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# Allen/Holberg : Chapter 10 : 4/12/00 1

## Generate references having a temperature coefficient on the order of 10 ppm/°C over a

wide temperature range.

The principle:

VBE
VREF = KVt + VBE
Σ

KVt
kT Vt
Vt = K
q

Generate an inverse PTAT (Proportional To Absolute Temperature) and a PTAT and sum
them appropriately.

## • VBE is inverse PTAT at roughly −2.2 mV/°C at room temperature

• Vt (Vt = kT/q) is PTAT that has a temperature coefficient of +0.085 mV/°C at room
temperature.

## What is the value of VREF?

Allen/Holberg : Chapter 10 : 4/12/00 2

VBE+VPTAT
VBG

VBE

VPTAT

0K 300 K
Temperature

 VBE - VG0
JC = ATγ exp  (2a)
 Vt 

γ kT T0 kT  JC 
VBE = VGO 1 −  + VBE0   +
T T
q ln  T  + q ln JC0 (2b)
 T 0 T0

By taking the derivative of Eq. (2) at T0 with respect to temperature, (assuming that JC
has a temperature dependence of Tα ), the dependence of VBE on temperature is clearly
seen to be

## ∂VBE VBE − VG0

 = + ( α − γ ) k  (3)
∂T T=T0 T0 q

At 300 °K the change of VBE with respect to temperature is approximately −2.2 mV/°C.

Now, it is also necessary to develop the relationship for ∆VBE (PTAT) for two bipolar
transistors having different current densities. A relationship for ∆VBE can be given as
Allen/Holberg : Chapter 10 : 4/12/00 3

∆VBE = q ln JC1
kT J
(4)
 C2
Therefore
∂∆VBE
= Tt ln JC1
V J
(5)
∂T  C2

In order to achieve zero temperature coefficient at T0, the variations of VBE and ∆VBE as
given in Eqs. (3) and (5) must add up to zero.

## VBE0 − VGO (α − γ)Vt0

0 = K''  Tt0 ln JC1 +
V J
+ (6)
 0   C2 T0 T0

## where K'' is a circuit constant adjusted to make Eq. (6) true.

V −V (α − γ)Vt0
0 = K  Tt0 + BE0T GO +
V
(7)
 0 0 T0

## Solving for K yields

V − VBE0 + (γ − α )Vt0
K = GO (8)
V t0

The term K (K = K'' ln [JC1/JC2]) is under the designer's control, so that it can be
designed to achieve zero temperature coefficient. Rearranging Eq. (8) yields

## KVt0 = VGO − VBE0 + Vt0(γ − α ) (9)

Noting that K in Eq. (9) is the same as that in Eq. (1), as both are constants required to
achieve a zero temperature coefficient, then substituting of Eq. (9) into Eq. (1) gives

## VREF  = VGO + Vt0(γ − α ) (10)

T=T0

For typical values of γ = 3.2 and α = 1, VREF = 1.262 at 300 °K. A typical family of
reference-voltage variations as a function of T for various values of T0 is shown below.
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∂VREF ∂VREF
=0 =0
∂T ∂T
1.290
T0=400 K
VREF 1.280

T0=300 K
1.260

∂VREF 1.250
=0
∂T T0=200 K
1.240

Temperature (ºC)

R3 R2
VOS
-

+ +
VR1 R1
-
Q2 Q1 VREF

## VOS represents input offset voltage of the amplifier.

Transistors Q1 and Q2 are assumed to have emitter-base areas of AE1 and AE2,
respectively.

## VR1 = VBE2 − VBE1 = Vt ln  2  − Vt ln  1  = Vt ln  2 E1

J J I A
(11)
JS2 JS1 I1AE2
However, the op amp also forces the relationship
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## I1R2 = I2R3 (12)

The reference voltage can be written as

## VREF = VBE2 + I1R2 = VBE2 + VR1 R2

R
(13)
 1
Combining Eq. (11), Eq. (12), and Eq. (13) gives

R R A
(14)
R1 R3AE2

## Comparing Eq. (14) with Eq. (1) defines the constant K as

K =  2 ln  2 E1
R R A
(15)
R1 R3AE2

Thus, the constant K is defined in terms of resistor and emitter-base area ratios. It can be
shown that if the input-offset voltage is not zero, that Eq. (14) becomes

## VREF = VBE2 − 1 + 2 VOS + 2 Vt ln  2 E1 1 − OS 

R R R A V
(16)
 R1 R1 R3AE2  I1R2