UFC 3-130-06

16 January 2004

UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)

CALCULATION METHODS FOR
DETERMINATION OF DEPTH OF
FREEZE AND THAW IN SOIL: ARTIC
AND SUBARCTIC CONSTRUCTION

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

UFC 3-130-06
16 January 2004

UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)

CALCULATION METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF DEPTH OF FREEZE AND
THAW IN SOIL: ARTIC AND SUBARCTIC CONSTRUCTION

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Use of the copyrighted material apart from this UFC must have the permission of the
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U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (Preparing Activity)

NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND

AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY

Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \ ... /1/)

Change No. Date Location

This UFC supersedes TM 5-852-6, dated 25 January 1988. The format of this UFC does not
conform to UFC 1-300-01; however, the format will be adjusted to conform at the next revision.
The body of this UFC is the previous TM 5-852-6, dated 25 January 1988.

UFC 3-130-06
16 January 2004
FOREWORD
\
The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system is prescribed by MIL-STD 3007 and provides
planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and applies
to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities in accordance
with USD(AT&L) Memorandum dated 29 May 2002. UFC will be used for all DoD projects and
work for other customers where appropriate. All construction outside of the United States is
also governed by Status of forces Agreements (SOFA), Host Nation Funded Construction
Agreements (HNFA), and in some instances, Bilateral Infrastructure Agreements (BIA.)
Therefore, the acquisition team must ensure compliance with the more stringent of the UFC, the
SOFA, the HNFA, and the BIA, as applicable.

UFC are living documents and will be periodically reviewed, updated, and made available to
users as part of the Services’ responsibility for providing technical criteria for military
construction. Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities
Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) are
responsible for administration of the UFC system. Defense agencies should contact the
preparing service for document interpretation and improvements. Technical content of UFC is
the responsibility of the cognizant DoD working group. Recommended changes with supporting
rationale should be sent to the respective service proponent office by the following electronic
form: Criteria Change Request (CCR). The form is also accessible from the Internet sites listed
below.

UFC are effective upon issuance and are distributed only in electronic media from the following
source:

• Whole Building Design Guide web site http://dod.wbdg.org/.

Hard copies of UFC printed from electronic media should be checked against the current
electronic version prior to use to ensure that they are current.

AUTHORIZED BY:

______________________________________ ______________________________________
DONALD L. BASHAM, P.E. DR. JAMES W WRIGHT, P.E.
Chief, Engineering and Construction Chief Engineer
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Naval Facilities Engineering Command

______________________________________ ______________________________________
KATHLEEN I. FERGUSON, P.E. Dr. GET W. MOY, P.E.
The Deputy Civil Engineer Director, Installations Requirements and
DCS/Installations & Logistics Management
Department of the Air Force Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense
(Installations and Environment)

Volume 6 TECHNICAL MANUAL ARCTIC AND SUBARCTIC CONSTRUCTION CALCULATION METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF DEPTHS OF FREEZE AND THAW IN SOILS DEPARTMENTS OF THE ARMY AND THE AIR FORCE JANUARY 1988 . ARMY TM 5-852-6 AIR FORCE AFR 88-19.

Reprints or republications ofthis manual should include a credit line substantially as follows : "Joint Departments of the Army and Air Force USA. Technical Manual TM 5-852-6/A FR 88-19. REPRODUCTION AUTHORIZATION/ RESTRICTIONS This manual has been prepared by or for the Government and is public property and not subject to copyright . Volume 6." . date. Calculation Methods for Determination of Depths of Freeze and Thaw in soils.

. . . . .. .. ... . . .. . LIST OF SYMBOLS A-1 APPENDIX B. 3-9 3-18 CHAPTER 4. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . ... . .. . . ... . . .... .. .. . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... 3-6 3-6 Converting indexes into equivalent sine waves of temperature . . DEFINITIONS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES Definitions 2-1 2-1 Thermal properties of soils and other construction materials . .. . ... . ... . .. ...TECHNICAL MANUAL HEADQUARTERS NO.. . . . . . . . . VOLUME 6 WASHINGTON. . . . .. .. . . ... .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . .:. 3-5 3-6 Surface temperature variations . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 2-2 2-2 Fundamental considerations . .. .. . . . .. . . . .... . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 2-4 2-5 CHAPTER 3. . . .. . . . . . ... . .. . . . .. . . dated January 1966 . . . . .. . . ... . . . ... . . DC.. . . . . ... . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . .. . Chap . . . . . .... . . ...... . . .. . . .. .. . 4-3 4-7 Discussion of multi- dimensional heat flow . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . .. .. 1-2 1-1 Background . 2-3 2-3 Freezing and thawing indexes . . . . . . 3-7 3-8 Penetration of freeze or thaw beneath buildings . . . . TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIAL HEAT FLOW General . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . 3-3 3-3 Multilayer soils . . ... . . . . . . ... .. . . .... . . . . .. . . . . ... ... . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . GENERAL Purpose and scope .... ... . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . 3-2 3-1 Homogeneous soils . . ... . . . . . ... . . . ... . .. . . ... . . .. . . ..... . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . 3-8 3-11 Use of thermal insulating materials .. . . .. .. . . . ... . ... ... .. . . . . . 4-1 4-1 Pile installation in permafrost . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . .. ... . REFERENCES C-1 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIO-1 "This manual supercedes TM 5-852-6/AFM 88-19.. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . ... 4-2 4-2 Utility distribution systems in frozen ground . . . 4-4 4-13 APPENDIX A. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. 6. . .. .. .. . .. . . .... .. . 3-4 3-3 Effect of snow and vegetative cover . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . THERMAL MODELS FOR COMPUTING FREEZE AND THAW DEPTHS B-1 APPENDIX C. . . .. . . . . . .. . . ONE-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR AND PERIODIC MEAT FLOW Thermal regime . ... .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. 5-852-6 DEPARTMENTS OF THE ARMY AIR FORCE REGULATION AND THE AIR FORCE AFR 88-19. . . . . . ... . . . 3-1 3-1 Modified Berggren equation .. . . . . . .. 1-3 1-1 CHAPTER 2.... .. 25 January 1988 ARCTIC AND SUBARCTIC CONSTRUCTION-CALCULATION METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF DEPTHS OF FREEZE AND THAW IN SOILS Paragraph Page CHAPTER 1. . 1-1 1-1 References and symbols .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .

.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 3-2 3-2. . . .13 3-3. .5 2-7. . . 3-7 3-3. . ... Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .5 3-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3-5. . . . . . . . . . . . ...Relationship between mean freezing index and maximum freezing index for 10 years of record. . 3-11 3-6. . B-2 . . Properties of dry air at atmospheric pressure. .. . . . . . . Fairbanks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average thermal conductivity for peat. . . 2-12 2-12Relationship between mean thawing index and maximum thawing index for 10 years of record. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Specific heat values of various materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freezeup of stationary water in an uninsulated pipe. . . . . . . Insulated pavement design.. . . . . . . . . . 3-14 3-8. . . . .7dolumetriclatentheatforsoils. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .. . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .20 3-4. . . Thermal properties of construction materials . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2-1 . . . . . . . . . . ..4 2-5. . . . . . Insulated pavement design. . . . . .9 3-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Sinusoidal temperature pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 4-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 3. . . . . . Average monthly temperatures for 1949-1950 and equivalent sine wave. .. 4-3 4-3. . frozen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . unfrozen. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .5 2-6. . . . . . Average thermal conductivity for silt and clay soils.. . . . . . . . Schematic of ducted foundation. . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 3-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4-5. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2-3. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . Multilayer solution of modified Berggren equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 3-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 2-10 2-10Relationship between wind speed and n-factor during thawing season. . . . . Indexes and equivalent sinusoidal temperature. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature around a cylinder having received a step change in temperature. . . . . . . .. . 2-11 2-11. . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Average thermal conductivity for silt and clay soils. . . . . .. . . . 1953-1962 (arctic and subarctic regions). . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 2. .. . . . . . .4 2-4. . 3.. . . . . . . Average thermal conductivity for sands and gravels. . . . . . . . . . 4-12 LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1 . . . . . . . . .8 2-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average monthly temperatures versus time at Fairbanks.att-) and erf (x/287_1). . . .11 3-1... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature drop of flowing water in a pipeline. .1 coefficient in modified Berggren formula. . . . . . . ... . . Specific solution of slurry freeze-back. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .2 2-2. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 2. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . 2. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . 4-2 4-2. . . . . . . Calculation of cumulative degree-days . . . . . . . . . 2. . . no frost penetration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2. . . . . . . . 1953-1962 (arctic and subarctic regions). . . . . . fluid and electric analogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Long-term mean monthly temperatures and equivalent sine wave. . Average thermal conductivity for peat. . . . . . . . . . unfrozen. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . General solution of slurry freeze-back . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thaw penetration beneath a slab-on-grade building constructed on permafrost. . . . . . . . 3-16 4-1. . .. . . unfrozen. . . . . ... frozen. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Average thermal conductivity for sands and gravels. . . . . . Relationship between (x/2. . . . .. . ... . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . frozen . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .9 2-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average volumetric heat capacity for soils . . . . . Fairbanks.. . .4 2-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. 4-4 4-4. .. . . . . . . . . . . .9 2-9. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . ... . .. . .. . . . . . 2. . . . Illustration for example in paragraph 4-la. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 B-1 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . frost penetration. n-factors for freeze and thaw. . . .

. appendix A contains a list water is converted to ice. Background. are available to assist in principles.with considera. methods for calculating the depths of b. This latter assumption is sub- 1-3. subaretic and problems. Hanover. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. underlying theory. It is assumed that each layer of Subarctic Construction series . Purpose and scope. seasonal frost areas. material is homogeneous and isotropic. Volume 6 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL 1-1 . phase change of pore water is an ex- tion of the effects of other adjacent tremely complex process and many materials. for the design of military problems defy rigorous mathematical facilities in seasonal frost. applicable. Methods ofcalculating Laboratory (USACRREL). References and symbols. Army Cold and utilities in areas of seasonal frost Regions Research and Engineering and permafrost. For the development of solutions for heat- derivation of basic equations. The methods presented here subaretic regions. the design of pavements. stantially correct for coarse-grained a. arctic and treatment. Several assumptions have been sented in this manual relate to arctic made in developing practical methods and subaretic facility design presented ofcalculating depths of freeze or thaw in the other manuals of the Arctic and in soils . converted to water. The contents are are simplified procedures developed applicable to both Army and Air Force for the solution of engineering design construction in arctic. The services of the U. structures d. The depths to which soils may soils but only partially true for fine- freeze and thaw is very important in grained soils. are presented here . ata temperature of 32°F. Unless specific data are Appendix C lists the references for available. it is also assumed that all soil this manual . The data pre. based on heat-transfer Hampshire. or all ice is of symbols . and the flow problems in soils. c. see appendix C and This manual contains criteria and the bibliography . New such depths. and that the average thermal proper- ties of frozen and unfrozen soils are 1-2.S. Heat transfer in soils involving freeze and thaw insoils.

In the second melt the ice (or freeze the water) in a case. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19._Volume 1. being studied: C W (1) vs = nF/t (or nl/t) u =yd(c+1. vs is useful for d. n=conversion factor from air W C f = yd (c + 0.0 100 (eq 2-1) where Forfrozen soils.5 index to surface index 100 ) (eq 2-2) F= air freezing index Average values for most soils. Volume 6 CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES 2-1 . Specific heat. I =air thawing index W t = length of freezing (or thawing) c avg. The f. Volumetric latent heat offusion. = Yd (c + 0. the temperature of a unit volume by vs one of two possible meanings. The quantity of (eq 2-6) heat absorbed (or given up) by a unit c weight ofa substance when its tempera g. it is useful in computing unitvolume of soil without achange in multiyear freeze or thaw temperature-in British thermal units depths that may develop as a (Btu) per cubic foot (ft3): result of some long-term W change in the heat balance at L=144 yd (eq 2-4) the ground surface.17 for most soils) ference between the mean Yd = dry unit weight of soil annual groundsurface temp- w = water content of soil in per. depending on the problem For unfrozen soils. computing the seasonal depth L. In the first case. C. e. K a. a. The perature below the ground quantity of heat required to change surface and 32°F. R. 1°F. thermalresistance. Definitions . Thermal diffusivity. Thermal ratio. Fusion parameter. ' between the mean annual tem- c. Following are d additional terms used specifically in (eq 2-5) heat-transfer calculations . c. The quantity of heat required to of freeze or thaw . erature and 32°F. K b. K. where c = specific heat ofthe soil solids (2) vs absolute value of the dif- (0. cent of dry weight . The recipro- Definitions of certain specialized terms cal of the time rate of heat flow through _ applicab le to arctic and subarctic a unit area ofa soil layer of given thick regio ns are contained in TM 5-8_5_2/ ness d per unit temperature difference : AFR _S-1G. 100 h. Thermal conductivity. An indica- quantity of heat flow in a unit time tor ofhoweasily a material willundergo through a unit area of a substance temperature change: caused by a unit thermal gradient. /j" .75 100 ) (eq 2-3) season . a- ture is increased (or decreased) by 1 degree Fahrenheit (°F) divided by the a (eq 2-7) quantity of heat absorbed (or given up) by a unit weight of water when its where temperature is increased (or decreased) vo absolutevalue ofthe difference by 1°F. Volumetric heat capacity.

3-1). L a.60 Snow -.29 Cork. Army Corps of Engineers). near the freezingpoint maybe assumed k. Temperature Specific heat Material (OF) (Btullb OF) Aluminum -27 . 0. fusion.20 Corkboard 91 0.43 -19 0. 0 .) Y 68 0.16 Glass block. JI " A factor thaw are specific heat.35 Water -.17 Btu/lb quantity of heat required to raise the °F.20 Asbestos fibers -. Volume 6 C 2-2.S. 0.25 Concrete (avg.4 0. Thermal regime. The to be constantat the value of0. 2-2 .33 Woods fiberboard 148 0 . Specific heats of various materials temperature of1 pound (lb) ofwater 1°F are given in table 2-1. 0. Other terms used in heat-flow Aadj). cellular foam __ 0. 0. Specific heat values of various materials .20 Concrete (dams) . 0 .12 Straw -. thermal con- allowing for heat capacity and initial ductivity and volumetric latent heat of temperature ofthe ground (see fig.22 Perlite.50 Steel __ 0. used to calculate depths of freeze and i.25 Sawdust -. The temperature temperature and time. Average values listed where temperature is not shown .20 Glass wool -. "Lambda" coefficient.* (U. see theASFIRAE at about 40°F. the specific heat of most dry soils tion to seasonal variations. 1 . pattern existing in a soil body in rela.42 Fiberglas board 111 0.18 Glass sheets -.22 Copper 44. Thermal properties of soils and other N -_ "s (eq 2-8) construction materials.16 Ice 32 0.01 .19 Foamglas -20 0. 0. British thermal unit. b. 0. j. length.22 Mineral wool __ 0.34 Specific heat values shown to nearest 0. 0.27 Polyurethane foam -. calculations are derived from these (eq 2-9) dataand the elements ofweight. Btu.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.11 Masonry __ 0.24 -22 0. granulated -. 0.48 Iron (alpha) 44.6 0.00 Woods (avg .22 Polystyrene. stone) -.6 0. expanded 112 0. The basic thermal properties of whereve has the two possible meanings soils and other construction materials noted above. Guide and Data Book of the American Table 2-1. expanded __ 0.

0I I d. 32°F is the same as that required to Average values. The freezing together make up less than 20% of the or thawing of soils is the result of re- soil solids. The movement of heat is ' least 50%. Volume 6 Society of Heating and Air Condition.9 Btu/ft3 OF. The time rate of change of heat simple average of the values for the content depends on the temperature two sets of charts be used. and the state ofthe phase of pore water in 1 ft3of this soil at pore water. and even soil.4'F when a phase lar soils. The 1 . freeze or thaw is based on knowledge mates of the average thermal conduc. temperature . moisture content. Thermal con- ductivity values for a number of com- mon construction materials are listed 150 in table 2-2. particle 0.0 temperature of the system when \ freezing or thawing takes place. C. This amount of heat does not change the ~I2. 2-3 . differential in the direction of heatflow the error in the thermal conductivity and on the thermal properties of the estimates may be ±25%. Its volumetric values of common materials . In all cases. Fundamental considerations. The following example illustrates (U . *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.75 X 0.17 + density .917 X 62. f. Physical factors and data re- grains in the soil is exceptionally high quired. Average thermal conductivity for sands and for a moist soil. liquid and tity of heat required to change the vapor constituents.2 o.8 gravimetric latent heat of fusion of 0 water is assumed to be 144 Btu/lb . The latent heat of fusion is the 14 amount of heat required to cause a 13 phase change in soil moisture. frozen. For intermediate silt-clay always inthe direction of lower temper- fractions. for frozen andunfrozen granu. from figures 2-1 through 2-4. thermal regime. whether frozen or unfrozen.2 lb .4 =) 8240 Btu/ft3. soils. the existing excellent source of data for dry con. Figures 2-7 and 2-8 may be used 0 10 2030 40 50 60 70 to determine the average volumetric Moisture Content (%) Thermal conductivity K is expressed in Btu per hour per square foot per heat capacity and volumetric latent unit thermal gradient in °F per foot .s \ water is (144 X 0. Figures 2-5 and 2-6 presentesti. The charts for silt and clay moving or adding heat to an existing are applicable when that fraction is at soil mass . latent heat of fusion. (2592/33 . Theoretical basis. Calculation of the depth of or low. is (144 X 120 X c. heat of fusion. respectively. The 90 1 amount ofheat energy required to con. of moist Dashed line represents extrapolation . The quan- shape.15 =1 2592 Btu/ft3 and its average volu- is dependent upon anumber offactors: metric heat capacity. is (120[0. An of the soil in the profile. silts and clays should be read change is not involved. s o.9 =) 76 . expressed in Btu/ft cause a temperature change of hour °F. 50 e. higher when the percentage of quartz b. Assume a soil having a gravels. L.4 6 lb/ft3 and that of pure ice Is 57. and the nature and struction materials is the ASHRAH duration of boundary conditions Guide and Data Book. of the physical and thermal properties tivity of frozen and unfrozen peat. The thermal conductivity of soils 0.ft3). (Note: The density ofwater 62.15] =) 33. Army Corps of Engineers) the significance of latentheatof fusion relative to the volumetric heat capacity Figure 2-1. solid. dry unitweight of1201b/ft 3 and awater ing Engineers for the specific heat content of 15 percent. The 2-3 . 8 T 100%/ Saturation vert 1 ft of water to -ice is (144 X 62.S .4 =) e0 9000 Btu/ft3 and to change 1 ft3 of ice to 0 0. charts for sands and gravels are applic- able when the silt and clay content a. it is recommended that the ature.

eGil~y .r H. Figure 2-2.nmn 20111 I" ..20 40 1.. Average thermalconductivity forsilt and clay soils.26 MOISTURE CONTENT.' E~ BEEN. hr .26 0 10 20 30 40 20 0 . _ ' ~~- aa "" 0 10 t0 30 40 MOISTURE CONTENT. Percent Thermal conductivitY K is expressed'iq :$tu perhour per square foot per (U .~ i w 110 I"  NE I 00 1111. 2-4 .98 1 . Volume 6 nK"li ~. unfrozen .26 pure ice 1 . . unfrozen .61 1 .. Army Corps of Engineers) unit thermal gradient in °F per foot. Dashed line represents extrapolation .) w 90 d 90 120 100% saturated LIM 50 N/A N/A 1 .00 N/A 1 .S . Average thermal conductivity for sands andgravels. Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-4.S . (U . Moisture Content (°/.101k0m -- C7 3 90 z so 111W 0 70 01. 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 ' 1. Percent (U .S . rrrr INNOM /1I usit POW 140 W 100 v a 90 130 La u W 3 80 70 i 0 60 3 50 H 2 WIV 40 i 300 3. iav roenwr it"r. frozen. Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-3.MI lMrwal 4 rs~ . Average thermal conductivity for silt and clay soils.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.yrnHl 130 120 .23 so 30 0 .

Knowledge of the thermal properties a. density. frozen . Measured or as. Volume 6 _0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Water Content (%dry weight) (U . Average thermal conductivity for peat. degrees that the temperature in the. and duration of the temperature dif- Ifsurface temperatures can be assumed ferential at the air-ground interface. and temperature of each soil stratum . Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-5. to be spatially uniform and the thermal The magnitude of the temperature dif- influence ofany buried structures can ferential is expressed as the number of be considered negligible. unfrozen. Physical concept and quantita- of all the materials in the heat flow tive measurement.S . by simplifying the problem and its clude grain-size distribution. tion. 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. Freezing and thawing indexes. water or ice content.S. freezing or thawing temperatures into sumed temperatures within the soil soil partly depends on the magnitude mass determine the initial conditions . Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-6. 2-4. The penetration of path is also required . air 2-5 . solution. classifica. Average thermal conductivity for peat. one-dimen. there- Data pertinent to the soil profile in. 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Water Content (%dry weight) (U. sional heat flow may be assumed. causingachange in the thermal regime .

0 .) hr-OF) Asphalt Mix with 6% by paving . Army Corps of Engineers) . 40 1 .5 " 11 .27 0 .2 0.21 stags .14 pumice.5-11 .15 0 .0 0 .067 Wood fiberboard.12 Blanket Mineral wool. 120 5 .046 Wood fiber- hardboard type 65 1 . Volume 6 Table 2-2.058 cretes .092 Fir.0 10. Thermal properties of construction materials (U.7 0 . slag.0 0 . *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. also 30 0 .39 0 .43 cluding expanded shale.0 0 .0 0 .75 With sand and gravel or stone aggregate (not dried) 140 12.90 0 . expanded 80 2 . k K conductivity conductivity Type of Unit weight (Btulft2 -hr"° F (Btulft " material Description (Iblit3) per in .032 and Corkboard (with- slab out added binder) 6.021 Board Cellular glass 9.80 0 .0 0 .80 0 .00 With lightweight aggregates.6 0 .0.096 vermiculite .29 0 . oak and similar hard- woods 45 1 .022 tion rock.0 0 . and batt fibrous form.024 Expanded ureaformal- dehyde 1 . Wood Maple. processed from 1 .25 0 .33 Plywood 34 0 .42.34 -- Polyurethane foam 1 .022 insula. tile.026 .3 0 . weight cut- mixture back asphalt 138 10.2-3.S .10 0 . Glass fiber 9.5-4.029 (plank. pine and similar soft- woods 32 0 .30 slate .33 0.5-8.0 1 .0 0.075 cellular con.5 0 .5-3. lath) Expanded polystyrene 1 .28 0 . cinders . or glass Wood fiber 3.6 0 .5 0 .25 -- Expanded perlite 9 .17 -- Mineral wool with resin binder 15.0 1' 0.86 Concrete With sand and gravel or stone aggregate (oven- dried) 140 9 . 60 1 .6 0.31 0. 20 0 .25 0 . clay or 100 3 .70 0 .27 0 . perlite . laminated or homogeneous 26.023 Mineral wool with 2-6 asphalt binder 15.0 0.40 0 . in.035.021 tion Wood or cane fiber- interior finish 15.0 0. insula.067 Building Asbestos- boards cement board 120 4 .35 0 .55 0 .

Volume 1.46 Ice 57 ~15.4 1 .0-3.25-0. Thermal properties of construction materials. Air freezing index (F) and air thawing index may be calculated by thawing index(1). Aluminum 168 1416 118 laneous Copper 549 2640 220 Ductile Iron 468 360 30 Glass 164 5. tures would be slightly more accurate. loose 5. or rock) 2-5 0. granulated 5-12 0.36 -- fill Expanded perlite 3-4 0. it is neces- 2-7 . or fir 2.48 0. the as. freezing degree-days. Either pair of temperature based onhourly tempera.4 4. the monthly average temperatures at The summation of the degree-days for" Fairbanks. indices is adequate for computations.56 0.7 1.30 0. Mineral wool tion (glass. appropriate season . for a1-week period. omitted. assuming that-456 The use ofSimpson's rule gave a freez- degree-days had been accumulated ing index of -5390and a thawing index since freezing began. For determining the ranted. Surfacefreezing and surface- but such precision is not usually war.13 Snow. thawing indexes. slag. new.) hr-°F) Loose Cork.6 0 . temperatures. indicating heat flow within the soil. areas by planimeter gave a freezing Table 2-3 illustrates the method used index of -5240 degree-days and a to obtain the summation ofdegree-days thawing index of +3420 degree-days. sumed freezing point of water. etc. from September a freezing or thawing season gives the 1949 to October 1950 . The negative sign. may or a freezing or thawing index. c.2 0.8 0. An average daily of +3460 degree-days .037 Straw 7-8 0.). hemlock. a plot of of degree-days for the day is (T -_32) .45 0.32 Vermiculite (ex- panded) 7. and the number example refer to figure 2-9. The areas are daily air temperature and T2 is the expressed in units of degree-days. may be temperature and time.28 Snow.40 Steel 487 310 25 . 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.05 Snow on ground 18. the sulting in a summation of degree-days average daily air temperature T.2 4. Mean temperature of 320 F. as defined in TM line and the curve of average monthly 5-862-1/AFR 88-19. Volume 6 ' Table 2-2.3 0. t Mean temperature of 60° F.040 Wood fiber: redwood. ly temperatures . or at the ground surface is above (posi.0-8. For an be taken as 1/2 (TI + T2). Index.2 0.30 0.5 0 .025 Sawdust or shavings 8-15 0. The freezing or b.28 -- Insula. Continued k K conductivity' conductivity Type of Unit weight (Btulft2-hr"°F (Btulft- material Description (Iblft3) per in. The (2)Calculation fromaverage month- duration is expressed in days.35 Values fork are fordrybuilding materials at a mean temperature of 75°F except as noted. wet conditions will adversely affect values of many of these materials. is usually tive) or below (negative) 32°F.5 0. The area may be (1) Summation of degree-days of determined by planimeter or a simple freeze and thaw from average daily approximation rule (Simpson's rule.8 Water. Alaska.025 Miscel. If T1 is the maximum midordinate rule. Determination of air freezing or air thawing. average 62. taken over the determined by the following methods. The air freezing and determining the area between the 32°F air thawing indexes. drifted and compacted 31 . re- minimum daily air temperature.

relationships exist but they are often tures are not. sites.10 20 16 -5 7'o -L. a specific location requires concurrent observations of air and surface tem- d. time of day. wind speed. sary to determine or estimate the temp. Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-7. Correlation of air and surface peratures throughoutanumberofcom- indexes. atmospheric generally be estimated conservatively humidity and stability. - Avre. 2-8 . so n-factors must time of year. *F (U . Heat balance algorithms face . 28 A. Re- face often must be considered in deter. The combined effects index to air index.C . liable determination ofthe n-factor for mining surface temperature . a correlation between unwieldly to use and the inputs are these temperatures helps establish the often difficult to characterize . properties. pref- snow cover and ground surface char. monthly or seasonal correlation . Since air temperatures are gen. acteristics. erably similar. designated as the of radiative. Volume 6 W 90 130 -40 Btu/cu ft °F 120-" SO 30 40 -20 100 - 30 RC . and subsurface thermal erature condition at the ground sur. is often not feasible. cloud cover. It is thermal boundary condition at the recommended that the ratio ofsurface ground surface ." be used to represent a heat exchange at the air-groundinter. that approximate many of these inter- erally available and surface tempera.C ./T ON //&. 90 -- !. The plus anticipation of future changes to difference between air and surface conditions existing during the period temperatures at any specific time is of measurement. convective and conductive "n-factor.' Specific hoot of save solids assumed to be O.S . Such determination influenced by latitude. from n-factors tabulated for other. No simple correlation exists plete freezing and thawing seasons between air and surface indexes. Average volumetric heat capacity for soils. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.

9 -571 6 38 30 34 2 -569 7 30 18 24 -8 -577 Prior accumulation of -456 degree-days assumed.S. Table 2-3.40 130- KEY 120- too- too- 90- Go- -PO -"A.1 -33 -506 3 10 . Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-8. "TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.1 7 -25 -562 5 30 16 23 . Army Corps of Engineers). Calculation of cumulative degree-days (U. Volume 6 r W Ib/cu ft L 140 -I 0 Btu/cu ft -t.8 1 -31 -537 4 15 . Temperature (° F) Degree-days Cumulative Day Maximum Minimum Average per day degree-days 1 29 1 15 -17 -473 * 2 9 -11 .- (U . Volumetric latent heat for soils. 2-9 .S .

The n. effect can greatly reduce the freezing (2) Thawing conditions. The effects factor for thawing conditions is af- of turf or an organic ground cover on fected by the same factors as those for the heat flow processes at the air. Average monthly temperatures versus time at Fairbanks. surface degree-days of thaw (degrees able and difficult to evaluate. basis ofobservations and studies made factor is very significant in analytical to date. Volume 6 60 50 W 40 w S I- Q 32 30 W 0- M W E- 20 JS I- Z O 10 W Q S 0 W Q -20 (U. the n-factors given for average ground studies. The n- indexat the ground surface.S . but its insulating planned construction . Snow cover reflects a to convert the air freezing index to the large part of incoming solar radiation surface freezing index in the absence resulting in higher freezing indexes of specific measurements at the site of at the snow surface. Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-9. It generally increases conditions in table 2-4 should be used with wind speed. Alaska. 2-10 . On the above 32°F) to air degree-days of thaw. (1) Freezing conditions. It is the ratio of ground interface are extremely vari. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. freezing conditions .

5 Bituminous pavement 0. Volume 6 Incoming shortwave radiation may in.7 1 .4 Surface exposed directly to sun or air without any overlying dust. for single season with snow cover permitted to accumulate naturally .9 1 . the design freezing of wind speed. in arctic and subarctic areas.8 Tree-covered 0. to surface thawing indexes in the ab- cantly larger than 1. soil. except as noted otherwise. in figure 2-10 and are based on field troduce heat into the surface to an studies conducted in Alaska and extent that the surface becomes a Greenland.5 0.0 0 2 4 6 6 10 12 14 16 AVERAGE WIND SPEED. N C `PoWTCAA9 CEMENT CONCRETE 1. snow or ice.4 to 2t Shaded surface 0. Relationship between wind speed and n. In such a be used to convert air thawingindexes case the n-factor may become signifi. Recommended curves (or thawing) index should be the aver for n-factors versus wind speed for age air freezing (or thawing) index of portland-cement-concrete and bitu. e. The effect of sence of specific measurements at the latitude is not particularly significant planned construction sites. n-factors for freeze and thaw (ratio of surface index to air index) (U. Data from Fairbanks.3** 0. and with no building heat involved .75 1 . t Use lowest value except in extremely high latitudes or at high elevations where a major portion of summer heating is from solar radiation.0 ~~ .S . mph.0 _- Portland-cement concrete 0.0 . 2-1 1 . The n-factors given for source ofheatconducted notonly down.7 1 . average conditions in table 2-4 should ward but upward into the air.factor during thawing season . but con. Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-10. DURING THAWING SEASON (U . Alaska. Design indexes.S. For freezing For thawing Type of surface conditions conditions Snow surface 1 . Army Corps of Engineers). 3.0 I X 2. For design ofper- sideration should be given to the effect manent pavements. the three coldest winters (or warmest minous-concrete pavements are shown summers) in the latest 30 years of Table 2-4.6 to 2t Bare soil 0. "TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.0 Turf 0.6 I S CANCRETE a~rc 2.

. bnenlond dolo from /952 through 1961 .'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.0 I I I I I 3000 4 000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 MEAN AIR-FREEZING INDEX. To avoid thawing indexes in TM 5-862-1/AFR the necessity for adopting a new and 88-19. Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-11 . If 30 years of record are not struction need not be changed more available. the air freezing (or thawing) often than once in 5 years unless the index for the coldest winter (or more recent temperature records in- warmest summer) in the latest 10-year dicate a significant change. 400. e0001- x (NORrNWAY) o (BETTLES) W O Z Z 7000F- N W W / o(KOrZESUE) (FAIRBANKS! W (6ULKANA) o 6000 (B/6 DELTA! o. Relationship between mean freezing index and maximum freezing index for 10 years of record. Periods of record used tribution of mean and freezing and should be the latest available. Degree-days F (U . Therelatively linear relation- for the coldest (or warmest) winter in ship between recorded maximum in- 30 years of record or should be esti. Volume 1 to determine the design only slightly different freezing (or index values for arctic and subarctic thawing) index each year. Q (AmAloo X 5000 Q o(BEMEL ) NOTE . dexes and mean freezing and thawing mated to correspond with this fre. the design freezing (or presented in TM 5-862-1/AFR 88-19. The distri- period may be used. index at a site with continuing con- I Cg000 I (BARROW!o W h (rHIXE) o 9000 /6(Fr YUKON/ .S . the design regions. Volume 6 record . thawing) index should be computed Volume 1. indexes shown in figures 2-11 and 2-12 quency ifthe number of years of record may be used in conjunction with dis- is limited .' rhulr. For design of bution ofdesign freezingand thawing foundations for average permanent index values in North America is structures. 1953-1962 (arctic and subarctic regions) .

areonlend dolo from 1952 /Amuph /of/ . YUIfQY) r (ANIAK) 0 Ir (MOPrHWAY1 (BETNEL) a' VG7/LKANA) 3000 0 wrnESI X z 2500 Z 0(KOTIEBUE) 1500 X ( THUL E) 0 Q 1000 -IBARROWI 0/ NOTE . Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 2-12. 1953-1962 (arctic and subarctic regions) . j I 1 I 1 I I I t 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 MEAN AIR-THAWING INDEX. Relationship between mean thawing index and maximum thawing index for 10 years of record. .' Mule. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. 500 Imo_. L.S. Volume 6 4000 (BW OELW T (FAIRBAAWS) IL 3500 (FT. D"rwdoysF (U.

the mean condition) and the thermal regime of annual temperature of the site. Itisdeter- peratures . portant assumptions and some of the face freezing (or thawing) index. mass is based upon the "modified" (1)Assumptions. The assumptions and limita- 3-2. thermal properties of the soil mass. The mathematical Berggren equation. and the the soil at the start of the freezing or thermal properties of the soil. the initial b. mined by two factors : the thermal ratio marized in appendix B. 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. The upper boundary presented here. equation and a discussion of the neces- formly equal the mean annual air tem. Modified Berggren equation. the The A coefficient is a function of the surface temperature (upper boundary freezing (or thawing) index. Volume 6 CHAPTER 3 ONE-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR AND PERIODIC HEAT FLOW 3-1 . Thermal regime . expressed as: model assumes one-dimensional heat 48KnF flow with the entire soil mass at its mean annual temperature (MAT) prior L to the start of the freezing season . and the model as- sumes that the soil freezesata tempera- n=conversion factor from air ture of 32°F . Freeze thawing season . = coefficient that considers the The seasonal depths of frost and thaw effect of temperature changes penetration in soils depends upon the in the soil mass (dimensionless). require only relatively simple hand Figure 3-1 shows A as a function of a calculations . equation limitations are discussed below. the surface temperature changes suddenly (as a step function) L from the mean annual temperature to where a temperature v3 degrees below freez- X= depth of freeze or thaw (ft) ing and that it remains at this new K= thermal conductivity of soil temperature throughout the entire (Btu/ft hr °F) freezing season. The depth to which 32°F tem. equation is used to determine the depth peratures will penetrate into the soil of freeze or the depth of thaw. It or (eq 3-1) assumes that when the freezing season 48 K nl starts. A few of the more im- condition is represented by the sur. (2) Limitations. sary assumptions and simplifications perature of the particular site under made during its development are not consideration . tions apply regardless of whether the a. Many methods are and thaw of low-moisture-content soils available to estimate frost and thaw in the lower latitudes is greatly in- penetration depths and surface tem. index to surface index (dimen. Latent heat affects the model by acting as a heat sink at the L = volumetric latent heat of fusion (Btu/ft3) moving frost line. These concentrates on some techniques that have been defined in paragraph 2-1 . fluenced by this coefficient . A complete development of this ground temperature isassumed to uni. Some of these are sum. The modified sionless) Berggren equation is able to determine F= air freezing index (°F-days) frost penetration in areas where the I = air thawing index (°F-days) ground below a depth of several feet . For the computational and N . methods discussed below. This chapter a and the fusion parameter /j.

IPI 'A ll ~~I 4ua!o1j.MMwMII0.aOO Figure 3-1. 3-2 .WAMIIW. A coefficient in the modified Berggren formula.I " I%IL//w%/ MAI OPFA 'A NFAO-IE 'A POPPAP FOR JIPPAFA IF- I's 04 AP04 0 n~~r~i~r/y a~inztiRai~azra~i~w~an W 4-1 Alai N 0 a WONFA 0 U NII~~ . lI/I%/I%I MEN .aPAPIMAPOAF N MINE 10110. Volume 6 IIIMIdMI M%I/ ImpAPEFAMUFAF I19.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. 115111111211 Ap 1111 ~II~D~p "/~~~~~ 111111111111111!1 1 0 . .

l5)] niques and computer programs are = 28 . -Soil properties: yd =1001b/ft3.1 . although re. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.8 ft L 2160 (eq 3-8 3-3.76)(2600) 48 K nF X =~ = 0.2/16.17++(0. The modified Berggren equation cannot be used suc.2600/160 would tend to result in overestimated . 2 ( ) (eq 3-10) (MAT) = 37. (eq 3-4) frost penetration (if frost heave is sig. thawing) index required to penetrate tions. The soil thermal properties are as versed with respect to the 32°F line.vs (C/L) .2-32. A thin bituminous homogeneous soils by determining concrete pavement will not affect the that portion of the surface freezing (or homogeneity of this layer in calcula. or to -Surface freezing index (nF) _ determine thaw penetration in areas 2600 degree-days. nificant) or underestimated thaw vo .2°F. Kav = 1/2 (K u + Kf) --' 0.89 5.0. The system .89 (fig. A multilayer solution to the modified mined by means of the modified Berggren equation is used for non- Berggren equation.2° above 32°F). (eq. determine the depth of quired to penetrate the top layer is . where the ground below a depth .2/2160) . -Thermal ratio. Homogeneous soils. Numerical tech. (eq3-8) J (active layer thickness) in permafrost Estimated depth of frost penetration. lems.0 = penetration. (eq 3-6) the multi-year depth of thaw in perma.6°F below 32°F).6 . 48(0.80 Btu/ft hr °F (fig. Appendix B discusses some ther. frost areas or the depth of freeze in L = 144(100)(0. Kf = 0.20. (eq 3-3) available to solve more complex prob. partial freezing (or thawing) index re- neous soils. The modified Berggren equation is most often applic. w lar in that the temperature gradients = 16%.37. able in either of two ways: to calculate a = vo/vs = 6. (eq 3-7) seasonal frost penetration in seasonal -Lambda coefficient. occur within the soil. No follows: simpleanalytical method exists to deter- mine the depth of thaw in seasonal -Volumetric latent heat of fusion. -Average volumetric heat should be referred to HQDA (DAEN. This limitation vs = nF/t . In this example for homoge. 24a 1 2 3-3 . The modified The . -Average thermal conductivity. are of the same shape. and such problems . ECE-G) or HQ AFESC .3 Btu/ft3 -F .of -Length of freezing season (t) several feet remains permanently = 160 days. permafrost areas. but a portland-cement-concrete each layer.6°F (16. Multilayer soils. 3-2). capacity. Cavg =100[0.0.16. 6. -Initial temperature differential.76 Btu/ft cessfully to calculate penetration over hr °f'. The sum of the thicknesses pavement greater than 6 inches thick of all the frozen (or thawed) layers is should be treated as a multilayered the depth of freeze (or thaw) .MAT -32 . These two conditions are simi. frozen. Ry -Mean annual temperature F1 (or 11) . areas . -Fusion parameter.33. layer ofhomogeneous soilmay be deter. 3-1) .16) = 2160 Btu/ft3. 2-3) mal computer models for computing Ku = 0. parts of the season. The depth of freeze or thaw in one 3-4.2°F (6 . Volume 6 remains permanently thawed. It is also sometimes used to calculate seasonal thaw penetration . frost areas or to calculate the depth of p . (eq 3-6) (3) Applicability.l coefficient is as follows: Berggren equation does not account -Average surface temperature for any moisture movement that may differential.0. 2-4) freeze and thaw depths.72 Btu/ft hr °F (fig. frost penetration into a homogeneous given by sandy silt for the following conditions: Lid.6(28.16.75X0. frost areas.

0/14 . The summation of the partial indexes. and in the fol- Lnd n Rn lowing discussion.0 SM 116 5. this is [1. represents the average value of C and R1 + R2 + R3 . Volume 6 where Since a wind speed of 7-1/2 mph results dl = thickness of first layer (ft) in an n-factor of 2.0 (fig. Fog .8 4 5. (eq 3-11) (eq3-17) 24x2 2 The thermal properties C. Column 19.5. FR.508 from bituminous concrete pavement for the figure 3-1. which is the sum of all + In) (eq 3-14) layer thicknesses to that depth . layer 3 is used to Fn (or I n) .0-6. a.0) or -Mean annual temperature (MAT) 1.2 ~In accordance with Unified Soil Classification System .8 (29/517) = 0.8 . represents the sum = 12°F..4-2. 2-10). the layer plus one-half the Rn value of -Average wind speed in summer the layer being considered .0 = 29).0 = 517).0 GW-G P 151 2.) (eq 3-12) Illustrate quantitative values.0/2. Column 20. the nth layer is: b. T:..0-5.0 SM 130 6. (111+ -) . Column 21.50/2)] = 2.'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.. Column 11.32 + (1..1.5 miles per hour (mph).0-0.0°F (eq 3-16) R2 a s 20. IR + (Rn/2). -Air thawing index (I) equals the sum of the R n values above = 780 degree-days. (MR + . K and L of the respective layers are obtained from The partial index required to penetrate figures 2-1 through 2-8. Table 3-1 facilitates solution of the multilayer problem.8°F (eq 3-15) is L2d2 vo= 12. considered and is determined from Depth Dry unit weight Water content Layer (ft) Material' (Iblft3) (%) 1 0. The vs.83 . F2 (or I2) = .0-8. days required to thaw the layer being -Soil boring log-.0 = 20. determine the v 8 (C /L) = 14. The fusion parameter p for each layer Is equal to the surface freezing index is determined from thawing index) . + R n.1 " (eq 3-13) is obtained from XCd/ld (145/5. Column 18. -Length of thaw season (t) nI. represents the number of degree- = 105 days.+Fn(orI 1 +I2+13 . Thus T: and -C represent weighted values to a depth of thaw penetration F 1 +F2 + F3 .ayer 3 7.1560/105 = 14. 3-4 .0-9.12 2 9. is used in the computations . Rn. 2.07. .5 5 6. vo and a values are determined in the same The partial freezing (or thawing) index way as those for the homogeneous case: required to penetrate the second layer vs.4 Asphaltic concrete 138 _- 2 0 . Column 14. Columns 24.0 G W-G P 156 2. a surface R1 = dl/K1 = thermal resistance of thawing index nI of 1560 degree-days first layer. given by Ed..6 6 8. In this example. is the ratio following conditions: d/K and for layer 3 equals (3. of the Rn values above the layer under consideration . 12 and 13 are self-explanatory. Zs. 10.1 3 . (eq 3-18) depth of thaw penetration beneath a The A coefficient is equal to 0.32.0 . represents the average where IR is the total thermal resistance value of L for a layer and is equal to above the nth layer and equals ELd/ld (2581/5.0 SM-SC 122 4.35.

S .6 25 0.508 0.63 0.8 3.64 0.46 0. 12 12 -.0 29 2.5 1. Multilayer solution of modified Berggren equation (U .6 0. -.86 0 0 0 -. Volume 6 Table 3-1.303) (3 " 89) = 26 Total thaw penetration = 6.258) o _ (1220)(1.00 610 1830 2581 517 87 145 29 0.1 1.288) (808)(1.12 551 1297 5a 122 4. 0.46 0 0.50 1.0 7.07 612 746 0 4 130 6. m 2 156 2.6) 12 (24) (0. -.35 vs = 14.89 134 134 3 151 2.258 1. -.15 0. -.550 0.8°F ni = 1560 degree-days __ (470) (1.68 0.83 0.07) = 612 3 (24) (0 .207 0. 0.23 -. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) R w Layer Yd w d Ed C K L Ld ELd L Cd Md C It .207) (0 " 89) = 134 (610)(3.86 0.303 0.0 28 1 .32 2.6 6.0 6.288 0.552 0.4 0.6) 1 5b 24) (0.64 808 485 4286 650 15 188 28 0.20 465 1762 5b 122 4.455 0.0) I = (2.85 470 751 751 376 46 58 29 1.56 3 .0 (3'12) = 551 14 (24) (0.305) (4 " 20 ) = 465 70 _ (808)(0.4 28 0. TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.42 4.6 feet O C . Army Corps of Engineers) .64 808 808 4609 658 25 198 28 0.0 25 0.82 3.305 1.60 2.537 0.~ ~2 Rn BR D2 +2 nl PnI c 1 138 -.65 1220 1220 3801 633 28 173 29 0.6 1.0 29 1.0) 1 5a (24) (0.0 5.6 2.42 3 " 89 260 1557 " 3 0 a a = 1.94 3.

07) (eq 3-20) base is not available. a.In freeze-thawcomputations. tion.6 ft). First.57 ft (try 0.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. it is as. This involves tion would be 6. To facilitate mathe- indicate 465 degree-days are needed matical calculations. figures 2-5 and 2-6 = 612 degree-days should be used to estimate the thermal conductivities of vegetative surface The summation of the number of cover. Effect of snow and vegetative cover. two assumptions to thaw 1.18 10 2880 Northern Greenland 22 0. and temperate regions 20 0. sudden step change was used to estab- Thermal properties of snowand vegeta. however.263 =) are commonly made regarding the tem- 202 degree-days more than available. uniform temperature . 5b. A similar tech. peratures at the upper boundary : 1) a A new layer. Precipitation. or is as- heat transfer at the air-ground inter. and the total estimated thaw penetra.0 feet of layer 5 is thawed contribute to these variations in sur- (designated as layer 5a). Calculations face temperature .0 = 0. is then selected by the sudden step change occurs in surface following proportion temperature or 2) the surface tempera- ture change is sinusoidal. leaving (1560 -1297 =) 3-6. perature of a mass that was initially at tion in a multilayer soil profile. Sudden step change. The sinu- (263/466)1 . Surface temperature variations . degree-days required to thaw layers 1 through 4 is 1297. are negligible .20 11 3170 3-6 . lish the boundary conditions for heat tive covers are extremely variable in flow in the modified Berggren equation both time and space. In the absence of 24(0 .0 foot of layer 5 or (465 . a constant. with snow cover thickness n1 . Alaskan coast. insola- thawed part of layer 5.608)2 site-specific data. 263 degree-days to thaw a portion of The temperatures at the air-ground layer 5. (eq 3-21) soidal variation of temperature over a year closely approximates actual condi- This new thickness results in 260 tions. The 3-5.0) in the noted regions if a better data n13 = (2.6 feet. If the influence tend to act as insulators and retard of latent heat is not involved. Solutions and examples Further trial-and-error isunwarranted for both conditions are given below . sumed negligible. A trial-and-error method is used interface are subject to daily and sea- to determine the thickness of the sonal fluctuations.Ts) erf ( ) (eq 3-22) layer solution ofthe modified Berggren 2 -fat Unit K weight (Btulft) C L Region (Iblft 3 ) hr ° F) (Btulft 3 ° F) (Btulft 3 ) Interior Alaska 16 0. ties of snow applicable for calculation (610)(3.11 8 2300 Canadian Archipelago. a sudden change in the surface tem- nique is used to estimate frost penetra. it is amenable to hand degree-days required to thaw layer 5b calculations only if latent heat effects or 3 degree-days less than available. Volume 6 Ld equation. air temperature and turbulence sumed that 1. T(X t) = Ts + (To . snow tion may be used: and vegetative surface materials are treated as separate layers in the multi. The tabulation 24. (7-R + (eq 3-19) estimated seasonally . N .2 below presents average thermal proper- For layer 3. the following equa- face. Both materials given in paragraph 3-2.

tween (x/2 at) and erf (x/2 1rat). which is frequently used a highly frost-susceptible subgrade is in heat flow computations covered with a 2-foot thick. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. H O U v Figure 3-2.7 . In thisexample ofasudden step change. at time (°F) t = time after application of sudden change in surface TS = suddenly applied constant temperature (days). . Both soils are x = depth below surface (ft) at an initial temperature of 20°F . If the I 0 N h64' 1 t0 O . The ture of the mass (°F) expression for the error function is erf =mathematical expression. non-frost- (dimensionless) susceptible gravel pad. termed the error function. 3.. Volume 6 where a = thermal diffusivity of the mass (ft2/day = K/C) T (X. Relationship between (x/2 Y-a-t) and erf (x/2 at). shown in appendix A and figure 3-2. v N O M b0 G W W O A.t) = temperature at depth x. surface temperature (°F) Figure 3-2 gives the relationship be- To =initial uniform tempera.

estimate the temperature at surface amplitude is (60 . (Note : latent heat would increase the perature variation that is nearly sinu. From face and 8 feet is figure 3-2. The method surface exposed to the atmosphere. Converting indexes into equivalent sine The temperature waves lag behind the wave of temperature. equivalent sine wave. Volume 6 surface ofthe gravel is suddenly heated the concrete . the negligible effect of latent heat. These indexes surface and at a depth x are shown in may be converted into a sine curve of figure 3-3. or 0.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.0 Btu/ft hr °F and the volumetric heat 24°F . the gravel-subgrade interface after one The amplitude at an 8-foot depth equals day.70)0. perature wave above or below The following table shows that 4.851 = 27. feet of the nonuniform materials can ture (°F) be considered equivalent to 5.5°F. between the sinusoidal amplitude. slab varies from 60° to -40°F during the Alaska. For example. surface wave. The maximum temperature at 8 feet is fusivity of the gravel is (K/C = 1. shown in figure 2-9 into an year. The thermal conductivity of the gravel is 50 exp [-8 .10) = 50°F. The time lag tx between == 0. assumed to exist at all levels to a depth where there is no temperature change.V (1. the sinu. convert the monthly aver- temperature ofan 8-foot-thick concrete age temperature data for Fairbanks. (eq 3-24) capacity is 25 Btu/ft3. Asurfutce tem.75 the average annual tempera. and the maximum temperature at the sur- x/2 at = (2.0/2 1r0. This technique assumes a involved or is assumed negligible. The relationship perature at the base of the slab as.) soidal repeats itself periodically for a c. deter- A= amplitude oftemperature wave mine the equivalent gravel thickness at depth x (°F). the surface For example.04 ft2 /hr. all materials are unfrozen . the gravel layer by either the step- The sinusoidal temperature pattern is change or sinusoidal method.0)(365) = 50 e'0. thawing index and aver- 3-8 . (eq 3-25) b. This equivalent thickness and the thermal a = thermal diffusivity of the mass diffusivity of the gravel are used to (ft2/day) calculate temperatures at the base of P= period of sine wave (365 days) . suming a diffusivity of 1. The thermal dif.~-X 1) = 1. Determine the maximum tem.96 ft2/day. values and the sam emean temperature . temperature to give the same index In the following example of a sinu. The phase lag is technique. Nonuniform layers. the temperature at a point below a soidal variation ofconcernoccurs over number of layers of different thermal an annual cycle.0/25) (10 + 24) = 34°F. For of equivalent thickness is used to find most problems in this manual. erf (x/2 -a6t) is equal to 0:85. time lag and decrease the amplitude.0 ft2/day for freezing index. assuming Ao amplitude of the surface tem. and in- following equation may be used: volves reduction of each layer to an equivalent material thickness by set- Ax = A o exp (-x ) (eq 3-23) ting the ratio of the thicknesses equal aP to the ratio of square roots of the ther- where mal diffusivities .0) (about 6 weeks) . If latent heat is not properties. The gravel material is very dry and latent heat may be ignored . thawing indexes and the average Typical temperature-time curves for a annual temperature .742 1. for the three layers shown. 2 n(1.4 feet of x = depth below surface (ft) gravel for heat-flow purposes ..02. 3-7. and the interface temperature T is tx 8 ~ 365 =43 days [70 + (20 . soidal temperature change. given only the freezing or determined by t x = (x/2) ( -1r 6U 3 a) . The average annual tem- to and maintained at 70°F fora number perature is [60 + (-40)1/2 = 10°F and the of days. Sinusoidal change. and the amplitude of the Some problems may require the use of sinusoidal waves decreases with depth the sinusoidal temperature variation below the surface.

yd content.00 2. Thermal Thickness diffusivity Equivalent gravel Material (ft) (ft2lhr) thickness (ft) Concrete 1 . Sinusoidal temperature pattern .054 1 .50 0.3 (1 . 1 .4 The subscript g refers to the gravel layer and the subscript m refers to the other material layer .0 33.50 0.2 0.8* 23 t 0.S .75 5.75 0.0 0.6 Gravel 2. Volume 6 FREEZING INDEX Ar DEPTH (X) TIME (U.5* 28 tx 0. K C a = K/C Material (Ib/ft) w (%) (Btulft hr° F) (Btulft3 ° F) (ft2/hr) Concrete -. "TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.033 Sand 120 2 0.17 + w/100) .75) Sand 0. -.035 1 .3 X 1 . Volumetric Dry Unit Thermal heat Thermal weight.033 1 . Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 3-3.035 Gravel 135 4 1 .50 Total thickness 4. diffusivity. tC = y d (0 . capacity.3 2. 3-9 .054 From figure 2-2 . Water conductivity.

3.0 . By use of the freezing index = 27.0°F. the sinusoidal figure 3-4 .*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. '38f11Va3dW31 -lVnNNV 3JV83AV 'l Figure 3-4 . Volume 6 age annual temperature is shown in of 5240 degree-days.0 .10 . The The average temperature at Fairbanks equation of the sine wave is for October 1949 to September 1950 T = 27.$ N N 2 o O w T 4 N P O x W 0 Z 0 EWA VAF.0 sin 2vft (eq 3-26) was 27°F .FA :~ ~ ~~~NIMIN&e Z INIMA iurua~ L11 ~RAM RAW\TAXU a 2ManiMriiM "t~~n llWIW1 11R 0 MANFAM iiINTERIM""~~~~ ~NaI Z a I WHEN N M N O Of N O r ON f? b 10 10 M f W~ M N d. Indexes and equivalent sinusoidal temperature.0172 t (radians) .37.0 sin 0 .1. amplitude is found to be 37.' -1VI1N3a3ddl0 3an1Va3dW31 '1VIIINI 4 ? J1 M A O O .37.

50 F.7 Btu/ft 3.f isthe sum ofthe three layer . the correlation between the -Sand pad: Yd= 133 lb/ft 3.d 40 THAWING resistances: INDEX Rf . lying permanently frozen silt for the term mean monthly temperature had following conditions : been used instead of the average -Mean annual temperature = 20°F. the The actual temperature curve for Fair.-. because ofthe difference in lateral heat Alaska . the mean annual ground surface tem.8 feet. TAvg Annual = 11. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. If the-thawing index of 3240 degree. -Frozen silt: y d = 75 Ib/ft3. Army Corps of Engineers) will have lesser depth of thaw than a Figure 3-5.03:3) (12)(1. Fairbanks. Penetration of freeze or thaw beneath f = frequency. and the floor re- sistance B.. point beneath buildings depends largely on where T intersects the average the presence or absence ofan airspace annual temperature on its way between the building floor and the downward toward the yearly ground as discussed below and in TM minimum .the sinusoidal tem. as shown in figure 3-6. (Origin The penetration of freeze or thaw of curve is located at a. w = 45%. Volume 6 where 3-8 . -Insulation: K = 0.F (eq 3-28) Temperature -2 0 The solution to this problem. t = time from origin in days.033 Btu/ft hr'F. Chapter 4. 3-1 1 . If the long. monthly temperatures for the 1949-1950 -Building floor temperature = 650F. is exposed to the atmosphere. Building floorplaced on ground. placed freezingn-factor is generally not equal directly on a5-foot-thick sand pad over- to the thawing n-factor . predicts a total thaw depth of QD©~lM 138~© o . placed directly on frozen ground. shown in L_ IL table 3-2. This illustra.a long narrow building (U .6)(4) + (30)(F3) 8+4+g -10 Avg. except tion makes use ofair indexes buta sine that the thawing index is replaced by wave could be determined for surface the product of the time and the dif- indexes by multiplying the air indexes ferential between the building floor with appropriate n-factors.) 5-852-4/AFM 88-19. d + 8 + 4 + a 30 k (12)(1 . 60 Sine Wave The resistances of the three floor of Equivalent Indexes 50 layers are in series. 1/365 cycles per day buildings. = 23. valentsine curvewould practically coin- cide.S . i. depth of thaw is determined by the banks. period. days had been used. flow. Alaska. 4 inches of insula- nual air temperature because the tion and 6 inches of concrete.0) (12)(0. C = 30 Btu/ft3 oF.0) 27 . When the floor of a heated building is perature amplitude would be 35.. -Concrete: K = 1. and the equivalent sine same method as that used to solve a wave computed from the freezing index multilayer problem when the surface are plotted in figure 3-5.5 Btu/ft 3 'F. Average monthly temperatures for square building with the same floor 1949-1950 and equivalent sine wave.2 ft 2 ft ° (eq 3-27) r 20 /~ Temp a FREEZING INDEX / The average volumetric heat capacity fd 10 of the floor system is a0 " 0 Cr (30)(8) + (1.0 Btu/ft hr 'F. 1949 1950 7. Inches of concrete. This solution did not consider edge effects. actual temperature curve and the equi. estimate the depth of thaw after 1 year perature may be substantially different for a building floor consisting of 8 (frequently higher) from the mean an. a. Note that temperature and 32'F. w = 5%. For example. C = 1.e.

insulates the building floor from the with air circulation induced by stack ground and acts as a convective pas. inside building temperatures. Army Corps of Engineers) Figure 3-6 .0 is recommended to tures.S . as applicable. ables.e. The depth to which freezing sage for flow of cold air that dissipates temperatures will penetrate is com- heat from the floor system and the puted with the modifiedBerggren equa- ground . Long-term mean monthly temperatures and equivalent sine wave. beneath the shaded areaof an elevated temperature and velocity of air in the building . Alaska. This index is equation for either a homogeneous or influenced by a number of design vari- multilayered soil system. i. -10 i* SEPT I OCT I NOV -I DEC JAN I FEB I MAR I APR I MAY JUNE__ 1 JULY 1AUG A SEPT OCT (U .. and stack height.2 W H J 20 FREEZING 5300 DEGREE-DAYS INDEX H Z O IO Z W 0 NOTE. Volume 6 TT--T_ .The depth ofthaw is calculated tion. average daily air tempera- An n-factor of 1. Areas between curves and 32°F line represent the indexes. except that the air freezing index by means of the modified Berggren at the outlet governs. determine the surface thawing index floor and duct or pipe system design. Airspace below building (2) There is no simple mathemati- (1) An unskirted airspacebetween cal expression for analyzing the heat the heated floor of building and the flow in a ventilated floor system that ground will help prevent degradation has ducts or pipes installed within the ofunderlying permafrost.The airspace floor or at some depthbeneath the floor. _i SINE WAVE EOUI VAL EN T 60 (AMPL/TUOE 37 °F) 50 IJL 0 THAWING INDEX W 4 3400 DEGREE-DAYS MEAN TEMPERATURE Q 32 W 30 a MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE 26 . b. system. Cold air 3-12 .*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. effect. Fairbanks.

3 7.5 8.6520 degree-days m N 24(0 .44 14.82 5540 5540 m Silt a 72 45 .5 1.36 dn.17 6520 12060 a 0 v0 = 32 .463) 6970 nI(Silt a) = (15 . -.20 0 0 -.5 24 -.8 feet oN 70 w w .90 4650 6050 10850 1390 48 224 29 0.0 6 .S . m a R 3 ~2 R Layer d w d Ed C K L Ld ELd L Cd Xd C u n )R ~R +2 nl Fn I "" w J Floor -. Army Corps of Engineers). . m Sand 133 5 .765 0 .0 37 0 . (15.20 = 12°F vs = 65-32 .586 1.33°F a = 12/33 = 0 .586) 3m a Total thaw penetration = 7.29) = 7480 degree-days 24(0 .65 0.68 0 .45 15.45 15 .0 1. -.5 28 1. 0 0 0 0 36 -.82) = 5540 degree-days 24(0.8 37 0. Thaw penetration beneath a slab-on-grade building constructed on permafrost (U .67 14.29 7480 13020 w Silt b 72 45. (12 . -.0 1.593) ma 0 6050 ni(Silt b) . TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.0 5.25 11.90 4650 6970 11770 1470 55 231 29 0. -.77 0.54 960 4800 4800 738 140 176 27 1 .17) . 11.593 1.20 12.69 0. Volume 6 m w N Table 3-2 .463 3. Surface thawing index (nl) = 33 x 365 = 12050 degree-days a 4800 ni(Sand) .21 0 . 1.

crete. outlet side of the ducts. Volume 6 passing through the ducts acquires Outlet mean annual tempera- - heat from the duct walls and experi.51.0 Btu/ft hr °F. = 60°F.Gravel pad : yd = 125 lb/ft 3 . = 1. Schematic of ducted foundation . Also tion. w = 2.Thermal conductivity of con- required thickness of a gravel pad be. ture = 32°F 0. determine the required stack height to (a) The required thickness is ensure freeze-back of the pad on the determined by the following equation. The freezing (period duringwhich ducts are index at the outlet must be sufficient closed).Freezing season = 215 days. freezing index closely approximates . Ki = 0. observations indicate that the inlet air . X = KRf [ V 1+ KL(R f)2 . determine the . 3-14 . 11 (eq 3-29) Figure 3-7 .51.Thawing season = 150 days the site airfreezing index. through the duct. and the air freezing .033 Btu/ft hr °°°°F. The conditions derived from the modified Berggren for this example follow: equation : . neath the floor section shown in figure . l = 220 ft. w = 2. (3) As an example. to counteract the thawing index and .Minimum site freezing index index is reduced at the outlet. K.Duct length.Building floor temperature ensure freeze-back of foundation soils. Field = 4000 degree-days. 48*21 f .*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. ences a temperature rise as it moves (conservative assumption).Thermal conductivity ofinsula- 3-7 to contain all thaw penetration.

The heat content per hre =surface transfer coefficient square foot of pad is determined as between duct wall and duct follows: air .5) [ _ 1 + .6°F below 32°F or 13. the average permissible tem- equation = 0.and the aver.heat removed pad to assure freeze-back.25. using .en the floor and outlet duct air is during this season is equal to 5445/215 [(60 . to the duct air must equal the heat removed by the duct air- pensated for by an equal freezing index at the duct outlet on the surface of the Heat added . The average O fm . The total heat flow 0 to the duct air L X2 (450)(11 .85) (eq 3-32) (3 .3] = 3.4 .97) 2'(4200) * tween them.85 Btu/ft hr °F Length of freezing season RT = thermal resistance of floor 1420 system 18 4 12 215 = 6. The heat flow This thawing index must be com.0) (b) Thus the total amount of heat + 4. 4812 K = 48(0.7 + 1.85(12 .4)/12 .3] = 2.Latent heat. The average thaw.0 Btu/ft2 hr.0 = 12. (X)(L) = (11.4°F. (eq 3-31) Ke Ki hre (12)(1 .Total heat content: a value of 1.13 . The thermal resistance R X . Thus X 24 = 1.3 hr ft2 OF/Btu (eq 3-33) cold-air ventilation during the freezing where season with ducts open is equal to the XC = thickness of concrete (ft) latent and sensible heat contained in Xi = thickness of insulation (ft) the thawed pad.8 Btu/ft2 hr. based upon ex.5 ft2 hr °F/Btu The inletair during the freezing season (eq 3-30 has an average temperature of (In the computations the dead airspace Air freezing index 4000 is assumed equivalent to the thermal resistance of concrete of the same Length of freezing season 215 thickness.- age rate of heat flow from the gravel twe. `TM 5-852-61AFR 88-19. [(60 .025 = 450 Btu/ ft3 divided by the thermal resistance be- then (48)(0 .0) 12.3 + 1.1. +1 to be removed from the gravel pad by (12)(0 .(0.4)/12 .0 ft.0 Btu/ft2 = 4950 Btu/ft2 hr °F and represents the combined . .5)2 Xe Xi 1 14 R .Sensible heat (10 percent of effect of convection and radiation . and be. floor surface to the ductair during the days winter is equal to the temperature dif L=latent heat of gravel = ference between the floor and duct air 144(125)(0 .4) = 12.4°F. however.) = 18. Volume 6 where pad surface temperature at the outlet K = average thermal conductivity of end equals the ratio gravel Required freezing index =1/2(0 .0) = 0 .3 Btu/ft2 hr.6°F below 32°F or 25 .0) 12(0.0 Btu/ft2 hr. designs).0)(450) (For practical design. much higher air velocities.0) from the floor and gravel pad is = 1420 degree-days. =factor in modified Berggren Therefore.97 (conservative assumption) perature rise TR along the duct is (25.1.0) = 4.97) 2(0.85)(450)(12 . (eq 3-34) 3-15 . At latent heat.0 will lead to conservative 5445 Btu/ft2.0°F. this value perience) = 495 will be slightly larger.8 Btu/ft2 hr. the average rate of heat flow from the ing index at the surface of the pad is gravel pad to the duct air is 1.13. The average heat flow be- The ducts will be open during the tween the floor and inlet duct air is freezing season (215 days). 12(1 .11 is calculated as follows: (0. I f = thawing index at floor surface (c) The heat flowing from the = (60 .32)(150) = 4200 degree. hrC = 1. 60V Ad p e pTR.033) 12(1.033) 1.

68)(0.68 ft2) p e H(TC . (eq 3-36) 60 A d p C pTR (d) The required air flow is ob where tained by a stack or chimney effect.3 Btu/ft2 hr) is determined by the (4.3)(220)(2. Btu/ft2 hr) The stack height is determined by the .68) equation : V= (60)(1.0) V = ft/minute (eq3-36) = 111 ft/minute. To) = density of air (0. This factor provides for Figure 3-8 .24)(12 .083 lb/ft3 hd 5.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.3 which is related to the stack height.density of air at average duct pressure (0. 3-16 .Q = length of duct (220 ft) equation m = duct spacing (2.24 Btu/lb °F) temperature (lb/ft3) TR =temperature rise in duct air e = efficiency of stack system (12°F).66 ft) li d = h V + h r (eq 3 . Properties of dry air at atmospheric pressure.083)(0 . total heat flow to duct air (4. Volume 6 Thus the average duct air velocity Substitution of appropriate values required to extract this quantity of heat gives a required air velocity (4.2(T e + 460) Inches of water [figure 3-10] ) (natural draft head) cp = specific heat of air at constant p .37) Ad = cross-sectional area of duct where (1.

0285 X 1.08315/ft3 e/De. Each right-angle bend has the chimney or stack effect.31x10-3)(25.3 inches of wat straight duct I s is The stack height required to produce 5 ft (assumed inlet open length) this draft head is 220 ft (length of duct beneath 5. Reynolds number Te = temperature of air in stack is obtained from the equation (°F) V(a' + 0 .25 De) To = temperature of air NR (eq 3-40) surrounding stack (°F) V 2 where _( (111 X 80)(1.58) .0 01 106 -0.0.80)(25. based on field observations .13. Volume 6 friction losses within the factor is small. .2)(8. hf .31X10.4°F factor e of the concrete duct surface is 0. 0. Areasonable absolute roughness To .0066[1 + (20.4 .083)(0.8 (-)2 effects is [2(65 + 10) =] 150 diameters.700 4000 (velocity head) 0 .kinematic viscosity hf = f.To) (5.26 ft (eq 3-44) The friction factor f' s a function of where Reynolds number NR and the ratio P = 0.9.005511+(20.001 feet.31X103 inches of water.000 X -+ - le De NR De = equivalent duct diameter (ft). the friction head is of duct in ft2) Dc = 4(1.4 + 460) 240 ft fe = ks + fb (eq 3-39) (0. 4000 which is added to the length of the 111 straight duct .by inches of water De (friction head) (ft2/hr at 19.4) / e m 240 + (150 X 1.25 X 1.25.10.22) .81).by + 9.22 ft.22 by . The estimated length of a 10. To =13.shortest dimension (ft) Is V .000x -+-)1/31 The technique used to calculate the 1.700 friction head is -0. f X De X by (eq 3-42) perimeter of duct in ft 2 ( 18+20 + 12) 423 12 2 .423 ft.4°F [fig. The effect of tions over an entire season) minor variations in e on the friction hd = 8. -17.49 V = velocity of duct air (ft/minute) V . and h d .4°F Suggested values of e for other types e . 347 .2 h d(Tc + 460) floor) H 15 ft (assumed stack height) pE(Tc . In this v example the total allowance 1b for these a 10.by + hf . 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. as noted by examining chimney the-equation below used to calculate H = stack height (ft) the friction factor f. (eq 3-41) 4(cross-sectional area Therefore.8 (-)2 = 8.8hv.8095 (found to be a reasonable of surfaces are given in the ASHRAB designvalue based on observa- Data and Guide Book .221 )2 inches of water NR . The friction factor f' is obtained by = friction factor solving the equation (dimensionless) = equivalent duct length (ft) f= 0.8 by diameters for each entry or exit.0 + 0.0285. 3.22 17.average duct velocity (ft/hr) a . = 1. The draft head effect of adding approximately 65 hd is obtained as follows: diameters to the length of the duct. X (eq 3-38) The equivalent length of the duct is The draft head required to provide the equal to the actual length 1 s plus an desired velocity head and to overcome allowance l b for bends and entry and the friction head is furnished by the exit.8 by (eq 3-43) entry and exit effects add about 10 .

Limited structure. and 4) a negative pres. Chap. Use of thermal insulating materials. 22 duced considerably (as discussed in 27. C = 0. obtained for validation. lyingsiltsubgrade.48) of insulated pavements.2 feet into the under- (g) The stack height is an im.3 a = =0. (TM 5-818-2/AFM 88.Insulation: K = 0.32 .75 X 3670 = vantage of any available velocity head 2752 degree-days. Example. vents should be cowled to take ad.3 .60 hr ft2. d 14 2 6 R =-= + + sumed negligible . (14X30) + (2X0.F (eq 3-49) 3-18 . 2 Inches of Insulation graph 3-8a.Concrete: K = 1.25. K 12x1. b. 3) a positive . the final calculated stack placed on a 6-foot gravel base course . its Cp insulating effectiveness will be re.28 Btu/ft3 °F passes over the exhauststack opening. cated than simple addition of resist- (f) This firstapproximated stack ances.5 ft. but until sufficient data are height is next incorporated in the cal. concrete pavement overlying a high- ness by one-half would result in lower. the thermal resistance of 6 inches of concrete leveling course the pavementand insulation layers are added to obtain total resistance. In this example.0 12x0. .'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.024 Btu/ft hr sure head at the outlet when wind °F. If sufficient air data cannot be drawn through ducts by 2752 natural draft. From the known provided by the wind. F/Btu (eq 3. 14 inches of Portland-cement concrete and-error. Use a2-inch layer of insula- tible material to reduce the thickness tion and a 6-inch concrete leveling of fill required to keep freezing or course. . thawing temperatures from pene- -Pavement section : 14 inches of concrete tratinginto anunderlying frost-suscep- tible soil.2'F (eq 3-45) could be specified or consideration 170 given to alternatingairflow in the ducts. 4 discusses in detail the design 8. . By trial. mechanical blowers vs = 16.0 = 3.Silt subgrade : yd= 100lb/ft3. 4) . 3. Circulation of air through the the following conditions . the w = 10%. A pavement consists of recalculate the friction head hf. field tests indicate that the heat-flow tion could be used.30 Btu/ft3 °F stack opening.024 12x1. the resistance of a Portland-cement- effectof increasing the insulation thick. Volume 6 (e) If the stack is too high for the TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19. a greater thickness of insula. Trial 1. 3670 degree-days utable to the stack effect.Gravel base : yd = 130 lb/ft 3. and that outside the building.Air freezing index = sure reduction at the outlet end attrib. Chap.0 Btu/ft hr °F.3 Btu/ft3 . and the newly obtained f e is used to a. Draft caused by wind is highly erratic w=4% and unpredictable and should not be . however. ducts results from 1) a density dif. height is found to be 26. quality insulating layer is more compli- ing the stack height by five-eighths.3°F .3'F (eq 3-46) 3-9.0 6. Surface freezingindex = 0.Freezing season = 170 days pressure head at the inlet end when .) If the insu. considered in design. 2) a pres. and the latent heat effect of a combined 22 inches total pavement and insulation layer is as. . Frost penetrated 3.Mean annual temperature = ference between the air inside the duct 35.2 conjunction with a non-frost-suscep.20 (eq 3-47) An insulating layer may be used in 16. . treatment of culation of the length of straight duct resistances in series is recommended.28) + (6X30) lating material will absorb water. wind blows directly into the intake C = 0. vo 35. As in the example of para. Determine the thick- portant variable because an increase ness of insulation required to prevent in stack height will increase the duct frost penetration into the subgrade for airflow.

The 2-inch thickness of insulation is 21.3033 =) 481 6.pene- tration into the silt subgrade . Trial 2. = 27.9 Btu/ft3 °F (eq 3-51) ing course.5 inches total therefore required . . The calculation (see table 3-4) indicates -Pavement section: 14 inches of concrete that this pavement section will not 1.86 hr ft2 °F/Btu (eq 3-50) degree-days to prevent frost .0 tion has an excess of (2752 .5 insulation and a6-inch concrete level. Cp = (14X30) + (1 . Volume 6 ' The calculation appears in table 3-3 d -=-+ 14 1.5X0 .024 + 12 x 1.5 inches of insulation prevent frost penetration into the silt 6 inches of concrete subgrade as (2752 .5-inch layer of 21 .28) + (6X30) c. Use a 1. 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.0 12x0 . RP = K 12X1 .5 6 and indicates that this pavement sec.2553 =) 199 degree- leveling course days remain for subgrade penetration.

Insulated pavement design. Insulated pavement design. frost penetration . no frost penetration. Table 3-4. Volume 6 Table 3-3. 3-20 .'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.

K = 1.log _+_109 -+) 1.35) . 1 r2 r2 face of the gravel were 35°F. The temperature of the surrounding following thermal conductivities are medium. a concrete semi-infinite slabs in paragraph 3-6a conduit with a wall thickness of 6 has application to heat-flow problems inches and an inside diameter of 10 feet associated with pile foudations in is surrounded by 4 inches of cellular permafrost.367log r flow per linear foot of conduit would 27r 1 1 equal where rI = inside wall radius (ft) (45 . surface temperature of a cylinder is tween the inside concrete wall and the suddenly changed from the uniform outer edge of the gravel material .367 (0.367 ( . time t after the surface temperature of . (eq 4-2) r2= outside wall radius (ft) . . cross sections.151) -0. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. 1 r4 struction. Volume 5).0 0.Insulation. General = . the effective thickness for radial flow from a unit length of the If the temperature in the conduit were cylinder is 45°F and the temperature at the outer.I or0. A number of the basic con. Calculate the thermal resistance be.2 hr °F/Btu.log - cepts and techniques used to calculate K3-4 r3 radial heat flow from cylindrical sur. thermalconductivity ofconcrete struction of utility supply lines for the K2-3 = thermal conductivity of insula- transport of waterand sewage in perma. Chapter 4). A mathematical solutiop glass insulation and 4 feetofdry gravel. (TM 5-852-5/AFR 88-19. 4-1 for values of rI .5 Btu/ft hr °F.5 1.Concrete.log + .83 a. Figure 4-2 is used to determine .033 5. In analyzing heat flow for areas with cylindrical -0. r3 radius to outer edge of insula- Radial flow of heat is considered in tion thermal =problems involving the design r4 radius to outer edge of gravel of pile foundations in permafrost (TM K1-2 5-852-4/AFM 88-19.Gravel. 0.033 Btu/ft hr the center of acylinder of radius rh at a °F. K =1 .367( .5 1 5. is available for the problem where the .83 faces are discussed below.767 + 0. the heat In -. As an example. tion frost areas and seasonal frost areas K3-4 =thermal conductivity of gravel.log . the temperature T at a distance r from . The sudden or step change conductivity of the material between in surface temperature discussed for the two radii.00 Btu/ft hr °F. + . K = 0. =0 .041 + 0. ThermalResistance.+ .log (eq 4-1) '1 -2 r K2-3 r2 for retaining structures during con. the con.r4) form temperature of the medium prior = rI radius to inner wall of conduit to the sudden change in surface = r2 radius to outer wall of concrete temperature. Temperature field surrounding the effective thickness divided by the a cylinder. Volume 6 CHAPTER 4 TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIAL HEAT FLOW 4-1 .0 5. 1 5.83 1 9. the cylinder is changed from To to T8.352 The thermal resistance R is equal to b. The temperatureTorepresents the uni- Let (see fig.4 Btu/hr. as long as there is no phase given: change. and 1 r2 1 r3 the design ofartificially frozen ground R-0.5 5.352 ft.28.

the slurry temperature function of the bond developed be. a = 0. Illustration for example in paragraph 4-1a . . 4-2 . natural freeze-back time. 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. and heatremoval by refrig- major design factor because construc. Pile a. Surrounding tempera- Dissipation of the sensible and latent tures. mined using the technique described with a reduction of pile adfreeze in paragraph 4-1b. proper heat of the slurry into permafrost is a pile spacing. pile required to ensure freeze-back within foundations are commonly placed in a reasonable time . surrounding permafrost has a thermal sumes first that the slurry will freeze diffusivity of 0. preaugered hole for a pile installation back time. Given depth is predominantly influenced by rl = 0. Under certain condi.06 ft2/hr and an initial back naturally because of heattransfer temperature of 28°F . Calculate the between the surrounding permafrost ground temperature at a distance of 3 and the slurry. frost in time. Surrounding temperatures. For example. artificial refrigeration may be At many arctic and subarctic sites.00 ft To = 28°F depth. eration. The 30°F) . are discussed below. required for slurry freeze-back . The spacing is important as each pile adds increase in permafrost temperatures heat. Volume 6 Figure 4-1 . a strength and an increase in freeze.. The following discussion as.06 ft2/hr TS = 32°F 4-2 . The volumetric preaugered holes.667 ft t = 48 hr the permafrost temperature at that r = 3. The tangential adfreeze required freeze-back time . With proper strength of the pile is principally a pile spacing. piles spaced too closely may during slurry freeze-back is deter increase permafrost temperatures. tions. as well as heat transfer by ther- tion scheduling depends upon the time mal piles. reaches thatof the surrounding perma- tween the pile and the frozen slurry . This is particularly true in is 16 inches in diameter and the slurry relatively warm permafrost (above is placed at a temperature of 32°F. Pile installation in permafrost . i. second that the time feet from the center of the pile after an required for freeze-back at a particular elapsed time of 48 hours . and third that the permafrost does not thaw. and the annular specific heat of the slurry and the effect space between the oversized hole and of vertical heat flow are assumed to pile is backfilled with a slurry of soil have a negligible effect in computing and water.e.

"TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.667 = 28.7°F .18 (T S .To)+T o = 0 .18 (32-28)+28 r 3 .667 r1 T .3) = -.. (eq 4-4) rl 0. 0.06)(48) TS' TO T = 0 .To ~ . (eq 4-6) 4-3 . = 0. (eq 4-6) V (0.= 4 .00 ._ . Temperature around a cylinder having received a step change in temperature. From figure 4-2.39 (eq 4 . therefore.60 . Volume 6 Figure 4-2..

(32°F) that dissipates radially into sumes a constant surface temperature frozen ground ofknown initial tempera- for a cylinder. b. The general solution for the the time offreeze-back . This (1) For example. the permafrost temperature upon the latent heat content of the decreases and the model is not valid.'TM 5-852.5-inch ried pile to be a finite heat source inside diameter timber pile placed in an 18- Figure 4-3. based has frozen. is shown in figure 4-3. it is applicable only to ture . with asuddenly the increase in permafrost temperature applied constant temperature source during slurry freeze-back. Since it as. slurry. Natural freeze-back time. calculate the time heat transfer problem assumes a slur. Volume 6 This technique is also used to predict a semi-infinite medium.6/AFR 88-19. After the slurry natural freeze-back problem. 4-4 . General solution of slurry freeze-back. required to freeze back a 12 .

7 Btu/ft3 °17 (eq 4-7) content and dry unit weight.72 ib/ft3 considered in calculating freeze-back Water content .3 days.52 .11) Cr2At (27.752)(5) then. (eq 4-12) r22 The time required to freeze back the slurry backfill is 12 .0. should be Dry unit weight . input is governed principally by the city is calculated to be latentheat of slurry backfill.) .12.55 (eq 4.752 .7)(0.1 . Volume 6 inch hole preaugered in permafrost be increased by 50 percent to permit and backfilled with a slurry for the an element of safety in the design .45%. Specific solution of slurry freeze-back 4-5 . 4. Ninety per- cent of the temperature difference .4 X 0. time .4.7 The volumetric latentheatof theslurry is (144 X 72 X 0. The volumetric heatcapa. Figure 4-4 illustrates the effect In figure 2-3. 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. In this example.179 hours or about 0. Subsequent to freeze-back.5°F 5-852-4/AFM 88-19.0397 ft2/hr.3) =122 days. water (2) Permafrost temperature varia- Placement tempera. the temperature of the slurry will continue to decrease and will approach the permafrost temperature .5 100 )] .27°F comparison to the latent heat intro- Dry unit weight = 941b/ft3 duced by the slurry and was not con- Water content . permafrost tempera- tures and freeze-back time may be de- 1. which is a function of slurry volume. following conditions : (Note: the sensible heat introduced by . the thermal conductivity of permafrost temperature on freeze- of the permafrost is determined to be back for the above example.5°F. at .3 + (2 X 7.17 + 0. Since heat 1.. moisture 25 [94 (0. as discussed in TM ture . (eq 4-8) 27.4970 Btu/ft3 °17 (eq 4-9) and the latent heat per linear foot of backfill is n [ 4 (1 .Slurry backfill: Silt.4280 Btu.33. tions with depth.45) .1 veloped for a specific site to account . The time (22 days) should Figure 4-4.0397 7.042)] 4970 . a family of curves relating volumetric latent and the thermal diffusivity to be heat of slurry. will disappear in about twice the time re- quired for freeze-back to 32°F.1 Btu/ft hr°F. Chap.27. the slurrytemperature would be approximately [32 . (eq 4.10) When figure 4-3 is entered with avalue of 1 .259 .0. sidered in calculations . after a period of [7.90 (32 - 27) =1 27.Permafrost: Silty sand the pile and slurry was negligible in Initial temperature . (eq 4-13) At this time the slurry temperature is 32°F.

this represents a slurry backfill with the allowable sen. similar temperature to the freezing point- 46 .4 ft. a well-graded concrete sand with a above freezing (33 . and an available refrigera- (°F). with the highest dry unit weight mate. -Volumetric heat capacity of perature from rising to more than 31°F.45) _] 44. The following example shows calculations required to deter- where mine the amount of heat to be extracted S = grid pile spacing (ft) from the ground . the water backfill introduced into the drill hole .6 Btu/ft 3 °F .17 + 1. of pile installations indicates that pile (eq 4-18) spacing should be at least five diam -Heatrequired to lower the slurry eters of the drill hole size.75) 2 + = 6. is used to pile to accelerate slurry freeze-back determine the pile spacing: time and to have refrigeration available Q if permafrost temperatures rise after s = (nr2) + C AT (eq 4-14) construction.6 Btu/ft 3 °F .5°F. frozen backfill : Cf = 80 (0 . For example. (2) In this example the slurry back- rial that can be processed and placed.5 . Artificialfreeze-back time. volumetric latent heat of the slurry calculate the minimum allowable pile (4670 Btu/ft 3) shows that its heat may spacing in the preceding example so be considered negligible. sensible heat of (1.618 Btu/pile . d.5°F) and.0X0 . cally.4)) = 46 . sible heat (temperature) rise of the sur. Ifper- tion.000 Substitution of appropriate values from Btu/hr. theoreti 6-inch slump. This account for variation of slurry volumet- can be bestaccomplished by backfilling ric latent heat. (eq 4-20) 4-6 .5 X 44.5X0 . (eq 4-19) to that shown in figure 4-4. The effect of pile should be considered . Calculate the length of time the above exampleand a maximum allow. as long as it that the permafrost temperature will near the freezing point.6 Btu/ft3 °F.32) = 22. equating the latent heat of the mafrost is temperatures are marginal. The slurry is placed (Btu/ft) at a n average temperature of 48°F and C = volumetric heat capacity ofperma.0 X 0 . tion unit is capable of removing225. (eq 4-15) L = (1-14 X 80 X 0 . -Volumetric heat capacity of un- ture.32 =) 1 . A plot. fill was placed ata temperature slightly i. frozen backfill : (1) Numerical analysis ofa number Cu = 80 [0.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. may be -Heat required to freeze slurry: prepared to relate pile spacing and 31 X 4600 = 142.7)(4) This spacing may not keep local tem. the sensible heat of the slurry c. Volume 6 for varying pile shapes and preaugered permafrost temperature rise for the hole diameters. required to freeze back a cluster of 20 able permafrost temperature rise AT piles . itwill keep the entire mass of (eq 4-17) permafrost from reaching that tempera.e. To minimize the heat volumetric latent heat of the slurry introduced by the slurry. slurry to the change of sensible heat in it may be necessary to refrigerate the a permafrost prism of side S. A silt-water frost (Btu/ft3 °F) slurry of SO lb/ft 3 dry weight and 40 percent water content is used as back- AT= temperature rise of permafrost fill material. A comparison of this quantity with the rounding permafrost . however.600 Btu/pile .The following equa. not rise above 31°F. lation of piles in preaugered holes is and with a temperature difference of found by equating the latent heat of (33. content should be the minimum re. A family of curves may be developed to quired for complete saturation. The average volume r2 = radius of augered hole (ft) of slurry backfill for a group of piles is Q = latent heat of slurry per lineal foot 31 cubic feet each.6 X 31 (48 .40) = 4600 Btu/ft3.17 + (0 . of 4°F give a minimum pile spacing S of -Volumetric latent heat of back- 4280 fill: (3.6 =) 67 Btu/ft 3 . The volumetric spacing on the overall rise of perma.17 +(1 . must be frozen to 23°F. (eq 4-16) (27.. capacity of the unfrozen slurry was frost temperature resulting from instal [72(0. Pile Spacing.14)(0.4)) = 29 .

r i = radius to outer edge ofinsula- General considerations for the design tion (ft) of utility systems in cold regions are T N. Additional tech. Determine the time re- ing by any one of the following quired to lower the water temperature methods : 1) placing the waterline in an to 32°F if the pipe is insulated with 3 insulated utilidor. ice content. such Btu/ft hr°F) .033 uous closed conduit with all lines. which is a contin.23) = 8258 Btu/pile . _ 0. Utility distribution systems in frozen ground. The following assump- at intermediate stations along the line .) in .502 In . -The thermal resistance of the ture and the intermittent water flow. Volume 5. freezing of -The heatreleased bythe freezing standing water in a pipe. ground is complicated by the changing -The volumetric heat capacity of thermal properties. a. freeze . Water pipes that are buried in pipe containing water at42°F is buried frozen ground may be kept from freez in 28°F soil. tions are made to solve this problem: A layer of insulation around a pipeline -The water is initially at 32°F .75 42-28 stalled away from direct contact with t. (eq 4-21) buried pipe. The solution predicts the time required able to the problem of buried utilities to form an annulus of ice around the are presented below for standing and inner wall of the pipe. will retard.(0. point to 23°F. The thermal of water does not affect the sur- analysis of a pipeline buried in frozen rounding ground temperatures . temperature of nonflowing water in refrigerated heat exchangers : a single. (eq 4-22) lower the water temperature to the -Time required for artificial freezing point and the amount of time freeze-back. Volume T s = temperature of surrounding 5. (1) The time required to lower the plished also by use of two types ofself. an insulated pipe to the freezing point phase liquid-convection heat transfer is given by the equation device and a two-phase boiling-liquid 31 . Freezing of standing water in a 29. has been lowered to the freezing point.6 X 31 (32 . pipe wall is negligible. = initial water temperature (°F) given in TM 5-852-5/AFR 88-19. (eq 4-23) point is reached when water begins to e. sewage and steamlines.50 32-28 frozen ground.. insulation thickness and 4-7 . sulation (Btu/ft hr °F) rp = radius of pipe (ft) 4-3. Inches of cellular glass (K i = 0. Knowledge of for flowing water.120 hours (5 days) 0. excluding allowances for required to form an annulus of ice in system losses: the pipe.470.2 . In most instances the danger 3. sea. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. but not prevent.470. Burying water pipes in frozen For example. 31. in.5 hours. the ice may be ignored .s (eq 4-24) (r' device . Problems with freezeup -Total heat to be removed from of stationary water must take into the slurry: account the initial time required to 20 (22. Artificial freeze-back may be accom. a 12-inch diameter iron ground.000 Btu.-Ts and vapor convection heat transfer rp 32-T t= In )In.033 0 . eq 4-25 ficient flow velocity such that the water (2) Once the water temperature temperature at the terminus ofthe pipe. soil (°F). There are few heat t = time (hr) transfer field data available for the Ki = thermal conductivity of in- single-phase system.2 ri TN.000/225. 2) providing a suf. line does not reach the freezing point ice begins to form in an annular ring or 3) heating the water at the intake or inside the pipe. 4 presents heat transfer rates for the where two-phase system . sonal and diurnal changes of tempera. Chapter K. b. as water.000 . Meat transfer by thermal piles. TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19. Volume 6 -Heat required to lower the niques are presented in TM 5-852- slurry temperature from the freezing 5/AFR 88-19.15. .700 + 8200) = 3.600 + 142. Some calculation techniques applic. pipe radius.

50 1_ radius of ice formed inside an insulated 6.33)(32-38) [( 0. latent heat of fusion of pletely freeze the water.33 0. may be simplified by rearrangement e. t = 106 hours.5)2 1 . A 12-inch iron ligible.3550 hours. assume water tem. (1690)(0 . 2) both the surrounding soil pipe.~) below freezing is difficult to estimate.33)(32-38) [( 0. but as stated L r2 r2 r r t [1/2(1.2640 hours.033 1I~ 0. peratures are necessary to solve this The time required to reduce the bore problem.50 + 0. 2(1. and 3) the glass (Ki = 0. If the water was where maintained above freezing. tween water and surround. (1-1n A.( 0.0 (fig. the frozen r2 r2 Y = [1. form of perature is 32°F) K i = .6/AFR 88-19.50 )21° ol rp = radius of pipe (ft) .'TM 5-852.502)-( 0. Thawing offrozen soil around a and substitution of numerical values suddenly warmed pipe.50 Btu/ft3) (1-0 .033 1n 0 The relationship between time and the 0. ceding example it was assumed that ductivity of ice.50 ) in0.75 t = time (hr) t 2(1. it is assumed that: 1) the volu- metric heat capacity of the soil is neg- Following is an example. ) -( )21n P 1. 4-5) .5)2 1. This yields water initially at 32°F was placed in r frozen ground and the time relation- t = 1690 QT (eq 4-28) ship for freezing of the water in the jyj pipe was determined . inches and the time required to com- ductivity of ice. and surrounding ground tem. (ft). This example illustrates the effective- tion. The temperatuze of ground to 6 inches will be surrounding the pipe and the time 9000 (0. (eq 4-30) T [( rp )In P-].33 Btu/ft hr °F) The calculation is simplified since the term"r" for the inner radius of the pipe AT = temperature difference be. insulated with 3 inches of cellular and pipe are initially at 32°F. thermal conductivity of in. x2 p p To formulate a mathematical expres- The relationship between y and r/rp is sion relating the time with the radius given in figure 4-5.75 during which the ground remains t= r . the assumptions used to develop = 2 KIT 2 rp rp these equations are conservative and the actual length offreezing time would This expression for an insulated pipe be greater . Calculate the time required a temperature above 32°F.252 0. r =inner radius of ice annulus Therefore.5)2 sulation (Btu/ft hr °F) (32 28) ~Y~ r i =radius to outer edgeof insula- tion (ft) where r/r p = O and y = 1 . KL r2 r ri 2 2 r t= -1n-+1/2)(1-- r2 )-( The time required to completely freeze 2K0 i p p the water in the pipe will be (eq 4-26) where 9000 (0. goes to zero.5) L = latent heat of water (9000 O O 0 . the calculations assume the simplified ingsoil (°F. thermal con. the equation is ness of insulation in retarding the freezeup of water in pipes.25 pipe is given by the expression .25 2 0. of thaw. Assume the water. (eq 4-29) soil surrounding the ppe would thaw . is placed pipe temperature is suddenly raised to in 28°F soil. If the pipe is not protected by insula..50 + 0. (eq 4-31) K = thermal conductivity of ice (1. Volume 6 and thermal properties. (eq 4-27) above. In the pre- for the latent heat and the thermal con.33 0. The formula to reduce the bore of the pipe to 6 for an insulated pipe is 4-8 .033 Btu/ft hr °F).502). For an uninsulated pipe. rate of flow does not influence freezing.

'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6

Figure 4-5. Freezeup of stationary water in an uninsulated pipe .

L r2 KU ri KU = thermal conductivity of un-
2 KU pT V
Ki In
.0 .5) frozen soil (Btu/ft hr °F)
rP
r2 r QT = temperature difference be-
[I -
r2 )+'n
1 (e9 4-33) tween pipe and surrounding
i soil (°F, assume soil at 32°F)
where Ki = thermal conductivity of in-
t = time (hr) sulation (Btu/ft hr °F)
L = latent heat of soil (Btu/ft3) ri =radius to outer edge of insula-
r = radius to outer edge of thaw- tion (ft)
ing soil (ft) rP = radius of pipe (ft).
4-9

*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6

If the pipe is not protected by insula- preceding equations, the time t can be
tion, the expression is multiplied by the temperature differen-
r L r2 2 tial AT to give either a freezing or
t [-0 .5 (1 -
r2 ) + In . 1. (eq 4-34) thawing index, and the radius of ice
2I{u 4T rp
formation or thawed ground radius
For example, a 7- by 7-foot concrete can be determined by trial-and-error .
utilidor has 9-inch concrete walls with It was shown that a temperature dif-
an outer covering of 6 inches ofinsula- ferential of (32-28) = 4°F lasting for 3150
tion (K i = 0.033 Btu/ft hr °F). The frozen hours would result in complete freeze-
soil around the utilidor is a sandy up of the water in thepipe; this is equiva-
gravel with a dry density of 115 lb/fO lent to a freezing index of [(4 X 3150)/24
and a water content of 7.8 percent at a =1 524 degree-days . If the freezing
temperature of 32°F. Neglect the ther- index at the depth of pipe burial were
mal resistance of the concrete, and less than 524, the standing water in the
determine the time required to thaw 1 pipe would not completely freeze in
foot of soil when the temperature of that time. Thus, the freezing index at a
the utilidor walls is suddenly raised to particular depth can be used to fore-
50°F. cast freezeup of stationary water in
Ku =1.2 Btu/ft hr °F pipes located in the annual frost zone.
L =1290 Btu/ft3 (2) Even insulated water lines
K i = 0.033 Btu/ft hr °F. located in frozen ground usually re-
For calculation, square sections may quire an inlet water temperature sig
be treated as cylinders of the same nificantly above freezing. Whether the
perimeter. water lines are insulated or not, this
may thaw some of the surrounding
Dimension-square Equivalent radius frozen ground. This thawed annulus
Symbol ON (ft) will retard water freezeup in the pipe
if and when flow conditions change.
The situation is practice is generally
r 9.5+24/12=11 .5 7.33
8 .5 + 12/12 = 9.5 complicated by the intermittentcharac-
r; 6 .04 ter of water demand. In some northern
rp 7.0 + 18/12 = 8.5 5.42 communities the problems of irregular
water demand are solved by con-
(1290)(7.33) 2 1.2 6 .04 structing the water lines in a contin-
t
2(1.2)(50-32)
U 0 .033 In
5.42
.0.5) uous loop with provisions for periodic
6 .042 7 .33
flow reversals . Water temperatures
should be closely monitored and water
) + In
7.332 64 usage patterns considered in esti-
= 2060 hours . (eq 4-35) mating water freezeup .
d. Practical considerations. e. Freezing and flowing water in
(1) The above-mentioned formulas buried pipes. Problems involving freez-
indicate the relationship between time, ing of flowing water in buried pipes
radius of freeze or thaw, and tempera require knowledge of the distance the
ture difference between the water in water will flow before the temperature
the pipe and the ground. In sufficient of the water lowers to the freezing
time, standing water in the pipe will point. By providing enough above-
freeze or frozen ground will thaw, freezing water, the loss of heat to the
depending on temperature differen- surrounding frozen soil can be
tials. For practical problems the as- balanced to provide an outlet tempera-
sumed constant temperature differen- ture slightly above freezing. The prob-
tials will not exist for a long time but lems of freezing of flowing water in
will vary with season and even with insulated and bare pipe are illustrated
the hour at shallow depths. The freez- below.
ing and thawing index concept con- (1) Insulated pipe. It is assumed
siders the intensity of temperature dif- that 1) the temperature of the frozen
ferential from freezing (32°F) and the ground surrounding the pipe is con
duration of this differential . In the stant for the period of flow over the
" 4-10

*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19, Volume 6
entire length of pipe, 2) the effect of eventually become reasonably stable
friction heat developed by water flow with time. An expression relating these
is negligible, 3) the thermal resistance variables is
ands heat capacity of the pipe wall are
T1, T S h 1
negligible, and 4) the temperature dis-
tribution of the water in the pipe is
T2 -
TS
= exp
2rp
X
v X 5 (eq 4-38)
.6X104
uniform at each cross-sectional area. where
The velocity required to prevent freeze- Tl = inlet water temperature (°F)
up of flowing water in a pipe is given Ts = frozen soil temperature (°F)
by -
s Ki T2 =outletwater temperature (°F)
v s = length of pipeline (ft)
ri TI-Ts
112,000 r2 (In - )(In T ) (eq 4-36) 2rp diameter of pipe (ft)
p T2 - S
h =heat transfer coefficient
where (Btu/ft 2 hr °F)
V = velocity of flow (ft/s) V = velocity of flow (ft/s).
s = length of pipeline (ft) A nomogram of this equation is shown
= thermal conductivity of in- in figure 4-6.
sulation (Btu/ft hr °F)
(b) Limited field experiments in
rn = radius of pipe (ft) clay and sandy clay soils suggest
r i = radius to outer edge ofinsula- values of h for metal pipelines subject
tion (ft) to normal use (conditions or intermit-
Ti = inlet water temperature (°F) tent flow) of 6.0 for the initial period of
T2 =outletwater temperature (°F) operation an 2 .0 thereafter. These
Ts = temperature of surrounding values are not applicable for pipes
frozen soil (°F). smaller than 4-inches in diameter . The
For example, an 11,000-ft long, 6-Inch- h value is dependent upon the thermal
diameter pipe is buried in 10°Fr soil. properties of the surrounding soil, the
The pipe is covered with a2-inch layer diameter of the pipe, the type of pipe
of insulation (Ki = 0.03 Btu/ft hr °F) and material and the temperature gradient
the inlet water temperature is 39°F. in the ground around the pipe's radius.
Calculate the velocity of flow required The value for h given above provides a
to keep the water from freezing. reasonable basis for design ofpipelines
(11,000)(0 .03) in which the total quantity of water
v= consumed per day is at least eight times
0.417 39-10
112,000 (0 .25) 2(ln 0,25 )(In the volume ofpipes in the entire system.
32-10 ) The time of operation required for the
= 0.33 ft/s (20 ft/min). (eq 4-37) temperature distribution in the water
To provide for temporary reductions to stabilize is approximately .
in flow and in recognition of the un- S
certainties concerning the manner of
ice formation within the pipe, it is recom-
t o = 0.005
v (eq 4-39)

mended that the velocity of flow be where
doubled in design. to = time (hr)
(2) Uninsulated pipe. s = length of pipeline (ft)
(a) When flowing water is first V = velocity of flow (ft/s).
introduced into a bare pipe buried in
frozen ground, the heatloss from water (c)For example, water atan inlet
is greater than it is after the system temperature of 40°F flows at 2 ft/s in a
has been in operation for a period of 12-inch iron pipeline, 2.2 miles long.
time. The initial heat loss is greater The ground temperature surrounding
because the pipe wall and the soil im- the pipe is 25°F . Estimate the outlet
mediately adjacent to the pipe are water temperature during the initial
colder than they are after water has period of flow (h = 6.0) and after sur-
flowed over a time. Soil temperatures rounding temperatures have stabilized
surrounding the pipe increase and (h = 2 .0) .
4-1 1

(eq 4-41) 1.16X .2 .3 ft/s h. Figure 4-6. T 2 . V ='.33 .3°F . Temperature drop of flowing water in a pipeline. 4.16X104 2 P 2r A V = 2 ft/s.= (eq 1 = 1 .TS .104 4-40) = 1. Volume 6 -Initial period (see fig.12 .37 .TS.2 X 5280 s :. 40-25 T l .25 T 2 .40-25 = T .0 Btu/ft2 hr °F thus thus T 1 .0 Btu/ft2 hr °F h = 6 .*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.22 = T2 -TS _11" 2 25 T 2' T S = (eq 4-42) T2. 4-6): -Stabilized period: s 2 .5°F .

The over-estimation is dependent on the influence of new construction above quantity of moisture in the frozen or an existing pipeline may require a thawed soil.005 2 temperature on the west side is gen- = approximately 29 hours. ing is generally higher than that on s 11 . ing considered only one-dimensional 4-4. This is particularly true ifa in an over-estimation of the depth of natural vegetative cover is stripped and freeze or thaw . the finite boundaries of such struc ture should be raised to about 43°F.5°F would be con. type of construction is discussed in niques are intended to facilitate ana. tions. The magnitude of this replaced by a snow-free pavement . Chapter 4. TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19. Design considerations. the three- f. Discussion of multidimensional heat vertical heat flow and excluded lateral flow. change in operating procedures for c. Slab-on-grade. Volume 6 To operate on the safe side. temperature T 2 should remain at or The assumptions involved and tech- above 35°F. and their depressing the temperatures adjacent neglect of latent heat generally results to the pipe. The relatively simple analytical building to the surrounding soil mass techniques discussed in this manual in the winter . The tech. i. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. tures is multidimensional because of mately 3 ft/s or the inletwater tempera. surface of a heated finite area sur- pipe ice formation and sound engi. heated structures usually prevent The one-dimensional and radial heat. a. The calculated initial water nique limitations have been em- temperature of 33. The cal- culation techniques presented above dimensional temperature distribution beneath the building will be affected indicate the principal factors to be con- sidered in design of water distribution by the plan dimensions of the floor . sidered unsafe and either the flow velo.The ground surface temperature These. such as an increase in the 3-8a for calculating the depth of thaw velocity or flow or additional heating beneath a heated slab-on-grade build at the inlet. rounded by an infinite area subject to neering judgment provides a basis for adissimilar surface temperature condi- design ofpipelines in areas of seasonal tion.005 V = 0 . tures. b.e.1 3 . however.. the outlet lysis and to promote adequate design. The example given in paragraph the system. heat flow from the soil beneath the. Heat flow beneath heated struc- city should be increased to approxi. Three-dimensional solutions are avail- lines placed in frozen ground .600 the north side. phasized . and soil water phase transformation . the building and result in a thaw bulb ented in this manual were based on in the foundation soil that may cause field observations and the use ofreason. homogeneous materials beneath the nition of the complexities of actual in. The use able to the problem of heat flow in ofthese techniques together with recog. Changing the sur. in addition to this influence.This able simplifying assumptions. Such solutions tend to be rather tures with depth and may result in complex and unwieldy. The amount of lateral are not always sufficient for consider heat flow would depend on the building ing the concurrent thermal effects of dimensions and the wintertime soil tem- multidimensional temperature change perature gradient . and the ground surface to = 0 . the solutions consider frostand permafrost. frost penetration under the center of flow computation techniques pres. 4. (eq 4-43) erally higher than on the east side. only the effects of temperature change face cover over an installed pipeline and notthe effects of phase transforma- will affect the distribution of tempera.precautions would be needed adjacent to the south side of the build- only for an initial period. permafrost degradation with time.

where ert = 1 and. dimensionless erf z = (2/Y77_r)a(ze-Y2dp. K Thermal conductivity Btu/ft hr °F Kf Thermal conductivity in frozen condition Btu/ft hr °F Ku Thermal conductivity in unfrozen condition Btu/ft hr °F L Volumetric latent heat of fusion Btu/ft3 m Duct spacing ft In Natural logarithm dimensionless f. Friction factor dimensionless h Heat transfer coefficient Btu/ft2 hr °F hre Surface conductance for combined radiation and convection Btu/ft2hr °F hd Draft head inches of water hf Friction head inches of water hV Velocity head inches of water H Stack height ft I Air thawing index degree-days if Floor thawing Index. erf (-z) = -erf z exp(x) ex dimensionless f Frequency of sine wave cycles/day F Air freezing index degree-days f.. 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. Volume 6 APPENDIX A Sumbot Description Units a Thermal diffusivity ft2/day or ft2/hr a' Shortest dimension ft A Sinusoidal temperature amplitude °F Ad Duct cross-sectional area ft2 c Specific heat Btu/lb °F Specific heat of air at constant pressure Btu/lb °F C Volumetric heat capacity Btu/ft3 °F Cf Volumetric heat capacity in frozen condition Btu/ft3 °F Cu Volumetric heat capacity in unfrozen condition Btu/ft3 °F d Thickness of soil layer ft De Equivalent duct diameter ft e Roughness factor ft erf Error function. degree-days k Coefficient of thermal conductivity Btu/ft2 hr °F per in. Duct length ft .

etc ... Volume 6 symbol Description Units 1b Allowance for bends.vo/v$ dimensionless Yd Dry unit weight lb/ft3 s Efficiency percent Lambda coefficient dimensionless u Fusion parameter dimensionless v Kinematic viscosity ft2/hr Pi 3. in duct ft le Equivalent duct length ft Is Length of straight duct ft MAT Mean Annual temperature °F surface index n "n"-factor = air index dimensionless nF Surface freezing index degree-days nI Surface thawing index degree-days NR Reynolds number dimensionless P Period of sine wave 366 days Q Latent heat per linear foot of slurry baekfill Btu/ft r Radius ft R Thermal resistance ft2 hr °F/Btu S Pile spacing ft s Length of pipeline ft t Time hours or days T Temperature °F To Initial temperature °F TR Temperature rise in duct air °F TS Surface temperature °F Ts Soil temperature °F Tw Water temperature °F V Velocity of flow ft/s Vo Initial temperature of the soil with respect to 32°F °F vs Average surface temperature with respect to 32°F °F w Water content percent dry weight X Depth of freeze or thaw ft a Thermal ratio .'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.14 P Density of air lb/ft3 Heat flow to duct Btu/ft2 per hr .

1959 . Unidirectional different from those used in the heat flux was considered.G. U. and nique for predicting the damping of a many similar equations have been periodic surface temperature at dif. Several empriical and semi-empir.1957 . Differences between actual (eq B-2) and computed thaw depths increase where rapidly with increasing water content X = depth of freeze or thaw (ft) because of the increased volumetric K = thermal conductivity of soil heat capacity and greater latent heat (Btu/ft hr °F) of the wetter soil_. annual temperature and the 3 Lachenbruch. The most widely leti n 1052-B4 developed a method for used equation to estimate seasonal estimating the three-dimensional ther. *TM 5-852-6/APR 88-19. The Oxford University Press X i = ice thickness (ft) publication. U. given below. developed . Bul. the Stefan equation was originally sionless) developed to calculate the thickness of F . two.S. 5 Aitken and Berg. Neglect of USACRREL Special Report 122 5 the effects of latent heat of fusion of developed a computer program for cal- the soil moisture normally does not culating freeze and thaw depths in cause substantial error in predication layered systems using this equation: of frost depths in soil of low water X = 48K n /L or X = 11 48K n I/L content. 2 Carslaw and Jaeger.1959. where a. the mean are found in the bibliography. original Stefan model.air freezing index (degree- ice on a calm body of water (isothermal at the freezing temperature. thermal properties of the soils. layered systems. It is a The documents mentioned in this appendix function of the freezing (or are sources for additional information and thawing) index. that n = conversion factor from air in- consider latent heat of fusion of the dex to surface index (dimen- soil. Conduction of Heat in K i = thermal conductivity of ice Solids.2 presents solutions to many (Btu/ft hr °F) one-. Bulletin 1083.and three-dimensional heat flow problems.S. (Btu/ft3) ical equations have been developed. 32°F) days) expressed as: I = air thawing index (degree- days) (eq Xi = 48KjF/Li B-1) = coefficient that considers the effect of temperature changes within the soil mass.G.and three.S. The Stefan equation has been modified A3 developed a one-dimensional tech. None equation. Li =volumetric latent heat of but some solutions are presented for fusion of ice (Btu/ft3). freeze and thaw depths is the modified mal regime in ahomogeneous isotropic Berggren equation. 4 Lachenbruch. 1968. Volume 6 APPENDIX B THERMAL MODELS FOR COMPUTING FREEZE AND THAW DEPTHSI B-1 . L = volumetric latent heatof fusion b. Application of this soil beneath a heated structure . change of the soil moisture . functions or initial conditions slightly layered soil system.S. Analytical Solutions. by many individuals and agencies. has been very of these techniques considers phase widespread in North America . Some of the equations use ferent depths in a two. . Homogeneous isotropic F =freezing index (degree-days) materials are used in most solutions.

Because of the widespread avail- calculate the "standard" depth of freez ability of electronic digital computers. 7 Since rectangular ele- trical analogies.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. however.g presents a graphical means to conditions for both one. flow problems are discussed in Inter- b. Thermal. Graphical methods have been tial equation . ture conditions. Complex bound- ary geometries can be more closely time. fluid and electric analogs (U. hydraulic analogs graphically show the temperature distribution . Electric analog com. Numerical techniques. Table B-1 . 1663. however. National Research Many computer programs allow flex- Council of Canada. they are much used to estimate depths of freeze and more accurate and versatile in solving thaw. but the triangular shape is commonly used for two- thoroughly clean and reconstruct them. than are the analytical techniques. for each problem. Army . monplace . Technical Paper.1971 . Many other their application to numerical solu closed-form analytical techniques are tions ofthe continuity equation is com- also used in the USSR. ments are normally used. complex puters are available. Use ofthe finite element technique normally necessary for each problem is also widespread (see The Finite and complex geometries are difficult Element Method in Engineering to simulate adequately . approximations to the partial differen- a. curately unless small element sizes are The primary disadvantage of these used. 7 Dusinberre. machines are that reprogramming is. Volume 6 c. and the necessity to with this technique. The flow net technique can be complex transient heat flow problems used to estimate steady-state tempera. their complex tubing systems. Numerical procedures are B-2 . Stefan equation is used in the USSR to a.1967 . b. fluid and elec Differences. cost relatively geometries are difficult to simulate ac- little and are reasonably simple to use. 163.and two- determine temperature in the ground dimensional problems. 9 both from McGraw-Hill) . Zienkiewicz.S. d=o +V .Variables (1) Heat u Volume S Charge density _p (2) Heat flux 4 Flow Q Current density -'j (3) Temperature T Head H Voltage e B . An equation very similar to the B-3.i=o at at at Conductivity (2) q = -kVT d= -kVH j= -UVe Capacitance (3) du=CdT dS = AdH pdV = Cde B-2 . space Elements ofvarious shapes can be used requirements. The primary in Structural and Continuum disadvantages of these computers are Mechanics. ground information on the finite dif- neering structures lying directly on ference methods available to solve heat the ground surface . Brown.1961. 9 Zienkiewicz. Graphical and analog methods. Corps of Engineers) . ible definition of boundary and initial No .Principles : au as ap Continuity (1) +V-a=o +V . Medium Item Thermal Fluid Electric A . Analog techniques are also used national Textbook Company's Heat to estimate freeze and thaw depths . Hydraulic Sciences or The Finite Element Method analogs are also available. General back- under and around natural and engi. At any instant of dimensional problems. Transfer Calculations by Finite Table B-1 shows thermal. ing for foundation designs.

the finite element pro. `TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. i . Many flexible computer programs models are under development. Con- exist thatsimulate heatconduction and tact HQ (DAEN-ECE-G) or HQ AFESC phase change in soils. putational capabilities.e. completed and documented a model cedure is frequently more efficient. . Each has its for assistance in selecting an appro- own particular data requirements. that may be useful in solving many it requires less computer time than the analytical problems related to construc- finite difference technique.com. For multidimensional heat costs and restraints. and acquisition cedures. _ tion in the Arctic and Subarctic. USACRREL has flow problems.. other c. Volume 6 simulated using finite element pro. priate model.

Volume 6 APPENDIX C REFERENCES Government Publications Departments of the Army and the Air Force. Volume 1 Arctic and Subarctic Construction. N. 10017 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book (1963) . Refrigeration. 'TM 5-352-6/AFR 88-19. Chapter 4 Pavement Design for Seasonal Frost Conditions TM 5-852-1/AFR 88-19. General Provisions TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19. Utilities Nongovernment Publications American Society of Heating. Chapter 4 Arctic and Subarctic Construction.Y. andAir-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 345 East 47th Street. New York. TM 5-818-2/AFM 88-6. Volume 5 Arctic and Subarctic Construction. Building Foundations TM 5-852-5/AFR 88-19.

467-472 . 163.1 . Army Cold Regions tion No. and R.S. A. nially frozen soil. Gnlewek (1960) Hanover. Laboratory . T. Volume.E. (1969) Water supply in cold cooled areas on the ground surface. R. Alter. D. Army Cold Regions Re. gions Research and Engineering Technical Paper No.: U. tion'to calculate depths of freeze and Barthelemy. Hanover. H. N. analytical studies Report 76-3. 2nd tion ofan hydraulic analog computer edition. M .L. NAS-NRCPublica- over.-. Army Cold Re.C. ACFEL Technical Report 43/1.S. CRREL Monograph III-C6b. K.J . N. tory.: U. D. Berg (1968) Digital Heating. Han. Laboratory (1968) Frost investiga. National Research Council ofCanada.L.: U. natural convection heat exchange over.H.H.H. 1962-1963. Brown. Cold Regions Research and Engi- ACFELTechnicalReport42 . Pennsylvania: International Text New York: American Society of Book Company. Cold Regions Technical Digest.W. H. Army Cold Re. frost . Ottawa: Division ofBuildingResearch. Refrigerating and Air- solution of modified Berggren equa. tion of temperature under heated or Alter. neering Laboratory . N. Washington. Army of freezing and thawing of soils . Design Volume. CRREL Special first interim report. (1982) The freezing and disposal disposal in cold regions. Specific heats and enthalpies of tech- gions Research and Engineering nical solids at low temperatures . Crory.R. G. and J. Engineering Laboratory .M. tory. Purdue University. Baumeister. Washington.H.H . International Conference. Army Cold Regions Research and Cold Regions Research and Engi. regions . J. 6th Ed. N . (1963) Graphical determina- search and Engineering Laboratory . 1287. In Permafrost: Pro- third interim report of investigations. permafrost. CRREL Monograph III-C5a . U. N . neering Laboratory.H. London: Oxford University for studies of freezing and thawing Press.: U. Cold room studies. Corruccini. N. Berg. pp. (1961) Heat Transfer ASHRAE (1963) Air Conditioning Re. ceedings.. Army Cold Re- Albert.C. Hanover.C. (ed .S. W.S. of soils. N.M. conduction . Conditioning Engineers . N. G. *TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.Hanover. blocking of water pipes. ACFEL Technical Report 62.G. (1969) Sewerage and sewage Carey. Laboratory . fiscal year 1963. New gions Research and Engineering York: McGraw-Hill. Hanover. (1963) Pile foundations in tions. frigeration DataBook.S . Hanover.6 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aitken. Conduction of Heat in Solids. Army Cold Regions system for subgrade cooling ofperma- Research and Engineering Labora.: U . CRREL Special Report 80-40.S. CRREL Report 83-12. Engineers Handbook. Inc.J.: U. Army U. 82-1.S. National Bureau of Standards Mono- Arctic Construction and Frost Effects graph 21.S. Laboratory.H.H. (1983) Computer models gions Research and Engineering for two-dimensional transient heat Laboratory .J. (1980) Performance of thaw in multilayered systems. Research and Engineering Labora. F. (1976) Thermoinsulating Aldrich.S .: U. Biblio. A.) (1968) Mechanical Hanover.: U .L. N. Arctic Construction and Frost Effects Carslaw. Special Report 122.H.S. Paynter (1963) mediawithin embankments on peren- Frostinvestigations. R.S. Jaeger (1969) Laboratory (1966) Design and opera. Han. and J.P. Army Cold Re.L. Calculations by Finite Differences. Dusinberre.J. and H .

H. New over. N. (1978) A study of factors tion topermafrost problems. pp.H. no.S.R.H . (1959) Periodic heat 77-1.J. The Luikov. Report No. Fundamenty i Mek- and Sons. posium Series 189. (1981) Thermal properties ments. Environ. Gilpin. neering. "ment Canada. CRREL Monograph 81-1. (1971) Empirical heat Russian by Plenum Publishing Corp. transition Reynolds numbers.S. 4th. Ed. and G.S. (Translated from Russian by P.. U. pp.S. R.. pp. Geological and Other Ap.F. Kersten. (1966)Heat and Mass CanadianJournal of Chemical Bngi. S. Army Cold Regions York: ASCE. 20. Lachenbruch. Cold Regions Research and Engi- soll (1954) HeatConduction: With .J . neering Laboratory .Engi. neering Laboratory . logical Survey Bulletin 1062-B.W.J. New York: John Wiley Osnovaniya. Engineering Laboratory. Mallory. N. tion. A. M. M. Thermal and rheological computa- Biblio-2 . Alaska . Zhukov (1972) Jakob. Sanger. and without insulation. Cold Regions Research and Engi- sulations : A laboratory investigation. maintained free ofsnow and ice. Army and freeze-thaw on rigid thermal in. O. and F. Inc. ference.H. (1957) Three-dimen- ing mechanisms. Army Ingersoll. vo1. CRREL Miscellaneous Kaplar. (1981) Ice formation in a New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold pipe containing flows in the transition Co.: U.: International Journal of Heat and U.T. ASMB M. Nostrand Reinhold Co.C. A. Porkhaev. neering. ice structure in a pipe at or near Ltd.: U.H.F. Hanover.W. In Proceedings of the Conference on Sanger. 693. Report 7102. (1957) Frost penetration in multi- Journal ofHeat Transfer. F.I.R. Wisconsin Press. pp. search for the determination of the Gilpin. W.F. Technical Report 23. G. 56. (1969)Thermallnsulation. (1979) The morphology of Harrison. V. Inger. thermal properties of soils. 207-220 .H. Research and Engineering Labora. Lewis (1968) Air Research Board Bulletin 331. RA. Heat Lunardini..S. Zobel and A. Lobacz (1962) Frost loops. thermal piles and thermal convection Quinn. vol. N. construction . Univer. Lachenbruch. Geo- mental Protection Service. R. pp.. R.) London: Pergamon Press.6 (Translated from Johnson. Gilpin. B. ACFEL dritic ice formation in water pipes. and V .R. R. Transferin Capillary-PorousBodies. Geo- affecting the ice nucleation tempera. logical Survey Bulletin 1083-A. pp.R. (1977) The effects of den. and turbulent regimes . F. plications. New York: Van stitute of Chemical Engineers Sym. Volume 6 Farouki. Cold Regions Specialty Con- of soils. (1977) A study ofpipe freez. Pennsylvania: International Text. San Diego: American In. (1981) Heat Transfer in Transfer.466-471 . Sayles (1978) Applied Techniques forColdBnviron. McAdams (1954) Heat Transmission. Highway Jennings. 3rd Ed. Army Cold Regions Research and Mass Transfer.H. New York. Fairbanks: Institute of Arctic penetration beneath concrete slabs Environmental Engineering. Longand Balch Consultants Bureau).T.*TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19. L. with sity of Alaska. (1978) Effects of moisture Paper 404 .H.F. Anchorage. Gilpin. Cold Climates . Madison : University of 3rd Ed.R. A. Hawkins (1957) Ble. Standard depth of freezing of soils ments of Heat Transfer and Insula. U. (1949) Laboratory re- tory.103. P . Report 67. Conditioning and Refrlgeration.S. layer soil profiles . flowin stratified medium with applica- Gilpin.V .S. Hanover. (1968) Ground freezing in book Co. and E. O.R. Han. In Utilities Delivery sional heat conduction in Permafrost in Arctic Regions. Hanover. for foundation engineering purposes. ACFEL Technical 363-368.B. EPS 3-WP.A. ture in a domestic water supply. beneath heated buildings . 89-94.J. C. New York: McGraw-Hill . N .V. and S .: U. vol. 75. hanikaGruntov. Ottawa : Environ.R. transfer rates ofsmall. vol . 98-115.

(1960) HeatInsulation New York: John Wiley and Sons. Paper 1216 .B. Volume 6 tions for artificially frozen ground book No. London: Constable and construction. N. Scott. Ltd. 'TM 5-852-6/AFR 88-19.C. (1971) The Finite Ele- The Engineering Equipment Users mentMethod inEngineering Science. Hanover. CRREL Miscellaneous Company..H. (1964) Heat exchange at the Zienkiewicz. of industrial buildings . Ltd. Regions Research and Engineering Hill Publishing Co.C. R. 14. Laboratory .: U . (1967) The Finite Ele- ground surface. London: MeGraw. GJVEXA4Nf PRINTING OMQ{ 1988. EEVA Hand. Army Cold Regions Research and Engi. N. O. Inc. CRREL Monograph ment Method in Structural and Con- II-A1. Army Cold tinuum Mechanics. Zienkiewicz. O. Hanover.S.. U.S. Ltd. Wilkes. G.3 .: U.F.!06-982/80019 Biblio. Association (1966) Thermal insulation London: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. neering Laboratory.H.S.

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