rp = radius of pipe (ft) - 3550 hours. (eq 4-31)
K = thermal conductivity of ice
(1.33 Btu/ft hr F) The calculation is simplified since the
term"r" for the inner radius of the pipe
AT = temperature difference be- goes to zero. For an uninsulated pipe,
tween water and surround- the calculations assume the simplified
ingsoil (F, assume water tem- form of
perature is 32F)
K i = . thermal conductivity of in- (1690)(0 .5)2
sulation (Btu/ft hr F) (32 28) ~Y~
r i =radius to outer edgeof insula-
tion (ft) where r/r p = O and y = 1 .0 (fig. 4-5) .
r =inner radius of ice annulus Therefore,
(ft). t = 106 hours.
If the pipe is not protected by insula- This example illustrates the effective-
tion, the equation is ness of insulation in retarding the
freezeup of water in pipes, but as stated
L r2 r2 r r
t [1/2(1- ) -( )21n P 1. (eq 4-27) above, the assumptions used to develop
= 2 KIT 2
rp rp these equations are conservative and
the actual length offreezing time would
This expression for an insulated pipe be greater .
may be simplified by rearrangement e. Thawing offrozen soil around a
and substitution of numerical values suddenly warmed pipe. In the pre-
for the latent heat and the thermal con- ceding example it was assumed that
ductivity of ice. This yields water initially at 32F was placed in
r frozen ground and the time relation-
t = 1690 QT (eq 4-28) ship for freezing of the water in the
jyj
pipe was determined . If the water was
where maintained above freezing, the frozen
r2 r2
Y = [1- (1-1n A- (eq 4-29) soil surrounding the ppe would thaw .
x2
p p To formulate a mathematical expres-
The relationship between y and r/rp is sion relating the time with the radius
given in figure 4-5. of thaw, it is assumed that: 1) the volu-
metric heat capacity of the soil is neg-
Following is an example. A 12-inch iron ligible, 2) both the surrounding soil
pipe, insulated with 3 inches of cellular and pipe are initially at 32F, and 3) the
glass (Ki = 0.033 Btu/ft hr F), is placed pipe temperature is suddenly raised to
in 28F soil. Calculate the time required a temperature above 32F. The formula
to reduce the bore of the pipe to 6 for an insulated pipe is
4-8
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
If the pipe is not protected by insula- preceding equations, the time t can be
tion, the expression is multiplied by the temperature differen-
r L r2 2 tial AT to give either a freezing or
t [-0 .5 (1 -
r2 ) + In . 1. (eq 4-34) thawing index, and the radius of ice
2I{u 4T rp
formation or thawed ground radius
For example, a 7- by 7-foot concrete can be determined by trial-and-error .
utilidor has 9-inch concrete walls with It was shown that a temperature dif-
an outer covering of 6 inches ofinsula- ferential of (32-28) = 4F lasting for 3150
tion (K i = 0.033 Btu/ft hr F). The frozen hours would result in complete freeze-
soil around the utilidor is a sandy up of the water in thepipe; this is equiva-
gravel with a dry density of 115 lb/fO lent to a freezing index of [(4 X 3150)/24
and a water content of 7.8 percent at a =1 524 degree-days . If the freezing
temperature of 32F. Neglect the ther- index at the depth of pipe burial were
mal resistance of the concrete, and less than 524, the standing water in the
determine the time required to thaw 1 pipe would not completely freeze in
foot of soil when the temperature of that time. Thus, the freezing index at a
the utilidor walls is suddenly raised to particular depth can be used to fore-
50F. cast freezeup of stationary water in
Ku =1.2 Btu/ft hr F pipes located in the annual frost zone.
L =1290 Btu/ft3 (2) Even insulated water lines
K i = 0.033 Btu/ft hr F. located in frozen ground usually re-
For calculation, square sections may quire an inlet water temperature sig
be treated as cylinders of the same nificantly above freezing. Whether the
perimeter. water lines are insulated or not, this
may thaw some of the surrounding
Dimension-square Equivalent radius frozen ground. This thawed annulus
Symbol ON (ft) will retard water freezeup in the pipe
if and when flow conditions change.
The situation is practice is generally
r 9.5+24/12=11 .5 7.33
8 .5 + 12/12 = 9.5 complicated by the intermittentcharac-
r; 6 .04 ter of water demand. In some northern
rp 7.0 + 18/12 = 8.5 5.42 communities the problems of irregular
water demand are solved by con-
(1290)(7.33) 2 1.2 6 .04 structing the water lines in a contin-
t
2(1.2)(50-32)
U 0 .033 In
5.42
.0.5) uous loop with provisions for periodic
6 .042 7 .33
flow reversals . Water temperatures
should be closely monitored and water
) + In
7.332 64 usage patterns considered in esti-
= 2060 hours . (eq 4-35) mating water freezeup .
d. Practical considerations. e. Freezing and flowing water in
(1) The above-mentioned formulas buried pipes. Problems involving freez-
indicate the relationship between time, ing of flowing water in buried pipes
radius of freeze or thaw, and tempera require knowledge of the distance the
ture difference between the water in water will flow before the temperature
the pipe and the ground. In sufficient of the water lowers to the freezing
time, standing water in the pipe will point. By providing enough above-
freeze or frozen ground will thaw, freezing water, the loss of heat to the
depending on temperature differen- surrounding frozen soil can be
tials. For practical problems the as- balanced to provide an outlet tempera-
sumed constant temperature differen- ture slightly above freezing. The prob-
tials will not exist for a long time but lems of freezing of flowing water in
will vary with season and even with insulated and bare pipe are illustrated
the hour at shallow depths. The freez- below.
ing and thawing index concept con- (1) Insulated pipe. It is assumed
siders the intensity of temperature dif- that 1) the temperature of the frozen
ferential from freezing (32F) and the ground surrounding the pipe is con
duration of this differential . In the stant for the period of flow over the
" 4-10
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
entire length of pipe, 2) the effect of eventually become reasonably stable
friction heat developed by water flow with time. An expression relating these
is negligible, 3) the thermal resistance variables is
ands heat capacity of the pipe wall are
T1, T S h 1
negligible, and 4) the temperature dis-
tribution of the water in the pipe is
T2 -
TS
= exp
2rp
X
v X 5 (eq 4-38)
.6X104
uniform at each cross-sectional area. where
The velocity required to prevent freeze- Tl = inlet water temperature (F)
up of flowing water in a pipe is given Ts = frozen soil temperature (F)
by -
s Ki T2 =outletwater temperature (F)
v s = length of pipeline (ft)
ri TI-Ts
112,000 r2 (In - )(In T ) (eq 4-36) 2rp diameter of pipe (ft)
p T2 - S
h =heat transfer coefficient
where (Btu/ft 2 hr F)
V = velocity of flow (ft/s) V = velocity of flow (ft/s).
s = length of pipeline (ft) A nomogram of this equation is shown
= thermal conductivity of in- in figure 4-6.
sulation (Btu/ft hr F)
(b) Limited field experiments in
rn = radius of pipe (ft) clay and sandy clay soils suggest
r i = radius to outer edge ofinsula- values of h for metal pipelines subject
tion (ft) to normal use (conditions or intermit-
Ti = inlet water temperature (F) tent flow) of 6.0 for the initial period of
T2 =outletwater temperature (F) operation an 2 .0 thereafter. These
Ts = temperature of surrounding values are not applicable for pipes
frozen soil (F). smaller than 4-inches in diameter . The
For example, an 11,000-ft long, 6-Inch- h value is dependent upon the thermal
diameter pipe is buried in 10Fr soil. properties of the surrounding soil, the
The pipe is covered with a2-inch layer diameter of the pipe, the type of pipe
of insulation (Ki = 0.03 Btu/ft hr F) and material and the temperature gradient
the inlet water temperature is 39F. in the ground around the pipe's radius.
Calculate the velocity of flow required The value for h given above provides a
to keep the water from freezing. reasonable basis for design ofpipelines
(11,000)(0 .03) in which the total quantity of water
v= consumed per day is at least eight times
0.417 39-10
112,000 (0 .25) 2(ln 0,25 )(In the volume ofpipes in the entire system.
32-10 ) The time of operation required for the
= 0.33 ft/s (20 ft/min). (eq 4-37) temperature distribution in the water
To provide for temporary reductions to stabilize is approximately .
in flow and in recognition of the un- S
certainties concerning the manner of
ice formation within the pipe, it is recom-
t o = 0.005
v (eq 4-39)
4- 12
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
To operate on the safe side, the outlet lysis and to promote adequate design.
temperature T 2 should remain at or The assumptions involved and tech-
above 35F. The calculated initial water nique limitations have been em-
temperature of 33.5F would be con- phasized .
sidered unsafe and either the flow velo- b. Heat flow beneath heated struc-
city should be increased to approxi- tures is multidimensional because of
mately 3 ft/s or the inletwater tempera- the finite boundaries of such struc
ture should be raised to about 43F. tures.The ground surface temperature
These- precautions would be needed adjacent to the south side of the build-
only for an initial period, i.e., ing is generally higher than that on
s 11 .600 the north side, and the ground surface
to = 0 .005
V
= 0 .005
2 temperature on the west side is gen-
= approximately 29 hours. (eq 4-43)
erally higher than on the east side; in
addition to this influence, the three-
f. Design considerations. The cal-
culation techniques presented above dimensional temperature distribution
beneath the building will be affected
indicate the principal factors to be con-
sidered in design of water distribution by the plan dimensions of the floor .
Three-dimensional solutions are avail-
lines placed in frozen ground . The use able to the problem of heat flow in
ofthese techniques together with recog- homogeneous materials beneath the
nition of the complexities of actual in- surface of a heated finite area sur-
pipe ice formation and sound engi- rounded by an infinite area subject to
neering judgment provides a basis for adissimilar surface temperature condi-
design ofpipelines in areas of seasonal tion; however, the solutions consider
frostand permafrost. Changing the sur- only the effects of temperature change
face cover over an installed pipeline and notthe effects of phase transforma-
will affect the distribution of tempera- tions. Such solutions tend to be rather
tures with depth and may result in complex and unwieldy, and their
depressing the temperatures adjacent neglect of latent heat generally results
to the pipe. This is particularly true ifa in an over-estimation of the depth of
natural vegetative cover is stripped and freeze or thaw . The magnitude of this
replaced by a snow-free pavement .The over-estimation is dependent on the
influence of new construction above quantity of moisture in the frozen or
an existing pipeline may require a thawed soil.
change in operating procedures for c. The example given in paragraph
the system, such as an increase in the 3-8a for calculating the depth of thaw
velocity or flow or additional heating beneath a heated slab-on-grade build
at the inlet. ing considered only one-dimensional
4-4. Discussion of multidimensional heat vertical heat flow and excluded lateral
flow. heat flow from the soil beneath the,
a. The relatively simple analytical building to the surrounding soil mass
techniques discussed in this manual in the winter . The amount of lateral
are not always sufficient for consider heat flow would depend on the building
ing the concurrent thermal effects of dimensions and the wintertime soil tem-
multidimensional temperature change perature gradient . Slab-on-grade,
and soil water phase transformation . heated structures usually prevent
The one-dimensional and radial heat- frost penetration under the center of
flow computation techniques pres- the building and result in a thaw bulb
ented in this manual were based on in the foundation soil that may cause
field observations and the use ofreason- permafrost degradation with time.This
able simplifying assumptions. The tech- type of construction is discussed in
niques are intended to facilitate ana- TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19, Chapter 4.
4- 1 3
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
Table B-1 . Thermal, fluid and electric analogs (U.S. Army . Corps of Engineers) .
Medium
B - Principles :
au as ap
Continuity (1) +V-a=o +V . d=o +V .i=o
at at at
Conductivity (2) q = -kVT d= -kVH j= -UVe
Capacitance (3) du=CdT dS = AdH pdV = Cde
B-2
`TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
simulated using finite element pro- putational capabilities, and acquisition
cedures. For multidimensional heat costs and restraints. USACRREL has
flow problems, the finite element pro- completed and documented a model
cedure is frequently more efficient, i .e., that may be useful in solving many
it requires less computer time than the analytical problems related to construc-
finite difference technique. _ tion in the Arctic and Subarctic; other
c. Many flexible computer programs models are under development. Con-
exist thatsimulate heatconduction and tact HQ (DAEN-ECE-G) or HQ AFESC
phase change in soils. Each has its for assistance in selecting an appro-
own particular data requirements,com- priate model.
'TM 5-352-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
APPENDIX C
REFERENCES
Government Publications
Departments of the Army and the Air Force.
TM 5-818-2/AFM 88-6, Chapter 4 Pavement Design for Seasonal Frost
Conditions
TM 5-852-1/AFR 88-19, Volume 1 Arctic and Subarctic Construction,
General Provisions
TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19, Chapter 4 Arctic and Subarctic Construction,
Building Foundations
TM 5-852-5/AFR 88-19, Volume 5 Arctic and Subarctic Construction,
Utilities
Nongovernment Publications
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, andAir-Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE)
345 East 47th Street, New York,
N.Y. 10017
ASHRAE Guide and Data Book (1963)
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume.6
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aitken, G.W. and R.L. Berg (1968) Digital Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
solution of modified Berggren equa. Conditioning Engineers .
tion'to calculate depths of freeze and Barthelemy, J.L. (1980) Performance of
thaw in multilayered systems. Han- natural convection heat exchange
over, N.H.: U.S. Army Cold Regions system for subgrade cooling ofperma-
Research and Engineering Labora- frost . CRREL Special Report 80-40.
tory, Special Report 122. Hanover, N .H.: U.S. Army Cold Re-
Albert, M .R. (1983) Computer models gions Research and Engineering
for two-dimensional transient heat Laboratory .
conduction . CRREL Report 83-12. Baumeister, T. (ed .) (1968) Mechanical
Hanover, N.H.: U.S. Army Cold Re- Engineers Handbook, 6th Ed. New
gions Research and Engineering York: McGraw-Hill.
Laboratory. Berg, R.L. (1976) Thermoinsulating
Aldrich, H.P. and H .M. Paynter (1963) mediawithin embankments on peren-
Frostinvestigations, fiscal year 1963, nially frozen soil. CRREL Special
first interim report, analytical studies Report 76-3. Hanover, N.H.: U.S. Army
of freezing and thawing of soils . Cold Regions Research and Engi-
ACFELTechnicalReport42 .Hanover, neering Laboratory .
N .H.: U .S. Army Cold Regions Re- Brown, W.G. (1963) Graphical determina-
search and Engineering Laboratory . tion of temperature under heated or
Alter, A.J. (1969) Water supply in cold cooled areas on the ground surface.
regions . CRREL Monograph III-C5a . Ottawa: Division ofBuildingResearch,
Hanover, N.H.: U .S . Army Cold Re- National Research Council ofCanada,
gions Research and Engineering Technical Paper No. 163.
Laboratory .
Alter, A.J. (1969) Sewerage and sewage Carey, K.L. (1982) The freezing and
disposal disposal in cold regions. blocking of water pipes. Cold Regions
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CRREL Monograph III-C6b. U.S. Army U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and
Cold Regions Research and Engi- Engineering Laboratory .
neering Laboratory.
Arctic Construction and Frost Effects Carslaw, H.S . and J.C. Jaeger (1969)
Laboratory (1966) Design and opera- Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd
tion ofan hydraulic analog computer edition. London: Oxford University
for studies of freezing and thawing Press, Inc.
of soils. ACFEL Technical Report 62. Corruccini, R.J . and J.J. Gnlewek (1960)
Hanover, N.H.: U.S. Army Cold Re- Specific heats and enthalpies of tech-
gions Research and Engineering nical solids at low temperatures .
Laboratory . National Bureau of Standards Mono-
Arctic Construction and Frost Effects graph 21. Washington, D.C.
Laboratory (1968) Frost investiga- Crory, F.E. (1963) Pile foundations in
tions, 1962-1963. Cold room studies, permafrost. In Permafrost: Pro-
third interim report of investigations. ceedings, International Conference,
ACFEL Technical Report 43/1. Han- Purdue University. NAS-NRCPublica-
over, N.H.: U.S. Army Cold Regions tion No. 1287. Washington, D.C., pp.
Research and Engineering Labora- 467-472 .
tory. Dusinberre, G.M. (1961) Heat Transfer
ASHRAE (1963) Air Conditioning Re- Calculations by Finite Differences.
frigeration DataBook, Design Volume. Pennsylvania: International Text
New York: American Society of Book Company.
Biblio- 1
*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
Farouki, O.T. (1981) Thermal properties ments, Cold Regions Specialty Con-
of soils. CRREL Monograph 81-1. Han- ference, Anchorage, Alaska . New
over, N .H .: U.S. Army Cold Regions York: ASCE.
Research and Engineering Labora- Kersten, M.S. (1949) Laboratory re-
tory. search for the determination of the
Gilpin, R.R. (1977) The effects of den- thermal properties of soils. ACFEL
dritic ice formation in water pipes. Technical Report 23. Hanover, N.H.:
International Journal of Heat and U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and
Mass Transfer, vol. 20, pp. 693. Engineering Laboratory.
Gilpin, RA. (1977) A study ofpipe freez- Lachenbruch, A.H. (1957) Three-dimen-
ing mechanisms. In Utilities Delivery sional heat conduction in Permafrost
in Arctic Regions. Ottawa : Environ- beneath heated buildings . U.S. Geo-
mental Protection Service, Environ- logical Survey Bulletin 1062-B.
"ment Canada, Report No. EPS 3-WP- Lachenbruch, A.H. (1959) Periodic heat
77-1, pp. 207-220 . flowin stratified medium with applica-
Gilpin, R.R. (1978) A study of factors tion topermafrost problems. U.S. Geo-
affecting the ice nucleation tempera- logical Survey Bulletin 1083-A.
ture in a domestic water supply. The Luikov, A.V . (1966)Heat and Mass
CanadianJournal of Chemical Bngi- Transferin Capillary-PorousBodies.
neering, vol. 56, pp.466-471 . (Translated from Russian by P.W.B.
Gilpin, R.R. (1979) The morphology of Harrison.) London: Pergamon Press,
ice structure in a pipe at or near Ltd.
transition Reynolds numbers. Heat Lunardini, V.J. (1981) Heat Transfer in
Transfer. San Diego: American In- Cold Climates . New York: Van
stitute of Chemical Engineers Sym- Nostrand Reinhold Co.
posium Series 189, vol . 75, pp. 89-94. Mallory, S.F. (1969)Thermallnsulation.
Gilpin, R.R. (1981) Ice formation in a New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
pipe containing flows in the transition Co.
and turbulent regimes . ASMB M.I.T. (1957) Frost penetration in multi-
Journal ofHeat Transfer, vo1.103, pp. layer soil profiles . ACFEL Technical
363-368. Report 67. Hanover, N.H.: U.S. Army
Ingersoll, L.R., O.J. Zobel and A.C. Inger- Cold Regions Research and Engi-
soll (1954) HeatConduction: With .Engi- neering Laboratory .
neering, Geological and Other Ap- McAdams (1954) Heat Transmission,
plications. Madison : University of 3rd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill .
Wisconsin Press. Porkhaev, G.V. and V .F. Zhukov (1972)
Jakob, M. and G.A. Hawkins (1957) Ble- Standard depth of freezing of soils
ments of Heat Transfer and Insula- for foundation engineering purposes.
tion, 3rd Ed. New York: John Wiley Osnovaniya, Fundamenty i Mek-
and Sons, Inc. hanikaGruntov, no.6 (Translated from
Johnson, P .R. (1971) Empirical heat Russian by Plenum Publishing Corp.,
transfer rates ofsmall, Longand Balch Consultants Bureau). New York.
thermal piles and thermal convection Quinn, W.F. and E.F. Lobacz (1962) Frost
loops. Fairbanks: Institute of Arctic penetration beneath concrete slabs
Environmental Engineering, Univer.. maintained free ofsnow and ice, with
sity of Alaska, Report 7102. and without insulation. Highway
Jennings, B.H. and S .R. Lewis (1968) Air Research Board Bulletin 331,
Conditioning and Refrlgeration,. 4th. pp. 98-115.
Ed. Pennsylvania: International Text- Sanger, F.J . (1968) Ground freezing in
book Co. construction . CRREL Miscellaneous
Kaplar, C.W. (1978) Effects of moisture Paper 404 . Hanover, N.H.: U.S. Army
and freeze-thaw on rigid thermal in- Cold Regions Research and Engi-
sulations : A laboratory investigation. neering Laboratory .
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Applied Techniques forColdBnviron- Thermal and rheological computa-
Biblio-2
'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
tions for artificially frozen ground book No. 14. London: Constable and
construction. CRREL Miscellaneous Company, Ltd.
Paper 1216 . Hanover, N.H.: U.S. Army
Cold Regions Research and Engi. Wilkes, G.B. (1960) HeatInsulation New
York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
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ground surface. CRREL Monograph ment Method in Structural and Con-
II-A1. Hanover, N.H.: U .S. Army Cold tinuum Mechanics. London: MeGraw.
Regions Research and Engineering Hill Publishing Co., Ltd.
Laboratory . Zienkiewicz, O.C. (1971) The Finite Ele-
The Engineering Equipment Users mentMethod inEngineering Science.
Association (1966) Thermal insulation London: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,
of industrial buildings . EEVA Hand- Ltd.
Biblio- 3
The proponent agency of this publication is the Office of the Chief
of Engineers, United States Army. Users are invited to send
comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028
(Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) direct to
HODA(CEEC-EG), WASH, DC 20314-1000 .
CARL E. VUONO'
General, United States Army
Official: Chiefof Staff
R.L. DILWORTH
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION :
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ments for Arctic and Subarctic Construction .
PIN: 024920 000