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4 (Apr., 1927), pp. 188-195 Published by: Mathematical Association of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2299863 Accessed: 22/06/2010 15:47

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we have. Fromthefactthat E f/i)(np.) [(02fo + -n2p2 12fi + 22f2 + + + Z (02fo(i) + n 12f. we have the formula cL2 =-_n2p +np + r i=1 E r pi2 givenin the theorem.(i) + 22f2(i) + .f++ n2f.(i)]/r Al I nptqi + n2 p2 )/r r i=1 pi(i 2_ f ?pn2n Pi -pi)2 n2E Zp2 ]/= n2 _ n r i=A this Substituting value above. of a Lexis series. 9. CAMPBELL.is connected a by lightinextensible string.GOL. 1926. i=0 - j)2 = Nnpiq.(i) = Nnpiqi + Nn2p 2 Hence we get r r r [02fo(i) + 12fl(i) + + n2f. consider expression: the oL2 = [fo(np - 0)2 + fl(np - 1)2+ ?+ f(np /rN] - n)2]/rN ?+ nfn)/rN] = [n2p2(fo+ f + i * * * + fn)/rN] + [2np(0 fo + 1 . is givenby theformula: aL = npq+ PROOF: (n2 ( -rn r ) i=1 (pi-p)2. wherep= (p+p2+ + . .. terms. W. aftersquaringand collecting 02fo(i) + 12fl(i) + 22f2(i) + + n2f. we For the calculationof the square of the standarddeviation. The square of the standard deviation. University Alberta on Supposea mass m resting a smoothhorizontal table.Sept. THEOREM IV. + n2f (i)) rN. to whichis easilyseen to be equivalent theexpression A PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A CERTAIN PROBLEM IN MECHANICS' of By J. +pr)/r and q =1-p.188 A PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A CERTAIN PROBLEM IN MECHANICS [Apr.to a mass M hanging freely supposethat inis givena blowin a diand 1 Presentedto the American MathematicalSociety. which passes through smallholein the centre the a of table.

of at Then by thelaws of motion obtainthe equations we m(r - r02) + T = 0 m(r6+ 2M) = 0 M - Mg + T = 0. we 0 obtain x(m + M)+ mc~1/(a. Let us denoteby r thedistance m from hole. But as M fallsthedistance of from m to thehole willdecrease. We now put r= a .and by T thetension the string timet. centrifugal the force exerted willincrease. the main purposeof and the articleis to illustrate applicability thosemethodsto problems the of of physics and mechanics where periodic variation involved.eliminatingbetween theseequations. Moulton 161. becomingequal to and thenexceeding weight M. of 2 F. The oppositeeffect would be obtainedif the blow imparted m to weregreater thanthe critical value. T Integrating secondof theseequationsand eliminating betweenthe the first and thirdwe obtain r2o = Cl. rection right at anglesto the string the table. and in Byerly's GeneralisedCoordinates. The is is of method obtaining solution analogousto themethods the used in thefindis ing of periodicorbits2 mathematical in astronomy.afterwhichM will rise. m willrevolveabout the hole in a by of circleand M will remainin stationary equilibrium. Carnegie Publication . R.x)3 - Mg = 0. solution hereobtainedwhenthe totalrangeofmotion not too great. 0 theangular by position the string on thetable.' vertical The above physicalphenomonon formsthe basis of problemsgiven in as The problems therestatedare onlyto findthe totalrangeof themotion of but a generalperiodic M. The downward the of motion M of will thus attain a maximum value and thendecreaseto zero.1927] A PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A CERTAIN PROBLEM IN MECHANICS 189 Lamb's Dynamics. Therefore general willoscillatein a in M line. m(r0-r2) - Mt + Mg = 0. page 148.x. The solution is also showssomepeculiarities common astronomical not to problems. Then if the centrifugal on force exerted m is equal to the weight M. 1 It is assumed thatthelength thestring theinitial of and m conditions suchthat are neither norM reach holebefore extreme the the positions M arereached. and collaborators.by x thedistance M of the of of belowtheposition it from which starts.If the blow imparted to m is less than this critical forceexerted m will value thenthe centrifugal by be less thantheweight M and M willfall. and then. page 22. Periodic Orbits. and not to finda generalsolutionof the motion.

or at which z =0 and at which dx/dt .. To obtaina periodic (3) z = cy .The a is also a paraso meterwhichis to be determined that the motionshall be periodicwith of period2r in T. The and the construction the of the of introduction the c is to facilitate discussion so as solution. the introduction theK as above makingthis possible.k2z3+ 5k3z4. the c may be determined thaty'(0) = 1. A = (Algl)113. = 0 whenA/(a-x)3 =gl. thatis whenx =a-(A/gi)"'3. wherethe primes of The X is now takenas theparameter the solution.g/A..7k4z5 + but of z provided < Ilk. equation then becomes The differential (4) y" + (1 + a){y + 2Xy2+10/3x2y3 + where 11 is the time at which x =a-lk. and the equationof motionbecomes z- (2) theseequationsthat from It follows . g. t -t = T (I + 3)/K}1/2 is positive. in thislast equationmay be written Expandingby the binomialtheorem the form ( ~~10 .190 A PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A CERTAIN PROBLEM IN MECHANICS [Apr. 0 to with denotedifferentiation respect T. Then put x = a - (Al/gl)" + z. yI = z'/c = -/c dT since z = cy. l or Z + gi(l - k)-3 = where k3.k = K. = 0 z+ 3g. c + and the energyintegral of (1) gives A 2 2(a -x)2- glx= c2 . = Mg/(rn M). Also by (2) =.k1z + 2kz2 .= O (1) A mc?/(m + + M). ck = X .Z)1}3 gl. For dt (1 + 8)/K} 1/2/c. The k of thisequationis a parameter theproblem it generalwithout the to in parameter which express solution is nota convenient we solution makethetransformations isation. in This equationmay be written the form x + A/(a = -X)3 - g. 3g.

ing the initialconditions The coefficient 8X?gives y1'' +y.k2) + 2g1(a )} equationin two paraas Now equation (4) may be regarded a differential of equationsit theory analyticdifferential meters. and X.converging a and Xsufficiently in as maybe integrated a power of interval time.1927] A PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A CERTAIN PROBLEM IN MECHANICS 191 c2=A/2a2.* (i.and by thegeneral a for series a and X.. obtain a system equationswhichmay be integrated stated. Then at x=a-1/k we have At x=O. a- - if Therefore y'(O)= 1. For the conditions sucha solution (8) = = y(27r) y(O) = 0.% .It is truethatthea appearsimplicitly smallfor preassigned any of of it in Xbutwe shallgeneralise and forthepurpose construction thesolution it where appearsimplicitly. and yoo sinT is the solution satisfyThe coefficient 60X0 of is the The solutionof this equation satisfying initial conditions readily to found be Yio =--sin 2 T+ -cosr... of 1 T = gives yoo' +y0o= 0. i+j O). 2 to the solution of Thesetwostepsare sufficient establish existence a periodic of withperiod2r in r are of (4). y'(27r) y'(O)= 1. (6) y = {A (2 ...k2) + 2g1(a - i)} {2(1 + 3)/K} 1/2. (5) c = { A( . it we shallregard as a constant in by Let thepowerseriessolution a and X be represented Y= 00 isj=O E yiwviX (i. = O . x=O and therefore x2-A ( k2) + 2g.j = yxi(O) (7) yOO(0)= 1 yiti(O)=O .o =-sinr. .j=O. * of (7) Substituting in (4) and equatingcoefficients 8iXj(i. of factor thisexpression for It willbe convenient lateruse to denotethefirst we and accordingly put by a singlesymbol. oo) we of sequentially.j=O*.

q(0.6. 6 evenin X and thereforeis expanis This meansthatf(X. 27) = 0. y'(27r)} 2-{y'(0)} 2 = 1. 27r) 0. sufficiently as a powerseries A. as however. -1. . Therefore small. But whenX=0. withX Equation (9) may be solvedfor6 as a powerseriesin X. f(. = 2k2(1 + 6)/K then y2k2/K. r) is a solution. 6. and not -1. and therefore just obtained But sinceby thepowerseriessolution y=sinr +(- sinr + .O)= 0. -r). For sincey(O) 0 and y'(O)= 1. 6.Hence if 6 is determined thatf(X.6. 6.X. Therefore first equations(8) implies second. theenergy then ify(2w7r)=O. (12) 6 = 62A(1 6) + 64/u2(1 + + may be solvedfor6 equationin 6 and .Thereify=f(X. X and r leaves the differential y(O) and unchanged also theinitialconditions = 0. (5) and (6). = y'(27r) 1 + p(6. by be Let such an expansion represented (11) 8 = 82X2+ 84X4 + 66X6+ * Now by (3). 27r) explicitly sibleas a powerseriesin even powersof X. Also (10) is true forX sufficiently and converging X sufficiently = y'(2wr) +1.vanishing for small. r) is periodic = so odic withperiod2wr.vanishing is The solution 6 = 32 + (32 + 64)Q2 + (623 + 36264 + + 68)A3 Withthisvalue for6 the solution(7) is periodic. by (10) y'(27r) the of small. 6 . the forX sufficiently equation(4) the Againchanging signsof y. 6 .0) = 0.r) is also periAnd iff(X. y'(O)= 1 unchanged.. .cos r)6 + it follows that (9) (10) y(2r) =r6 + q(Q. y'(2ir)= + 1. fore then withperiod2wx.192 A PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A CERTAIN PROBLEM IN MECHANICS [Apr.-y=f(-X. - 2r) = f ( -.X). for in with. and converging . X2= c2k2 and if we put . the firstimpliesthe are These conditions not independent that integral (4) implies of second. which But thisis again an implicit small. p(O.X). then f(. 6. 3(1 6)2 + 36A + 6)3 + *.X.

3. There equations whichmay be integratedsequentially.. '(0) after This solution must satisfythe equation identicallyin X. of The coefficientXOgives yo' + yo = 0. and the solution of the equation gives Y2 = -- 3 175 8 sin r + .2yo2 = . * 6= * 0 Y.(0) I:yixi i-O . o.cos 2r + 6 cos 3r .sin 3r.cos 4r. Accordinglywe assume the solution 00 00 y= yi(O) I0V. determining coefficients the expansion (11) in at each step so that the solution shall be periodic with period 2wr ir.1927] A PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A CERTAIN PROBLEM IN MECHANICS 193 of Direct Construction theSolution Instead of finding f(X. 3. of The coefficient X gives yl' + y = . ).. 16 144 9 5 ~~~~~~~~5 yi + \ of The coefficient X3 gives Ya" + y3 = - 2y12 + / 4YOY2 + + 10yo2y + 5Yo4 y2) = - 5 44 35 . r) in the manner indicated and solving f(X. The solution of this equation is y = + . For periodicity.sin 2r . The solution is yo= sin. y 0) (i-1. it is simpler to solve equation (4) of the directlyas a power seriesin X.sin 3r..62iX2i i=l = = O (i= 1. 18 6 9 . 2-r)=0 for 3 to get equation (11).32= 5/6. resultsa systemof differential the constants of integrationbeing determinedat each step so as to satisfythe above conditions.cos r 3 4 - 1 3 cos 2r. and therefore of the substitutionwe may equate the coefficients Xi separately to zero. The coefficient gives of X2 Y21 + Y2 -(4yoyl+ y03 + /3 2YO) - / -a- 2 + - 5\ sinr 8 3 -sin 2r +. * .1 + cos 2ir.

(3-4 cos . in of obtaining the coefficients odd powers the term in cos r drops out auto- thatwhilethedetermination a of remarkable 32i in is necessary orderto elimi- matically.81 cos3r + 14cos 4r)X3+ 108 .Thereseemsto be no simpledirect of proof thisfact. y'2 + a constant= . on substitution. This method may be carriedon indefinitely and as many of the coefficients of as desired obtained.It seemsrather of nate the term in sin r in obtaining the coefficients even powers of X.199cos T+ 176cos 2T.-(1+ + -Xyl + _X2y4+ 2X3y5 _X4y6+ + 3 3 3 4 5 7 / the substiThis equation must be satisfiedidentically in X. and therefore tutionin it of the solution (12) requiresthat the following relationsbe satisfied.but thatit is from existence theuniqueness theperiodic the and solution. The coefficients odd powers of X are cosine series in of of are multiples r and thecoefficientsevenpowers sineseries. x = a-- + c{ sin -.194 A PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A CERTAIN PROBLEM IN MECHANICS [Apr.the solution terms the original of data is.- 5 6 108 --cos 199 r + -cos 44 27 2r - -cos3r + -cos 4 54 3 7 4r. truefollows of of the coefficients obtainedmay be checkedby meansof Also. simplification. The solution of this equation is Y3 = . That integral. the values of is the energy after integral equation(4).yo0)} in Finally..yo0 + +2y0 2yly + 2YY3 = { 2YY2 + 2YOY3 + 4y2Y2 + 4y0y 2 + 52(2yoy1 ~~~~~~~~20 3yoi + 2yO5 + + .+ cos2-)X -- 144 1 (175 sin -r-128 sin 2r + 27 sin 3r)X2 + -8 (90 . yI2 + a constant2y IY yo2 4 \ / + 2yoyl + yc? _ (y2 y{ - = +2YJy2 yl2 + Syoty2t = + 3 2YOY2 + 4y I + .

6 = 5/6g + 40o c2 = y2(1+ ly2 X = ck . about the The general solution shows that the motion is non-symmetrical equilibrium position.and g = 32. Journal). Institute of Technology California Sciences Mathematiques(Darboux'Bulletin). To illustrate by a numerical example.St.1927] where = SUGGESTED READINGS IN THE THEORY OF NUMBERS 195 (t . Solution by interpolation shows that the motion below the equilibrium position requires 1. Lejeune Dirichlet. 51-84. 2 gi = 31.2/sec . Sur la theoriedes nombresentiersalgebriques. ibber Vorlesungen of calculintegral. G.4/sec.1873-4.1lb. 69-92. BELL. Paris. of in E.2 Then the period is P = { (1 + 6)/K} 1/22r = 2. T. k = (gi/A)"3 .2 k = 0.235 ft.pp. m=0.097702 ft.6.0005465 A = 33333ft. (1880) (3). von P. vol. 1. /sec. Supplement edition. 1877./sec2.. pp.145-167. Theoriedes nombres .tl)/{ (1 + )/K. in 1894 (reprinted 1912). by separately Gauthier 114-164.is above.243 ft. g = 0. K = 3g1k.-I 9.. Also published - R. vol. if we take a=10ft. Zolotareff.(2).k)- A = -~ +M g= Mg m+ M ./sec. 4th Zahientheorie.. 55-75.000455 c = 0. 115-129. I a)/K} 1/2. (Liouville's des Journal Mathematiques pp. of which 0. Dedekind.5217 ft.9 lb.478 ft. 17-41. y2k2/K 1 \ma = A - - k2) + 2gi a . vol.-2 y2 = 0.08 sec . Villars.06 sec. Petersbourg.Bulletin des XI. then M = 2. avec une application au entiers complexes. X = 0. 1 Thispaperby Professor T. 34 (1927). G. The total range of oscillation is 0.02 sec. SUGGESTED READINGS IN CONNECTION WITH "SUCCESSIVE GENERALIZATIONS IN THE THEORY OF NUMBERS"' By E.0234 = 0. per oscillation and that above 1..207-248. ChapterIII fortheory ideals. a6o= 100 ft.16 ft.088 ft.239 ft..1123 8 sec. is below the equilibrium position and 0. Bell was published theFebruary number thisMonthly.

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