THE LIBRARY

OF
JEWISH CLASSICS
Edited by
Prof Gerson D. Cohen
JUDAISM AND ISLAM
BY
ABRAHAM GEIGER
PROLEGOMENON BY
MOSHE PEARLMAN
KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, Inc.
NEW YORK
1970
FIRST PUBUSHED 1898
NEW MATtER
© COPYRIGHT 1970
KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.
SBN·87068·058-7
UBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 79-106524
MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Paye
4
1
so
30
VII
21
17
..,
...
..,
...
... PROLEGOMENON
IN"RODUC'fION
FIRST DIVISION.
First Section.-Did M u ~ " m m a d wish to borrow from
Judaism? ...
Second Section.-Could Mu\;tammad borrow from
Judaism? and if so, how was sucb borrowing
possible for him?
Third Section.-Was it compatible with his plan to
borrow from Judaism?
SECOND DIVISION.
First Section.-Did Mu\;tammad borrow from Judaism? l!6
Second 8ection.-If so, VI hat did he borrow P ... 29
CBAPTER I.-Tboughts belonging to Judaism
which have passed over into the Quran
FiT8t, Part.-Conceptions borrowed from
Judaism
Second Part.-Views borrowed from J udaism-
A. Dootrinal Views 45
B. Moral and Legal Rnles ... 64
C. Views of Life ... 70
CHAPTER n.-Stories borrowed from Judaism 73
]!'i.,.t Part.-Patriarchs.-A. Adam to Noah... 75
B. Noah to Abrabam. es
C. Abraham to Moses. 95
Second Part.-Moses and his Times ... ... 118
!l'l.ird Part.-The Three Kings before the
Revolt of Ten Tribes ...... 143
Fonrth Part.-Holy men after the time of
t:)olowon ...... •.. 151
v
VI
CONTlINTS.
APfEl/D!x.-Statements in the Qnran hostile to Jndaiem ... 157
INDBx.-Liet of Pasllll.ges cited from the Qnr£n
Do. do. Snnna
The chief Anthors oited ..,
••• 163
••• 170
... 170
PROLEGOMENON
A series of curious circumstances surround the history of
the epoch-making study by Abraham Geiger herein being re-
issued. A pioneering work that quickly achieved recognition
as a major contribution to the field of Islamic studies, the
book was actually composed almost by accident. It was,
moreover, the first real scholarly effort of a very young
author which, while crowned with succeSs, was never fol-
lowed by him with another in this field. Although it was
translated into English, the English edition became a rarity
almost from the moment of its publication and has remained
all but inaccessible to most English and American students
to this very day. All this, despite the fact that the work has
never lost the high regard in which it was held by its first
readers.
* * *
Abraham Geiger's study on the Jewish foundations of Islam
was originally composed in Latin and submitted to the Uni-
versity of Bonn in 1832 in response to a contest announced
by the Faculty of Philosophy on the subject: An enquiry into
those sources of the Koran, that is, the Muhammadan law,
which were derived from Judaism. ("Inquiratur in fontes
Alcorani seu legis Mohammedicae eas qui ex Judaismo deri-
varidi sunt.") Presumably, the subject of the contest was
fOIIDulated by Professor Georg Wilhelm Freytag (1788-
1861), who was a disciple of the renowned French Arabist
Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy (1758-1833) and who him-
self was a distingnished authority on Arabic poetry, editor of
basic medieval Arabic texts and compiler of the monumental
VII
VIn PROLEGOMENON
Arabic dictionary, Lexicon Arabico-Latinum. The award to
young Geiger thjls constituted a stamp of approval by one
of the most accomplished orientalists of his day. The Uni-
versity of Marburg subsequently accepted the essay as a
thesis and awarded its author a doctoral degree in June
1834.'
One year after it had been compiled the essay was published
in German, "at the expense of the author," under the title
Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen?
the title page indicating that the essay had been crowned with
a university prize.
2
In 1896, F. M. Young, "a member of the
Ladies' League in Aid of the Delhi Mission" stationed in
Bangalore, India, translated the work into English in the
hope that it would be of assistance to Christian missionaries
in their "dealings with Muhammadans." Two years later the
translation was published in Madras by the Delhi Mission of
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. The English
translation adhered faithfully to the original, diverging only
to the extent of relegating Hebrew and Arabic quotations to
the footnotes in order to allow for greater clarity in the body
of the exposition.
* * *
At the time that Geiger wrote this first of his scholarly
masterpieces he was but twenty-two years old. This study was
but the first achievement in the author's remarkable career.
Subsequently he was to distinguish himself in the rabbinate
as one of the fathers of Reform Judaism and as a Judaic
scholar and theologian whose astounding erudition, penetrat-
ing perception and critical acumen were applied to a variety
of historical, philological and theological subjects. Geiger
proved to be equally at home in the areas of biblical, talmudic
and medieval research in such diverse subjects as Jewish lore,
philology, history, literature and philosophy.
Born into a strictly orthodox family and milieu in Frank-
furt, he was instructed in Bible from the age of three and
launched on the Tahnud at the age of six. Although secular
studies were relegated to the background, he absorbed Ger-
PROLEGOMENON
IX
man and classical languages and literature in due course and,
at the age of nineteen, began his university studies at Heidel-
berg and later repaired to Bonn. Beginning his career as a
rabbi in 1833, he served at Wiesbaden, Breslau, Frankfurt
and Berlin; simultaneously, he engaged in a variety of scholar-
ly and communal activities-published a learned journal of
his own, contributed to various periodicals, authored dis-
tinguished works, and taught in his last years, until his death
in Berlin in 1874, in an institution of higher Jewish studies
which had been established under his influence and guidance.
In the Jewish community at large he was remembered as the
moving spirit of several historic rabbinical conferences and
of on-going discussions on the problems of contemporary
Jewish life.'
So much has been written about Geiger's Jewish scholar-
ship and communal leadership that little notice need be taken
here of this aspect of his work, which in fact constituted the
overwhelming bulk of his activity, writing and thought.
Suffice it to say that his driving conviction was the need for
a new adjustment of the eternal ethical verities lying at the
root of Jewish faith to the changed and ever-changing social
realities of the modem world. Indeed, in his view, this con-
tinuous process of readjustment and adaptation constituted
the very essence of the course of Jewish history. This process
of adaptation and metamorphosis in response to the needs
of contemporary society was reflected in the literary heritage
of the Jews, which contained the record of adjustments and
reforms that were often conscious, systematic and funda-
mental. In Geiger's view his own program of reform was but
one more link in the long chain of Jewish historical exper-
ience, a link that would, in turn, provide the foundations for
further reform and new adaptations, one, in any case, that
was indispensable to any continuity worthy of Jewish faith
and ethic. Much of his scholarship represented an effort to
document these convictions and to provide the scientific sup-
port for his theological stance.
Inevitably, then, the subject of his writing mqved far afield
x PROLEGOMENON
from that of his first major scholarly effort. While he con-
tinued to betray deep interest in the Arabic-Islamic phase of
Jewish history, it was only in his work on the Jewish founda-
tions of Islam that he delved into the field of Islamics itself.
While the study remained but a first effort beyond which he
never attempted to go in this area, the work elicited high ap-
preciation from authorities in the field.
4
*
• •
Before proceeding to analyze some of the major themes in
Geiger's treatment; as well as some of the subsequent oon-
tributions to ,this aspect of Islamic research, it is appropriate
to record the reactions of some of the major Islamists of
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries testifying to the view
that the work remains a pillar in its field.
One of the first to take notice of the book was the re-
nowned De Sacy himself, who accorded it a full review in the
Journal des Savants (1835, pp. 162-174) and who recom-
mended it highly, Geigers discussions of Muhammad's bor-
rowings from Judaism, he felt, "rend presque superflues . . .
toutes les discussions precedentes que je pourrais appeler
prejudicielles." Curiously, he could not go along with Geiger's
view that Muhammad had been a sincere religious enthusiast.
To the nineteenth-century French scholar, Muhammad ap-
peared to remain "un imposteur adroit, premeditant toutes
ses demarches, et calculant de sang-froid tout ce qui pouvait
favoriser et assurer Ie sucres de ses projets ambitieux."
Similar reservations had been registered io a somewhat
earlier and much briefer appreciation by Heinrich Ewald
(1803-1875). The simple designation of Muhammad as a
siocere enthusiast (Schwiirmer) , he felt, did not make for
greater clarity in understanding the prophet's activity. Mu-
hammad reflected a different personality at various moments
in his career. He also thought that Geiger missed the point
in his explanation of the connections between Judaism and
Islam on the basis of certain historical conditions. In Ewald's
view, these connections derived from ancient bonds between
Hebrews and Arabs, which were reflected in common origins,
PROLEGOMENON
XI
customs and religion. Despite these differences of opinion,
he, too, felt that Geiger's main conclusions were cogent and
that the work opened many new vistas for further inquiry.'
A signal honor was accorded the work with the appear-
ance of a detailed analysis of the Arabic materials iti Geiger's
study from the pen of the foremost German Arabist of the
second half of the nineteenth century, H. L. Fleischer (1801-
1888). Characterizing Geiger's work as genuinely scientific,
Fleischer indicated that his critical remarks were in no way
intended to detract from the recognition that the work de-
servedly enjoyed. He concluded his study by "taking leave of
Dr. Geiger with sincerest thanks for the wealth of new and
valuable data gleaned from his book."6
Later, Theodor Noeldeke (1836-1930), who ranked as the
leading Semitist and Arabist of his day, registered, in his re-
nowned history of the Quran, his appreciation of the "epoch-
making work whose findings rapidly became the common
stock of scholarship." Noeldeke indeed went out of his way
to express his regret that rabbis of the generation following
that of Geiger were not responsive to the challenge implicit
in Geiger's study to carry his researches further. An up-to-
date revision of the book, he felt, was an urgent desideratum
for Islamic studies.
7
Since this task has not as yet been undertaken, scholars
continue to consult Geiger's as a comprehensive treatinent of
all aspects of the subject. Even in recent times, Heinrich
Speyer, who re-examined thoroughly the Biblical motifs in
the" Quran, could observe that Geiger's- great and enduring
merit lay in the fact that while he drew on minutiae em-
bedded in classical materials, he was nevertheless able to see
beyond the isolated details and to give an insight into the
total conception that the Prophet of Islam had had of the
Biblical narrative and its personages. Finally, Rudi Paret, in
his study on the teaching of Islam in German universities,
pointed out that modem historical-critical research on the
origins of Islam as a whole must be considered to have heen
initiated with the works of two Jews with Talmudic training!
XII PROLEGOMENON
Abraham Geiger and Gustav Weil (1809-1889). "The essay
by Geiger," he felt, "is distinguished for its clear structure,
its thorough treatment of source material and its sureness of
method."9 His achievement looms even greater if one con-
siders the paucity of materials at Geiger's disposal. The re-
nowned early authoritative Muslim sources which contain the
crucial material for a study of the problem (Ibn Ishli.q,
Waqidi, Ibn Sa'ad) had not yet been pUblished, nor had Ta-
bari's invaluable history and commentary on the Quran been
recovered from the oblivion into which they had fallen.
In a word, for all their reservations about the work and
their feeling that the subject required further treatment, the
outstanding students of Islam have, for more than a century,
been virtually unanimous in their acclaim and high esteem
of this pioneering effort.
* *
*
The early history of Islam was nothing short of cyclonic
in the speed of its development and in its effect on every
area which it mastered. The rise of the new faith, its rapid
success in gaining adherents, its swift development into a
theocratic state, centered in Medina and under the guidance
of the prophet Muhammed, its successful assertion of its
dominion over the Arabian peninsula within a decade of its
emergence, its lightning campaign and spread abroad im-
mediately following the death of its Prophet, the quick and
efficient liquidation and take-over of the Sassanian empire,
the conquest of Byzantine holdings from the Taurus to
Libya within a dozen years of its first campaigns outside
Arabia, the consequent entrenchment of the new imperial
power, religion and language over the vast areas of the Near
East and Mediterranean littoral-all these will forever remain
a chain of events constituting one of the most remarkable
upheavals in history, an eternal reminder of the possible
swiftness and permanence of fateful change. However, under-
lying and forever hovering over each of these developments
was the central figure of the Prophet and his revelation. Mo-
tivation, elan and legitimacy flowed ultimately from his teach-
PROLEGOMENON XIII
ings, as enunciated either in his recorded prophecies or in the
traditions of law, theology and practice associated with his
"attested" statements or acts.
The core of his revelations to mankind became embodied
in the holy scripture of the new faith, the Quran. While
Arabic literature, especially in the form of poetry, had been
transmitted orally long before Muhammad, the compilation
of his prophecies was more than a religious landmark. The
Quran became actually the firSt written Arabic book. With
its rapid dissemination to millions of new believers and with
the daily emergence of new challenges to the leaders of the
young community, the many obscurities of the book evoked
constant interpretation, discussion and debate over its num-
erous and often ballling allusions and references.
For all its enigmatic characteristics, the overall message of
the Arabic scripture is clear and unmistakable. The Quran
sets the prophet Muhammad in a framework of universal
sacred history. To Muhammad God revealed anew what he
had oft disclosed to prophets and believers of more ancient
times: God, Creator of the universe as a whole and of man-
kind in particular, revealed such truths as the existence of
God, human dependence on Him and man's duty to worship
Him. Through Muhammad, and in the Quran, God further
revealed the essential facts of man's past-the development
of mankind under divine supervision, and the succession of
prophets and scriptures, cuhninating in the revelations to
Muhammad and in the Quran itself as the acme and "seal" of
prophecy and prophetic ministry. In short, sacred history pro-
ceedd from Adam to Muhammad. Accordingly,·Judaism and
Christianity are construed as but steps in mankind's progres-
sive march to Islam. Indeed, the two earlier monotheistic
faiths constitute in this scheme but varieties of one and the
same revelation of the One God.
The Quran, therefore, abounds in echoes of the earlier
revelations, of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
each of which had appeared centuries before the Quran.
However, since the latter makes frequent references to the
contents of these earlier scriptures, the immediate question
XIV
PROLEGOMENON
facing the reader of the Quran is the extent to which the allu-
sions and references of the latter are in consonance with the
actual contents of the Hebrew and Christian scriptures.
As every reader of the Quran quickly learns, the Muham-
madan scripture is often an opaque body of literature. Its
meaning is most clear when it recites Biblical data known to
us from clear and attested texts. Frequently, however, the
reference in the Quran is quite obviously to some report or
body of lore unknown to us from explicit classical texts.
Whence did the Prophet derive his unprecendented informa-
tion? It is at this point that scholarship entered the picture
to try and unravel the sources of Muhammad's inspiration.
However numerous and puzzling the frequently astounding
references to Jewish and Christian religious antiquity, the
student is never in doubt that both the Quranic conception
of history and the manifest significance of a host of details
establish a clear and definite nexus between the Quran, on
the one hand, and Jewish and Christian lore, on the other.
The reader of the Muslim scripture finds himself in the
world of Adam and Noah, Abraham and Lot, Jacob and
Joseph, Nimrod, Pharaoh and Haman as well as in the
presence of Mary and Jesus, the Baptist and the S e v ~
Sleepers. While the evidences of "borrowing" or "influences"
are obvious, the knotty problems associated with the refer-
ences to, and the associations with, these figures are equally
inescapable: What exactly did the Prophet appropriate "from
these earlier religious traditions, and how much did he delib-
erately or even unconsciously modify? What determined his
selection and rejection of materials from the earlier lore?
What, above all, were the sources at his disposal?
While in theory orthodox Muslims might well reject such
questions out of hand-for the Quran, after all, is the re-
pository of God's verbal communications to the Prophet, and
"borrowing" is, therefore, out of the question-in reality, very
early in the history of Islam, Muslim scholars were already
displaying interest in what could be gleaned from "the peo-
ple of the book" to elucidate and illuminate obscurities in
PROLEGOMENON xv
the text of their scripture. Evidence of this interest is attested
in the early commentaries as well as in the body of tradition
with its multitude of stories (l]adit) about the Prophet and
his Companions.
While the notion of borrowing forces itself upon any
student of the Quran almost at once, Geiger determined to
test the notion punctiliously with respect to Quranic borrow-
ings from Jewish sources. Geiger, to be sure, was aware that
Biblical lore could just as well have been gleaned from
Christians as from Jews, and that, accordingly, the claim of
specific sources of influence would have to be justified at
every step and with respect to every single item. Needless to
say, only those Jewish sources and tenets that unquestionably
antedated the rise of Islam could legitimately be invoked.
Conversely, only those parallels tt) Judaism that made their
appearan<::e in the earliest stages t)f Muslim history and de-
velopment could serve as a proper field of investigation, for
such borrowings that became manifest at but a later period
might be challenged as later accretions. Geiger preferred to
remain on sure ground that could not be explained away as
post-Muhammadan borrowing or influence. Above all, he was
aware, the analysis would perforce have to relate the sug-
gested sources of influence to the environmental background
of the Prophet's life and activity. The circumstances, occa-'
sion, purport and overall significance of each case in which
borrowing or influence seemed plausible would have to be
cogently set forth in order to make the proposed background
of Muhammad's new faith convincing to the critical student
of history.
* * *
The principal characteristics of the environmental seed-bed
in which Muhammad matured had long been evident from
the Quran itself and from attestations in pre-Muhammadan
literature. The Arabian peninsula of pre-Islamic times had a
substantial Jewish settlement, which exercised considerable
influence on the general population in many respects--
XVI
PROLEGOMENON
economically, politically, intellectually. In the south, a cen-
tury before Muhammad's activity, aggressive kings who were
adherents of some form of Judaism ruled in the Yemen. To,
the north, in a number of towns, such as Medina and Khay-
bar, Jewish settlements figured prominently in agriculture and
handicrafts. Organized in their settlements "Very much like
the Arabs as independent tribes, these Jews were, neverthe-
less, quite conscious of their relationship to Jewish groups
elsewhere and were possessed of considerable religious
learning.
When Muhammad began to entrench himself in Medina,
he sought to win their adherence to, or at the least their
sympathy with, his young cause. From the text of the Quran
itself as well as from subsequent traditions it is virtually cer-
tain that discussions were held between the Muslims and
their Prophet, on the one hand, and the Jews whom they en-
countered, on the other. The Jews found themselves unable
to take the prophetic claims of the newcomer from pagan
Mecca seriously, and they were quick to express their deri-
sion for the howlers he expressed with his references to
Jewish lore. To the modem student it is clear that Muham-
mad had absorbed his notions of Jewish lore from oral com-
munication and impressions gleaned by ear, rather than from
any study of the text of Scripture or any other authoritative
Jewish text. The Prophet was certainly not 'a scholar, and it
is very likely that many of his informants were not either.
After repeated rebuffs from the Jews, the mounting irrita-
tion of the Prophet finally turned into outright hostility. He
soon turned against them openly by denouncing them and ex-
horting the faithful to avoid contact with them as a group
hell bent on conspiring to lead genuine believers astray. In-
deed, he now set himself to widen the gulf between the two
groups. The emphasis was now to be on the differences be-
tween the two religions rather than on their affinities in faith
and usage.Abandouing his original practice of facing in the di-
rection of Jerusalem at the time of prayer, he now ordered
the Muslims to orient themselves to the ancient Arabian shrine
of Mecca. Theory was quickly devised to keep abreast of
PROLEGOMENON
xvn
practice--Abraham was now declared to have been neither
Jew nor Christian, and the Ka'ba, the sanctuary of Mecca
with its venerated stone, was designated as the place hallowed
by Abraham and his son Ismail.
From the speeches of Muhammad in the Quran, it is also
evident that the prophet felt that his message was unfairly re-
jected by the Jews, since his was merely "the truth confirming
what is with them" (Quran 2.85). More than once the Pro-
phet himself had suggested that he had learned much of what
he taught from others, presumably Jews of the Arabian pen-
insula. On the other hand, it should be evident that difier-
ences between Muhammad and his Jewish interlocutors were
virtually inevitable. At the root of the chasm lay not so much
Muhammad's bizarre construction of early Jewish history as
h i ~ essential purpose in preaching: his mission as a prophet,
as the messenger of God and as legislator in Medina. His
essential purpose brought him squarely into conflict with basic
Jewish commitments. To the Jewish postulate of the perman-
ence of the Torah and its law, Muhammad countered with a
theory of abrogation. Jewish messianic expectations, he
claimed, were now to be regarded as fulfilled in him. But
given the deep affinities between his teachings and those of
his Jewish neighbors, he failed to see the reasons for their
intransigence. ~
Geiger set out to trace with precision and exactitude those
elements that the herald of Islam had appropriated. Among
elements borrowed from Jewish sources that could be traced,
qeiger pointed to the notions and terms of the Ark, Eden,
Hell, Rabbinic scholars (a&biir), divine presence (saklna;
variation: assistance, calm), and so on-fourteen ideas and
terms in all. Turning to abstract religious ideas, Geiger found
that the basic concept of Islam, the unity of God, must have
been of Jewish rather than of Christian origin. Bliss in the
hereafter is characterized in similar phrases in the Quran and
in Talmudic lore (although in the latter earthly pleasures do
not figure). The same was true of the ideas of the cata-
clysms announcing the end of the wicked world and the ad-
vent of the Messiah.
XVllI
Pll.0LEGOMENON
The Quranic notions of resurrection, divine spirit, and
Gabriel, to be sure, could well have derived from Christian
influence, and Muhammad's notions about the angels IDilY
go back to Persian sources. Although the Quran's ethical and
legal stipulations and general notions about life at first blush
show considerable affinity with those in Judaic sources, Geiger
was aware of the possible methodological pitfall; much could
have been due to a common Near Eastern social background.
Accordingly, half his book is devoted to tracing the Judaic
sources of the Quranic story material.
Geiger's emphasis on the Biblical narrative as an irIdex of
the avenue of influences on Muhammad's thinking was pre-
dicated on plausible methodological considerations. More than
any other literary form, the tale appealed to Muhammad's
poetic intagination and certainly suited the sintplistic level of
his audience far more than abstract doctrines and arguments.
In Geiger's judgment the tales of the Hebrew Bible pointed
to Jewish sources rather than to Christian informants, for
Christians of that period placed greater emphasis on materials
of the New Testament. Moreover, Christian points of stress
in the Old Testament, such as the notion of original sin, are
singularly. absent in the Quran. The Quran, to be sure, dis-
plays no knowledge of the history of the Jewish people. How-
ever, this ignorance cannot serve as evidence against Geiger's
thesis. Muhammad's interest was focussed on a limited num-
ber of personages of the biblical narrative. Moreover, in his
version of the narratives connected with these figures, the
biblical stories are innocently intertwined with post-biblical
haggadic embellishment and are invoked as prototypes of
Muhammad's own fate.
On occasion, indeed, an obscure passage in the Quran be-
comes quite clear only if read in the light of its Jewish ante-
cedent. "Because of that We have prescribed (as a law) for
the children of Israel that whoever kills a person otherwise
than (in relaliation) for another person, or for qusing cor-
ruption in the land, shall be as if had killed the people in a
body, and he who brings life to one shall be as if he had
PROLEGOMENON XIX
brought life to the people as a body" (Ouran 5:35; Bell's
translation). Geiger rightly points out that the verse in its
present context is virtually unintelligible unless one assumes
the association of ideas in which Muhammad heard its back-
ground expounded. The form of the Mishnaic proposition of
this idea, on the other hand, makes the verse quite lucid. Ac-
cording to Mishna Sanhedrin 4:5 witnesses in capital cases
were admonished before they gave their testimony with the
following words: "Know, indeed, that capital cases are not as
non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may make
atonement (for false testimony) by making restitution. How-
ever, in capital cases the blood of the condemned and of his
(unborn) posterity to the very end of time is on the head
of the witness. For so we learn in connection with Cain, who
slew his brother and to whom it was said: 'The cry of your
brother's bloods' (Gen. 4:10). Scripture did not say 'Your
brother's blood (dam)' but 'Your brother's bloods (demay
'ahika),' meaning his blood and the blood of his posterity.
. . . It was on that account that but one man was first created,
to teach you that if a man destroys a single life, Scripture
reckons it to him as though he had destroyed a whole world;
and if a man preserves a single soul, Scripture reckons it to
him as if he had preserved a whole world."
How pervasive this Jewish influence was may be seen from
the fact that even some early post-Ourauic Muslim exegesis
on occasion reflects such sources of inspiration.
In some instances biblical data are transmitted in distorted
!form. Abraham, in particular, appears as a prefiguration of
Muhammad. Wbile Isaac and Jacob are but pale images in
the Ouran, Joseph stands out as a substantial figure reflect-
ing the possible traces of midrashic stories that Muhammad
heard but that have since been totally lost to us. However,
the figure towering above all others, the one with whom Mu-
hammad most evidently identified himself, is that of Moses:
the messenger of God, who, rejected by his people, finally
prevailed despite many tribulations. The embellishments on
the Moses story reflect Jewish influences and the large corpus
xx PROLEGOMENON
of haggadic reflections and fantasies about the "father of pro-
phecy."
Having absorbed a considerable amount of lore from oth-
ers, Muhammad aimed at bringing about a fusion of existing
creeds within his own new one. It was the Jews who, more
than any other faction in Arabia, stood in the way of the fuI-
fiIIment of this aspiration. Accordingly, Muhammad felt
obliged to denounce their adherence to many peculiar and
cumbersome laws. He further proceeded to reinterpret native
Arabian customs and, after purifying them of blatant pagan
overtones, to associate them with the name of Abraham.
The actual confrontation with the Jewish tribes, the con-
tinued scoffing and derision of the Jews, alienated himfurther.
As a consequence of his denunciations the Jews soon came
to be viewed by the young Muslim community as enemies of
all believers, killers of prophets, arrogant claimants to divine
favor and to all of paradise, if not, indeed, as syncretists of
a sort. The Jews were soon characterized as worshippers of
Ezra as the son of God, and as people who relied on the in-
tercession of the pious of the past, falsified scriptures, and
converted tombs of prophets into sanctuaries. It was right
and incumbent on the Muslim to differ from them, and the
Prophet, therefore, encouraged departure from Jewish custom
and law in such matters as prayer, marriage, dietary restric-
tions, and the law of retaliation. These very stipulations, on
the other hand, give evidence of Muhammad's acquaintance
with Jewish usage through personal experience and observa-
tion.""
In sum, Geiger ceuId conclude that Muhammad had ap-
propriated much from Jewish sources by means of oral com-
munication, frequently without being aware of the difference
between sacred text and later embellishments or exegetical
comment, between primary stratum and secondary confiation,
between biblical and post-biblical materials.
* * *
For all the detail and conviction that went into the presen-
tation of his case, Geiger never lost sight of the possibility
PROLEGOMENON
XXI
of an entirely different construction of the origins of Islam.
He was keenly aware of the actual or possible Christian in-
fluences on Muhammad, of a possible Near Eastern substra-
tum to his faith, and of the indubitable legacy of pagan Arab
lore. Such an evaluation was, indeed, not long in making
headway. In subsequent research, especially since the third
quarter of the nineteenth century, scholars in ever growing
numbers did actually come to the conclusion that Muham-
mad's development owed far less to Jewish influences than to
Christian sources of information. Such a construction, they
felt, would account for Geiger's iindings as well as for much
for which he had failed to account. The assumption of a Near
Eastern Christian impact, for example, could well explain
the transmission of patently Christian elements as well as
those considered to be characteristically Jewish. I I Thus, it was
clear that the Quran reckoned Jesus among the prophets,
indeed as an exceptional and outstanding messenger of God.
What is more, biblical names and terms appear in the Quran
in forms that have a decidedly Greek imprint: Firaun, Phar-
aoh; Y ;mus, Jonah; Sulaymiin, Solomon; llyiis, Elijah; iblfs,
a devil (besides the more Hebraic form shaytiin). The fear of
imminent doom and of the end of the world permeates the
early strata of the Quran and points to a religious mood far
more in consonance with Christian apocalyptic than with
Jewish attitudes. It is noteworthy, too, that the persecuted
followers of Muhammad sought refuge in Christian Ethiopia.
'rhis new explanation also dovetailed with what was known
of the dissemination of Christianity in the Arabian peninsula.
Christianity was the prevailing faith, or at least was wide-
spread, in many parts of Arabia and the surrounding areas
of Byzantium and Ethiopia, in areas forming part of the Sas-
sanian sphere of influence, where Arabic-speaking people
were governed by the princes of I;Iira, in the lands of the
Ghassanids living within the Byzantine framework, and in
the Yemen. With so strong and numerous a Christian pres-
ence in the area, the infiltration of Christian influences into
pagan Arabia was virtually inevitable. This influence could
XXII PROLEGOMENON
well have left an imprint not only in the form of ideas ex-
pounded through religious teaching and preaching but also in
actual names and terms, locations and dictions, words and
images that an occasion penetrated regular Arabic usage.
The studies of Julius Wellhausen, Richard Bell, Tor An-
drae and K. Ahrens succeeded in gaining greater sympathy
for the view accounting for the birth of Islam as a conse-
quence of Christian Aramaic inspiration and information.
This view gained its widest currency in scholarly circles in the
1920's and after. And while Charles C. Torrey's attempt to
reestablish The Jewish Foundations of Islam was far from
convincing, the "Christian" thesis also sustained serious blows.
With further research, the J!,wish factor in pre-Islamic Arabia
was more fully demonstrated and elucidated by such scholars
as J. Horowitz and Z. Hirschberg. Plausible, and on occasion
less than plausible, hitherto unknown points of contact with
a Jewish background were suggested by Hartwig Hirschfeld,
D. Kuenstifnger and R. Lesczynsky:The biblical elements in
the Quran were submitted anew to a searching examination
by H. Speyer, and a cumulative "Jewish" commentary on the
second and third suras of the Quran was composed by Abra-
ham KatshY
Nor did a middle position fail to gain support in some
scholarly quarters. A. Sprenger, the first major biographer
of Muhammad, suggested that since neither Jews nor Chris-
tians could evidently be at the root of the Meccan revelation,
the only plausible explanation lay in seeking for some group
that combined elements of Judaism as well as of Christianity.
Taking a cue from research on sectarian and dissident groups
in Christendom, this view found support among several scho-
lars who traced the origins of Islam to sectarian and hereti-
cal Christian groups with strong Judaizing tendencies.
In recent years the whole subject was given a fresh stimu-
lus by the researches of Shlomo Dov Goitein. In his earliest
investigations on the subject, he noted the clear affinities
between the Quran and elements of Syriac church poetry. On
the other hand, out of purely textual considerations he
PROLEGOMENON
xxm
stressed that it was implausible to posit Christianity as the
principal source of inspiration of Islamic revelation. In a
close examination of the earliest forty-eight suras of the Quran
Goitein could not find a single reference either to Jesus or to
any other patently Christian element. The six references to
Jesus in Meccan suras--as against 108 explicit references to
Moses, not to mention many more allusions to him-are
scattered and vague in their import. This is noteworthy, for
the figure of Jesus would have suited Muhammad's needs.far
better than that of Moses. Jesus,. after all, had had to contend
with opposition from within his own people, whereas Moses'
principal task was to take on alien tyrants. Jesus had preached
the Kingdom of Heaven, while Moses had led a people in an
exodus from the country of their enslavement. Goitein, ac-
cordingly, suggested that inasmuch as the bulk of the early
data pointed to a Jewish source of inspiration, while at the
same time traces of Christian piety were also in evidence, the
material pointed to the influence of local, Arabian Jewish
gtoups that combined, these Jewish and Christian elements. It
was in all likelihood these very elements that introduced into
their environment tales of Arabian prophets of more ancient
times whose chastisements went unheeded. The local ruins
were cited by these gtoups as evidence of the fruit of ignoring
prophetic' admonitions. From these, accordingly, Muhammad
appropriated his basic orientations to religion and to ancient
religious history. Only later did he learn about Christianity,
~ e s u s and the Gospel. Muhammad may have at some time in
his career have been especially moved by a Christian homily
such as that contained in Paul's Epistle to' the Galatians (3 f.)
on Abraham as the forefather of all true believers. But the
initial and formative influences in Muhammad's prophetic
development, on the one hand, and his later contacts with the
Jews of Medina, on the other, combine to point clearly to
the dominance of the Jewish sources of inspiration in his
preaching. Goitein even ventured to suggest that the early'
impulse to Muhammad's religious activity was stimulated by
a proselytizing Jew or Jewish group who was also fired by ,
XXIV PROLEGOMENON
the notion of Christian monastic pietism. (Such a combina-
tion is not unattested in Jewish history; German Jewish pi-
etism of the eleventh and twelfth centuries betrays the man-
ifest influence of the Christian pietist trends of its age and
environment.) However, when Muhammad later repaired to
Medina he encountered a strictly orthodox Jewish community
that saw in his doctrines little more than blasphemous heresy.
It was this group that caught him unawares with its total
rebuff and generated his later intense hostility to the Jews and
Judaism."
After the "first hijra:' when some of the persecuted follow-
ers of the Prophet left for Abyssinia, the Christian influences
to which they were now exposed were bound to gain greater
weight in the new community. With their retnrn to the pen-
insula, the first Muslims must have brought with them a host
of Christian notions and a body of information about the
Christian faith. To this new lore the Prophet felt compelled
to respond ambivalently, with expressions of reverence for
Jesus himself and with a.rejection of the latter's divinity and
his death on the cross.
Further research has suggested the influence of other
streams of religious thought, such as that represented by Mani-
chean and Gnostic groups. However real these influences' may
have been, they remained marginal at best and can hardiy
serve to account for the preponderant Jewish and Christian
strains in the Quran.
Quite obviously the inquiry into the religious and literary
origins of Islam is by no means over.I< Whatever the results
of these new researches, they can in no way detract from
the genius, originality and personal contribution of the Pro-
phet of Islam to the treasury of human experience. To what-
ever materials he encountered and approximated, Muham-
mad gave fresh design, and to the course of history he gen-
erated a new direction.
March 15, 1970
Moshe Peariman
University of California
Los Angeles, California
PROLEGOMENON
NOTES
xxv
1. L. Gdger and others, .Abraham Geiger, Leben und- l.ebenswerk
lin, 1910), pp. 17, 33 f., 400.
2. The title page read: Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume
genommen? Eine von der Konigl, ,preussinchen Rheinuniversitiit _gekrOnte
Preisschrift. Von Abraham Geiger, Herzog!. nassauischem Rabhiner zu
Wiesbaden. Baden, 1833. Gedruckt auf Kosten des Verfassers bei F.
den. The work was reprinted in Leipzig iri 1902, -and a new issue of the
German original has recently been announced.
3. For summaries and appreciations of his activities and scholarship, see
the work referred to in D. 1. For the latest treatment of his thought, see
M. Wiener, Abraham Geiger and Liberal Judaism (Philadelphia,. 1962).
4. For a listing of the critical reviews of the work., see V. Chauvin,
B,ibliographie des Ouvrages Arabes ,ou Relatifs aux, ,Ar.abes Pu!?lies dans
I'Europe Chretienne de 1810 d 1885, X (Liege-Leipzig, 1907), pp. 4-5. For
a survey of the early modem literature on the subject of Geiger's work, as
well as on other aspects of Jewish influences in Arabia and on Islam, see
G. Pfanmiiller, Handbuch der lslam,Literatur (Berlin, pp.. f..
5. GiiUingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 1834, vol. I. pp. 438-440. The review
is sigried by H. E. •
6. H. L. Fleischer, "OOOr das Arabische in Dr. Geigers Preisschrift: War
hat Mohammed dus den Judenthume aufgenommen?/' Der Orient:
aturblatt des Orients, II (1841), noS. 5, 6, 8. 10. 12; reprinted in the
author's Kleinere Schriften. 11 (1888). 107-138.
7. The first edition of Th. Noeldeke, Geschichte des Qorans (Goettingen,
1860), p. 5 n. 2, refers to Geiger's, "scharfsinnige Untersuchungen," and
accepts one of the points made by Geiger, ibid., p. 77 n. 4. The remarks'
cited in the text appear in the second edition of work (edited
!ly Fr. Schwa!ly), 11 (Leipzig, 1919), 208 f.
\ 8. Cf. H. Speyer, Die biblischen Erzaehlungen in Qoran (Berlin, 1931;
reprinted in Dat'mstadt, 1962). pp. vii-viii.
9. R. Paret, The Study of Arabic, aTJd.Jslam at German Universities
(Wiesbaden, 1968). p. 9. Cf. Johann Flick, Die arabischen Studien in
Europa (Leipzig, 1955), pp. 174-5.
10. The 1902 repriot of Geiger's book evoked a review by Hobert
Grimme in which he characterized the work as an achievement in its own
day that had become OrientaliBtiJiche Literaturz,eitung. vn (1904),
col. 226 f. Similar sentiments were echoed by I.H. (Horovitz?) in the
Zeitschrift fuer Hebraeische Bibliographie, VI (1903), 10, who caviled
about the dry style of the study. More pertinent to the real issue was
observation that Geiger had ignored the apocryphal and pseudepigraphical
literature of the Jews with its wealth of relevant data.
lOa. Cf. J. Waardenburg on Qoranic polemics in Liber Amicorum in
honor of C.J. Bleeker (Leiden, 1969).
XXVI
!'ROLEGOMENON
11. Cf. A. Jeffery, The Quran as Scripture (New York, 1952).
12. Cf. A.I. Katsh, Judaism in Islam (New York, 1954).
13. Cf. S.D. Goitein's preliminary edition of a Hebrew volume on
hammad's Islam (Jerusalem, 1956); idem, "Who were Muhammad's Chief
Teachers?" [in Hebrew}. Gotthold E. Weil Jubilee Volume (Jerusalem,
1952), pp. 10-23 with a summary in English; idem, Jews and Arabs (New
York, 1955), ch. 4, especially pp. 52-58; and !he opening chapters in
idem.. Studies in Islamic History and Institutions (Leiden, 1966). In the
Encyclopaedia ludaica, s.v. Koran he surveyed the older literature on the
subject.
14. Cf. J. Obermann, "Islamic Origins/' The Arab Heritage, edited by
N.A. Faris (Princeton, 1944), pp. 58-120; J.K. Henninger, Spuren chris-
tlicher Glaubenswahrheiten in Koran (Schoeneck/Beckenried ISchweiz].
1951) j G. Widengren. Muhammad. the A.postle of God. and His A.scen-
sion (Uppsala, 1955); S.W. Baron, A Social and Religious History of the
Jews, 2nd ed., ill (Philadelphia, 1957), 61-72, 75-86, 256-268; Y. Mouba-
rae. Abraham dans le Coran (Paris, 1958); F. Altheim and R. Stiehl, Die
Araber in der allen Welt (Berlin, 1964); C.D.G. Mueller, Kirche und Mis-
sion unter den Arabern in vorislamischer Zeit (Tuebingen, 1967). On the
problem of !he originality of Muhammad, cL J. Filck, "Die originalitaet
des arabischen Propheten," Zeitschri/t der Deutschen Morgenlaendischen
Gesellschaft, XC (1936), 509-525; G. von Grunebaum, "Von Muhammads
Wll"kung und Orig'inalitaet,." Wiener Zeitschrift fuer die Kunde des Mor·
genlandes. XLIV (1937).29-50; C. Issawi, "The Historical Role of Mu-
hammad," The Muslim World, XL (1950),83-95. On recent trends in re-
search on the rise of Islam, cf. M. Rodinson, ''The Life of Muhammad
and the Sociological Problem of the Beginning of Islam," Diogenes. no.
20 (Winter 1957), pp. 28-51; idem., uBilan des crudes mohammediennes."
Revue 9CXXJX 169-220; 1>. Rudolph, "Die Anfaenge
Mohammeds im Lichte der Religionsgeschichte," Festschrift Walter Baetke
(Weimar; i966). pp. 298-326. See also the survey of recent by
F. Rosenthal in his introduction to the reissue of C.C. Torrey, The Jewish
Foundation of Islam published by the Ktav Publishing House (New York,
1967).
TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.
I undertook to translate this Prize Essay by the
Rabbi Geiger at the request of the Rev. G. A. Lefroy,
the Head of the Cambridge Mission at Delhi, who
thought that an English translation of the book
would be of use to him in his dealings with
Mul}ammadans. The Rev. H. D. Griswold of the
American Presbyterian Mission at Lahore has very
kindly put in all the Hebrew and Arabic citations
for me, and has also revised my translation.
F. M. YOUNG..
BANOALORE,
\ March 17th, 1896.
XXVII
PREFACE.
I VENTURE to offer to the general public a work which
was primarily undertaken with somewhst scanty msterinls.
The question propounded by the Philosophical Faculty
at Bonn, viz., <t Inquiratur in fontes AleMani 8BU legis
Mohammedicae Bas, q"';' sa: ;rudaiemo derivandi BUnt,"
served as an inducement to the undertaking. The pomt of
view from which the subject was to be approached was left
by the terms of the question entirely to the different
workers; and that from which I have regarded it must be
considered, in order that a right judgment upon my essay
may be formed. It is llSSumed that Mu!).ammsd borrowed
from Judaism, and this assumption, as will be shewn later,
is rightly based. In this connection everything of course
is excluded which appears only in the later development
of Isl8.m, and of which no trace can be met with in the
Quran; but on the other hand all such religious ideas and
legends as are hinted at in the Quran, and are explained
and developed at the hands of later writers, deserve and
receive consideration. Secondly, a comparison between
Jewish sayings, and those of the Quran, in the hope of
setting forth the former as the source of the latter, can
take place only on condition that the Jewish sayings are
\a.ctually found in Jewish writings prior to Isl8.m; or
unless it is certain that such sayings, thoogh only recently
recorded, existed earlier in the synagogue.
But this certainty cannot easily beattained, and historical
critiqism must find its doubt as to this the more deeply
rooted in proportion to the number of times in which the
sayings are found among those of other creeds, from which
thero is probability that thoy woro adopted. ThirJly,
those who undertake this work must considor soriously the
XXIX
xxx
PREFACE.
qnestion, whether a mere simihrity in the tenets of two
different religionssects the fact that an adoption
from one into the other. has t",ken place.. There are so
many general religions ideas that are common to several of
the positive religions existent at the time of the rise of
Muhammadanism, that we must be very careful not to
rashly that anyone idea fonnd in the Qnrlmis taken
from Jndaism.
I have therefore given in the different sections the marks
and indications, and in the case of some points of greater
difficulty, the reasons also, from which I believe myself
justified in the conjecture that the.re has been such a
borrowing.
. For these three reasons many citations which I might
have made from lster Islitmand later Judaism are exclnded,
and in like manner many statements also, which do not
bear the impress of a borrowing.
On the other hsnd, the first division had to be adnen, in
orUer to shew the basis on which the probability of a
general borrowing from Judaism rests. Mter I had once
settled the subject in this way, the arrangement ofthe whole,
and more especially of the many disconnected divisions
and sub·di'risions, gave me no less trouble. The borrow-
ings are of details not of anything comprehensive; they
are fragmentary and occasional in that they were chosen
according to what Mul;Lammad's reporters knew, and
according to what was agreeable to the prophet's individual
opinion ann aim, consequently there is no close connection.
How far I have succeened in reducing these details to
orner the reader may see and junge from the book itself.
'.The materials at my disposal, when I first nndertook
this work, were only the bare Arabic text of the Quran in
Hinckelmann's edition from which the quotations are made,*
• In the translation the quOf.u.tioWl are made from. Fltlegel's edition.
l'llEli'AllJII.
XXXI
Wahl's Translation of the Qurin, and an intimate acquaint-
auce with Judaism aud its writings. A transcript from
Ba.i.dhiwi's Commentary on the Qurin on some passages in
the second and third SUrahs, whioh Professor Freytag made
for himself and which he with his nsus.l kindness allowed
me to nse, was the only help ontside, the Qurin. I had
thns the advantage of having an unbisssed. mind; not, on
the one hand, seeing the pBllllSges through the spectacles
of the Arabian commentstors, nor on the other finding in
the Q u r ~ n the views of the Arabian dogmatists,' and
the narratives of their. historians. I had besides the
pleasure of finding out independently many obscure
allusions, and expillining them correotly, as I aft,erwards
learned from Arabic writings. In this form my work
received the prize, and only after that had been gained was
I able to collect more materials, and to use them for the
remodelling of the work in German. To these belong
especially the valuableProdromi andComments of 1fa.raccius
in his edition of the Quran, the Commentary of Baidhil.wi
~ n the 10th SUrah (in Henzei's F..allmenta A..abica) , and two
parts of an excellent unpublished Commentsry by Elpherar
which begins ,with the 7th SUrah and WIIS bought by the
famous Seetzen at Cairo in 1807, and is now in the library
\ at Gotha, whence I rooeivad it through the kind mediation
of Professor Freytag at the expense of the University
Library at Bonn. To these may be a.dded Abulfedre
Annales Maslemitici and Hiat01w Anteislamica, the works
of Pococke, D'Herbelot's BibliotMqus 01'ientals, and
many other works which will be found quoted in the book
itself. All observa.tions drawn from writings to which
I first obtained. lJ,Ccess while the work WIIS in the press
are given in an Appendix. The Ilodvllntages of II three-fold
register, viz., of the explained Arabio and Rabbinical
words, of the ci/;ed pIlaBagBll oj' tbB Quran, n.nd of quotations
from other Arabic anthon (with the exception of the
xxxn
constantly-quoted E1pherar and Maraccius) need not be
dwelt upon in detail The Jewish writings which I have
used consist almost entirely of the Bible, the Talmud, and
the Miclrashim, and in accordance with my determination
to reject all Jewish writings latsr than Muhammad's time,
they had to be thus limited. The few passages which aro
taken from other writings, of which the age is not so
exactly known, snoh as the sections of Rabbi Elieser, the
Book HayyasMr, and the two differing Reoensions of the
Jerusalem Targum on the Pentateuch (which are placed in
a somewhat later period than that of the composition of
the Quran by the learned Zunz in his latest valuable
work Die Gottesdioostliehen Vorlriige dar Juden historiseh
entwiikelt: Berlin, 1832, A. Asher) are all of such a kind
that one can generally point to some deciclecl declaration
in Holy Scripture itself from which such opinions and tra-
ditions may have arisen, and therefore their priority of
emtsnce in Judaism can be accepted without hesitation.
I must publicly offer. my thanks to Professor Freytag
for the many different lcinanasses he has shown me in
connection with this work, and also to my dear friends
and J. Dernburg for their help in the correc.
tion of the proofs. Finally, I here express my heartfelt
wish that this little work may be true to the epirit of our
timo, the striving after true knowledge, and that learned
men may givo mo tho benefit of thoir oriticiams upon it.
THE AUTHOR.
WmSIlADEN,
May 12th, 1833.
CORRIO ENDA.
110r ea. Page V line' 6 read '08
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XXXIII
,
JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
INTRODUCTION,
IT will be fonnd, speaking generally of the whole sphere of
hnman thought, whether we consider matters which have
already become the clear and certain possession cf maukiud,
Or those which are left for the future to unveil and to
determine with scientific precision, that almost always
a correct intuition precedes scientific knowledge, so that
a generally correct idea, though not yet supported by
adequate evidence, obtains some hold on the miuds of
men. In this way the thesis of this treatise has long been
recognised as probable, namely that Mnl;tammad in his
Qman has borrowed mUQh from Judaism as it presented
itself to him in his time, though for this opinion no
sufficient grounds have hitherto been advanced. And the
very endeavour to give this just coujectura its place among
scientific certainties seems to have produced in the faculty
the wish to see the subject accurately and thoronghly worked
\ out by scholars, conVersant with both the Qumn and
Judaism in their original sourcas; and to meet this wish I
take up my present task, conscious indeed of feeble powers,
but determined to use unsparing industry in the stoodiast
pursuit of my purpose. This is the end which we have in
view, to wit, a scientific presentation, and not a mere list
of apparent adaptations from Judaism, nor a statement
of isolated facts dissevered from their historical connec-
tions. For this we must stndy the connection of tho foots
to be demonstrated with the whole life and work of Mul;tam-
mad, as woll as with those events of his time, which either
2
JUDAISM AND ISW.
determined his actions or were determined. by him. And
so this treatise falls into two divisions, of which the first
has to answer the following questions :-
Did Mul}.ammad wish to borrow, from Judaism? Could
}.{ul}.ammad borrowfrom Judaism? and if so, how was such
borrowing possible for, him? Was it compatible with his
plan to borrow from Judaism? The second division must
bring forward the facts to prove the borrowing, which has
beon stated on general grounds to have taken place. Only
in this way can an individuiJ.I proof of the kind referred to
acquire scientific value, partly as throwing light upon the
nature of :A{ul;!.ammad's plan, and partly as showing the
intrinsic necessity of the fact and its actual importance by
virtue of its connection with other facts of Mul;ts.mmad's
life and age. To this an appendix will be added, in which
will be given a collection of those passages in which
Mul}.ammad seems not so much to have borrowed from
Judaism, as to have reviewed it and that toe in a hostile
spirit.
BlIILATION Oll' JUDAISM TO ISLUI.
FIRST DIVISION.
3
Did Muhammad wish to from Judaism? Could
mad borrow from Judaism? and if so, how was such
borrowing possible for him? Was it compatible with
plan to b017'OWfrom Judaism?
It is not enough for us to give a dry meagre summlU',Y
of the passages which appear to have some conneotion
with Judaism, in order to shew that Muhammad really
possessed a oertain knowledge of it, and used it in the
establishment of his new religion, and that, further, a
comparison with it makes clear many passages in the
Quran. Rather is it our task to shew how it was Bound up
with the spirit, the strivingand the aims of MulJ,ammad, with
the mind of his time and the constitution of his surround-
ings, aud thus to demonstrate the faot that, even were we
deprived of all proofs which undeniably shew .Tudaism to
be a sonrce of the Quran, the conjeoture that a borrowing
from .Tudaism had taken place wonld still have great
\ probability. Thus it is necessary for us first to acoount
for this as the philosophioal development of a process,
afterwards to be confirmed by historical evidence.
Three questions oome prominently forward here :-
First: Did Muhammad really think he would gain
any objeot by borrowing from Judaism? or, in other words,
Did of set purpose borrow from Judaism?
Second, : Had MulJ,ammad means, and what means had
he, of attaining to a knowledge of Judaism? i. e., Could he
thus borrow? and if so, how was it possible for him?
Third : Were there not other oiroumstances which
militated against, or at all events limited such a borrowing ?
4 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
Was it compatible with the rest of his plan so to borrow?
Was it permissible for him, and if so on what grounds?
These three enquiries form the different Sections of the
first division.
, FI RaT SECTION.
Did wish to borrow from Judaism?
Although we may by 110 means ascribe to Mu1).ammad a
special liking for the Jews and for.Judaismand indeed in his
life, as well as in the writings which he left behind him as
laws for posterity, there are traces of hatred against
both j-still it is evident that, on the one hand, the power
which the Jews had obtained in Arabia was important
enough for him to wish to have them as adherents and, on
the other, that they were, though themselves ignorant, far
in advance of other religions bodies I in that knowledge
which Mul;1ammad professed to have received by Divine
revelation,2 as indeed he liked to assert of all his knowledge.
The Jews, moreover, gave him so much trouble with witty
and perplexing remarks that the wish to propitiate them
must certainly have arisen in him.
That the J in Arabia at the time of lfu1).ammad posses-
sed considdrable power is shown by the free life of many
quite independent tribes, which sometimes met him in open
battle. This fact is known especially of the Bann Qainnqa' 3
in the second or third year of the Hijra, also of the Bann
Nadhir' in the 4th year. The latter are spoken of by
1 See Jost's Gesohichte des israelitischen Volkes, Vol. II. pp. 207. fl.
• Sura XXIX. 47 .;\ :;t,;" i) ,,:,1':: f;i I,; ;
I Thon didst not l'ead any book before this, neit.her coaldeat. thou write
it with thy right hand." (t. '0' the Word of God). Salo'a Translation•
.. .. .
, 1;\lL;"i Abnlfeda (Vita Moqa.mmedis ed. GagnIer, p.
,;i In Pococke (Specimen Historian Ambum p. 11) r S..
ulao Commentators on SUra. lix. and also Vita MOQammedis p. 71.
POWER 011' TlIE JEWs.
5
\
JanIJ.b as a great family of the Jews. 1 This fact is further
known of the Jews in Khaibar
2
with whom he fought in
the 7th year. The Banu Nadhlr are supposed to be referred.
to in Qnran lix. 2. They are there described as so powerful
that the Mnslims despaired of their conquest, and the
fastnesses which they possessed would have banished
thonghts of a capture, if as MuJ.tammad with probable exag-
geration expresses it, they themselves had not destroyed
their houses with their own hands, or if, as Abulfeda with
greater historical probability asserts, they, fearing a -long
siege, had not withdrawn themselves and turned to quieter
regions. The want of settled civil life, which continued in
Arabia. till the rule of Mullammad, was very favourable to the
Jews, who hadfied to that country in large numbers after the
Destruction of Jerusalem, inasmuch as it enabled them to
gather together and to maintaiu their independence. A
century before MulJ,ammad, thia independence had reached
such a pitch that among the Himyarites the Jewish ruler
actually had jurisdiction over those who were not Jews; and
it was only the mistaken zeal of the last Jewish Governor,
DhU Nawas,3 which led him to a cruel attempt to suppress
other creeds (which attempt is pictured for ns with the
very colours of a martyrologist), that bronght abont
the faU of the Jewish throne by the coming of the
Ohristian Abyssinian King. 4 Although it seems to me
altC/gether improbaHe that the passage in Quran Ixxxv.
4 refers to this event, partly because of the indefin-
iteness of the allusion and partly because on this supposition
the Ohristians are called" tho believers," 5 which is never
the case elsewhere, though as a rulo Mnl}.ammad's treatment
1 , , ~ , I:)'" ;,,:: &lo.i
• 1+ Pco. Bpea. p. 11.
J ';'\j ,.I
4 Camp. Assemanl Dibliothoo, Oriontal;. 1. 561 11'11" ljIlcl Miobaell!&
ByriHoheChrootcnmthie p. 19 If.
• QnrAn LXXXV. 7. ~ ; " ; J i
6 JUDAIll!! AND IStAH.
of the Christians was indulgent; and although I give an
entirely different interpretation to this paBBBge-aninterpre-
tation borne out by every word, 1 nevertheless this very
mistake of the commentators shews the importance whioh
the Arabs attached to this conquest of the Jewish ruler,
and is a proof of tbe gr.eatnesa of his former power. That
the remains of snch a power, even when shattered continned
to be of importance is plain in itself, and is moreover
clearly shown in a pasBBge soon to be quoted,2 where
the Himyarites are depicted as particnlarly nnbelieving.
An Ambian author 3 mentions other tribes beside the
Himyarites as adherents of Judaism, viz., the Banu Kin'na
Banu Hareth ben Kab, and Kinda. 4
While this physical power of the Jews inspired partly
foal', partly respect in mind, he was no less
afraid of their mental superiority and of appearing to them
as ignorant; and so his first object must have been to
conciliate them by an apparent yielding to their views.
That the Jewish system of belief was even then a fnlly
doveloped one, whiob penetmted the life of eaoh member of
the commnnity, is proved both by its antiquity and by the
faot that the Talmud had already been completed. Thongh
the Jews of that region were among the most. ignorant, as is
shown by the silence of the Talmnd concerning them, and
also by that which was borrowed from themand incorporated
1 See Division II. Seotion II, Cha.pter II. ParI; IV.
• lIaidMwi on Qarao IL 91.
> Vide Pococke Spo•. p. 186.
, A good vouoher lor the importanoe to which some Jewish familios had
attained might be found in 8 poem of HamQsa (ed. Freytag p. 49). which
is full of the spirit of chivalry and self reliallce, if only tho endDDoo that;
tho family referred to Wa.8 8. Jewish one were sufficiently certain. Tho
j
---'"
only thing for it is the name of tho author g,.....-l\ whioh, 8.8 a oommen·
tator oitod by Elpherar remarks, iB .. Hebrew name (Jo,.-..JlolWl JIi "
o.s'J"' ...,....l, ,..;\) bat which might easily have oome into OBO
ul1long t.he Araus. Evon in tho vel'S6 Uftlb pago i2, whoro tho ptu'O twd
uumixeJ UOlilclmt of tt.u" fu.tuily iH lJl11.iaoJ., unu. whoro ouo might w::poot Q,
mtlut.ioll of llz.! 111" :molt a.lhlrJiou is found.
INTIllLLIGERCII OF :t'HIll JIllWS. 7
\
in the Qllran, yet very many hraditionsand pithy sayings
survived in the month of the people, whioh doubtless gave
to the Jews an appearance of intellectnal superiority in
those dark times and regions of ignorance, and so
for them honoar in the sight of others. Thus it came
about naturally that Mul).ammad wanted to learn their
views and to include them in his community. It was not
only the idea of swelling his society with these numbers
of adherents 1 that produced this wish in him, but also
the way in which they defended their own cause and their
mode of dealing with him. The met that Mul).ammad
very often came off second best in religious disputes is
evideut from several sayings. and particnlarly from the
following very decided one :-" When thou seest those
who busy themselves with cavilling at Our signs, depart
from them nntil they busy themselves in some other
subject; and if Satan cause thee to forget this precept, 2
do not sit with the ungodly people after recollection."
This remarkably strong statement, in which he makes God
declare it, to be a work of the devil to be present at
controversies about the truth of his mission, shews how
much Mul.lammaa had to fear from argument. Intercourse
with the Jews appeared to him to be dangerous for his
Muslims also, and he warns them against too frequent
communication or too close intimacy with the Jews.
B
He
natur"lly puts this forward on grounds, other than the
right ones; but the real reaSOn for the warning' is obvi-
ously that Mu1;J.ammad feared the power of the Jews to
shake the faith of others iii the religion revealed to him.
4
1
u.An inheritance for the assembly of Ja.cob." Dent. xxxiii. 4.
.... .. /;1_ W f1J _
J ",,,,,,,,,,,I \..01, sUra VI. 67.
- .
I \'};;i 'j
• SUra LX. 18. Ou Elpherar remarks:
I"IS' Ip (:r'" I.-IJ ",I ..ll.l ,
f"'»W (:r'" ("Sl}->\rt.
8 JODAISH AND lBLhl.
Mostcharaoteristically, and doubtless quite in accordance
with the intellectual mannel' of the Jews, this is shown in
a witty and satil'ical play of question and answer, about
which Mul;1ammad complains bitterly, and which often
gave him apparent weapons against the Jews, in that he
regarded their ntterances as bona fide expressions of
opinion and not as mere teasing mockentls.
'l'hus, in order to gain reputation, and also because
he was uudel' the impression that, if eame (he says ten)
of the Jews would join him, all 'the rest would become
his adherents,l he made the attempt with some, who eithel'
did not have the courage to withstand him, or else did not
wish to enter upon a long dispute with him. They either
got rid of him with an answer which he could not gainsay, or
they mixed up the words which he required from them with
others of similar sound, but of different and even contrary
meaning. Thus they said to himonce :_CC we can do nothing
for our unbelief, for Our hearts are uncircumcised." 2 On
another occasion they advised him to go to Syria, as the
only place where prophetio revelations were possible, accor-
diug to the Jewish saying: S cc Propheoy is not fouud out
side the Holy Land." This is given by some expositors
as the cause for the revelation in Sura XVll. 78
4
, but
others assigJi a different reason for the verse. Further the
ce This (was revealed) beoause BOmB of the poor Muslims instruqted the
JeW8 in the doctrine of the M.uslims. so that there was unity between
them and the former received of the fraits of tbe Jatter.
lJ
• Compo SUDIl. 446, Foudgrubou do. Orlouts, Vol. I. p. 286.
• SW... II. 82 .JIb u:;;r; :2:< ".,>' Comp. Deut. L 16.
u Circumcise therefo1'8 the of yoar" heart and be DO more
stiffnecked."
• i'1";!itzi i'1!;l-'41v 7'kl
• JaIAlu'd-dlu (Ma.raeci iu loco)•
• <./>J\ \alII ,.UJI! u-l
U
I;,; ....4 (:)\ ""e.l\ JIi W Jj
U This verse was revealed when the Jews said j 1£ thon art a. PJ:Opbet,
tbeu go to Syria, for Syriaalouois tho laud of prophets." So Elpberer et aI.
OAllRIlIL AND MICHAEL.
9
commentators cheerily relate many anecdotes by way of
explaining the reason for certain passages, which appear to
the unprejudiced quite in the same light. .As the occll8ion of
Quran II. 91, Baidhawi relates the following tale: 1 " It it
said that Oroar went once into a school 2 of the Jews and
asked them about Gabriel. They replied: ' He is our enemy,
he reveals onr secrets toMu4ammad, he is also the messenger
of wrath and punishment j Michael on the oontrary brings
us prosperity and plenty.' Then Omar said: 'What is
their position with regard to God ?' and the Jews replied:
I Gabriel on His right and Michael on His left, but
between these two there is enmity.' But he said: 'God
forbid that it should be as you say j they are not enemies,
but you are mor.e unbelieving than the Himyariks.
3
Whosoever is the enemy of either angel, he is the enemy of
God.' Then Omar went away and found that. Gabriel
had prececed him with a revelation, and Mu4ammad. said
to him, 'Thy Lord has already agreed with thee, 0
Omar.' "
Although what is here brought forward is to some
extent what is rea.lly held by the Jews, 88 s.g. that
Ga.briel is the messenger of puniehment,4 and although
accordingly there is much of trnth in this narrative j
JiJ* l3" ""J! u-'.J.... AIl\ <S') J'ol J"J
JS" ....-\.0 oY\, \1)'.>-1 I...... tf!:". \I,..... ..us I,lla
AIl1 l3" "'" JIa rU', ..........-JI....-\.o ....I.l.e,
JIa ."..... l3" l3" J;J""" ',su .}1#1
,"" (:)\$ <:Y' l:>'" .#1 ,.z' , '-oU (:),sp W" (:)\$;J
..
d>,s4 &A..., ... Jip ..,.,. J"" .J1#1 AIl1 ,"" jib, I...t>....,
*J"" I.l ..w" .>id ,.wI, 0lI..l\ JIa
! l/i..,.,tl f'l':a
T ;. ••
3TheBe ere the words reForred to above. p. S.
4R. S"lomo Ben Adore'b onTree. n"ba Bn'hro '14. 2.
7"'" m·li l:lij?lil n;n:r'i
Jl
10
JUDAJSJ£ AND JSW.
nevertheless even the qnoted saying ie perverted, for
Gabriel ie regarded the messenger of God for the
pnniehmer.t of sinners only, and in another passage of the
Talmnd 1 it :' s aotually said of him that he is called the 2
one who.stops up, beoause he stops np the sine of Israel i.e.,
wipes them away, and therefore he could !lever he
represented to the Israelites as their enemy.
Further, Mu!;llloInmad's intentional misrepresentation3 is
shown by hie changing the order assigned by the Jews to
the Angela. The Jews assert that Michael stands at
God's right hand and Gabriel on Hie left.
4
This position
is reversed by Mn1plmmsd, in order to give the highest rank:
to Gabriel 5 to whomhe attrib'ltes aU hie revelations. This
'lJ
i
!JQ'1loll loll
ci'p"'nlol
.. Onr sag••, bl....a b. th.ir memory, attributea the .xooution of God's
punitive judgments to Gabriel, as, for inatanw, Gabriel came and over-
thre... th.m in the .arth (Sanhedrin 19.1), and Gahriel namo to a••troy
Sodom." Camp. e.l.o Se.nh. 21. 26. 95, 2. 96.
'Sanhedrin ".
• 'W
3These ;"rd•.mos"be tak.n in th; ...... explained at tbe .na of the
8rd Section cf Jhe lst Division.
• Oomp. the evening pU,yar of the Jews.

Also the prayer on the Day of Atonement.
I;li-ll:lo/!;l '1:'!'''1=1i ?!?tT/?
'Comp...1'0 Midraab'T..nebnm.. S.et. f. 21. c. 2. V.netian Ed.
11>15, whero it i. written ?l:l;l'!;l ,t!it?tl '\\i!ftl
,"1: i'iI'iQ Wl:'!1 Wl'ly 'l:l''1=1i1 '1$""1=1i M1:
""ti-'l:)¥ Ci?W Miif'l1 "ll;li-l '1<.1 nl$
U Tho versa Job, xxv. 2, Dominion and fear are with Him,' refers to
Michael and Gabriel, in that the former is made out. of wa.ter, and the
latter out of fire; still they do not hurt each other, because l Be
peaee ia Ria high placea.' n Here aU the {acta whioh we Bought out
separately are given brieRy. Michael i. the milder, Gabriel tbe mora
terrible, bnt they are novertbele•• in perpetual hormony.
GABllIllL AND MICHAEL.
11
is in spite of the fact that the other view is so fully in accord
with the spirit of the doctrine about angels as accepted by
the J ewe, according to which the positions "on the right"
and "on the left" mean only the decision to adopt either
merciful or punitive measures. There can of course be
no question of enmity between Gabriel and the Jews, or
between Gabriel and Michael, and the speech is nothing
but a repartee, .which however to Mu).tammad's thinking
justified him in making an accusation against the Jews.
This is even more clearly shown in the following narrative
related by a commentator on the words" God is poor" 1 :
"Thus spoke the Jews when they had heard :-< Who is he
that will lend unto God a goodly loan 7' Qurl>n II. 246.
It is related that Mu:Qammad with A.bu Bakrhad written to
tho Jews of the Bann Qainnqa.' calling them to IsUm, to
faithful observance of prayer, to offer free will offerings
and to give God a good loan. Then Phineas the son of
Azarish 2 said: 'Then God is poor, that he desires a loan' f
Abu Bakr boxed his ears and said: '1£ there wero not 11
• BaidMwi on Ill. 1'17.
fIi _.,.;:C_ III
r-U (:II "God is poor."
.. III c:...
1Il1 .s.lH'-'-\.oj 6lltuofi ..s.lll I,; l:l'" I,....... \.oJ ollli
",e!,)1 Q.Js> 6llI..,.o) r4 ,-"I (:".,.4 rUI, 01.l1
JUO '-'- \.oj &Ill lrOf'! ",I, SU:;I .Utl, n .•lI ,.UI, r
UI
...s'
6Ill ..,.oj r4}!1 .w,u v"jIlI Jl.. l:1"'"' r-!" 6111 ",I .1)>>1<0 (:II
6Ill J.t"'J,)\ ci.<l.a> ""'ly<.l "PII l:l'" l.:..l.eI "" '} 4.JJ1.
• ollli "" ...... ,
• Pbin..sthe son of Azaria.h In'''l;' On)t)), the ..me to whom
tho uttora.nco that Ezra i. tho .on of God (ix. 80) is attrihuted by sowe.
ס ""e.l\ l:l'" ""'1, J.>J &l\iWI 6..... JI.i WI (:II ...... JI.i
.I,,:.b\ &Ill ",I JIl "".ill,..., 1)>>1<0 (:)l 1J'\.0,.;4
u , .ibid ben CUtnr says: Only one Jew used this expression, nnd thu.t
waa Phineas the BOD of Azariuh, t116 same man whc said: God is poot" aud
wo w:o lioh." (Elpborar on u. 30.)
12
JUDAISM AND ISLiIl.
·trnce between us, I would ha.ve broken your neck! He
then took him bound to Mulunumad, and Phineas denied
having made the speech. Then came this revelation."
The same thing is. fouud in another passage 1: " The Jews
say the hand of God is tied up." The meaningless cha.racter
of the sentence shews in itself that the Jews were not in
earnest; and if we take into consideration the occasion of
the remm'k, and the way in which it was made, we shall see
clearly the teasing and scoffing tendency of the Jews in
their dealings with It was an answer to
an expression, which in its simple mooning "To lend to
God" must have· seemed to them ridiculous, and which
might easily give rise to the retort," if God now needs
money, He must be poor!' It was only by a certain smOU:lJ
of distortion and mutilation that Mu1;J.ammad could twist
this speech iuto an accusation against the Jews. A good
story is preserved for us in Sunna 608 which runs as
follows: "Mter the conquest of Khaibar the Jews set a
poisoned lamb before Mu1;J.ammad. When he discovered
this, he had them called together, and putting them on
oath to tell him the truth, he asked if they had poisoned
the lamb. They confessed, and he then enquired, 'For
what reason?' 'To rid ourselves of yon, if you are a
deceiver,' was their reply; 'for if you are a prophet, poison
will do you no hn.rm! " Who can fail to see in this Sllswer
a desire to free themselves from the importunity of
:MnJ;ll\mmad by biting l'epartee ?
At other times they changed his words, or used words of
double meaning. In the prescribed salutation thoy said
indeod "118'iua," but no/; iu /;I.te sense intendod by
Mu1;J.ammad, viz., "loGk on us"; but either in the souso of
"couut us guilty, or with a play on the Hebrew "r./' in
COMPLAINT AGAINST THE JEWS.
13
the sense of the evil one." 1 So that he was obliged to
substitute "andhurua," which also means "look on us."2
Fllrther instead of l).iHat
B
, "forgiveness", they said
probably" Khayiat" 4, "Sin." Jahtlu'd·din 5 gives ano-
ther variation and says that instead of the required word
"hubbat", love, the Jews said "\J.abbat fi sh'airat" i.e.,
"A grain in an ear of barley." Then they changed the
salutation"As-salam 'alaika" 6 i.e., "Peace be upon thee",
into" As-sam 'alaika" 7 which means" Mischief on thee,"8
and this is the ground of Mu\J.ammad's complaint in Surah
Iviii. 9. Such occurrences, though they led later to I>
grcat hatred on his part towards the Jews, must at first,
while he still had a hope cf converting them, have induced
him to try all possible means to conciliate them; for they
1 :Pi. II rq.. "
Jal<llu'd-din MyS (Maracci in loco):
&J,....;II <:>'" .::-. ""'" "', "And this is among the Jews"
word of reproach meaning foUy.,t
• QUl'an II. 98, IV. 48. 49.
3 LVII. 161, 162, II. 55, 56.
• 'k&<
5 JaJalu'd-dln (}taraco;.)
\ t;:." lJ,ublmt" '.e. 101'''
ir-""' ..:f &:;... " Ii sh'alrah" i.e. a grain in an ear of barley.
• .;l;Je ri.:J,

8 On this EJpherar comments as fonows:
r
U
\ (:);'1>,., ,..r.. ..P- (:)IS (:)1 cllJ,
* ,.ul ltIf.,llf. ,wI 6l,....,t "",.-II,., rW1,
. nles.niDg Udeath" whioh ElpLerar here asalgna to the \volod tt'*-'
is quite foreign to as is ELlso U oontempt "J whioh is more apPl'oplinte lor
,.,..... The cowUlentators appear, therefore, to have had in mind Hebrew
wUl'd CO, which with .nj'fiJ mean -, poisoll.u
JUDAISX AND ISLilf.
were not only important politically, but were also able
to hold him up to derision by their intellect and wit.
He was anxious therefore to persuade them that his views
were on the whole the sa.me as theirs with some few
differences.
We have giveu sujHcient r6llS0ns for Mulmmmad's
treating the Jews with consideration, and we shall now
give proofs that he actually made great efforts to win them
over to his way of thinking. Besides the frequentreIigioUB
controversies already alluded to, there are many passages
in the Qurau specially addressed to the Jews, in all of
which they are admonished in a very friendly way that the
Qur"n would serve as an arbitrator in their own disputes.
Not only did he address them with gentleness and
consideration, he sctnally did many things on purpose to
please them. At first simply and solely on account of the
Jews the Qibla, or place towards which prayer was to be
made, was changed by Mti(>.ammad to Jerusalem, from
Mecca. the spot which the ancient .A.rabs had always
regarded as holy; and it was only when he recognised the
fruitlessness of attempting to conciliate the Israelites that
he changed back to the former direction.
The first change is not, it is true, statedin so many words
iIi the Quran, only a complaint about the second .altel'lltion
is given, but some commentators maintain that the allusion
is to the former change.
l
In disputes between Muslims
and Jews he shewed himself at times perhaps too lenient.
This is said to have given occasion to some believers to
1 Qarlin IL IS6. ~ \jlt ~ , : ~ ~ : ;;; ~ ; Co
Jal'\u'd·i!ln (!!a_oi in loco) has ss·follo".:
\ ~ ~ ,\ &:... , , ~ \All; (J".u..JI """" JI.,J;:...\r pI ,..1.0> W
J;" ,.r
" After hi8.Fllght he ordered his followers ro turn to the Temple at
Jcru""lem ( W 1 ~ 1 1 1"1'*); this howevcr.whioh was done to conoiliate
the Je"., held good for six or sovon months olll,y. o.nd thon h. ollaDt:od it
a.gain:'
HlLD!lESS OF CONTROVERSY. 15
rofnso to submit to his judgment, of which he complains in
Surah IV. 63. In another passage 1 he gnards himself .
against the lIoCcnsation of giving wrong judgment by saying
that he judges only according to the right; a.nd again in
another passage 2 he asks, if they are afraid that God and
His apostle will do them wrong, though· the commentators
relate another event as the occasion for this utterance.
He advises his MUIllims also to go gently in disputes with
the Jews,s as e.g. in the following pasBage : " Dispnte not
against those who have received the Scriptures, unless in
the mildest manner; except against such of them as
behave injnriously towards you: and Bay, t We believe inthe
revelation which hath been sent down nnto DB, and unto
you; our God a.nd your God is orie, and unto Him are we
resigned' ".4 A strong proof that Mu1;lammad held the Jews
1 SUrah IV. 106. (;;S,;
U Dispute not for those who deeeivo.oue anotber!' ,
• SUrah XXIV. 4.9. .If':;;,o;;o em\ .-'0
" Or do they fear lest God and Ris ApostJe act unjustlyto.....n1s themp"
3 SUrah XXIX. 45. $0'1 I}'!<;; i;
c.6il; J}ij 4l\ j)t( Ij,ij \;J1
II II A_ __ _._ •
\ *
• In tbe opinion of Arabic commentators this passage is more a proof
of fear of the Jews than & reoommonda.tion to mild dealing. Elpherar in
• long ohain of braditions beginning with ..,..wI .boy\ ¥ and ending
....ith Sfl,r"' Jll BByS:
rL31 J.<b' l.oI,,-l4 \e!,r6', &,,11.1"
01
4 SI",=l\ "'.lf1 .....w:n J.<bl ",I!
\Nol f""JlJSJ 'J .....us:l\ J.<bl ,.-.Lo 6Il\ J,...) JIU
* Jj\ l.o J 6Il1l
"The posss,sors of the Scriptares (the Jewa) read the Low in Hebre..
and explained it to the Muslims in Arabic; 80 said: f Neitl;a.er
agree the possessors of the Soript.ures, nor call thom liars, and say
we believe, etc.'" Fnrther, there is another similar nllrrativ8 first related
by AbUSs'fd, <5J'"\hl\ ",-\ (jI <!.ll\ ....c Jl\ but which can be traced
back to AbU <5)\.0;)\ .\4;Jl\. which reads ss follows:
JUDAISM .AND ISLAM.
in great respect lies in the fact that in pl1Ssages enumerating
the different creeds 1, he mentions the Jews immediatoly
after the Muslims.
In two of these passages he even promises Godfearing
Jews absolute equality with :Mnslims; and though in the
third and last he is not so lenient, and threatens that a
distinction between them will bo made, yot even in this
passage it is very plain that precedenoe over other religious
bodies is given to the Jews. In Muslim traditions it is
said that tho sinful among the Muslims will go into the first,
the mildest of the seven he11s,2 the Jews into the seoond,
Christians 8 into the third, and so on.
4
In addition to all this, which produced in ..td the
wish to adopt much from .rudaism into his religious system,
we must considor tho fantastic developmont which the
J" , '>,v.ll (;YO ,..,.. <Ill\ J,..) .= u-Jl.,. ". 01;\
,..,.. DJ.lI J,..) JW .j\.:.q.l\ J.» .......... \a JW .j4t
\.\,0\ If':; ll, !""',;...o; lU Jl>' (?)
r-l lib. (:)\$ (:)\, !""',:;...o; rJ lIro4 (:)\$ (:)li. o:Il4

U While he was sitting by Mu1}ammad
J
a Jew who had just passed by
a corpse came up and said: '0 Mnl}ammad, does this corpse speak? I He
said: (Neither agree with the possessors of the Scriptures, noroall them
lial'S, but 80.y: We believe in God, His angcls
J
His word and Bis Apostles.
If what the Jews say is vain, do not confirm them; if it is true, do Dot
give them the lie,' n i.e. preserve a. strictly negative attitude, 50 as on
no account to expose yourselves; thna the meauing here seems to be
(,;:I._-
almost identical with that of the word 'yr l'efcrred to above.
J SurohsU. 50. V. 78, XXII. 17.
I;';t the Muslims.
_ • :;:l
(:)!.lli the Jews.
SI Boe DivisioD L Seotion H. Chap, i. Part II A.
3 D'IIcrbalot in his Bibliotbcquo orientale (uudor U Ja}Jond U pnge 411.)
on tbe contrary thM. the 'Muslims give tIlt) Jews n lower in
hell than tho Chl'hit.iaus, bat this is probably tho opinion of n. later ug'o.
.. Pococke notre misccllamc) Call, 7 p. 289.
INTEIWOUIlSIl WITH mws.
17
Jewish traditions and history had reached in the mouth
o ~ the people, as oertain to appeal powerfully to the poetic
genius of the prophet; and so we cannot doubt that, in 8.0
far as he had the means to borrow from Judaism, and so
long as the Jewish views were not in direct opposition to
his own, Mnl;tammad was anxious to incorporate much
borrowed from Judaism into his Qurim. Whether he had
any suoh means will be discnssed in the second section.
SECOND SECTION.
Could Mu4ammad borrow from Judaism '1 and if 80, how was
such borrowing possible for him '1
The possibility of borrowing from Judaism lay for
Mul;tammad, partly in the kuowledge which might be
imparted to him by word of mouth through intercourae
with the Jews, and partly in persoual knowledge of
their Scriptures; while allowing him the first source of
information, we must deny him the second.
From passages already quoted-to which we might add
many others-we gather that there must have been great
intimacy between Mu];tammail and the Jews; leading at
timeS even to mutual discussion of views; but this is still
more clearly shown in a passage in the second Sura,!
where the Jews are represented 4a double faoed, professing
belief when they were with himanil his followers, and then
when they were alone saying: "Will ye acquaint them
with what Goil has revealed unto you, that they may
dispute with yOIl ?" This shows that the :Muslims learned
the Jewish views from conversation only. We shall speak
later of Mnl;tammad's intimacy with '.A.bdu'll&h ibn Sahtm,
and with Warab, the cousin of Khadija, who was for some
time a Jew, a learned man and aoquainted with the Hebrew
I 86m II. 7l.
c
18 JUDAIBY Al!lD ISLm.
language and scriptures; 1 SO also was J;{abib ben Malik, a
powerful.A.rahian prince,2 who for sOme time professed the
Jewish religion. These all afterwards became followers of
the Prophet. Thus Mu1J.ammad had ample opportunity
of becoming acquainted with Judaism. That his knowledge
thereof was not obtained from the Scriptures is clear,
from the matter actually adopted, since there are mistakes,
which cannot be regarded as intentional alteraticns,
and which would certainly have been avoided by anyone
who had the very slightest acqnaintance with the sources.
s
It is evident also from the low level of culture to which
Mupamrnad himself and the Jews of his time and country
had attained. The contempt in which the compilers of the
Talmud held the Arabian Jews, in spite of their political
power, can be attributed only to the ignorance of the latter.
Though we must not ccnclude from this that the Jews
knew nothing of the Scriptures and, though we hear of
schools among them 4 and even of their reading the sacred
writings in the original,5 still wa must doubt, if there was
any widely diffused critical knowledge of the Scriptures, ana
we may be quite certain that himself possessed
none.. Many passages testify to this. First, we may take
apassage already quoted,S where he says he had fOl'mel'ly no
kuowledge of reading and writing, and then Sura XLII.
52,7 where he denies any previous acquaintance with "the
Book" or the "Faith." Even if these are mere figures of
speech to prove the divine character of his mission, still it
1 Vid. Elbecar in Prouomi I. p. 44;: and Wahl, Einleitnug zur
UebersetZllllg des Koran XXX.
1 Wahl, Einleitung XXXV.
J This willl;le explained in detail later.
f Compo the pa.ssage quoted above from Baidhtiwi in the 1st Section.
I Compo the passage quoted above trom EJpherar in the Firat Section
(foot note)•
• sUra XXIX. 47.
1 "Tbou did8/; not nnderstand before this wbat tbe book of tbe
QDrin was. nor wbat the laith wos, etc."-(Sale).
THE JJCWISH Pll.Ol'HIIlTS.
19
is evident from them that henever enjoyed any reputation
for learning, suoh as would neoessarily have been accorded
to him, had he really known anything of the Jewish
writings, and possessing which knowledge he would have
lived in fear of being proved to be an impostor.
The order in which he gives the prophets is interesting,
for immediately after the patriarchs he plaoes first Jesus,
then Job, Jonah, Aaron, Solomon, and last of all David.!
In another passage
2
the order is still more ridioulous, for
here we have David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, Aaron,
Zacharias, John, Jesus, Elijah, Ismael, Elisha, Jonah, and
Lot I 'rhe incorreot spelling of the names of these prophets,
ss well as the parts which he sssigns to them in history,
proves that he had never even looked into the Hebrew
Scriptures. He actually asserts that before John the Baptist
no one had borne the name of John. Had he known
anything of Jewish history he would have been aware that,
apart from some historically unimportant people of the
name mentioned in Chronicles, the father and the son of the
celebrated Maccabesn -high priest, Mattathiss, were both
called John. This mistake must have been obvious to the
Arabic -commentators, for they try to give another meaning
to the clear and nnmistaka)Jle words. Mul;>ammad himself
was aware of his ignorance, and defends himself very neatly
against the possible charge. For instance in two passages S
he asserts that God said to him: "We have not spoken to
thee about all the former prophets, only about some of
them, of others we said nothing to thee;" thus cleverly
defending himself agsinst the accusation of having over-
looked some of the prophets. We .have quite enough
proofs in these passages, apart from those whioh· will
come before us fully in the second part, t h ~ t Mnl),ammsd
was singularly ignorant of the Jewish writings, and so we
t Qnt-an IV. 16!.
• Qtu1In VI. 84 If.
a BUra IV. 162; XL. 78.
20
JUDAISM AN1J ISr.AM.
can a.fI'ord to give np one tIling which is generally
brought forward as speoially proving our point. This is
the fact that in oertain passages Mnl;!e.mmad calls himself
an "ummiyun/' I a word which is usually translated
"unlearned" "ignorant." Wahl takes it so, aud mentions
it as a proof of Mul;tammad's ignorance. But this wOJ:d has
here the same meaning that is expressed by it in other
passages, viz., belonging to the Arabs. It is used, like the
word "jahiliyat,"2 of the Arabs in their former ignoranae
of Islam, and Mu:qammad, having risen from among them,
thus <1esigne.tes himself 8 without reference to his own
individual knowledge.
4
But, as already stated, eVen
without this proof our oonclusion holds good, viz., that
because of his own ignorance especially, .but also on
account of that of the Jews around him, Mul;tammad could
1 sUra XII. 156.
I sUra III. Us, III. 69.
J m;n,,'l-nmmJySll& or 0 nmmlyDD.
& The derivation of the wOl"d 8eems to me to support this view. lorany
difterent derivations ha.ve been suggested. but all are unsatisfactory. Bome
quoted by Elpherar. derive it from L, ummat. and, give
DB examples 01 !' similar formation maJrlyUD, ""d madani;run
from ft;. ms.kk:a. and madina (see Ewald's Critical Grammar
01 the A""mo language, 1. § 261. 2): bu. 'hen 'hey do not exphin 'he
connection between the mea.niDgs of two words. This becomes clear.
however. when we OODsider the development in the 'mea.ning of the
simila.r Rabbinical word "1;3 got This word, mea.ning in the Hebrew
"people." later on coone to mean a. II nott-Jew; n because the Jews became
conscious that they' themselves were a little community aIDoDg the other
inha.bit&nts of the land, who were the U people" proper (compare the
expreasiou tlV)' So ". firs. the Muslim. also must have looked
upon themselves as a small community in the midst of the
the &:\, each man who waS not counted am.ong themselves, being
to them one of the t:l, Or an :;\, and so the word came to bo usod of
all those who did Dot believe in religion past and present.
BELATION 0'1 ISL!.H TO lIAllLllllB BllLlGIONS. 21
attain to no knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures, though
on the other hand he had abundant opportunity to study
Judaism with its wealth of tradition and legend as it lived
in the mouth of the people.
In the first section we have shown that Yul;1ammad had
good reasons for incorporating much Miren from Judaism
in hie Qurlm. By so doing he hoped to strengthen the
opinion that he was taught by direct revelation from God;
he had aleo a strong wish to win over the Jews to his
kingdom' of the faithful upon earth, and then, too, the
legends and fanciful sayings of the Jews harmonised with
hie poetic nature. In the seoond section we have shown
that he had abundant opportunities of acqnainting himself
with Judaism; and now in the third section, before finally
determining that a borrowing from Judaism really took
place; we have to consider and answer the question:
Would suoh a borrowing have been consistent with the
other views and opinions held by
THIRD SECTION.
Was it compatible with plan to borrow from
Judaism l'
We must consider this question from two sides.
First, it might have appeared to Yul;1ammad as inadvisable
to borrow from the system of any other,religions body lest
he should beaooused of want of individuality; andsecondly,
there might have been something in the very faot of
adopting from Jndnism whioh would militate against his
other plans. On closer examination, however, we find that
neither, waS the case., In general he was in favour of
borrowing from earlier religions. He desired no peculiarity,
no new religion which should oppose all that had gone
before; he sought rather to establish one founded on the
anoient oreeds purified from later changes and' additions,
,ono which should adopt this or that now idea, and which
22 JUDAISY AND ISLAM,
should above aU things acknowledge him as a divinely
commissioned prophet. He let all that was already estab-
lished stand good, as is seen from the lists of the prophets
quoted above; and he counts it as a point in favour of his
Quran that it is 1 in accord with the earlier writings
recognised by him as revelations. Another time he even
says that the Quran is similar to the earlier religions
writings, that it is only a repetition of them, i.e., if I am
not mistaken in forsaking the general interpretation and
translating the passage SUra XXXIX. 242 as follows:
"God hath sent down the most excellent tidings, 3 a
writing like nnto others, a repetition." If· this is not the
meaning, it is incomprehensible how Mu!).ammad could try to
prove the superiority of his Quran bypoinmngto its continual
and almost wearisome repetitions. But if his assertion were
true, he might gain some advantage by being in accord
with earlier reve"led writings, and by restoring to their
proper position those of them which had been spoiled by
additions and perversions, and those which had been too
little accounted of. He claims for himself only the same
honour which is paid to the other givers of revealed law; 4
with this distinction however that he, as the last of the
t Sura XLV'I. n. I:.:!
• Jj d.lli
3 On tho word. d_t£; masl1ni which is omit-ted by EJphexat" see beloW'
Second Division, Third Section, First Chapter, First Part.
4 He seems to distinguish between la,vgivers and prophets; for while
he gives the names. of the latter in utter confusion, he mentions the
former in their right order. viz" Noah, .A.bl'aham, Moses and jesns (BUras
XXXIII. XLII. 11.) Arabic commentators recognise this difference; thull
Elphemr on sUm XXXIIl. 7: C:l"" ;S.iJ\j .L.....+..\,ll <.J">o
J..}\ C:)''' It)l, C'''lrJI, ....'-,
lIe distinguishes these .five the four given a.bove and 'Muhammad
nam.ing them alone ot: the prophets, because they were the compilers or.
writings and la.ws revealed to them, a.nd were men of strong character
among the apostles.
THlil Qum A PINAL RIlVllL.l.TION.
prophets, is to be considered as the seal of the prophets,J
and therefore as the most perfect among them, because his .
book is so clear 2 that no disputes or misunderstandings
can arise about it, and, therefore, no apostle would be needed
after himself. Thus.it is clear that a borrowing from other
religions was quite compatible with Mul)ammad's general
aim. Consideration for his Arab followers, '.e.• the fear of
being called a mere compiler, a reproach which, he did not
altogether escape, did not hinder him, from such borrowing,
partly, because he believed that he might rely on their
ignorance; partly, beoause he had only to prove the
harmony which must neoessarily exist between the various
revelations of the same God. Mu1;J.ammad maintained that
it was all revelation, that he derived nothing from Jew
or Christian, but that God Himself revealed to him the
contents of earlier Soriptures, and the historical faots
concerning them. With regard to Judaism in particular
Mu1;J.ammad found no special difficulty. We have already
observed that much in it accorded with the Prophet's poetic
spirit, and who can now assert that any objeotion to an
agreement with Judaism would have been raised by
Mu1).ammad's contemporaries? In those days people had
no.t reached such So pitch of so-called enlightenment, as to
cousider the followers of one oreed only as in the right,
and to regard everything belonging to another belief as .
worthless; tc restrict to Christians the elements common to
humanity, and to oondemn Judaism as crafty and lifeless.
Thns it was possible for Mul).ammad to lay before the Jews
the points of union between his religion and their own,
carefully avoiding the while those points in his doctrine
whioh would be unacceptable to them.
It is clear in itself that he could not adopt the whole of
- ~ _ .1- _
J (:).0:'1\,..... SlIr.. XXXIII.4G.
24. JUDAISll AND ISLAlI.
Judaism into his system, but parts only and even these he
was obligedto alter and i·earrange. Inbringing the Jews to
his opinion he had to be careful not to alienate others j he
could not, therefore, adopt from them suoh points as stood
ill oomplete oontradiction to the views of other religious
bodies j and so, while be totally excluded some things, he
was obliged to elaborate and alter other things with which
he oould not dispense, in order that they might still more
streugthen his own position. Of this he either became
aware himself, or others reproached him with it, so that he
was forced to assert 1 that the Quran is not a new invented
fictiou. He could not maintain with the Jews that their
Law was immutable, for that would have been fatal to his
system of religious syncretism j nor could he with them
expect a Messiah, because if there were another prophet
yet to come, he Mu:Q.ammad could no longer claim to be
the seal of the prophets. This last point was carried so
far that the Arabs later on confounded the doctrine of 11
DajjILI, or deceiver, which they had from the
Christians, with the doctrine of the expected Messiall of
the later Jews j and the saying existed:2 "The name of
DajjlLI among the Jews is Messiah the son of David!'
Much in confirmation of what has been stated ahove will
he brought forward in the Second Section of the Second
Division, and also in the Appendix.
While this investigation has for the most part consisted
in enquiring into what was, or might well have been, in
Mu:Q.ammad's mind, it is by no means to he imagined that
we regard him as ,a deceiver who deceived intentionally,
and with a well-weighed consideration of each step as to
whether or no it would help him towards his aim of
deluding others. Wahl regards him in this light. On the
1 S6m XII. ill. ;"\5" (;.
• "J'" e-- "JtJ' """ JI.,..l1',...' Pocock. Notm Misoel1aD.em.
81)pendix to Porta M08is
t
cap. "I, page 260.
MU¥AJUIAD AN ENTHUSIAST. 25
contrary, we must guard ourselves carefully against such
an opinion, and look upon it as Ii sign. of persistent
prejudice and total misunderstanding of the human heart.
Mnl;Iammad seems rather to have been a genuine enthusiast,
who was himself convinced of his divine mission, and to
whom the union of all religions appeared necessary to the
welfare of mankind. He so fully worked himself into this
idea in thought, in feeling and in action, that every event
seemed to him a divine inspiration. Every thing necessary
to the attainment of his aim stood out clearly before him,
just because this one idea ruled him. He could think of
nothing but what fitted in with it, could feel nothing but
what harmonised with it, could do nothing but what was
demanded by it. There is no question here of design, for
this one idea so possessed his spirit, heart snd will as to
become the sole thought of his mind, so that every thing
which entered his mind was shaped by this idea. Of course,
in the most fanatical minds there are occasional lucid
intervals, and during these Mnl;Iammad certainly deceived
himself and others j it is also undeniable thet at times
ambition and love of power were the incentives to his
actions, hut even so the harsh judgment generally passed
npon him is unjustifiable.
We may say, as a result of this investigation, that it
would be very remarkable if there were not much 00 b t ~
found in the Quran which is clearly in harmony with
Judaism. It is evident that Mu1,lammad sought to gain
the Jews to his side, and this could best be doue by
approximating to their religious views j it is also evident
that he had ample means of acquainting himself with these
views j and lastly, that other considerations favoured rather
than hindered such a borrowing from Judaism. And now
the chief work remains to be done, and that is, to
demonstrate by careful reference to the Quran that
borrowing from Judaism has actually taken place.
26 JUDAISll AND ISLAlI.
SECOND DIVISION.
Did Mll1ytmmad borrow from Judaism? 11 so, what did he
borrow?
Before we pass to the consideration of individnal pas-
sages as instances of borrowing from Jndaism, we must
sholV some general historioal grounds for th,e opinion that
" borrowing from that source haa taken place; and thus
this division faHs again into two seccions, a general and
a pal'Cicular.
FIIlST SECTION.
Did borrow from Judaism?
For the answer to this question we are thrown back
entirely on the Quran, I as we have no other literature
1 The following is related by Kaznin-(poe. Spse. p. 809):
,.alW I;,..\so "'Y''''' ...., .l.:,.wl ,.... W c.lll J,.-) ",I .s)J
<.3"")'" "",.. J .... ..l;= .s.lll M lyW .,.)JJ """
* I;,..\so ,.r"l ]"U <.3""J"'I <3-' UI JW.w-
" It is said tha.t. when the Apostle of God came to Madina., he found the
Jews fasting on 'Ashura. He asked them their 1'eason for so doing, and
they answered: 'BecauBs on this day Pharaoh and his people were
drowned, but Moses and his followers were S&vsd '; on which Mnpammad
sa.id: 'I stand in closel' connection with Moses than they do', and then he
commanded the fast day I Ashura. Tho cause of the institution of the fut
da.y cA8hura.. which like "';W,::?, the tenth da.y of the seventh month,
(LeviticQs XXIII, 27) clea.rly means the day of atonement
J
is very
uncertain. EJpherar is Dot more exact, for he assigns an equally erroneous
canse. On sUra. XI. 46 he says:
J,.) c.lll/-'o ,.".-34 "- (:)" J"') ej ,.W ",..\SO ,.y- \,¥,
U And they went out (of the ark) on the day {.4shura.
J
and Noah fasted
and commanded aJ.l with him to fast out of gratitnde to God.
u
In any
CaBO, howevel', the ilnportant fact remains, that MUQammad acJopted one
of the fast da.ys of the Jews, which was afterwards abolished like the
Jewish Qibla. See also DJHerbelot
J
Bibliotbeqlle Orientale, under the
word Aschour, page 127.
AllAll OOIll'LAINT AGAINST mlJl:AMMAD. 27
of the same date which treats of the ma.tter in question.
Still there are plenty of passages there preserved to us,
whioh in a general way sufficiently prove our point; and
indeed they aU contain either the blame expressed by
Mu1].ammad's oontemporaries at his borrowing from
Judaism, or else an appeal from him to the Jews, as
witnesses of the truth of his assertions. He complains
bitterly in many passages that the Arabs said his words
were not original,! and even caUed them antiquated lies.
2
Sometimes they said still more definitely that a certain
man taught him, 3 and the addition of the words: 4
"The tongue of the· person nnto whom they incline
is a foreign tongue, but this is the perspiouous Arabic
tongue," shows plainly that this man was a Jew.
Commenta.tors take this view, and indeed think that it
was ' Abdu'll8.h Ibn Salam, a learned Rabbi, with whom
Mul;1ammlld was in constant and olose interoourse, and who
is frequently mentioned in the oommentaries.
S
Another
rather more general statement is as follows: 6 "Other
people have assisted him therein;" on whioh Elpherar
remarks 7: "Mujahid says, by this he means the Jews!'
Could anyone desire a ole&l'er historical witness than this
accusation, which was so often brought against :MnJ;ulJnmad,
1" _:II ..
Compo Suras VUI. 31. XVI. 26, XXIII. 85. XXV. 6,
XXVII. 70. XLVI. Is. LXVIII. 15, LXXXIII. 13•
• " _ lie;.
,....... <:!lo\ Sura XLVI. 10.
. .
3 W\ SUra XVI. 105.
- .
" ... - ,.,W- - - II _to.\ W .... "... .oW'
'"".f' (:l _ ..... J .- (:l _
It Abulteda. tmonlcs Yoslemitici I. 283.
• Sura XXV. 5. ti,;',;:;; 4il<.i
7 ",e,l\ .............. Jli
28 JUDAISX AND IBL.Ur.
and which appeared to him so important that he constantly
referred to it in the hope of refuting the charge? He
himself confesses, however, that muoh related by him is to
be found in the earlier Soriptures, To the embarrassing
question, as to why he never worked a miracle, he constantly
answered that he who .was oalled to be a preacher only,
not a wonder-worker, had yet told them plainly of the
miraoles whioh are mentioned in the earlier writings, 1
and which the learned Jews knew weIl.2 They could
testify to the truth of these narratives,S and among them
one man 4 espeoially, the aforesaid (Abdu'llah Ibn Salam,S
to whom the laudatory passage in Sura III. 68 is said to
refer. Not only were they to corroborate his words to
others, but also to remove any doubt from Multammad's
own mind as to the truth of his Mission. Thus we have
in one place the injunction given to him: G "If thou art in
doubt ooncerIiing that which we have sent down unto thee,
1 8_XX.188• .)Jr XXVI. lOG.
• sUra XXVL 197. In;' di ;W;;
- . -
On whioh Elpherar: , rL l:1f ol1ll..... z....,.. Ijl.l" J.,J.<. (:Ill JU
• ......1J .....1J .t.l..tJ (:)o<'O't (:Ill
3 sUra XVII, 103, <S'i jEu
- . -
, sUra XLVI. 9. Jrl;1 di ;,.. lo.\i.
- ... - -. -
• El,Pherar in the name of .eve...1oommentato1'1l, .oya:
B,.s & "&'0 r
L
l:l! ol1l1 ..... rll- J'b
t,.w,. ,.u "p.ll At (:l"'l
If This is •••••••• , who testified to the prophetio mission of
the ohosen one, and believed in him; but the dews were
arrogant; 8Ild would not believe in him,"
• S6mX. 94. 4; '¥
. oi'l:'i •

WHAT WAS BOBllOWED FROM JUDAIS.ll. 29
ask them who have read the book before thee."7 If he
then, however cunniugly, aoknowledges the Jews as to a
certain extent witnesses to his revelations, we are justified
in expressing our opinion that Judaism was one source of
the utterances in the Quran, and in this certainty we may
proceed at onoe to discuss the aotually borrowed passages.
SECOND SIiICTION.
What did MU/iammad borrow from Judaism 'I
In the case of any single instance of borrowing, the
proof that the passage is really of Jewish origin must reat
on two grounds. First, it must be shown to exist in Judaism,
and to prove this we have every facility. Secondly, in
order to attain to certainty we must prove that it is
really borrowed, i.e., that it is not founded on anything
in old Arabian tradition, which Mu1;J.ammad used largely
as a foundation though he disputed some points. Then
again we must shew that it had its origin in Judaism
and not in Christianity. For the complete discussion of
the last two points it would be necessary to write two
treatises similar to the one on which I am now engaged,
of which the respective subjects wculd be-(l) the points
of contact between Isl8.m and the ancient tradition of the
Arabs, and (2) tha points of contact between Islam and
Christianity; and only in this way could certainty on these
points he attained. But these investigations would, on the
one hand, lead us too far away from our particular subject,
we- <IJ
7 On this Rlpherar eays: , v 1i (:l\;al\ c.s"'l (:l.
"""II c.J 1""'= '""rM ~ \ < ! l J ~
t, »1 t.hEtt which we ha.ve sent down to thee, tbe Qurin is meantj tbOBEI
who ha.ve 1=800 before thee ma.y instruot. thee, that thou art foretold in
the Laww/ljoh ,hey have;" and again: ;"'\.:lO\ J-ol\ (:l'" l:l"'\ l:l'" c.s"'l
otl,...\ J "... ~ .lilt ~ "He means the believers among the po......rs
or t.he S0rJpt)lJ"a, ,.g'll.A.bdu'IMh baD. Sa.l3m and hill fellon."
30 JUDAISM AND ISLAx.
and, on the other, they would require a much more exact
treatment than could be given while handling our main
subjeot. Then, too, they are made unnecessary by 'the
means which we use in each individual case, and which
will be shown in the different divisions of the ~ o r k ; so
that on most points we' can without them attain to a high
degree of probability, praotically sufficient for all scientific
purposes. For the sake of clearness, it may be well to
divide the material borrowed from Judaism into thoughts
belonging to it, and narratives taken from it, and later we
shall have to subdivide again.
SECOND SECTION.
Ohapter I.
Thoughts belonging to Judaism which have passetl over into
the Qurfm l'
The new thoughts borrowed by one religion from another
are of a twofold nature. Either they are radically new,
there being hitherto in the borrowiug religion not even
a foreshadowing of them, so that the very oonoeptions
are new, and require accordingly new words for their
expression ~ or else the oomponent parts of these thoughts
have long been in existence but not in this combination, the
form in which these conceptions are blended being a novel
one, and the view, therefore, which arises from this unusual
presentation being new. We must therefore divide this
chapter according to these !'Iistinctions.
FmsT CHAPTER.
Firat Part.
Conceptions borrowed from Judaism ?
As the ushering in of hitherto unknown religious con-
ceptions is always marked by the introduction of new
words for their expression, and as i>he Jews in Aral:>ia,
HEBREW WORDS IN THE QUJUN.
31
even when able to speak Arabic, kept to the Rabbinical '
Rebrew names for their religious conceptions; so words I
which from their derivation are shown to be not Arabic but"
Rebrew, or better still Rabbinic, must be held to prove the'
Jewish origin of the conceptions expressed. The passage
already quoted about the foreign language spoken by those
who were accused of helping Mu1;lammad in writing the
Qurfm seems to point to the use among the Jews of a.
la.nguage other than Arabic. The object oi this
is. .. t.o_§nuJ:p,erate._the.words. which... have. _passed,
Rabbinical Hebrew into the Quran, and so into the Arabic
.,. ..
To,but, 1 Ark. The termination 1it is a fairly certain
evidence that the word is not, of Arabic but of Rabbinical
Hebrew origin; 2 for this dialect of liebrew has adopted in
the place of other endings this termination, which is very
common also in Chaldaio and Syriao; and I venture to
assert that no pure, Arabio word ends in this way.3 Our
word appears in two different passages with two different
meanings: first, where the mother of Moses is told to pnt
her, son into an ark,4 the signification being here purely
Hebrew; but from this it arose that the ark of the
covenant 5 was also called by this name. It is used thus
espeoially 6 iu the sense of oomingbefore the ark in prayer.
In the seoond S6ra
1
we find it mentioned as a sign of the
1 ':"jrj
, RabbmicaJ. Hebrew

• Oomp. ..,,..Ib and ""r-
• sUra XX. 89, Oomp. Ex.H. 3.
5 l'i.,t;t in the Bible.
"l:;)l" Oomp. Mlshna Bemohoth V. 4.
7 The Arabians 80metimeu use also in the meaning of
U ark of the covenant n (D'Herbelot Bibliothequ.e Orientale Qnder
It .Aschmooil.")
32 JUDAIS)[ AIID ISLhI.
rightful ruler that through him the ark of the covenant I
should return. 2
Taurat; the Law. S This word like the Greek equivalent
in the New Testament is used only for the Jewish
revelation; ani! although having only oral.
tradition, was not able to distinguish so exactly, yet it is
obvious that he comprehended the Pentateuch alone uuder
this name; 4 for among the Jewish prophets after the
patriarchs he counts Mosee alone as a lawgiver. For
the most part the Law is mentioned in connection with the
Gospel.
5
Jannatu 'Adn, Paradise.
6
The word '''Adn'' is not
1 sUm II. 249.
t 'fhe masculine gender here given to this word, as indicated by the
fact that 4 rafel'S to it, would appear strange, were it not that perhaps
.,
the old word was in mkd.; and the termination being foreign
to Arabio is in that Ia.nguage no sara indication of gender.
• Ill:;; 0 .
4 La.ter Arabians maintained just the opposite.. Ahmad ben. 'A.bdo.'l-
H.Um (MuMo. Prod. I. p. 5.) saya:
\# .,..::lJl v-AS "'1;1 .li Sl;r\l u> &Ill J,.., &iwl d"":l &lp

U If one saya: Instruct me about the allusions to the Apostle of God in
the Tomh, one understands by that expression all revealed scriptures,
since they are all oalled TorAh; and further:
..... J'>\ u.\jl "'1;I.,..::lJI All SI),:l1 J
* =1,,",,1 y"L.. J \"dol !pJ ),.;1 dl..l u> Jo."'ol
II It is acknowledged that by the word Tora.h are meant revealed
writings, particularly those wbicb. the posseaaora of the scri.ptures (Jews
and Christians) alike read; therefore it includes the Psalms, the prophecy
of Isaiah and other prophecies, bat nClt the Gospel.'"
However this does not alter the. conviction which we ha.ve already
expressed.
- <.y.
• Compo Bl1ra& III. 2, 43, 58, 86, V. 70, VII. 157, IX. 112,
-.
LXI. 6, LXII. 5.
GABDliiN ali' lIDEN. 83
known in the Arabic language in the sense of pleasure or
happiness, but this is the meaning which suits the word in
this connection) In Hebrew this is the radical meaning;
still this expression, viz., Garden of Eden, which oocurs
often in the Bible, is never to be explained out and out as
Paradise; but rather Eden 2 is there the proper name of
a region which was inhabited by our first parents in their
innocence, and the part in which they actually lived was a
garden of trees. It is only natural that this earthly region
of the golden age should by degrees have come to be
regarded as Paradise, in that the word itself 8 no longer
stands for the name of aplace but is applied to a state of
bliss; 4 though the Jews still held to Eden as a locality
also. It is clear from the translation "gardena of
pleasure" that the Jews of that time not merely transferred
the name Eden iuto Arabic, but carried over its supposed
etymology as welL The more distinctively Christian name 5
occurs seldom in the Qurlm, though it also is not quite
1 The Arabia commentators give widely dift'erent meanings to the WoM:
t
but they kuow nothing of that giveu by UI jUlt beoaule it in foreign to the
Arabie Iaugoage. Elpherar lelllllll to decide for the vi.... that ie-iiI
.
as well B8 means permanence, as the pious will remain there
for ever.
3 i. eo 11P.
• Jdn\lammad lIlI8S it thus in BUras IX. 78, XIIL 28, XVI. 3S,
XVIII. 110, XIX. 62, XX. 78, XXXV. 50, XXXVIII. 50, XL. 8, LXI. 12, aud
• h f ,# 111_
m at or places he translates it ""u.;. •. !I. V. 70, X. 9, XXII. 5ll.
XXXI. 7. XXXVII. 42, LXVIII. 84.. Sometimes also he uses it in the
siugular XXVI. 85; and eveu without the artiole, f"""! c;.
_.. .. -
LVI. 88, LXX. ss.
• '._ I iI' '8
..., - ""JAI' 0 Tapa
lii
34 JUDAISll .AND ISW.
strange to later Judaism, as is shown by the story of the
four who went alive to Paradise. 1
Ja,z,annam, Hell. 2 This word also, like its opposite
Paradise, is of Jewish origin. According to its primary
meaning and Biblical usage it too is the name of a place,
though of II locality far less important than that whioh
gave its name to Paradise. The vale of Hinnom was
nothing more than II spct dedicated to idol worship; and
it is remarkable that the bllIT9L01 the use
of its name to designate hell That this is the ordinary
name for it iu the Talmud needs no proof, and from it is
derived the New Testament name Now, it might
be asserted that MuJ.tammad got this word from the
Christians; but, even setting aside the argument that, as
the name for Paradise is Jewish the probabilities are in
favour of II Jewish origin for the word for hell also, the
form of the word itself speaks for its derivation from
Judaism. We lay no stress on the fact that the aspirate
he, whioh is not expressed in the Greek, reappears in the
Arabic, because this aspirate though not always indicated
by grammarians in writing, appe3irs to have been always
sounded in speeoh. This holds good of other Greek words
which have. passed into Syriac. a The letter milD, which
stands at the end of the Arabic (Jahannam), not being
found in the Syriac word, proves the derivation from the
1 0!"111 Paradise, Chagiga foL 14. Compare S6ra, XVIII. 107.
XXIII. 11.
Among many wrong explanations Elpberar gives the follOWing
oorreot oa,,: .)1 J,- J'" fi;1.,.;l1 JIi, &"",}4 (:l1.::-,J\ J'" .... JIi
¥.;s!lllAl
ce :Mui4bid says it means a garden in Greek
J
and Zajti.j it has passed
into Arabic."
• c1J"'A
• E.g. i .•.• Sunhadus and especially ,,/ewva, which i.
pronounced. in Syriae
J
as Gibauo.
AJ!:IWI AND RABHEB. 35
Hebrew word, (Gehinnom). The word is found in many
plaMS in the Quran. 1
..I1/j,Mr 2. This word is fonnd in several places in the
Quran in the sense of teacher. Now the real Hebrew
word 3 "habher," companion, has acquired in the Mishna
a meaning similar to that of "parnsh;" 4 only that the
latter was the name of a sect, and the former the name of
a party within a sect.• The word psrush means, properly
speaking, one separated, i.e., one who withdraws himself
out of motives of piety, a Pharisee, as distinguished from
one who grasps without semple all the pleasures of this
life, a Sadducee. Among those who were thus separated
there grew up a difference from others not only in social
customs, but especially in that they adopted a. different
doctrinal view, viz., a belief in oral tradition. They had
also some very strict principles for the guidance of their
lives. But the matter was no longer merely one of great
carefulness in life and conduct, it became one of special
learning and knowledge, which naturally could not be
imparted in equal measure to all members of this sect.
Hence these learned men, each of whom possessed some
special knowledge, became greatly reverenced; and in thia
way again a community was formed in contra-distinction
to which the remaining people of the country were called
the laity.5 The individual members of this community
however were called l;1.abMrim,6" fellows;" and thus, though
the meaning' teacher' is not, properly speaking, in the
1 Suras II. 201, III. 10, 196, IV. 58, 95, 99, U5, 120, etc.
· tl'"l:<q V. 48, 68, IX. SI,34.
• "::lr,t
,
S "f!My Cll, from
• C'"l::lq
36 JIlDAISH AND ISlll!.
word itself, yet the peculia.r development of this com-
muuity is. the cause of the :pew meaning of the word.
The exoessive veneration paid to these "fellows" by
the Jews gives rise to Mul;w.mmad's reproof in the two
passages last alluded to. He reproaches the Christians
too in both places 1 on account of the esteem in which
they held the ruhMn. This word ruhb6.n is probably not
derived from rahiba,2 to fear (thus god-fearing) ; but, like
qisslsun 3 the word which accompanies it in Sura V. 85, is
to be derived from the Syriac, which language maintained
its preeminence among the Christians in those regions;
thus ruhMn is derived from the Syriso word rabhOye, and
qissisun from·the Syriac qasIDsh6ya.
So then rnhbO.n does not really mean the ordinary
monks, who are called daira, but the clergy; whereas
qissls stands for the presbyter, the elder, who is called
qashish6 in Syriao.
Darasa 4=to reach the deep meaning of the Scripture
by exact and careful research. Snch a diligent enquiry
is mentioned in sev.eral passages. 5 But this kind of
interpretation, which is not content to accept the obvious
and generally accepted meaning of a passage, but which
seeks out remote allusions-thiq (though it may bring muoh
of importance and value to light, if used with tact and
knowledge of the limits of the profitable in such stUdy)
JJ • c;. ...
I sUra IX. 31. 34, (:14A; ruhh4n.
'';:';
J - ........

•.;.;,;
• BUras Ill. '13, XXXIV. 43, LXVIII. 37, VII. 16B. On the last passage
Elpherar ...yo, .:;,...\ 8.1'" 5]Ololi, <iiI; U";"",
.,.
The tJ""JeJ of a. writing means) to read it and 31Tange it over aDd
ovel' again.
DABAIlA.
37
is very apt to degenerate and to become a mere la.ying
of stress on the unimportant, a searching for meanings
where there are none, and for allnsions which are pll.rely
accidental. And so the word acquired a seoondary mean-
ing, viz., to trifle, to invent a meaning and foroe it into
a passage. Compare the standing expression 1 current
among many who seek 2 the simple primary meaning.
The word in this usage oocurs in the Quran, partioularly
in the mouth of Mul;tammad's opponents; though until now
this fact has not been recognised. The obviously misunder-
stood passage in Sara. VI. 105 S is thus explained, also that
in VI. 157.4 The former may be thus translated: "And
when we variously explain our signs, they may say if they
like: Thy explanations are far fetched, we will expound it
to people of uuderstaudiug"; and the la.tter as follows:
"Lest ye should say: the Scriptures were only sent down
unto two peoples before us, but we turn away from their
system of forced explanation" ; i.e., they have left the
Scriptnres to us so overlaid and distorted that we cannot
follow them. It is remarkable that this word, whioh is no'
a usual one in the Qllran, appears in this sense only in the
sixth Sura where it occurs twioe ; and this is evidenoe that
just at the time of the composition of this Sura the word
in its secondary meaning was used by some persons as
a reproaoh to MIll;ta.mmad. This observation fll1'thermore
might well serve to indicate the unity of this Sura.
RabMni 5 teacher. This Ra.bbinioal word is probably
1 tU1'!., nW;1';1'"
,
3 Ifj.J;
38 JUDAlS!>l AND ISLAu.
forme.d by the a<ldition of the suffix fLU I (like nul to the
word" rab," thus, our lord or teacher. For though the
termination "au" is common in later Hebrew,2 yet the
weaker word "rabbi" shows that people did not hesitate
to append a suffix to the word rab, and then to treat the
whole as a new word. However that may he, rabMn is a
word of itself now, and is only conferred as a title on the
most distinguished teachers. The Rabbinical rule runs
thus 3 "Greater than rabbi is rabMn." It appears as a
title of honour in Suras III. 73, V. 48, 68. RalJMni is
evidently a word of narrower meaning than the word
al).bar explained above; and this explains why rabMni is
put be£ol'e a1).bar in the two passages last mentioned,
where they both appear, and also the striking omission of
our word in the other two places where occurs, and
where Mu:b.ammad finds fault with the divine reverence
paid to teachers, describing them with the more general
word. The esse is the same with qissls and ruhMn. Both
classes are mentioned with praise in Sura V. 85, and with
blame in Sura IX. 31, 34, the latter class however only in
connection with, iu that rnhMn (like is
of wider meaning: and further, on accOllllt of the combina-
tion in passage of two different classes among the
Jews and Christians, viz., the :4tMr imd the ruhMn,
(OJ. other similar combinations) no special differentiation
was to be attempted.
Sabt 4 day of rest, Saturday. This name continued to
be applied to Saturday throughout the East by Christians
as well as Muslims, though it had ceased to he llo day of
1 Suffix 1'T" like
.-
• Suffix 7'T" Syri.... 000, Arabic r.l\
• ':;I':)!,;l ';''1
I ..: :. nttP
SAIlT, AND SAKlIIAT.
89
rest. I In one plaoe 2 seems rather to protest
against its being kept holy. The well-known Ben Ezra.
remarks on this in his oommentary On Exodns:xvi. 1,3 where
he says: "In Arabio five days are named aooording to
number, first day, second day, eto. But the sixth day is
called the day of assembly,4 for it is the holy day of the
week; the Sabbath however is called by the Arabs Babt,
because the Shin 5 and the Sameoh, (i.e., the .A.ra.bic sin.
whioh is pronounoed like the Hebrew Samech) interchange
in their writings. They have taken the word from Israel."
Bakfnat 6 the Presenoe of God. In the development
of Judaism in order to gua.rd against forming too hnman
an idea of the Godhead, it was customary to attribute
the speaking of God, when it is mentioned in the Soripture,
to a personified word of Godl as it yvere embodying that
emanation from the Deity whioh came in Christianity to 80
veritable Incarnation. In like manner also when in the
Scriptures the remaining stationary, or the resting of God is
mentioned, something sensible proceeding from Him is to
be thought of. This is especially so in the case of God's
dwelling in the Temple; 8 and this (emanation of the
1 SUras II. 61, VII. 16s.
• SUra. XVI. 125.
s 0;"
oi'" oJ;l'f N'1n 01",:1Ir:t org ;11 :lltlU;H
1'1:10 iniH !IN17 I:li>?
'l:l1!p.l;l.
• 111 Shin.
MNII?
1 AOrtoe; TOU Beou.
s l:l1i n;t Ex. XXV. 8, Of. Dent. xxxm. 12, 16.
40 JUDAISJ( ANI> ISLA»:.
Godhead' to adopt the speech of the Gnostics, was called
on this account the Shekinah, the resting. From this
derivation Shekinah came to be the word for that side of
Divine Providence which, as it were, dwells among men
and exerts an unseen influence among them. In the
original meaning, viz. that of the Presence in the Temple
over the Ark of the Covenant between the Cherubim,l the
word is found in Sura II. 249. In the sense of active
interposition and visible effectual rendering of aid it occurs
in Sara IX. 26, 40 ; 2 in the sense of supplying peace of
mind and at the ssme time giving spiritual aid it is found
in Sura XLVIII. 4, 18, 26.3 It is remarkable that the
word appears in three Suras only, (but several times in
the two last mentioned,) and with a somewhat different
meaning in each j and it seems here again, as we remarked
above ou the word da'1'aBa, as though outside influence had
been at work, i.e., that the use of this word by other people
seems to have influenced Multammad at the time of the
composition of these Suras.
Tagk'll.t 4 error. Though this mild word for idolatry is
I Arabia eommel1ta.torB do not Beem willing to recognise this melm.
ing. Elpherar 00 SUr& IX. 26 ""'y. the word m..". L:."l4Y\, /:l"'3'I,
se""rity aod rest; and on sUra XLVIII. " he says distinctly;
i.M i),.. ul :It .t:,,;w, ..,eo <:1'J11 ul JS "" JIi
ce Ben '.AbbAs says this word SakiDa.t in the Qur6.n always means rest
except in the second SUra." Bot even if does mean inward peace
of lIlind, still the meaning of ontward security need Dot be excluded.
3 Elpherar uses the expression j to explain verse 4, and
\.0,1\, &.;,l\o,Y\ to explain verse 18. In the .ame way D'Herbelot (Brolio-
'bequo Orieot&le nod.. Thaloob, poge 862) gives in the n&me of the
oommenta'ora the explautioo }oW, ;.e.. tTanqoillity of the
mind.
4l
not found in the Rabbinical Writings,I still the Jews in
Arabia seem to have used it to denote the worship of falso
gods, for it appears in the Quran 2 in this sense. a
Furqo..",4 deliverance, 5 redemption. This is a very
important word, and it is one which in my opinion has till
now been quite mtsunderstood. In the primary meaning
it occurs in the 81;h Sura: "0 trne believersI if ye j'ear
God, He will grant you a deliveranoe S and will expiate
your sins, eto." Elpherar gives five different explanations
to this verse, eaoh as unsuitable as Wahl's translation, and
the passage seems to me truly olassioal for the primary
meaning of the word. This meaning appears also in Sura
VIU. 42, where the day oj' the Victory oj' Badr is called
the day of deliveranoe, 7 and in Sura II. 181 where this
name is given to the month Ramadhan as the month of
redemption and deliverance from sin. MuJ}ammad entirely
diverging from Jewish ideas, intended to establish his
religion as that of the world in general; further he
condemned the earlier times altogether calling them
times of ignoranoe. 8 He deolared his oreed to have been
revealed throngh God's Apostles from the earliest times,
$nd to have been only renewed and put into a clearer and
I It ill to be ob1larved however that the Tuguma frequently .se thi•
..ord in the plur&1 H ~ ' P 1 ~ for the idola themaelv.., hnt not for idolatry;
• Silraa II. 257, 259, IV. 68, XVI. 88, XXXIX. 19.
3 (:jU
J
lI as E1pherar ezplains it•
.-",
• (:jUt m 1 ~ .
• Ibn Ssid aeoordin« to Elpherar e>:plaina this wcml ... "follow. I
'''''''' ..PJ""'ll (:lUJ'l1
" FnrqAn i. help against the enemy." SUra XXI. 49.
& Sl'lra VUI. 29. (iii; ;JJ ~
7 .sl:>'1ff r;;:
&"1;J..,r".
·JUDAlSH AND ISW.
moreoonvinoing form by himself. Henoe the oondition
of anyone outside his belief must have seemed to him
a sinful one, and the divine revelation granted to himself
and his predeoessors appeared to him in the light of
deliveranoe from that sinful life which could only lead to
puuishment; aud therefQre he calls revelation itself in
many places Furqan, as in many he calls it raq.mat, 1 mercy.
In some passages he applies the term to the Qurim,2 and
in others to the Mosaic revelation. 8 .
In this way all the passages fit in under the primary
signification of the word, and there is no need to guess at a
different meaning for each.
Mo/un, 4 refuge. This word bears a very foreign impress,
and is explained by the Arabio Commentators in a variety
of ways. Golins following them, forces the most diverse
meanings into it. It appears in Sura CVII. 7, and seems
to me to mean a refnge-".they refuse refuge," i.e., they
give no shelter to those Bsking for help. Later on the word
8eems to have been regarded as derived from ' ana 5
(certainly not from ma'ana to which Golins refers it),
and thence it acquired the meaning of sapport, alms.
MlUlan',6 repetition. There has been much perplexity
about this word, mainly because it has been considered BS
an Arabio word and has not been. traced back to its source.
AB by degrees other teaching viz., tradition, 7 grew up by
the side of that contained in Holy Writ, the whole law
1 :..;::-
)
• BUras III. 2, XXV. title end verse I.
S BUras II. 50, XXI. 49•
... c. ...
.• 1:1.1""", l ill?1
J (;,G Dot frol11

1
Oompa..e unde..
IlABANf. 43
WlIS divided into two parts, I the written teaohing, that is
the Bible, and the teaching by word of mouth or tradition•.
To oooupy oneself with the former was oalled " to read j" 2
to ooonpy oneself with the latter was oalled "to say." 3
In the Chaldaio Gemara the latter word means to speak
after, to repeat the teaoher's words after him, In like
manner the word tinnah 4 was used almost exclusively of
ohoral music, in whioh the ohoir repeated verses after the
precentor. Thl1S teaching by word of mouth WlI8 called
mishnah,S and so also the collection of oral teaching-the
whole tradition j and afterwards when this was all written
down the book received the same name. Now, however, an
etymological error crept in and derived this word from
sM.uah in its true Hebrew meaning" to repeat," and then
applied it to the repetition of the written teaohing.
6
The
error of this explanation is shown both in the use of the
word and in its infleotion.
7
Still it seems to have been
accepted by the Roman Jews, and thus it came about that
in Justinian's Novels the Mishna is called seollnda editio.
8
The same thing happened in the oase of the Arabian Jews,
and so we get our word masani. Mul].ammad putting his
book in the plaoe of the whole Jewish teaohing calls it not
only Quran (miqra) but also masani. 9
I :lJ;lt:;lo/ n1iJ:l and ?7;=jl!p nriiJ:l

tol1J1
• connected with the poetic M!n and the Syriae tano.
• n¥:1
• n.tpl;l
• M'iifol
1 in eonstruct, not
8
• BUras XV. 87, XXXIX. 24.
The Arabia.n commentators on Sura XV. 87 dift'er much in their
explanation of this word, bat one a.mong them gives what seems to us
JUDAISli .um ISLAll:.
Malakut, I government. This word is used only of God's
rule, in whioh oonnexion it invariably appears also in
Rabbinioal writings. 2 It oconrs in several passages in the
Quran.
3
From this narrow use of the word, and from ..
fa.lse derivation from mala,k or malak 4 (a word which
comes from quite a diJ'ferent root, and whioh in Arabic has
only the meaning of a messenger of God) it oame to be
used for the realm of spirits. 5
These fourteen words, whioh are clearly derived from the
later, or Rabbinioal Hebrew, shew what very important
religious oonoeptions passed from Judaism into Islam,-
namely, the idea of the Divine goidance, sakinat, malaknt;6
tbo truo moaning. Elpborar b.. : ..;u" 6J$ 1:l1fl' <.l".l\l,\1 JU, "Tavua
Bays the Whole Qura.n is called Ml188.ui. U .At the same time also a
reference is made to the other passage cited by US, viz.) SUr& XXXIX. 24.
The word Ut..t- in Sura. XV. 87, seems to me to mean either that this
SUra wa. roally 'bo .Bvontb (tbo ordor of tboS6ra. wa. afterward. much
ohanged, and we may safoIy a••ort that Sura II is of later date tb.... thoo.
OCt_ oc... II ..
rollowing it), or el.e e- bears the meaning e- and the
seventh part, B.8 fifteen Sums ma,ke up about one-seventb of the QurAn.
Elpherar omits the word in the latter passage, a fact not satis..
factorily aacounted for by the supposition that be telled On an earlier
explana.tion, for the Arabic writers alwa.ys give the unexplained passngeu
in fllll in their commentaries; and ·thus it seems that this W01-d muat
been altogatber missing from El-pherar'a ted.
. ,-
I =,(J""
• C;!;llP n-'::l7tl i] {1auiAe,a T6J/I ovpa/l6J/I.
, Sura VI. 75, VII. 184, XXIII. 90, XXXVI. sa.
• or ,:\1':
S Compare the worda in Professor Freitag's work, Fakiba
ElchoIar.. 85. 3.
o ••- ••
_,.,- God's guiding Presence.
d\1; Revelation.

. Jgdgmen, .rter d••th.
VIEWS BORROWED FllOIl JUDAISM. 45
of revelation, furqan, masani; of judgment after death,
jannatu 'adn and jahannam, besides others which will be
brcught forward as peculiar to Judaism.
Second Part.
Views borrowed from Judaism.
While in the foregoing seotion we were content to
consider it certain that a conoeption was derived from
Judaism, if the WOI,a expressing that oonception conld be
shown to be of Jewish origin, we must now pass on from
this method of judging and adopt a new test. We mnst
prove first in detail that the idea in question springs from
a Jewish root; then to attain to greater oertainty we must
further shew that the idea is in harmony with the spirit of
Judaism, that apart from Judaism the conoeption would.
lose in importance and value, that it is in £ a o ~ ouly an off.
shoot of a great tree. To this argument may be added the
opposition, alluded. to in the Qumn itself, whioh this foreiga
graft met with from both Arabs and Christians. For the
better arrangement of these views we must divide them
into three groups: .d. Matters of Creed or Doctrinal views.
B. Moral and legal rules, and O. Views of Life.
A. DoctrinaZ VieW8.
We must here set a distinct limit for ourselves, in order
on. the one hand that we may not drift away into an endless
undertaking and attempt to expound the whole Qnran;
and on the other that we may not go olf into another
subject altogether and try to set forth the theology of the
Quran J an undertaking which was begun with considerable
eucceSB in the Tiibingen ZeitBchrift fUr Evang. Theol. 1831,
Etas Heft. Furthermore, certain general pointB of belief
are so common to all mankind that the existence of any
one of them in one religion must not be considered as
46 JUDAISM AND ISL1H.
proving a borrowing from anot,her. mher views again
are so well-known and so fully worked out that we need
not discuss them in detail, but shall find a mere mention
of them sufficient. Of this kind is that of the idea of the
unity of God, the fundamental doctrine of Israel and Islam.
A.t the time of the rise of the latter, this view was to be
found in Judaism alone, I and therefore Mul).ammad. must
have borrowed it from that religion. This may be consi-
dered as proved. without any unnecesssry display of learning
on the point. The idea of future reward and punishment
is common to all religions, but it is held in so many
di:£l'erent ways that we shall be obliged to consider it in
our argument. Oardinal points of faith have also passed
from Judaism into Ohristianity. To decide whether these
points as adopted in the Quran have come from the Jews
or from the Christians, we must direct our special attention
to a comparison between the forms in which the beliefs are
held in both those religions, and the form in which they
are presented to us by Mul).ammad. This is to answer the
objection, that in the following discussion so little is to be
fonnd about the cardinal doglDJlB, for even the enumeration
of them is foreigu to our purpose.
Every religion which conceiveB God as an active work-
ing providence must have some distinct teaching on the
creation, and this Mu4ammad gives in accordance with the
Bible, viz., that God. created heaven and earth and all that
therein is in six days; 2 althongh in another place he
diverges somewhat and says that the earth was created in
two days, the mountains and the green herbs in fonr days,
and the heavens with all their divisions in two days more.
s
Though this passage is nothing but a flight of poetic fancy,
still it shews how little M u ~ m m a d knew of the Bible,
inllSmnch as he is aware of nothing but the general fact
1 OhriatWlity ..Iso te...he. the Umty .f God. &I.
• Sit..... X. S, XI. 9, L. 111, LVII. 4. • Sura XLI. 8-11.
THE SEVEN HEAVENS. 47
that the creation took plaoe in six days, and that he has not
any knowledge of each day's separate work. We have
already remarked that he oalls the seventh day Babt, hut
does not reoognise its sanotity. It remains here to be
added that Mu4ammad appears to allude to and rej eot the
Jewish belief that God rested on the seventll day. 1 He
evidently thought that a neoessity for rest aftel' hard
labour was implied, for after mentioning the creation as
having talren place in six days, he adds" and no weariness
affected Us." On this Jal8.lu'd-d!n oomments as follows :2
"This was revealed as lin answer to the Jews who said
that God had rested thoroughly on the sabbath and there-
fore weariness left Him." The same thiug is to be found
in Elpherar's oommentary but not so clearly expressed.
The idea of several heavens, which is indioated by the
Biblioal expression" heaven of heavens, " 8 came to Mu1}.o.m-
mad probably from the Jews, also the notion that they
were SeVen in number, &. notion due to the different
names applied to heaven. In Chagiga 4 we find the assertion
that there are seven heavens, and then tlte names are
given. All these names ooour in the Soripture exoept the
first, viz. vil6n, from the Latin velum.
5
This name in which
heaven is oompared to a ourtain, whioh veils the glory of 6
God, is 80 very important one in the Talmud. Mu1).ammad
speus ofteu of the seven heavens, 7 and in one passage he
"-'l:l' !:l'i?QIf' li"l 1IJ l'l"il'1

I
• Ohagiga 9. 8.
1 S6m L.87.
• AllU'8OOi. .,.....sl I"jl e'J"-'\ tlIlI (:ll oIJf"l"p I,jJ J)I
IJA ..-:II olA.d\J
, li ;'1
, Of. Midra.h on the PlII.lm. e.t. the end ef P..lm xl.
7 ....,;; oil ij:;. or gOlf":"';"«
Suras n. 87,XVII. 46, XXIII.as, XLI.I!, LXV. 18, J,XVII. 3, LXXI. H,
48
AND IBLAH.
calls the heavens the seVllD strongholds 1 and in another
the seven paths. 2 This last expression occurs also in the
Talmnd. 8 Dnring the creation, however, His throne W88
upon the waters. <1 This idea. also is borrowed from the
Jews, who say: 5 "The throne of glory then stood in the
air, and hovered over the waters by the command of God. "
This is somewhat more olearly expressed by Elpherar who
says: "And this water was in the middle of the air. " 6
A second pivot of every revealed religion is the belief
in a judgment after death; for while the fact of the
oreation sets forth the omnipotenoe of the Creator, the
doctrine of .. final aooonnt teaches that it is God's will that
His revealed laws shall be obeyed. This, theD, inJudaism
developed into a looal Paradise and HeU, and both concep-
tions have passed, as we have already shown, into IslBnl.
These localities, althongh at first mere symbols, mere
-embodiments of the spiritll&l idea of a stste, afterwards
:became orystallised, and snfl'ered the fate at every symbol,
i.e., they were taken for the thing symbolised, and the
,lsoes were more definitely indicated. Th1lB the JelVll
I .., .. ;;; 86n. LXXVIII. 12.
. -
• ;:.: 8Ura XXUl.1'1.
I "':;lIP
• 86n. XI. 9. .p1.6.;A ;'11
$ Bashi on Gen. I.!. "l"'l.?"' 'rl:l'
H'ln "'41
. .
ct. S...... XXIIC. 88, xxvrr. 26.
• M 10...... . .<;p '<+.
I"lt'" U".I"'" XXlIC. 117, VoJ"'l LXXXV. 15.
wioh
I t;l}l "p. .\oJ, oa.\!J I:)\(J
TIllII SllVEN HlILLS.
49
have a. saying ,I "The world is the sixtieth part of the
garden, the garden is the sixtieth part of Eden; "2 and in
the Qlllil.n we find a similar expression, viz., "paradise
whose breadth equalleth the heavens and the earth: 3
Generally speaking, fea.r is stronger than hope, &nd the
dread of a terrible condemnation appeals far more
powerfully than the hope of eternal happiness to a nature
which pure religious feeling does not impel to piety of
life. This is probably the reason for describing bell in a
more detailed and particular manner than Paradise.
Seven hells are pictured as forming dill'erent grades of
punishment, and these' have been developed. out of the
seven different names mentioned in the Talmud. 4 These
names with one exception 5 (Erets tahtith, subterranean
realm, which is clearly adopted from the Roman ideas at
the time of their ascendanoy) are Biblical. Later on these
names ca.me to be construed as seven hells, 6. g. in
the Midrash on the Psalms at the end of the eleventh
Psalm where 6 it is said, "there are seven abodes of the
wicked in hell," after which the above mentioned na.mea
are cited with a few variations.' It is also said that David
by a sevenfold reitera.ted cry of "my son" (';:!1) rescued
Absalom from the seven habitations of hell; 7 furthermore
hell is said to ha.ve seven portals. 8 M$mmad is not
1 "Ql:I C7
ill
s Taauith 10. Pesachim 94.
. ...,,--:; J :.,,;"l\' r.',"::;,
3 Sura III. 127. .,...'1. _I. .....r
• mlli
See Erubin 19. 1. n'f:1r,TJ!l
i n'T:"i;'J:! YJ\;!
I ni.",
1 2 Sam, xix. 1·5. (Sot.. 10.) '''l!l''!lt
8 j'lilt:l Ml'llrP Zohar II. 150·
(l
50 JUDAISM: AND rSUl(.
behind hand, for we read in one passage that 1 "it (hell]
hath seven gates, unto every gate a distinct company
of them shall be assigned." According to the Jews,
a tree stands at the entrance to hell: 2 "Two date palms
grow in the valley of Ben Hinnom, smoke issues from
them and this is the entrance to hell"; but
Mo}.tammad knows a tree of hell called Al Zaqqtim 3 which
serves siuners for food, about which he has much to relate.
The step from such a definite idea of hell to the notion of a
personality connected with it is an easy one, and we find
sllch an individual mentioned by the Rabbis as the" prince
of Gehinnom ; " 4 he is caUed however in the Quran simply
Jahannam. In one Rabbinical book 5 we find the following:
"That the prince of hell says daily, Give me food to satisfy
me, comes from Isaiah, v. 14." Mu}.tammad says similarly: 6
"On that day We will say unto hell, 'Art thou full?' and
it shall say' Are there more' ? "
When the conceptions of Paradise and hell became so
definite, and their names were no longer general terms for
reward and .punishmeut, a third destination had to be
provided for those whose conduct had not been such as to
• Sura XV. 44. ,;,';\' i';,o; ItJ
I Sukkah 82. lo/V l:?
H"TJ iT,
•c
'l
. Bura. XXXVII. 60, XLIV. 43.
• "if
, Othioth norabbi Akiba, B. 1.
i'"'!lQ '1:jl '7 lr:I ci'
!'lilt'! j1h !'It.F!!) "iloltp n;'i;llt'
J?:V1
• Bura L. 29. Ji Jfi; :J;a. -;;.
51
entitle them to the former nor oondemn them to' the latter
plaoe. Thus while the righteous I fou.nd their plaoe in
Paradise, and the sinners had their portion in hell, those
who belonged to neither olass were placed in .. spaoe
Paradise and Hell, of whioh it is said in the
i\Hdrash on Eoolesiastes, vii. 14: 2" How much room is there
them? Rabbi Joohanan says a wan; R. Aoha
says a span; other teaohers however hold that they are so
close together that people oan see from one into the
other. "8 The idea just touohed upon in this passage is
most poetioally worked out in Sura VII. 44,4 "And
between the blessed and 'the damned there shall be a veil ;
1 tl'it'';'$ right.eou., tl'l?W1 .inne...
,hose wbo Itaad between.
, ':;1'1 'J;)3 HOi' "1':)
it; ite Mi'lfi 1r;l'.t:ll:\' 1;:;'1'
, Conceraing this itltermediate place S'a,di oleverly remarks tha.t it !Idem!
to the blaBBed as hell. to t.he lost as pu.radi,e6 (D1Berbelot Bibliot.heqao.
Orientala nnd01' A'rtf. pagaU8).
f Elpherar comments Oil this pa8sage followlI :
&:...,.31 "'" f"6ll,.. fOG! "",..:>, f"6ll,.. J ,.ell.- ""r-' ri' ,.zo
<Slll ..,..a. .r 1,Ai,. JUlI "'" f"I""'- t"'l ""lll.."s J

" These IXa th.,.o who.e good ..nd .vil deedo .... I •••0.11 halana.d that
the latter prooJQde them. from paradiso, while former save them from
hell
t
therefore they remain standing here until Gcd has declared Hia
pleasure ooncerning them." And Jatel", when he gives our ez:plauB.tioD of
vena 4fi, in a long obain of traditions, he aa.Y8 :
..p l"u" ";'f''' ... (;}" l:J1S dJl,.. J 0111.- "",...' (;}"J
r'- I,"U .u..,.JI 1,1) IJU JUlI &:...,.3\ Jl>' liJ" rJ
...... J
Ul
' ... ..}\ ,...)4"""" ,.I' J ,-'ola
U ThOle whOle good and evil deeds are equal are the middJa men anet
.tand on the road. Thence they can flee ali Once the inhabUant8 of
paradise and tb.088 of bell; if they Lurn to the former, they ary • Peace be
unto yOI1 :' if to the latter U eta.
52 JUDAISM ANn ISLAM.
and men shall stand on AI-ArM who shall know tl,em by
their marks; and shall call nnto the inhabitants of Paradise
saying, Peace he npon yOll ; yet they shall not enter therein,
though they earnestly desire it. And when they 1 shall
turn their eyes towards the companions of hell fire, they
rejoice that they are not among them, and shew them the
folly of their 9l1rthly walk and hopes. "
It is interesting to compare this view of a threefold
dealing with the dead with the very similar Platonic idea.
2
The. idea of the bliss of eternal life, as well as the
metaphor which expresses the difficnltyof attaining it, is
common to the Quran and Jndaism. There is a Rabbinical
saying 3 to the e1fect that "one hour of rapture in that
world is better than a whole life-time in this." With this
we may compare the Quran: 4 " And what is this life in
comparison with the life to come except a passing amuse-
meut ?" Theu for the difficulty of attaining Paradise we
may compare the Rabbiuical picture 5 of the elephant
entel'iug the needle's eye with the words in Sura VII. 38 6
"Neither shall they enter iuto paradise until a camel pass
through the eye of a needle." This last metaphor seems
to be borrowed from Ohristianity, (partly because of the
similarity of the figure, in that t< camel" is the metaphor
used iu the Gospels, and partly because of the frequent
mention of the Ilame by the Evangelists) 7, and ill only
I "They ., '6. the men between, not &I' Wahl and ethen e.zpla.in
• Phaedon, Chap. 62.
• 14iahna Ahoih, IV. 17. m\., '1# notl "t'lP
C7illJ;! 'ilQ N:;O
, .au.... IX. 88, XIIl. 26. ?(;;, d .
• N7'!;l
, sUra VII. 88. F i1f..;;..
'1 lI.att, :lil:. Z4 i Mark, z:. 25 J Luke, xviii. 24.
TUB Il'UTUBIII LIPlil. 53
deserving of mention here, because the faot that in the
Talmud elephant is used seems to oonfirm the ordinary
translation of the Greek word in the Gospels, and the Arabie
,word in the Qumn, and to remove the doubt as to whether
they might not be better rendered" cable."
Given the pure conception of immortality viz., that the
life of the sonl never ceases, it beoomes unnecessary to fix
a time at which the judgment shall take place; and so in
most Talmudic passages a future world is pictured 1 in
which every thing earthly is stripped away and souls
enjoy the brightness of God's Presence.
2
Echoes of this
teaching are to be found in the Quran. In one passage8
we read of a soul gazing on its Lord, and in another
4
the condition of a perfectly peaceful soul is beautifnlly
described. But this entirely spiritual idea Was not
thoroughly carried out. Rather by the side of the pure
conception of a continued life of the soul after the death
of the body,5 there existed that of the quickening of the
dead.
6
Thus becausE' the man cannot receive the requital
1 N:l11'1 c"'l:ll
T- T
I l'1m
• sUra LXXV. 28.
• sUra LXXXIX. 27 if.
5 Take 9. g. the Rabbinical saying:
C':'''j? tl>'X'i!;l:jl .. Even in their death tbe rigbt-
eous are called living j U aud in BUras II. 1.49, I II. 168, it is ordered tltat
those who fall in; haIr war shall not be called dead, but living,
• C'J;1Wlj
The view that by the expression Teobiyath H.mmethim the future
world or the {spiritual} continued life of the (bodily) doad ia meant,
given olearly in the explanation whioh So Baraith& adds to the quoted
uttera.nce of the MiBhna. To the words: "he who aooerta tho bolief
in B:u.mmethim is no part of the Jewish religion has no plU.... iu
JUDAISM AND ISLA.M.
of his deeds while he is still in a state of death, ths time of
resurrection must be the time for the judgment.
1
These t;"o views of the resurrection and the judgment
day, though different in themselves, are both closely
connected in Judaism a.nd more especially in Isla.m.
2
In
Jndaism there is a third period the advent of a Messiah,
which it is not easy to separate from the other two.
Naturally this time, which is to bring forth two such
important events as judgment and resurrection, will be
ushered in by terrible signs. In Judaism statements to
this effect are to be fonnd only abont the third period, which
is generally connected with the other two, viz., the earth-
ly period of the Messiah; in Islam on the contrary every-
thing is attributed to the last day. The ntteranOe most in
accord with the Talmnd is that in Snnnaa 41 and 141, which
says tha.t learning shall vanish, ignorance shall take root,
drunkenness and immorality sha.Il increase. With this we
mnst compare the passage in Sanhedrin 97 : S " A.t the time
when David's san comes the' learned diminish, and the
place of learned meetings serveS for immorality." The
descriptions in the Qnran refer more to the Ia.at day itself,
and remind ns of many passages in Holy Scriptnre, where
i' is also said of those days that the world will bow
itself before God, the heavens will be rolled together 4 and
the fa.ture world," he adds: 'c he denies the T. H.
t
therefore he bu no
ID01'tt a portion in it." Here the expression C'.Ml:ln n'nn and
"future, world" are taken as identioal in meaning. Compare too the
Book Ikbrim, IV. 81.
I l'W l:l'i'
I Oompare, ••g. 8ura. XXVI. 87. 88.
I ,m H;.'1"1 .,i':f
iT.:i7'
• 8Umo XXI. XXXIX. 67.
Of. ,r,,);1 Isaiah XXXIV. 4.
GOG AND MAGOG. 55
vanish in smoke,l all cities will be destroyed,2 and men
will be drunken and yet not drunken.
S
Another very distinct sign of the advent of a Messiah,
which ia remotely alluded to in the Bi:ble but which
attained to an extraordinary development in the Talmud
and especially in later writings, is the battle of Gog, Prince
of Magog.
4
Gogand Magog are, however, named by the
Rabbis aB two princeB, and this view has taken root in the
Quran in the Rabbinical form,5 since two persons, Gog
and Magog, are mentioned as dwellers in the uttermost
parts of the earth.
6
In the details of the idea of future retribution many
resemblances are to be found, which, by virtue .of the unity
of the Jewish view and its derivation from the Soriptures,
shew themselves as borrowings from Judaism. Thus
according to the Talmud, a man's limbs themselves shall
give testimony sgainst him; 7 in one passage we find these
words: "The very members of 8 a man bear witness against
him, for it is said: 'Yeyourselves are my witnesses saith the
Lord. ,,, With this we may compare Sura XXIV. 24: 9
" Their own tongues, and hands, and feet, shall one day be
witness against them of their own doings,lO The judgment
1 sUra XLIV. 9 If.
• S6m XVII. 60.
3 SUra XXII. 2. Compo Suras XXVI!. 89, XXXIX. 68, LXIX. 13 If.
f Ezekiel, x1:xviii. and :r:.u::i:r:.
• SUra XXI. 96. ;i;li
• S6m XVIII. 93.
7 Chagiga 16, Taanith 11.
"n 0J;ltl1 i:ll 0'1'1'11 J)I!I
8 Isaiah, xliii. 12-
• (;l)',fq Of, ti
. - -- ..-
I. cr. also SUr&S XXXVI. 66, XLI. 19.
JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
day gains also a greater importance from the fact that not
only individuals and nations appear at it, but alao those
beings who have been hononred lIS gods by the nations,
and they too receive punishment with their worshippers.
In Sukkah XXIX we find this statement: 1 "As often as a
nation (on account of idolatry) receives its punishment,
those beings honoured by it as gods shall also be punished;
for, it is written: 2 'Against all the gods· of Egypt I will
execute· That this general sentence admits of
a r6ference to the punishment of the last day is not expressly
stated, but it is worthy of acceptation. Mnl}.ammad.
expresses himself stilI more clearly about it: S "Verily
both ye and the idols which ye worship besides God shall
be cast lIS fuel into hell fire."
A view closely interwoven with Judaism and Islam
is that retributive punishment is entirely confined to the
state after death, and that any single merit which a sinner
has gained will be rewarded in this world, to the end that
nothing may impede the course of jndgment in the next.
The same view, only reversed, holds good in the case of the
l·ighteous. It is a view which was thought to explain the
course of destiny upon earth, which so ofteIt seems to rUIl
contrary to the merits and demerits of men.
The Rabblbical view is expressed in the following
passage: 4 "Wherennto are the pious in this world to be
1 I'iii? ;;T'lj"tj I'ilr# Mi:1
i
" lol'lJW M!¥l:!1 I'I:!
'O"t,l '*t!j
t Exodus, xii. 12.
• &Ira XXI. 1/8. ..;:;,;;. .illi <g,;; ;,.. ti,l,;' ,;.;
- - .
• I'?'I:I?
i!li) c'ii''t? l"tl@j i!li)1
tl'i?''r-t lol'::;!;l n I " j¥" '!J<,l "liMlf> "It;l'll
N¥rr c';i:ln;r '1:1)
RABBINIOAL VU!lW OJ TS:E JIl'IURE LIJE. 57
oompared? To a tree which stands entirely in II olean
place; and when a branch bends to an nnolean plaoe, it is
cnt off and the tree itself stands there quite clean. Thus
God sends affiiotions in this world to the righteous, that
they may possess that which is to come, as it is written:
'Though thy beginning was small, yet thy latter end
should greatly increase.' 1 Sinners are like a tree which
stands in an altogether unclean place; if a branch bends
over to a olean place, it is cut off and the tree itself stands
there quite unolean. Thus God allows the ungodly to
prosper, in order to plunge them into the lowest depth of
hell, as it is written: 'There is a way whioh seemeth right
unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.''' 2
"Mul.tammad expresses this same view in several passagee,
but restriots himself to the latter part which refers to the
prosperity (,f sinners, partly beoause his own ideas were too
unspiritual for him to be able to imagine the righteous as
truly happy without earthly goods, partly because in so
doing his teaching would have lost in aooeptability to
his very degraded contemporaries. Thus in one passage S
we read: "We grant them long and prosperous lives only
o'I;)'i'T 0''10/1 'iollt ';fJ;!"tll!11

Oij? n";l "ij;:T iT<1 oij?,?;
w1 I "1# ':l:f?
';1·tl r:TJ;I'''JQl!11 w'(ol 11:J
J, Job, viii. '1.
I Proverbs, xiv. 12. KiddushiD, 40. 2. Oompare Dereoh Erets; Sntta
eDd of Chap. II I Ahoth of Rabbi Nathan, eDd of Chap. IX I EruhiD26. 2,
also the Targums and their Commenta.tors on Deuteronomy, vii. la,
I Sura III. 172. UI fl wi
. - - .
li8
that their "iniquity may be increased," 1 still the second
view is to be found among the Arabians also, e.g'
J
Elpherar
in his comments on Quran XII. 42 2 says: " It is said that
the righteous are punished and tried, in order that the day
of resurrection may be perfect in light and power, as the
contumacy of the righteous has been already expiated."
naturally avoided specifyiug any time at
which the judgment should take place, though he was
much pressed to do so. He e:l(cused himself with the
Jewish saying that with God a thousand years are as
oue day, S which was divested of its poehic adornment
and taken by the Rabbis in a purely liberal sense. 4
says 5: "Verily one day with thy Lord is as a
thousand years of those which ye compute"; and again 6 :
I, On the day whose length shall be a thousand years
of those which ye compute."
.A.s has been already shown, with the establishment of
1 Compare SUra. IX. 55, 86, XXXI. 28. In IX. 55, 86, the wordB
are evidently to be conneoted witb elld
with what immediately precedes.
ThaB Elpherar sayB on IX. 55: f"l..a1 ..,. "'\;:i, ..... JIi
WI I"IJlI S,...sl 1IIofl...a1 J
*S.rJI ..,.Ie! f"Gl.la"l ollll..... j.
Mej'bid and Ketlld<i eay that thiB verBe bnB been transposed, it Bhould
ron: U Let not therefore their riches or their children in this world ca.uso
thee to marvel. Verily God intendeth only to punish them by these
thingB in that world••
• )W:SI"p &..I"all rJl Sjall, S}\elJ4 .....;.Il4 ,wI J.i,
&o-J\
I Psalm
J
ZO. 4.
, Sanhedrin 96. 2. See also Preface to Ben Ezra's Commentary on the
PentB"uch where he oppose. thiB view.
5 Sura XXII. 46. s:;::, C.;l
• Sura XXXI!. 4.. •
THlil lllCsUimlIlOTION OJ!' THlil !lODY.
59
the doctrine of the day of judgment, the view of
the resurrection and of the quickening of the dead was
also formed j and this the more readily, because it found
support in expressions in the Scripture, as e.g. those in
Ezekiel, xxxvii. I: "I have opened your graves, and caused
you to oome up out of your graves, •••.•. ye shall
live," etc.; and those in other passages referring partly to
the metaphOlical quickening of the dead land of Israel.
Of this doctrine it is said that it is suoh a fundamental
teaching of the Jewish faith that the declaration that
it did not belong to the law entailed the exolusion of him
who thus spoke from eternal life. 2 The Quran is, so
to speak, fouuded upon this doctrine along with that
of the unity of God, and there is scarcely a page in it
where this dootrine is not mentioned. To adduce proofs
here would be as easy as it would be useless; and indeed
it is not required by our parpose, since Christianity also
has inherited this view from Judaism, as is shown in the
argument of Jesus in refutation of the Sadducees. Only
one point deserves particular mention, because on the one
hand it contains a detail adopted from Judaism, and on
the other it shows the low level of thought at that time.
As soon as it beoomes a question not merely of the
immortality of the soul, but also of the resurrection of the
body, theu the soul without its body is no longer regarded
as the same person, and the question naturally presents
itself to the ordina.ry understanding: "How can thi5 body
which we have 5een decay rise again, so that the same
per50nality 5hall reappear 7" Neither the soul alone nor
the body alone is the person, but the union of the two.
Now one part of this union is dissolved j anothel' body can
indeed be given to this soul, but by this means he who died
1 Ezekiel, xxxvii. 18. '1:11:11;'<1
. .'. ..
sUm C. 9.
• Mishna Swiliedrill X. 1
60
does not rea.ppear, but a new man, another personality,
auother comes into being. This question dimly
anticipated obtrudes itself, and can only be set at rest by
proving that the very same personality can appear again.
Instead of showing this Mul;lammad' contents himself with
the parable, used also occasionally in the Talmud, of the
renewal of the dried up earth by fertilising rain. He found
however that he could nat silence the oommon convictions
of men'thereby,l and so he was compelled to oome baok
to it again and again. The Jews also sought to give
prominenoe to this resemblance, and they put the eulo-
gium 2 "Who sendeth down the rain" into the second
benediction whioh treats of the resurrection. /:I The fact
that the righteous rise actually in their olothes4 (which
after all is not more wonderful than in their bodies) is
explained by the parable of the grain of wheat, which
is laid in the earth without covering, but springs up again
with many ooverings; The passage in Qumn VI. 96
contains a similar statement. This view is not strange to
Isl3m, for llo Slloying whioh is attributed to M.llJ;mmmad runs
thus: 5 "The dead man shall be raised in the olothes in
which he died. 'I
That from the standpoint of revea.led religion the belief
in the possibility of revelation is fundamental needs of
course no proof, and in this the views of all revealed
religions are alike; yet differences can be found in the
manner of conoeiving of the revelation, and here we
reoognise again that Mul;ul.mmad derived his view of it
from Judaism, of oourse with some JlIoclliioation.
1 VI. 95, XXX. 4<1, XXXVI. 88, XLI. 89, XLUI. 40, etc.
• :"'';l'iE
a Taanith at the begiJmmg.
• 8a.nhedrin 00. 2, 8I1d Xethilbhoth III. 2.
a '"'J'"t <oWlol .,..".ll 1;>'
(1'00. notCQ milo. cap. 7, p.
HUJ;IA1dIUll'S VIBW Oli' INSPI!IATION. 61
The Jews have a saying that" all the prophets saw
through a dark glass, but Moses through a clear one, " 1 and
Mul}.a.mmad says: 2 It was not granted. to a man that God
should speak unto him otherwise than in a vision or from
behind a veil; 8 and then he adds: 4 " or by the sending of
a messenger to reveal by His permission that which He
pleaseth." This messenger is the Holy Spirit,5 or simply
the spirit, 6 like the spirit in the story of Micaiah's vision. 7
The Arabic commentators take this holy spirit to mean
Gabriel, a view which is not unknown to the Jews, for
1 Jebamoth 49. 'INi
nrrjl:l
• Sill'a XLII. 50. .....4,..;t,; r.; 'il '.&T ",IS ;
",,_."" . "" .. -
8 Commeutators oito this verse os one in which the snperiority of 'MOSAS
is disputed.i thus Elpherar says:
e"ll jo;.r, 6.ll1 6.ll1 ,...,.. .,.,.u I,J\i ",e.ll "" <!lJ.l,
oIllI ..,II loS"'''' ,J JW o."ll ;U, <.S",.. lot ""
..... e"ll 1..,., 0111 ",I.r:-:J (:)\S.'" J J.>., j" 0111 Ji
lO
J.>., j"
loS"'''' ,..u W "t- ... c.-.. .....4oa- .'.;, (:l'" ,I JI ru..JI
* "wI .l.J.c
"The Jews said to 'By God! if thoa art .. prophet, dost
than speak with God and see Him as 'Moses spoke with Him and
Then he said: • Moses did l!ot see God· And then came th18 verse:
, It was not granted to a mall that God should speak to him, except in
a vision, ill a dream or t.hl'Ough 8upernatul'al iospil-a.tioD, or from behind
a curtain, BO that man His Voice, but doea not Bee Him; lie spoke
t.hUB to Moses also. ' n
Co _
• <lJ.l4 J.-j. JI
-- II"" .. -
""':.; i,; TO '11'vEiip.a &"ItOI'
. .
, t» Buras LXXVIII. 38, XCVII. 4.
I 1 Kiugo, uii. 21.
62 JUDAIBll .AND IaLM!.
the Jewish oommentators understand the words 1 "the
definitely speaking Spirit" to refer to Gabriel. One of
Mul.lammad's own utterances, one which is fully explained
only by the :;2nd Sunna, is much more striking: 2 " And
they will ask thee of the spirit, say:' the spirit (proceedeth)
at my Lord's command.
With this the teaching about aDgels is closely connected,
and it also had its beginning in Scripture, but appears to
have been developed in later days espeoially thl'Qugh
Parseeism. Mul;iammad is unwearied in his desCriptions
of angels; sc too are the later Jews in their many prayers
on the day of atonement, but these are of rather late
origin. S The angel of death 4 is specially mentioned in
Sura XXXII. 11.
While angels were regarded as purely spiritual beings
who execute God's commands, a class of beings was
imagined who stood between man and the purest spirits;
these were mixed spirits, who were made out of fire, 5 wlto
possessed superior mental powers, but who were mostly
inclined to evil, they were called 6 demons, but there are
numerous other names for them in Arabic. The Talmud
!las the following statement about them: 1 "Demons
1 Sanhedrin 44.
• Sum XVII. 87. ..;;:.. 6";1 .)i .iJJy4;
• Oompare Sur.. xxxv. 1, XXXVII. I, XL. 7, LXXVII. 1 ft.
LXXIX. 11ft.
• sUra XXXlI. U.
• Sura XV. 27.
, m'''' nlf!!,
c,"J? W:: l"\";)tfiJ nrf?lfi C1l:l mp?l;h
DEMONS. 63
. -
l""';l
are declared to possess six qualities, three of which are
angelic and three human. The three which pertain to
angels are that they have wings, that they can fly from one
end of the earth to the other (i. e. they are bonnd by no
space), and that they know the future beforehand. They
know the future beforehand? No I but they listen behind
the curtain. The three human qualities are that they eat
and drink, increase and multiply, I and dio." 2 Muslim
tradition cannot do enough in their description, but there
is but little about them iu the Quran. The fact that they
listened at the canopy of heaven gained for in the
Quran the nickname oithe stoned,S for, say the commen-
tators, the angels threw stones to drive them away when
they found them listening. 4 Thus it is said expressly: 5
"We have appointed them (the lamps of heaven) to be
darted at· the devils." The seventy-second Stira treats of
them in detail, and seeks especially to set forth their assent
to the new doctrine. The Talmulj. also states that they
are present at the giving of instruction. The following
"'J11
i
' Mi',;,? 'T'mtti "J'1i'1 ii'l'lo 'Pl tl1i3ly
tl"!t$ Mo/?o/-! ,':Ptt
W
';J!;l:\i Hi179
"l1!,io' "J:lizil ,''<=?iH
1 i.f..l 011 Yo' v-J.!I, lStlW' (:l'" U r'" J"i
f"P
U The genii are supposed to be a species of angels, a.nd the devil is their
fatber J he haa thus a which is mentioned with him I the
(remaining) angela however have no posterity.n Jald.ln'ddin in Maraec
Prodr. II. IS.
I Ohaglga 16. 1.
• sUms XV. 17,84, XXXVIII. 78, LXXXI. 24.
• The Moslim explanatioo of falling slats.
• to;; Sum LXVII. 5; compare Sura XXXVII. 7.
JUDAISH ISLAM.
passage from the Berachoth shows this: "The press in the
school is caused by them, the demons." 1 With this we
may compare the Qurltn : "When the servant of God stood.
up to invoke Him, it wanted little but that the genii had.
pressed on him in crowds. "2 It oannot be maintainedthat
the greater part of the about genii was adopted
from Judaism, it must ratber be said to have come from
the same dark source whence the Jews of those times drew
these conceptions, vis., Parseeisin.
Still here, as in the case of any point which is of
ineccessible origin, a reference to a mere similarity is not
withont use.
Under these four heads. then, viz., (1) Creation, (2)
Retribution including the Last Judgment and the Resur-
rection, (3) Mode of Revelation; and (40) Doctrine of Spirits,
details are fonnd, the adoption of which from Judaism we
may regard as sufficiently proved. . The precaution against
representing, ont of love for our theme, that which is
commou either to the general religious feelings of
mankind, or to all revealed religions, or at least that which
belonged to other known religious parties in Mul,tammad's
time as peculiar only to Judaism, compels ns to fix these
limits. We have fonnd much of interest especially under
the second hEiad, so that the demauds of our theme might
seem to be fairly well satisfied.
B. Moral and Legal &le8.
It is obvious that in a revealed religion all individual
commands form part of the religion, and therefore one
cannot draw any sharp line of distinction between the
" religious" and the "moral. " We have accordingly
I ""::l
• BUrt. LXXII. 19, •
MORAL AND LJlGAL IWLJI8.
considered nothing which has to do with condnct under
the heading A, even though it might be immediately con-
nected with the points of belief nnder discussion and so we
are able to bring together here all commands as to conduct.
From the fact that every individual command is Divine, a
conflict of dnties may easify arise, which cannot be readily
decided by private judgment, seeing that all the command-
ments are equal, 1 so far as their Author is concerned.
Rules for suoh cases must therefore be laid down. For
insUlmce, we find the following statement in the Rabbinical
writings: 2 "If a father .saith (to his son if he is a priest),
( defile thysel£'; or if he saith, (Maire not restitution (of the
thing fonnd to the owner) " shall he obey him? Therefore,
it is written: 3 (Let every: man reverence his father and
mother, but.keep my Sabbaths all of you, ye are all bound
to honour me.'" And MnI;1a.mmad says: 4 « We have
commanded man to show kindness towards his parents,
but if they endeavour to prevail with thee to associate
with me that concerning which thou hast no knowledge,
obey them not. "
• Faldhat El.holef&, 94, prove. that this i. reslly the Arabi. "iew :
\.. ,y41', or IW v-J JI:i
*u-:iw, .JIN)'":Ii ...,\k,. .J' .f'-'l4 ..ll.l, lip)'"3\ ...ol....k
"A meritorious Ulan sa.ys that in the flins of men there is nothing.
small, bot whatever is dona contraJ:y to the (I lmmandment is greali
with respect to Him who commands, who is eX1..J.ted a.nd holy."
• Jeb.moth 6. i":> ilol ":;!l;l i":>
ilOll:l W'l:l "Clol7. i, "'TQJ:.1
'1i:q.,
s xi:s:. 3.
I
66 JUDAIBII AND ISL.iK.
.Tuilaism is known to be very rich iu single precepts, and
Mul;lammad has borrowed from it much tbat seemed to him
suitable.
1. Prayer. Mul;lammad like the Rabbis prescribes the
shanding position 1 for prayer. Thus:" Stand obedient to
the Lord; but if ye fear any then pray while walk-
ing or riding" ; 2 and also: "Who standing, and sitting,
.and reclining, bear God in mind." 8
These three positions are mentioned again in Sura X.
13 : 4 "When evil befalleth a man he prayeth unho us,
lying on his side or sitting or standing, " where with a true
perception of the right order, the least worthy position is
the first spoken of. 5
BaidhtilVi comments thus on Sura III. 188, the passage
alluded to above: "The meaning is that the man may take
any of the three positious according to his strength, as
Mul;lammad said to Amrau Ibn Husain: 'Pray standing if
thou art able; if not, sitting; and if thou canst not sit up,
then leaning on the side. " 6 The J elVs were not so strict in
this ",atter, yet they too have the rule that pray-er should
be offered standing; 7 and in Rabbinical writings it is also
I Not. the flo.hniea! ••pression Sjl:.s1 rlii
Compo Rabb.
• Sura II. 240. JJ I;'}j
- .. 11 ---
3 Sura 1lI. 188. l:i;i; i..l;i

"1lf\:l? Cf. nera.hoth X.
7
• Cf. also Sura IV. 46.
• i1.11 4-e ;;It! .....-. =\"ell (:)f4
r-l (:)v. l.;eli; r-l (:)\; \.ru J.o _ (:)'! rLJ'J

PIU.'JlIB. 67
• sUr.. XXIII. 8. ;;,;.;:. f!i t:i' ;:.
CGmpo.re Ecel••inst... v. 1. 'lJ'":Rl iii'"
• sUr.. IV. 46. "';13.::. j fl,I:si ';Ji'
7 ""0l;1 "li"ll1 Bsra.hoth 81. 2. Erubln 64•
• Surss IV. 46. V. 9. Cf. !llohua Bers.choth III. 4-
'"ljl "31::
asid that he who rides on an ass is to dismount, but the
addition is made that, if he cannot dismount he is to turn
his faoe (towards Jerusalem).l As the bodily position may
be altered in urgent cases, so the prayer itself may be
shortened on similar occasions. 2 80 we lind the permission
to shorten prayer in time of war: .. When ye march to
war in the earth, 8 it shall be nO crime in you if ye shorten
your prayers." The Jews also were permitted to pray a
short prayer when in s. dangerous place.
4
:Mu¥ammad is
quite opposed to senseless chattering, for he counts it a
merit in believers to .. eschew all vain discourse. 5 There-
fore beoause attention and pious conoentration 'of thought
are to be aimed at, he enjoins 6 on believers not to draw
near to prayer when they are drunk. This is in accord-
ance with the Talmudic rule: "Prayer is forbidden to
the drunken. "7 It is also forbidden to those who have
touohed women. 8 These persons may not engage in
1 !Ush"" Beracboth IV. 5.
"t? "l"''2
• sUra IV. 102. to,;.;. ;f.';j; -t;Jl

• Oomp""e tbe similar ""pression In Hebrew":;
, Misbna B""""hoth IV. 4. '!J\;.t1'tJ:!
"1li?
68 JUDAISM AllD ISL.U!.

1'1"
prayer before washing with water, whioh oleansing is
reoommended as a general rule beiore prayer both in the
Quran 1 and in the Talmud. Instead of water, purifioation
with sand may take plaoe. 2 So in the Talmud: "He
cleanses himself with sand and has then done enongh."
}.p, conoentrated thougb,t is nrged as a duty, it fol1owB that
prayer though andible mllst not be noisy, S and so MuJtam-
mad says: "Pronounce not thy prayer alond, neither
pronounce it with too Iowa voice, bnt follow a middle way
hetween these;" and in the Talmnd we find: 4 "Fromthe
behaviour of Hannah who in prayer moved her lips we
learn that he who prays must pronounce the words, and
also as her voice was not heard we learn that he must
not raise his voice loudly." But because our mood does
not at all times move us to fervenoy, of prayer, ontward
oeremony is necessary, and indeed prayer in a great
congregation, whose devotion wiH stir up our own. 5
"']'he pTayer in the congregation" 6 is greatly pl'llised
also by the Jews. Daybreak, whioh is mentioned in the
Talmud in connection with the Shema prayer, as the time
when "one can distingnish between a blne and a white
thread, "7 is not mentioned in this connection in the
'8ura V. 8. Berachoth 46.
I ;. Suras IV. 46, V. 9. Of. the Talmudi. phrase
i'':!l
3 au!'/! XVlI. 110. l".i :i; riJ.IFJ J
.... ... .... .."
4 1 Samuel, i. 13. Berachoth 31. 2.

i?ip N!;W
a Of. SUDna 86. 87. 88. 89.
e
1 Miahna Berachotll I. 2. l'iJ
69
Quran it is true, for the Quran knows nothing of a. Shama.
prayer, but it appears in oonnection with the beginning of
the Fast Day:" 1 Until ye oan disoern a white thread
from a blaok thread by the daybreak. "
2. Some rulings in respeot of women tally with Judaism;
e.g., the waiting of divorced woman for three months before
they may marry agaiu.
2
The time of suokling is given
in both as two years: 3 "Mothers shall give suok nnt.c
their children two full years. " Similarly in Sura XLVI.
14 we find: "Hi3 bearing and his weaning is thirty
months," which is explaiued by Elpherar as follows: 4
"He takes the shortest dnration of pregnanoy, viz., six
months, and the shortest of suokling, viz" twenty-four
months." Compare the Talmndio saying: 5 ".A. woman is
to suokle her ohild two years, after that it is as though
a worm suoked." That those relatives to whom inter-
marriage is forbidden in the Soripture are precisely those
whom Mul.ismmsd pel'mits 6 to see their near relations
unveiled has been already notioed by Miohaelis in the
Mosaio system, and he has shewn the oonneotion between
theso two laws.
1 SUra II. lS3. .;;:.
Compare the note in the first section (p. 26) for remarks on the Fast.
Day, c lshura.
• SUn, II. 2:l8. Of. Mi,hna Jabbamoth IV, 10.
t'l'tPl1J 'V? N;
• Sura IT. 233. elf;.. ;;..;
Of. XXXI. 13.
• 1ft-'" <:l"r>, &s!;I e\.o;l\ S.... Jil, &::-. J-ll i .... Jil ol!;!
• Ketbuboth 60. 1.
i'i.;'f t'l';rp 'J:Jt¥ r.qf
Compare Josephus Ant. 2. 9.
• Sum XXIV. 31.
70 JUDAIS][ AND IBLb.
As Mu1).ammad had. very little intention of imposing 8
new code of individual laws, since his aim was much more
the spread of new purified religious opinions, and as in the
matter of practice he was far too;>. mnch of an Arab to
deviate from inherited usages, unless they came directly
into opposition to these higher religious views, it is easily
to be explained how so few borrowings are to be found in
this part and much even of what is adduced might perhaps
be claimed to be general oriental custom. We shall find
mor!'over in the Appendix that Mul:}.ammad mentions many
Jewish laws which were known to him; he alludes to these
sometimes as binding on the Jews, sometimes merely for
the sake of disputing them, and hence we see that it WBB
not want of knowledge of them that kept him back from
using them, but his totally different purpose. This remark
must apply also to our third headiug, under which isolated
instances of adaptation only will be found, except in cases
where the view is directly oonnected with the higher
articles of Faith adopted from Judaism, whioh have been
already mentioned.
o. VieW8 of Life.
In putting together these single fragmentary utterances,
it is scaroely worth while to arrange them according to
any new system, and we will therefore follow the order of
the Quran.
Death with the righteous is to be prized, hence the
request in the Quran: "Make us to die with the right-
eous," 1 which corresponds with that of BaJaam, <t Let me
die death of the righteous. "
1 sUra m. 191. Jljli r:; Uij
Cf. :Numbel'" :aiii. 10. ,.,b1'l
VIIWS O. LI1I'lI.
'l1
fC Bay not of any matter, 'I will, surely do this ro-
morrow,' llnlooe thou add, • If God please. ,nI FnII under-
sta.nding is first impnted to IL man when he is forty years
old, 2 and it is said in the Mishna: .. At forty years of
age a. man comes to intelligence." So the hunting for
some particular persons, to whom this sentence of the
Qnr8.u shall apply, as the A.rll.bic Commentators do, appears
altogether unneoessary; it is also rendered very dubjons
by the wide differenoes between the vanons opinions.
In the a oomparison is found between those who
bear a burden without understanding the naturo of it and
who thus carry without profit, and an ass carrying books. 3
fC He who intercedeth (between men) with a good inter-
oession shall have a portion thereof. " 4 This saying is very
similar to the Hebrew one: fC He who asks for meroy for
a.nother while he needs the same thing himself obtains help
1 8w,..xvlII. 23. l:i .tu_J !;
Cf. the Hebrew ezpresslon ell'" .CI:l
I 84m XLVI. U. 1:...; Of. Aboth V.II.

That full uuderstandiDg Ii. uot reached untU the oompletion of tbe
fortieth 7""" is obaervea aIso by Pbno «("TV sa WIBop.a8,)
&"(1-"), wbo here take. the forty••eeond 7""". only beoa....
he attaohe. PArtioolar virtue to the number 7, in wbloh Solon aIso agree.
with him (Vid. l'bUo, de OpiOoio Muudi, P. 70-72, Eel. Pfeifer I)
• Sura LXII. 5. J
Of. the Hebrew Hfl,lj "l'il:t.:!
, 8ura IV. 87. . .f ;if i.
Of. Babe Kemma 92. 'i"l;;q W12:;ll?" ?,
n?lif:1 tM iniN?
72 JUDAISM ANn ISLbr.
first. " In Sunna. 689 it is said: "Three things follow the
dead, but two of them turn back ;hi8 family, his goods,
and his works follow him; his family and his goods
forsake him again, and only his works remain with him. "
This is also found in great detail in: Habbinical Hebrew: 1
"Man has three friends in his life time,-his family, his
property, and his good works. At the time of his depar.
turf! from earth he collects the members of his family, and
says to them, 'I beg yon, come and free me from this evil
death.' They answer: I Hast thou not heard 2 that no one
has power over the day of death! It is also written: 3 , None
of them can by any means redeem his brother, even his
I Pirke Rabbi Ellezer 34.
':I?-' 1'.; 1t1 "':n.:p C'P'$? oj', M'f'1J?
N'lM C'fill
y
c':+i19lJ
'Ill:a ClJ? ';lin
i? l':+'tPZ? ltrl V'iQ 17;1
n;Q Ml;l :l'J:ljl '!'J:il 1
ilO
7rP
\llj ni'l!?? ::u:l
N
N'lMt#
'11;11 'm.l
Vi?? ';I'ni:l? IYOQl ci"t.F? '!'J'?
1e nt:l" N'lrit#? c1
iJ7
Q '1'l?t:! c:? HlJ"·
i? '!;)tl1 nl;l
b'll;i!? N'l
M
l nr-:r 1!;l TJI1!;l
't;liol1 C':+i19lJ 1;;1 jin ,':vi'
'1:11 'lil3? 'Ill:ll clJ1
llJl ?"'.¥l:! l:l:1 ''2i n',?l;Iil'l C
1
7 C'fill
y
nN¥.?
1l;l''1i?!;l c'''J;i7 '!'J'.m t4,W ,:p ci,J;i7 'lJ7. i,
. 'n 'iJ'r.'1
I: Ecclesiastes, viii. 8. 3 Psalm. xlix. 8.
STORIlIll BORROWED PllOH JUDAISH•. 73
wealth whioh he loves avails not, he oannot give to God. a
ra.nsom for him, for the redemption of their son! is oostly
1Ion.d. must be let alone for ever; but enter thou into peaoe;
rest in thy lot till the end of days.l May thy part be
wit1t the righteous.' Whsn the man sees this, he oolleots
his trelll!ures and says tothem: ' I have laboured for you day
and night, and I pl'8y yoo. redeem and deliver me from this
death' ; but they answer: 'Hast thon not heard that riohes
profit not in the day of wrath? ' 2 So then he collects his'
good works and says to them: ' Then you come and deliver
me from this death, support me, let me not go. out of this
world, for you still JuLve hope in me if I am delivered.'
They answer: ' Ental' into peace I but before thou departeat
we will hasten before thee; as. it is written, Thy
righteousness shall go before thee, the glory of the Lord
shall be thy rearward.'" S
SECOND SIWTIOII.
OhapterlL
srories borrowed from Judaism.
This division will prove to be thelargest, partly, because
these narratives, drsped in the most marvellous garb of
fiction, lived mostly in the month of the people; partly,
because this fairy-tale form appealed to the poetic fancy of
Mnl).ammad, and snited the childish level of his contempo-
raries. Iu the oase of the Old Testament narratives, which
are seldom related soberly, but are for !.he most part
embelllshed, it needs soaroely a question, 01' the most
cursory enquiry,.68 to whether or no they have passed from
the Jews to Mnl).ammad; for the Christians, the only
other possible source to whioh they could be &ttn'buted,
bestowed very little &ttention in those days on the Old
Testament, but in their narrstives kept to what is strictly
1 Daniel, xii. 13.
K
I Proverbs. zi. 4. a Isaiah, Iviit 8.
74 JUDAISIl AND IsW.
Christian, viz., the events of the Life of Jesus, of His
disoiples and His followers, and of the multitude of subse-
quent Saints and wonder-workers, wbich afforded them
abuudant material for manifold embellishments. The
Christians, for all tbat they accepted the Old Testament
as a sacred writing, and although in those days no doubt
bad ariseu as to whetber 01' no tbey were to put the Old
Testament on a level with tbe New in respect .of boliness
and divine iuspi1'8tion, a donbt which has been brought
forward for example by Schleiermacher in later times,-tbe
Christians. of that period, I say, had nevertheless a more
lively interest in the New Testameut, since it was the
expression of their separation and i n d e p e n ~ e n c e . The
Old Testament was common to them and the Jews, and
indeed they could not deny to the latter a greater right of
possession in it, for the Jews possessed it entirely, and were
versed in it even to the minutest details, an intimate
knowledge with whioh we cannot oredit the Christians.
Further, just thOSe points in the OldTestament which Were
speoislly suited to the Christian teaching are found to be
scaroely touohed upon in tbe QUnOn; thus, for instanoe, the
. narrative of the transgression of thefirst human pair is not
at all represented as a fall into sin, involving the entire
corruption of human nature which must afterwards be
redeemed, but rather Mn!).ammad oontents himself with the
plain, simple narration of the fact. This may be taken as
an instance to prove that the narratives about persons
mentioned in the Old Testament are almost all of Jewish
origin, and this will be more clearly shewn when we oome
to details.
As we proceed to the enumeration of tbe individual
borrowed stories, the necessity is forced npon us of arrang-
ing them in some order. We have no reason for arranging
tbem according to tbeir souroes, (Bible, Mishna, Gemara,
Midrash, etc.) as Mu!).ammad did not gain his knowledge of
these narratives from any of these sources, but was taught
PATIII.I.B<lIlS: E.OIl AD.!J( TO NOAII. '16
them all verbally by those round him, and so they were all
of the same vahul fol' him, and were all called biblical;
furthermore we must pay no attention to their contents, ~
for the narratives are not given as supporting any
dootrines of Isl'm, but are merely qucted as records of
historioal mots; and even in those oases where they are
intended to set forth a dootrine, it is almost always
either that of the unity of God, or that of the :Reaur-
reotion of the dead. It appears therefore advisable to
sl'1'llonge them ohronologically, by which means it will be
mcst easy to reooguise the numerons anachronisms among
them. Either Mul}.ammad did not know the history of
the Jewish nation, which is very probable, or the narration
of it did not suit his object, for cnly once is the
whole history summed up in brief,l and only the events
in the lives of a few persons are mentioned. In this
chrOnological arrangement we shall have to pay more
attention to the personal importance of individuals than to
any changes in the ccndition and circumstances of the
nation, and thus in this arrangement we shall have the
following Divisions: I. Patriarchs; 2. Moses; 3. The three
Kings who reigned over the individed Kingdom, viz., Salll,
David and Solomon; and 4. Holy menwho lived after them.
SECOND OBAPrlCll.
First Part.
Patriarchs: A.-From Adam to Noah.
The great event of the creation of the first man gave
occasion for much poetical embellishment. Before the
appearance of Adam, .the jealousy of the angels, who had
cOUDselled against his creation, was ronsed, and God shamed
them by endowing Adam more richly with knowlsdge tha.n
any of them. In the Quran we have the following des-
cription:
2
"When thy L01·d said unto the angels, 'I am
1 BUra XVII. 4-8.
, 51ra U. 28-32.
76
going to place a substitute on earth' ; they said, 'Wilt thou
place there one who will do evil therein and shed blood?
hut we oelebrnte thy prs.ise and sanctify thee.' God
auswered : ' Verily I know that which ye knownot'; andHe
taught Adam'the nllollle8 of all things, and then proposed
them to the angels, and said: ' Declare unto me the names
of these things, if ye say truth.' They answered: 'Praise
be unto thee, we have no knowledge but what thou
teaohest us, for thou art knowing and wise.' God. said:
, 0 Adam, tell them their Jl&IDe8 ;' and when he had told
themtheirnames,God said: 'DidI not tell you that! know
the secrets of heaven and earth. and know that whioh ye
discover, and that whioh ye conceal r'" The oorresponding
Hebrew passage may be thus trnnsJated: 1 "When the
Holy One, blessed be He I would create man, he took
counsel with the angels, and said to thom: 'We will malte
man in our image; , 2 then thoy said: 'What is man that
thou art mindful of him? 3 What will be his peculiarity r '
He said: 'His wisdom is greater than yours.' Then He
brought beaats, cattle, and birda before them, andasked for
their names, but they knew them not. But when He had
1 Kidraah Re.bbo.h on Numbers, pam. 19.
"' i'1N;=i!'? N'lM '!I'M;
'Mlfl;' 1\17 "!;l'$ m,,,
'in9:rr.' 1\.17 "9
l"lI:j1 rn;O:v.O "' ltl:m
l'Vl
i
' H'1 ioo/ "9 ''f '1;1 l']i1''7
.,itti iozr "9 i,
';tl i; nl;;I "J;)\o!1 'lfi ".n 0'1'0
lJ? '; Mlf1t\Q 111 'l:lN1=P-o/ Q"'I,l'$
;'i? 1;'1;1 nJ;1ll1!1i '.itj
Compare 'Hidrs.sb Rabbah OR Genesis, p&r8. 8 and 11, a.ud also
Sauhedrjb 88.
I Genesis, i. 26. a- l'oolm, viii. 5.
ADAI( AND THE ANGELS.
77
created man He ca118etl the animals to pass before him and
asked him for their names, and. he replied: 'Th.is is an ox,
that an ass, this a horse and that a camel! ' But what art
thou called f ' , It is fitting that I should be called earthy,
for I BIDformed of the earth! 'AndIf' , Thou art csJled
LORD, for thou rulest all Thy creatures!" From this arose
the other legend 1 that Gtld, after the creation of man,
commanded the angels to fall down before him, which they
sJI did except Iblis,2 the devil. The legend bears
unmistakeable marks of Ohristian development, in that
Adam is represented in the beginning as the God-man,
worthy of adoration,' which the Jews are far from
asserting.
s
It is true that in Jewish writings great
hononr is spoken of as shewn by the angels to Adam,
hat this never went so far as adoration j indeed when
this Wll8 once about to take place in error, God frustrated
the action. We find in Sanhedrin 29,4 "Adam sat in
the Garden of Eden, and the angels roasted lIesh for him,
and prepared cooling wine"; and in another passage i,
is said,S "Mter God had created man, the angels went
astray in regard to him, and wanted to say before him,
1 SUras VII. 10018. XV. 28-44. XVII. 63-68, XVIII. 48. XX. 115,
XXXVIII. 71-86.

-.
3 The legepd of the devi!,s refusal to worship Adam, giv.en by me as
a Christia.n ODe, was found by ZIlDZ (U Die ,Gotteadienatlichen VOl;'
triige der Jnden," page 291. Note.) in the MS. Mid.....h of Rabbi Mo,ee
Hadd&rsban. who however lived in the eleventh century.
• m.l;O n;y n'l1 l'iWM"'!1;I l:11:l
i? "!f'tr i?
oS Midrash Rabbab on GeooBia., para. S.
i::l n'flP¥
:n '::1 W"if "#? /1"10/11
Ql!;l '?:';:T "?ll
n!znf.1!:l
: .

JUDAISll AND ISUIl.
o Holy one I then God permitted sleep to fall on him, and
all knew that he was o£ earth." In favour of the Christian
origin of this narrative we mnst count the fact that the
name used by Christiaus for the devil is the oue used in
all the passages referred to instead of the general Hebrew
name'! From this event according to MU4ammad arises
the hatred of the Devil against the human race, because
on their accouut he became accursed of God j and so his
lirst work was to counael man in the Garden of Eden 2 to
eat of the tree of knowledge.
S
In this narrative the
Devil is again given his Hebrew nsme,4 and yet the first
explanation of the temptation through the snake as coming
from tne Devil. seems to be eutirely Christisn, 8S no such
refereuce is to be found in the older Jewish writings j the
passage quoted below can only be regarded as a slight
allusion: Ii "From the beginning of the book up to this
poiut 6 no Samecn is to be found j as BOOU however as
woman is orested, Satan (with the initiulletter Sin III like
&machI)) is cres.ted also." Still we find in a book which.
forged, is undoubtedly oldl the following statement:
, 1 .;...!'i\ instead of (lr:iD)
... ,. T
t Thi. proper Dame Ift Dever used by )fo'"mtilad in this narrative;
'lIP..
he u... throughont simply ....... whIch shows that the Je"s knew well the
distinction between the home of onr /lrst p&l'8nta and PlI1'8di.e.
I Bursa VI[. 18.25, XX. 115·127.
,
• Kid.....h Rahbsh on Genesis, psra. 17.
liil ::l''-':P '11'1
• Geoasis, it 21.
7 Pirke Rabbi Eliezer, xiii.
"tI r:m:':l ",;:r "l':lltQ
0'11;1 H'1'¥ toI':l1 H'lM 'i1 Ml;l";'1
'rIIlil 'PALL or IIAN. '19
« Samsel, the great prince in heaven, took his companions
and went down and inspected aU God's oreatures; he
found none more maliciously wise than the serpent, so he
mounted. it, and all that it B&id or did was at the instiga-
tion of Samsel." 1 Thus this legend, even if not entirely
Jewish, appears to have been derived by Mu!).ammad from
the Jews, In the details of this narrative some confnsion
is found between the tree of knowledge and the tree
of life. The former only is mentioned in Scripture as
prohibited by God,2 and to the eating of that alone the
serpent incites Eve. After the transgression has taken
place, we find the fear mentioned lest men should eat of
the tree of life and live for ever.
S
Mu!).ammad confuses
the two. In one passage he puts into the devil's mouth
the statement that men throngh eating of this tree would
become «.A.ngels," or «immortal," 4 but in another
passage he mentions only the tree of eternity.5 AU the
rest of the history of the first human pair is omitted, and
N'1 N' "1.i :1::111 wrm. 'TIll?
'If Mifi
1 To the lI&l11e effeot Mul}emmad ben Kols (vide Elpborar on VII. 21) •
Alii 1,- y) I,. JIi "u) .....J$\ ,J r"" &ij
".
*u-oe1l' ..ir' JIi lWr' ,.J .Io..IJ JIi &o.l\ ..,J1i ,.J ',-I
n His Lord called to him: cO Adami why hast thon eaten of that, when
I, ha.d forbidden it to thee?' He replied. I Eve it to me.' Then
Baid He to Eve: I Why didllt thon give it to him P' she replied, I The snake
cQmlJ1anded me to do it.' Then said He to the snake: • Why didat thQU
command it pi I The devil ordered me to do it.' n
Sea also AbuIfed.ae lIistoria. Anteiala.mica. Fleischer's edition, page 12.
• Genesis, ii.IT,andiii. 5. '.ni' tl'l;T"N:\l
• Genoais. iii, 22. tl7i:P?
• SUre VII, 19. l:}\?J; or
I S("a XX. liS. ..t..1i(;;.;-
80 JUDAiSM AND ISLb.!.
only one event in the life of C"in and Abel is depicted.
This is depicted for us quite in its Jewish colours. In this
passage, and indeed throughout the Quran, they are called
soua of Adam, but in later Arabic writinga I their names
are given aa Qabil and Habn, which are clearly chosen ont
of love for the rhyming sounds. The one event mentioned is
their sacrifice and the murder which it led to.
2
Mu1)ammad
makes them hold a oonversation before the mnrder, and
one is likewise given in the Jerusalem Targum 3 on the
strength of the words in Genesis, "Cain said unto Abel
his brother." Still, the matter of the conversation is
given so differently in each case that we do not consider
it worth while to compare the two passages more closely.
After the murder, according to the Quran, God sent a.
raven which scratched the earth to shew Cain how to bury
Abel. What is here attributed to Cain is ascribed by the
Jews to his parents, and in a Rabbinical writing we find
the following passage: 4 "Ada.m and his companion sat
weeping and mourning for him (Abel) and did not know
what to do with him, as bnrial was nnknown to them.
Then ca.me a raven, whose companion was dead, took its
1 See Abolfeda. Historia. Anteislft.mica., Fleischer's Edition, page 12
1
for
; D'Herbelot Bibliotheque Orientale under the heading
Cabil calls a.ttention to the possibility tbat in the word Oabil the
derivation from J.;i is kept to. Cf. Genesis, iv.l.
'I Genesi8, iv. 3·9. Cf. Sura V. 30-36.
S Commonly called PS8udo-Jonatban.
, Pirke R. Eliezer, chapter xxi.
N'l C':ttp"
N?1# niwl1? n\;l
Mt99"' initol niL? i? ,.,,,1#
1;>1# niL7 niifll
";;ii;Tl
CAIN AND ABEL.
81
body, scrat,ched in t,he earth and hid it, before their eyes;
then said Adam, I shall do as this raven has done, and at
once he took Ahel's oorpse, dog in the earth and hid it."
In the Quran a verse follows I which, withont knowledge
of the source from which it has come, seems to stand
in no connection with what has gone before, but which
will be made clear by the following explanation. The
verse accordiug to my translation runs thus: "Wherefore
we commanded the children of Israel, that he who slayeth
a soul, without having slain a soul, or committed wicked.
ness in the earth, shall be as if he had slain all mankind;
but he who saveth a soul alive, shall be as if he had saved
the lives of aU mankind." One perceives here no connec-
tion at all, if one does not consider the following Hebrew
passage: 2 " We find it said in the case of Cain who
murdered his brother: The voice of thy brother's Lloods
crieth.
3
It is not said here blood in the singular, but
bloods in the plural, i.e., his own blood and the blood of
his seed. Man was created single in order to show that
to him who kills a single individual, it shall be reckoned
that he has slain the whole race; but to him who preservAs
the life of a single individnal it is counted that he hath
preserved the whole race." By this comparison it is made
clear what led Mul}.ammad to this general digression j he
had evidently received this rule from his informants when
they related to him this particular event. Another
1 SUra. V. 35. i Miabna Sanhedrin IV. 5.
?ij'l b "1!,;)t.B "J:l!;1
0':11 il:l'1 Tl,r:'1l;l 'l;l'I 0"1. "11;<\01 iJ'l'!
nlJl:! '*l:llplJ ?ilW '!J1I-'177 0';!!;1 N1:;q
O'i?liJlj ?:tl tl?9 07
ili
';1<1:1 ",?r
. N29 ,'?¥. nlJl;:l
8 Genoais, iv. 10, not 0' (singular). but '!;I,,! (plural). Compare the
t.ranslation of Onkelos.
).
82 JUDAISM AND ISW.
allusion to Cain is fonnd in the fJnran in a passage where
he is called the man" who has seduced among men." 1 No
one else is mentioned in this period excepting Idris 2 who,
according to the commentators, is Enoch. This seems
probable from the words,S "And 'we nplifted him to l1
place on high," and also from a Jewish writing in which
he is counted among the nine who went to Paradise alive.
Jalalu'ddin brings this point even more prominently
forward' : 4 tt He lived in Paradise where he had been
brought after he had tasted death j he was quickened
however, and departed not thence again." He appears to
have gained his name 5 on account of the knowledge of the
Divine Law attributed to him. Elpherar remarks: "He
was called Idns (searcher) on acconnt of his earnest
search in the revealed Scriptnres." It is remarkable that
in both these passages of the Qnran 6 he is mentioned
after Isbmael.
, Sura XLr. 92. u-o,lIf Ji.l "",m
_ A -
• . <, S'
uraB XIX. 57, 58; XXI. 85, 88.
A
Elpberar OD Surs XIX. 57 SDyS: t.r"'-I ",-I, lOy ...,ll ..... i",
n He is the gra.ndfather of the fathel' of Noa.h, his name is Enoch .n
whioh na.me Abolfeda. (Rist. Anteisla.m.ica page 14) spella t."..
expre••ly remarks: .6. , ,t" (:)Y' .n..e--.I...I "With 8D UDpointed
ha, DOD, waw, and Q, pointed ha ," and la.ter he adds c,."
:1 Sura. XIX. 68. G.cs::.; Compare Genesis, v. 24 and the
Tract Dersch Erez cited in Midrash Yalknt, oha.p. XLII.
• ID Maraeeio. =,.JI 0lJ1 (:)1 \eLwl &.t..,.lld i"

... c. _
• is derived from. Elpberar on XIX. 57.
- .
6 Buras. XIX, 55, 66; XXI. 85.
FIlOlll NOAH TO A8IlA.HAlll.
B.-From Noah to Abraham.
83
The corruption which spread in the time of Noah is not
described with any details in the Quran, and one event
which is by the Rabbis to have taken place at this
period is transferred by Mul}.a.mmad Solomon's time,
to which he considered it better suited, as it treats of
angels and genii. The Rabbinical passage runs thus: 1
"Rabbi Joseph was asked by his schclars:' What is Azael ? '
aud he auswered: When men at the time of the .Flood
practised idolatry, God was grieved at it, and two angels,
Shamhazai and Azael, said to him : 'Lord of the world, did
1 Midr. Abhkhir quoted in Midr. Y&lknt Ch&p. XLIV.
n:;l "l:li1\ l1!?i' "1'l;;l70
:Ji!11r;t!;l 1114 .,i'T
'1t1l:tf/l ':It¥
"lil l-oI't1 "W
, ui i, "'7¥ 07
i
l'l "7;ll;\ ':;l
. '- '- ,,-,, . ' ...
0l:l ( Of l$,:ll "
'I:> ':l:!tl;l O'rPjf 111i;.T 11;;;1 V":)t$¥
l'tli1i2l? "11l1:"l1 ni'1:!tl:! 0l? 1J::1
11?'1 'lt11fW 11i:11 0!;'1¥l? '" ,
t1l1!;1W il:> '7 l:Til
i:J Wi
b
9 OWl:! 'i:l1f''i'71o/ ':11
l1'iri'l ow 111':;J!J:I ow 1'11!!?'< nJ;ll$rf
111:;;'<1,;;1 11;) 1'1911'<1 'n ' "r,ll;l n7i17i?
1:l7il'? n; 1:l':;J;?i:l nv::tt!'
l-oI"l Oil
I:l'<il uii:!!?'? iol"=t1.
'0/. l'1?'rP?t"l ';.'7;) ':l'!;l n;r;r
n!;1
Compare ¥oma 67. 2. and Raahi, Zohar on Genesis, i., 26.
84
JUDA.ISM A.ND ISLAM.
we not sa.y unto Thee at the creation: 'wnat is man that
Thou art mindful of him?' I But He said: 'What shall
become of the world?' They answered: 'We wonld have
made use of it.' 'But it is well-known to Me that, if you
lived on the earth, lust would overcome you, and yon wonld
become even worse than .man.' 'Then give ns permission
to live with men, and Thou wilt see how we shall sanctify
Thy name.' 'Go and live with them.' Then Shamhazai
saw a maiden by na.me Istahar. He cast his eyes on her
and said: ' Listen to me;' to which she replied: ' I will not
listen to thee nntil thon. teaohest me the explicit name
of God, through the mention of which thou risest to
heaven.' He taught her this name which she then nttered
and rose unspotted to heaven. Then God said: 'Because
she tnrned herself from sin, well I fasten her between
.the seven stars, that ye may enjoy her for ever' ; and so
she was fastened into the Pleiades. Bnt they lived in
immorality with the danghters of men, for these were
beantiful, and they could not tame their lusts. Then they'
took wives and beget sons, Hiwwa and Hiyya. Azael was
master of the meritricious arts and trinkets of women
which beguile men to immoral thoughts." It is evident
that this story is alluded to in the passage in the Qnran,2
where the two angels Harut and are said to have
taught men a charm by which they might cause division
between a man and his wife.
s
During this state of
1 Psalm, l'iii. 5.
I SUra II. 96. ;
3 This oonnectiou llnd oomparillOn which might wen appear verY doubt-
fal, and which seemed even to me at first. nothing more t.hall a conjectnre,
reoeives fall corroboration from that which later Arabia.n authors, quite
in harmony with the Mid. Yalknt, say about the angels. We find in
Maraooiu.s Prodromi i", 82, the following:
JIAl J-)\ .>.I) ,..,\ '-"" t:l"" ............... JU )
\lIS:! I.I}\ d ,.eIJ
FROM NOAR TO ABRARAM. 85
corruption of morals Noah appears, teaching men and
seeking by exhortation to turn them from their evil
ways. He builds himself the Ark and is saved, while the rest
of the people perish) His whole appearance as an admon-
isher and seer is not Biblical but Rabbinical, and serves
Mul;1ammad's ends perfectly, as Noah in this way is a type
of himself. According to rabbinical writings,2 Job, xii. 5
rofers to Noah, "who rebuked them and spake to them
words as severe as flames, but they scorned him and said:
, Old man, for what purpose is this ark 7' He, however, sa.id:
, God is going to bring a flood upon you.''' Other particulars
\.:..wu \aT» ,...\s;; ily-I i),.. ""I i.r"}1 ...J
y
u"- 'oW
......,.. JU ,. =)Uoi \e-Al ...,u. 1..1;1 ,iii
*1,,;.1l\ J'>I C;)" \.:..WI ..,.:\1 SI;+l' ",I ...,
:Muja.hid says: The angels wondered at the wickedneBS ot tbe sons
of Adam, for Apostles bad already been Bent to them; thl'lD their Lord
(God) said to them: C Choose out two of you, and I will send them that
they ma.y judge npon earth.' Then Ba.ru.t and Marut were chosen, and
they judged righteously, till Ze.hrah (the star Venus, just like the
Y.lkntiah ";:\lfl?l:l' like "f:lt?l:l the Persian and the Greak
aUT11P). In Job :x..:u:i. 26 tho Targnm puts -,nrTOH for the Hebrew...,iW
came in the form of a moat beautiful womBn and complained about her
husband. They were led astray by her and lusted after her, but ahe fled
and went back to where ahe was before .... .M.uQa.mmad sayB: 'Yabya.
states OD a.nothe:r: authority than that of Mnjahid, that the woman through
whom they were led astray was a human woman.' The union of these
two views is to be found in the passagefl quoted from Midrssh Yalkut.
1 BUras VII. 67-68, X. 72-75, XI. 27-60, XXII. 48, XXIII. 28-82.
XXV. 89, XXVI. 105-121, XXIX. 18. 14, XXXVII. 78-81, LIV. 9-18,
LXXI. I-end.
• Sanhedrin 108. (Comp. Midrash Rnbbah on Genesis, par.... 80 and
ss, also on ix. 14.)
'jiiitl7 Ii:'. nir:lq,1ol7 "!;l7 ::l'lJf"! Ml;;I
tl'1'!i7f tl'tPij tl'''\:t'l tl!;T7 Q\:liM lJ':;litl j'l''1),lO lJj
"l;;Il;1 nlil7 iT 1ii.1 i? ir1iM
ntl 'n
86 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
also llooord with Ra.bbinical tradition, e.g., "The people
laughed at the ark," 1 aooords with "They mocked and
laughed at him iu their words." "The waters of the
Flood were hot," 2 with "The generation of the deluge
was punished with hot water." Still many inaoouracies
aud perversions are to found; for instanoe, Mul).ammad
makes Noah to have lived 950 years before the Flood,s
whereas this is really the whole term of his life; and he
represents one of Noah's sons as disobedient to him,
and states that this same B{)n did not follow him into the
Ark, but believed himself safe on a mountain peak.
4
This
idea probably arose from a misunderstauding of H"m's
evil oonduot after the Deluge.
5
MutLammad also makes
out Noah's wife to have bean nnbelieving,6 although he
is silent as to wherein her unbelief oonsisted; and I can
lind no reason for this statement, which is not man-
tioned either in the Bible or in the Rabbinioal writings.
1 Slim XI. 40 Ot. Midr. Tall<lhuma, Sectloo NOBh.
t:l',m 'l'y
I Su.... XI. 42. and XXIII. 27. ju;
Of. Rosh Hashanah 16. 2. aud &nhedrin lOB.
"'1i'I
The Arabia Oommentators BOOm to me to have quite misunderstood.
those paasage8, SiDoe they assume t",butous referenoes. Oal" explana.tioo)
which is: justified by Do figutativ9 interpretation of the words i And tha
oven glows,' appears to me sufficient-Iy confi.:rmed by & oomparison with
tbe Talmadio utteraace. Also V'lIerbelot (Bib. Orient. NOBh, page 671,)
nndll1'8ta.nds jli; in this way.
8 Slim XXIX. 18. Of. Genesis, ix. 29.
• Su.... XI. 44. 46, 48.
5 Genesis, ix. 22 ffr
The commentators actnally call this BOn Canaan, (;)l...:S (oompare
ix. 25 if) aUhough they, like the Bible, do not reckon any 50Q
or this nama in their enu.meraHoQ of the Bons, but count these t.hree
nnly, vi•. ('.... , ('L.
• sUra LXVI. 10.
FROM NOAR TO ABRAHAM.
87
Porh!>ps Mu!).amma.d. was misled by the analogy of the
wiIe of Lot, who is mentioned in the same context. While
these vari!>tions are due to errors and to the confusion cf
different times and events, others are to be ascribed to
deliberate 1 alteration and elaboration. And of this kind
are those details not mentioned in Jewish History, which
represent Noah as one ocoupying the same position as
Mu!;Lammad. and speaking in his spirit. This applies partic-
nlarly to that which is pnt into his mouth as admonisher.
This is the case not only with Noah, but with aU who
appear in the character of the righteous in any evil age.
Thus he puts into the month of Lnqman, as a wise man
known to the Arabs,2 words suitable to his own circum-
stances and opinions, and the same thing happens in the
case of Noah and the other preachers of Jewish history
to whom he alludes. Noah although he worked no miracle,
was saved in a miraculous way, and so Mu!;Lammad cannot
put into his mouth the same words which he nses of himself,
as well as ascribes to other forerunners of himself after
Noah's time, viz., that he is a mere preacher; yet he makes
him say everything which is not clearly contrary to the
historical facts related about him. He was only an nnim-
portant man,s and did not pretend to bo anyone wonderful
or supernatnra1.
4
But he was divinely commissioned to
warn the people, and for this he asked no reward.
5
0
sancta simplicitas lone would exclaim in considering this
last point, iI Mn!).ammad had written it down with full
consideration of Noah's position as one threatening the
world with punishment, and if it had not been ratller
that he saw evorything from his own distorted point of
1 The wor.d Ie deliberate U is to be u n d ~ r s t o o d in the se-nSG a.lready
Buffioiently expla.ined in the Firat Division, Third Section
,
110 that we may
use it from DOW on without fllrther explanatory oomtQent.
I Sura XXXI. 11 If. 3 Sura VII. 61. • Sum Xl. S3.
• Sum XI. 3J. aDd XXVr. 109.
88 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
viow, and was determined to make every thing accord with
his ideas. In another place he goes so far as to interpolate
n verse into Noah's discourse, which is entirely character.
istic of his own, and in which the littla word (translated
" speak ") I actually occurs, which is always regarded
as a word of address to Mul;1ammad from God (or Gabriel).
The same thing will be noted further on in the case of
Abraham.
After Noah the next mentioned is Had 2 who is evidently
the Biblical Eber.
3
This seems II striking example of the
ignorance of Mul;1l1mmad, or, as it appears to me more
probable here, of the Jews round abont him. According
to the Rabbinical opinion 4 the name Hebrew is derived
from Eber, but in later times this name was almost
entirely forgotten and the name Jew 5 was commonly nsed.
The Jews, to whom it was known that their nsme was
derived from an ancestor, believed that the name in
question was that in use at the time, and that the ancestor
therefore was this patriarch Hiid.
6
His time is that in
which a second punitive judgment from God on acconnt
of bold, insolent behaviour is mentioned in the Scripture,
I Ji XI. 37. Cf. XXIX. 19'
3
.-
• "1'
, from
Compare Mid. Rabbah on Genesis, para. 42.
'W. C'Pl::1?
n Abram was called the Hebrew because be was descended Crom EL('r."
(Genesis, xiV'. IS.).
.'-
6 Yahlidi. Among the A.rabs sometimes..>"e Yshud, m0re
• •
often "1' HUd.
• Elpherar (ou Su.. VII. 53) give••Iong with an incorrect gene.logy
the following correot one, ti (,:,)'f .r'- (,:)'i' (.:.l'l and
the &utbor of the book '-oSJ.ell says direct.ly (j Hud is
(Mar. Prod. iv. 92.)
TOWER OJ!' BABlIL. 89
and this is treated of in several chapters of the Quran.l
In order to have the right to refer what is said about Hild
to the time of the oonfusion of tongues, or, as the Rabbis
oall it, the Dispersion,2 we must adduoe some particulars
which point to this reference, for the statements are very
general in their tenour and might be referred to other
occurrences. The following verse S possibly refers to the
building of the 'rower: ".And ye erect magnificent works,
hoping that ye may continue for ever." The A.rabic com-
mentators take it that the buildings would afford them a
perpetual dwelling-place, but the verse might also mean,
" make by bnilding it an everlasting name for yourselves."
The neighbourhood is oalled in the Quran the "Possessor
of Pillars.
4
In one passage5 there appears to be a reference
to Nimrod, who lived at this time and in this region, since
the children of Ad are here reproached for obeying the
command of every contumacious hero.
6
The idea that
they were idolators, whioh is brought up against them in
all the passages in the Qurin, agrees perfectly with the
Rabbinical view expressed as follows: 7 "And it came to
I BUras VII. 63-71. XI. 52-64., XXII. 43, XXIII. 83-' XXV. 40,
XXVI. 123-141, XXIX. 37, XXXVIII. 11, XL. 32, XLI. 12-16, X&VI.
20-25, L. 13, L1. 41, 402, LIlI. 50, LIV. 18-22, LXIX." -9, LXXXIX.
5-9.
• n.'r.!ij "'':f
• sUra XXVI. 129. .. (.j ;
• Sura LXXXIX. 60 ..;;,,:1 Of. GeneBiB .i. 4.
• sUra XI. 62. .......)l';.;..JS;i ';;iij
. - .
Oompare Genesis, :1::. 8, 9, where Nimrod's surname is always
15 D'Herbelot, under the heading Nimrod, asserts that the Arabiana
connect Nimrod with the building of the Tower.
7 Midr. Rabba.h on Genesis, ri. 2, par. 88.
c,?il1 19;t"
M
90
JUDAISM AND ISL.bll
pass when they journeyed from the beginning (East),
that is to say, when they withdrew themselves from Him
Who is the beginning of the world." Mul).ammad says
of these people 1 that they bnilt an (idolatrous) symbol on
every high place in, order to play there (i.e. to practice
idolatry). And the Rabbis tell us 2 that the race of the
dispersion contemplated' building a tower and putting an
idol on its summit. Resemblances are also to be found
with reference to the punishment which overtook them.
Mul;>ammad tells us Sthey were followed in this world by a
curse, and that they shall be followed by the same on the
day of resurrection, and the Rabbis say 4 that the ra.ce
of the dispersion had no part in the next world, for the
twice-mentioued dispersion applies to this world and the
other. In Mul).ammad's treatment the essential point of
the puuishment is lost sight of, for instead of describing
it as a simple dispersion and confusion of tongues, he
speaks of an absolute annihilation of the sinners by a
poisonous wind.
5
One sees at once the mistaken sonrce
from which this change is derived. We recognize partly
from our knowledge of Mul).ammad's motives in making
the alteration, and partly from the minuteness with which
1 Sura XXVI, 128.
Oompare j?tTi>':
to play, Exodus, zX.J:ii. 6.
, n1'i:l>', .,i':f
iWlol"f n1+
.. Mishna Sa.nhedrin X. 3. Genesis
J
xi. 8, 9.
'n lol;J;:! O?i:P? i'7.tT ory? PI:! n
1
?l?lJ .,i':f
nr.;:! 'n '11 Orpl;l OJ;1ilol
o,?i:p; 'n
• SU...> XLI. lij, XLVI. 23/f. LI.41, LIV. 19, LXIX.6/f.
TOWEB OF BABEL.
91
the new punishment is described, which would not have
been accorded to a fiction. It appears therefore that the
history reached this development in the mouth of the
people, who delight in minute descriptions of punishment.
The remaining deviations and additions, particularly the
latter, are oaused, as we have already remarked in the case
of Noah, by oonfusion with Mu1).ammad's own time and
person. This is the case when he transfers 'unbelief in
the resnrrection to the time of Rnd and counta it among
the sins of that time whioh were worthy of punishment.!
This is seen too especially in the great importance assigned
to Eber and to his desire to turn the people from their evil
ways. Decided traces of this are certainly to be found in
Jewish writinge,2 where we are told that Eber was a great
prophet, who by the Roly Spirit called his son Pelag,
because in his days the earth was divided 8 (which Eber
had known beforehand). Much also is said of the school
of Eber, and Rebekah is aaid to have gone there j for
it is written: "She went to enquire of the Lord," 4 and
Jacob is supposed to have stayed there for fourteen years.
But of the fact that Eber preached to the people, he being
their brother (on which Mu1).ammad places great stress,
because he himself was sent aa an Arab to the Arabs),
not a traoe is to be found, still lesa of the faot that he took
no reward from them.
5
One point still remaius to be
cleared up, why the race under discussion is oalled in the
1 SUra XXIII. 87.
, Seder 'Olam quoted in Midra.sh Yalkut, Ohap. 62.
J7,1j iJ:p. M;'-";.!
VJI;!i;' Mi'm
N'=1:j
':ll 'JW
. ......
3 Genesis, ::1:. 26.
.. Genesis, xxv. 22. Midr. Rabbah on Genesis, pa.I'.68. Also pa.r.68. for
Jacob's sojonrn in the home of Eber.
• Sura XI. 58, XXVI. 127.
92
JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
Qura.n the people of Ad) The C0mmentators state that Ad
was the son of Uz, the son of Aram, the son of Shem, the
son of Noah; and Mul)ammad seems also to have been of
this opinion, whence it comes that he transfers the events
to the land of Aram or Iram.
2
Nevertheless it seems to
have come about chiefly from the fact that all these occur-
rences are describod with an Arabian colouring, and so
they were attributed to Arab tribes, amongst which an
ancient extinct one had the name of Ad ; 3 perhaps in it
there is also an etymological reference to a "return" to
the early evil conduct of the generation of the Deluge. In
another passage there is an allusion to this occurrence,4
where the fact itself is brought forward much more in
accordance with the Biblical account, but quite withotlt
specification of time or persons: "Their predecessors
devised plats heretofore, but God came into their building
to overthrow it from the foundation, and the roof fell on
them from above and a punishment came upon them which
they did not expect." On this Elpherar remarks: 5 "These
Itre Nimrod, the Bon of Canaan, who built a tower in Babel
iu order that he might mouut to heaven"; and further:
"And wheu the tower fell the language of men became
llonfused, and so they oould not finish it; th"n they spoke
.eventy-three languages, on this account the city was
oalled Babel (confusion), before this the language of men
was Syriac." The Rabbis, too, assert that befo,e this
"-
'"IJ,
, SUra LXXXIX. 6. (o)

3 Poe. Speo.) p. 3.
• Sura XVI. 28.
OF BABEL.
93
men spoke in Hebrew, but afterwards in seventy languages.
JaIGJu'd-din says the same thing,1 and adds that Nimrod
built the Tower "in order that he might mount out of it
into heaven to wage war with the inhabitants thereot" 2
But the identity of this narrative with that of Rnd and Ad
is no more accepted by Abulfeda 3 than it is by Elpherar
and Jalalu'd-din, even on the view that Rnd is the same
as Eber. Although the colouring of this narrative as
given in the Quran differs muoh from that of the
Biblioal account, yet the identity of the two can be
shown by putting this and that together, and by ex-
plaining the way in which the individual differences
arose. But in the case of another narrative which
follows this one in almost all the passages of the Quran,4
it is very difficult to find out the subject of which it treats
and the Bible characters to which it refers. Thie narrative
is about !?amud,5 which like Ad is an ancient extinct Arab
tribe,6 to whom their brother Salih was sent when they fell
into sin,7 Salih is said to have exhorted the !?amndites
to righteousness and to have commended to them a
certain she-camel as especially nnder divine protection;
1 !:Ia.raoo. on the passa.ge.
, ,JlJI"l .1..-11 .JI 6.M .a.,.l
:J Rist. AnteisM.miea., pp. 18 snd 20.
t Except in BUras L. 12, and LXIX. 4. where it preoedes. In the former
of these two passages it precedes the story of the Midianites a) so, and
thus no ohronological order is followed. In Suras LI. 48 and LIll. 61, it
actually precedes the story of the Deluge, and in SUrs. LXXXV. 18,
Pharoah is placed before §a.mud on account of the rhyme.
s §amud, Stllih.
6 Po•• Spe•., p. 8.
1 The passages whioh treat of this are the following :-SUt'&8 VII.
71-78, XI. 64-72. XXII. 43, XXV. 40, XXVI. 141-160, XXVII. 46-55,
XXIX. 87, XXXVIII. 12, XL. 82. XLI. 12-18, L. 12, LI. 48-46, LUI.
51, LtV. 23-33, LXIX. 4-6. LXXXV. 18, LXXXIX. 8, XCI, II-IS.
94 JUDAISM AND IsLAM.
he even bade them share water with her.
1
But the unbe-
lievers of his time (according to oue passage 2 only nine in
pumber) hamstrung her, and so divine punisbment o"er-
,ook them. I find nO similar OOOUl'l'ence in Jewish writings,
but the likeness of the name points to Shelah 3 who how-
ever, as the father of Eber, would have deserved mention
before him.
4
On the whole, the word is so general in its
meaning of "a pions man" that we cannot trent it here
with c'ert,ainty as having been originally a proper name.
S
Perhaps the story of the houghing is founded on the
words in Jacob's blessing of his sons,6 and the sharing
of the water on the etymology of the name
Moreover §amtid was, according to the commentators,
the son of Gether the san of Aram, the son of Shem,
the son of Noah, which fits in fairly well with the date
all'eady assigned to Shelah.
6
It is however impossible
1 Sura. LIV 28, XCI. 12.
, BUra XXVII. 49.
B "'W See Genesis, x. 24. This is also D'Hel'belot's view. See his
Bib. Orient. nnder BAllli.
e Ism,"'U ben 'Ali Qsserta howevel'that SAlih lived after E(ld. (Maraec.
Prodr" iv. 93).
5 Later AmbianB call Shelah also c3l.. as in the passage quoted above
trom Elpharar, who give.a however a different genealogy for SAlib in bis
comment on Sura VII. 71. Stm, in a copy of the Samal'itan < Arabic
tr&uslation of the M?W' is t.l'analated by (Compare
De Sa.ay in Eiohhorn's B.ibliothek der Bibl. X, pp. 47
5
110, In.)
• Genesis, xliJ:. 6. .,;W
1 From :i.J "to dema.nd water."
" y _(,:11
g The ,.A:t:oOl mentioned in Sura XV. 80 are supposed to be the
same as the §amudites
J
as" Elpherar also says j but this opinion has DO
foundation and a.ppears improbable, becanse in this PAssage where chrono-
logical order SgemH to be observed, the stories of Abram and the Angela,
of Lot in connection with Abram
5
and of the Midianites are given e-arlier.
ABRAIIAM TO MOSES. 95
3 SiIra XVI. 124.
for me to give any more exact explanation from J ewiBh
writings.
C.-Abraham to Moses.
Though the saints mentioned earlier bore some likeness
to MuJ:.tammad, and though their condition, so similar to
his own, encouraged him as weI! as verified his statements,
yet Abraham 1 was his great prototype, the man of whom
he thol1ght most highly, and the one with whom he liked
best to compare himself and to make out as one with him-
self iu opinion. Abraham's faith 2 is that which is preached
in the Quran.
3
He was a believer in the unity of God.
4
He was neither Jew nor Christian for it is written: 5
"Abraham was not a Jew, nora Christian, but he was a
believer iu the uni,y of God, given up to God (a Muslim)." 6
1
,."...1;<\
.. .
4 8(lra II. 129, III. 60. VI. 79, XVI. 121, 124.
, Sura II. 134. Ij,. (:,Cs' ;
(5 On this Bllidh<iwi has the following:
.,II 'r'h '*'" <Il' 0''';> J5 ,..,j J ,."...'P' d <s)I.o..l'J ........jUS
")r!' J,y-l ....s..... &,,;Iyo-JI, r.:JI ,..,.,....", Jy.> ,...J.. oIlI In
*...ro", U--r .]a
"The Jews and the Christia.ns disputed about Abra.ham, and ea-cb
party believed they could connt him on their side. They appealed to
M.ul}ammad a.nd thereupon ca.me this revelation. Tbe meaning is, that
Judaism and Christianity first came into existence by the sending ot the
Law through MOSBS and the throngh Jesus.1> That this is the
Jewish view is shown by the following passage :-
:JR.>' ;"l1'1'1iJ "'1$ Cy,,?1:1 C!J7
C;;!'P1:1 l1r.ltp
u Ollr Abr;:\ham observed the whole Law, fOl' it ill written
(Genesis, xni. 5.): U Bec:l.use Abl'ahnm obeyod 'My voice, and kept
M.y charg-c, 'My commn.ndmcutil, "My statutes and lly laws," (Yom,,)
x.xviii. 2).
96
JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
He is represented as the friel'd of God,l and this is
his name throughout the East.
2
Abraham's importance
and the rich legendary material concerniDg him, which
Judaism offered, lead us to expect much about him in
the Quran, and our expectation is not disappointed. It is
to him that the foundiJ?g of the Ka'bah is traced back.
s
He is supposed to have lived in the Temple,4 and to have
composed books.
5
This opinion is also held by the Rabbis,
many of whom attribute to Abraham the well-known
cabll.listic and undoubtedly very ancient Sepher Jazirsb..
Passing to the events of his life, we first come across the
beautiful legend of his attaining to the true knowledge of
God. Weare told also how he tried to persuade his
father and his people thereto. A special instance of this
was when he destroyed the idols, and, putting the staff into
the hand of the largest, attributed the action to him. He
sought thus to convince the people, who quite perceived
the impossibility of the idols ha.ving done it, since they
could not move, but they were not thereby persuaded.
6
Abraham is represented as praying in vain that )lis father
might be released from the punishment of hell.7 We are
told too that the people, embittered by Abraham's conduct
towards the idols, wanted to have him burnt alive, but that
he was rescued from that fate by divine intervention.
s
The whole story is taken from the Rabbinical writings,
where we read as follows.
S
" Terah was an idolator: once
1 .ul •Sura IV. 124. m, J.a,;\;
- -.
3 SUra II. 119 if. ' Sura XIV. 40, 5 LxxXVn. 19.
• Su... VI. 74-82, XIX. 42-61, XXI. 62-69, XXII. 43, XXVI. 69-
106, XXIX. 16-23, XXXVII. 81-96, XLIII. 25-2B, LX. 4-6.
1 Suras IX. 116, XXVI. 86-194, LX. 4. Sunna 396.
8 Sura, II. 260, XXI. 69-74, XXIX. 23-27, XXXVI!. 95-99.
MidraBh Rabbn. on Genesis, para. S8.
:l',,;;Y i'''? J1;'l'( i/J C'r,l'tl? I;:?;; n"lJ:;)
ABRAHAM TO MOSES.
97
he went away and left Abraham to sell his idols. When-
ever a buyer oame, Abraham asked him his age. If he
roplied, I am fifty, or sixty years old, Abraham Baid: 'Woo
to the man of sixty who desires to worship the work of a
day, so that the buyer went away ashamed.' 1 Onoe a woman
oame, with a dish of wheat and said, 'Here, put this before
them; , bat Abraham took a stiok and beat down all the
j:T7. M;',::\l My-! NilTir:t 'db
M;'':11 iH ':1,j 1'l7, Mll:!1 l'1l!
"J9r,l? ':;1 "1i:i1 H-'Inr;r'2 "''7. '1 r.r'7. '"1I;l1;l
lon.f-1 'TO i':> ,,'2;"'1 '1;li' ,:;,?
::l':lif ,,'I lolL! r.r;' 1ol1t:! J:l1':+
r.t'1':+
Tilt!1 H41'1i iol1'i1 ::l;:l""
1ol1T:1 '? '1$ liM? llfl j:T'i.
::l':lif HtT n?b'1 1olV-l r.r'7
1'11 'l,?1;1 7'1 Tilq n:;r:m
::lO? Ti1',:\1 1ol:1f'1 l'1y t:lif ':>=<"l:i '11;l;l
1oI'?1 ''i. II;! 1':1(1;'1 TiJ:;1tl M9 '7. '1;1
';, '1$ ,..,W? ,t,<\.l 111;>
''2 'I;! lol1tl I; '1$
'7. ' ''i.
''7. 'I;! lolW? ';;> '1:1 '7. '1;1
l'1tl '?:;;9'1 ';;7 " '1;1
i::lin=¥ 'iJ:(',?o/l;> '-,,q ,ilol? ':v-ro/7;l
Cl;J1=?-l ,,:> Ti7t.!
Wt:ly 7tP=t=t'?
1 Abulfede. (Hid. Anteislc£mica, po.ge 20) says:
\:II..<> Ia-.l J-'>- )
* \" "'" J.fi
"Azar the fa.ther of Abraham made idols and J:Ierved them and bade
Abraham sell them, but Abraham, atloid; 'Who would JJuy that '"hich
harms him and does him J:W good P1 n
1'1
98 JUDAISM AND lStAH.
idols, and put the stick into the '",nds of the largest idol.
When his father returned, he said, 'Who has dcne this f'
On which Abraham replied, 'Why shculd I deny it?' A
woman Came with a dish of wheat and bade me set it in
front of them. I had scarcely done so when each wanted
to eat before the other, and the greatest beat them aU
down with the stick which he had in his hand. Terah
said: "What art thou inventing for me? Have they then
understanding?' Abraham replied. 'Do thine ears not
hear what thy month says?' Then Terah took him and
gave him over to Nimrod, who said: 'We will worship
fire.' Abraham said: 'Rather water, which extinguishes
fire.' Nimrod replied: 'Water then.' 'Rather the cloud
which carries water.' 'The cloud then.' 'Rather the wind
which scatters the cloud.' 'The wind then.' ' Rather
men, who endure the wind.' Nimrod at this became angry
and said: 'Tholl art only making a speech. I worship
fire and will throw thee into it. The God whom thou dost
worship may come and save thee out of it.' Abraham
was then thrown into a glowing fnrnace, bnt was saved
from it." The inter.cession for his father is not men-
tioned in Jewish writings; lind that this was fruitless,
yea that Abraham, arriving at a clearer understanding,
desisted from his attempt,l seems to directly contradict
the Jewish view aa expressed in the passage.
2
"By the words, thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace, it was
shown to Abraham that his father was a partaker in eter-
nal life." Further, a Rabbinical saying 3 declares as a
general rule tbat "the son makes the father clean, but not
the father the son." But MIl1).ammad very often combats
1 Sura IX. 115.
i'?Cl
a Sanhedrin
2 Midrash Rabba. on Genesis, para.. 38.
C'''rr:1t ;r',:;i::lt!
See Genesis, xv. 1&. c"?i'J)'l.,
T f
tor):;z 'i1!'7i 'i1!t?
ABRAHAM TO MOSES. 99
this view and the similar one that the merits of ancestors
ccunt for good to their posterity.! For example he says:
" That people (the Patriarchs) are now passed away; they
have what they gained and ye shall have what ye gain, and
ye shall not be questioned concerning that which they have
done." 2 That Mul).ammad brings forward a dialogue be-
tween Abraham and the people, where the MidrlLSh has one
with his father only, is explained by the fact that Abraham
is intended to be a type of Mu4ammad, and so it is neces-
sary that he should be represented as a public preaoher.
Anothsr circumstance which is mentioned in the Quran,
viz., that Lot became a believer with and through Abraham,3
may possibly have arisen from a passage in the Midrash
immediately following that qnoted above, which says that
Haran the father of Lot was at first irresolnte, but tnrned
to Abraham's opinion after the deliverance of the lattar.
Haran however failed in the ordeal of fire to which he w....
then snbjeoted. The idea of Lot's conversion, however, is
chiefly derived from the acconnt given of his subsequent
life, in which he shows himself to be a picDJ! man; and
it is probably for this reason that Mn4ammad connects
him with the eveut jnst related. Mn!).ammad appears
sometimes to have so confounded himself with Abraham
that, in the middle of speeches ascribed to the latter, he
indulges in digressions nnsuitable to any but himself, and
thns falls from the pari of narrator into that of admonisher.
In one passage 4 a long description of Helland Paradise is
found, and in another,5 the declaration that those who came
before had also been charged with imposture. No doubt
Abrah..m might have said this with reference to Noah,
Hnd and Salih; still the words here seem rather forced
into hin speech, and indeed in one verse we find the word
" say" which is to be regarded in the Quran as the stand-
• n':lN n':ll ' SUra II. 128, 135.
• S{lra XXVI. 88-104.
3 BUl'RS XXI. 71, X X I ~ . 26.
• Sura XXIX. 17-23.
100 JUDAISM AND ISLAM,
iug address of God (or Gabriel) to Mu!).ammad,! This
view renders it unnecessary to adopt the desperate expedi-
ent of Wahl, who supposes a trausposition of verses, or an
interpolation, The true explanation is rather Mu!).ammad's
entire identifioation of Abraham with himself. Further,
he is not oontent with making Abraham preaoh against
idolatry, he represents him alao as teaohing the dootrine
of the Resurreotion of the dead.
2
The laok however of full
oertainty about this dootrine S oaused Abraham, aocording
to the Mu!).ammadan view, to pray for a tangible proof of
it, and then was vouohsafed to him what the Rabbis oa1l
4
the "covenant between the divided pieoes!'
He was oonvinoed through the faot that the divided
birds oome together again and became living,6 a view
whioh is foreign to Judaism. How Mu!).ammsd oame to
call Abraham's father, (whose name is given in the Bible as
Ters.h,7 A.zar
s
is at first sight not olear, but is oompletely
explained when we oonsfder the source S of his inforJlllloo
tion, namely Eusebius. In his Churoh History, Eusebius
calls him Athar 10 whioh is an easy transition from Thara,
• SUras II. 260, XXVI. 81.
, Sura II. 262. 5 GaneBis
J
XV. 9. ft.
G Pointed out by Mara.co. Ploor., iv. 90.

h(')'I1C6 Al'Ubic. )j'
I Oompare above on Noah.
3 Baidbil.wi 8&ys on Bm'll. II. 262 :
JIAl 1eI",.}1 e,jl ";I <:II JU .........1, .......1iiI ",,-.I JU W J;i
&-olooI ill) JI... ,of ..,II JA::lI,,.aI J/l <:I1)oliIi ,.u il.:Oll\l> J'"
* By- =$-- <:II .....1.l""1 J c.,li
"It is said that, after Nimrod had said: 'I make a.live and I kill,'
(II. 260), Abrabsm answered: 'Quiokeniog is brougbt about by the ratom
of the spirit to the body.' Nimrod replied: 'Hast thou then seen that (,
Abraha.m could not a.nswer in the affinna.tiv9 and had to paBB over to
another argnment. On this he prayed to the Lord for Bome revolation,
in order that his mind might be easy about an answer to this question, if
it were put to him again.U
, C'''J;lflj 7'* n':f
7 n.,J:1 8 SUra VI. N. 'ii'
-'.'
" 'A()ap from FJapa,
ABBAlIAK TO MOSllf1,
101
and then the Greek Athar was easily converted iuto the
Arabic Azar.l The reason which is given by some Arabic
commentators 2 is ridiculous. They maintain that Azar is
like YAzzar,3 and that this means: 4 "0, perverted one,
0, erring one;" and Abraham is supposed to have thus
addressed his idolatrous father.
s
We now pass on to the
more mature married life of Abraham and come to his
mee,ting with the angels,6 whom he receives as guests.7
Abraham took them for Arabs, was much surprised that
they did not eat n.nd stepped back in fea.r, whereupon they
announced to him that he would have a Bon and told him
also of the coming destruction of Sodom. In one passage
of the Ta.lmud S we read: <t They appeared to him nothing
else but Arabs;" lmd in another passage 9 it is sa.id
1 Aooording to the TArikh Yl111takhob, Amr WllB the fother of Th....h
(D'Herbelot Bib. Orient. nnder Abraham, page 11).
, Vide MarllOO. on the pa,sage. 3 , it
• Bno later Arabs know the right name t)3 , too, though somnge to
eay whenever they speak of Abraham they use the name .»'; but when
on othet' occasions they mention Abraham's father, they call him by
the ooher name. Thus Elpherar on BUm VII. ?S: t)1:s <:ll;1» lo,l
,..."lft\ ......\ The loet here rarers again to Leo, (whioh is
shown by the mannsr of wrioing wHh an alif) jnst as later Abraham
is called tho uncle of Lot. Also on Sura. XXI. 71. Elpherar bas
the following: f:)1!, ,..."lft\ fb 1:>l;1», t)1:s by fb,
t}3 cl! JIlIj ..wI:; t\
Attention is more rarely called to tho fact that both na.mes are
the same-. BOQ Elpheraron Sura XXXI. 11 wherein giving the genealogy
of Lnqmlin. Ho say' ll' fb, t)l:s. Be. 01'0 Abulfsda His!. ,AntsislOmica,
pp. 18 and 20.
• sUr" XI. 72. I.l.l..), on whioh Elpherar remark,: &sJl4l\ J..}4
" By mesaangors he means Angels."
7 Genesis, xviii. Buras XI. 72-19, XV. 51-61, XXIX. 80-82. LI. 24-88.
8 Qiddu8hin 62. " toI,
• BnbnMozia, SG. 2. I1jrfll
nl,ljl to/!;>t.:! iJ'i'jl1 tolj7?lil
102 JUDAISM AND rsull.
"'rhe angels descended and ate. They ate? No, but it
appeared as though they ate and drank." There is only
one error to be found in the account as given in the Qur§.n.
Tho doubt as to whether in the advanced age of the pair
a son could come into the world (which in other passages
and in the Bible is put into the mcuth of Sarah) is here
uttered by Abraham, but in very mild words.r It is true
that in the other Biblical account of the promise to
Abraham, he himself is represented as donbting God's
word.
2
In other passages the position of words and
clauses might give rise to many errors, if we did not know
the story better beforehand from the Bible. Thus in one
pMsage 3 the laughter of Abraham's wife is given before
the announcement is made, which leads the Arabic com-
mentators to manifold absurd guesses. Elpherar by the
side of these explanatious (many of them quite wanting in
truth) gives the right one in the following words: 4 " Bin
'Abbas and Wiihib say: 'she laughed from astonishment
that she should have a child, for both she and her husband
were of a great age.' Then the verBe was transposed, but
it ought to run thus: 'And his wife stood while We
promised him Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob, and then she
laughed.''' It might seem that this Bon who was promised
to Abraham was with deliberate forgery identified with
Ishmael, because he is regarded as the ancestor of the
Arabs j and so too the eusuing temptation 5 connected
with the sacrifice of his son is made to refer to Ishmael.
01. Mishna Aboth. v. 3.

I S6ra. XV. 64 if. 2 Genesis) xvii. 17. 3 sUra XI. 74.
• y.! \el (:)1 0'" t,.,..; ......"..,.l,.e Jli
J
'j.J.W ;o&.Wl, J,oJl 1..1.0> J 4.-,.;
* ..... ",l..-' 0'" , ",l..-4 .' WI; &lyol J
S This is referred to in general terms in Sura II. 118) thus:
&:;
,..-- -g III
AllIlAIJAII: TO MOSES. 108
Gronnd for this acceptation is given in another passage,!
when after the dispute about the idols has been related,
we read from v. 99 as follows: "Wherefore We acquainted
him that he should have a son who should be a meek
youth, and when he had attained to years of discre-
tion • • . .. Abraham said. unto him: '0, my son 1 I saw
in a dream that I should offer thee in sacrifice.''' He
declared himself ready, on which Abraham heard a voice
telling him that he had aJready verified the vision j and a
noble victim ransomed him. And then the passage con-
tinues : 2 "And We rejoiced him with the promise of Isaac,
a righteous prophet; and We blessed him and Isaac; and of
their offspring were some righteous doers, and others who
manifestly injnred their own souls." That the announce-
ment of Isaac first appears here is a proof that the
preceding contexb 3 refers to Ishmael. It is thel'efore
evident that according to Mul,J.ammad's representation the
sacrificialactioll was performed on Ishmael, and further on
this will be shown more in detail. But it is not clear that
the annonncement of the angels refers to him, seeing that
in one of the tllree places where the same word 4 is used
of this angelic announcement, it is explicitly applied to
Isaac. That thl\ angels had a two-fold mission-(l) to
Abrallam, in order to show him his fatherhood and the
destruction of Sodom, and (2} to Lot, in order to remove
him from Sodom bef{)re the desbruction was accomplished,
is Biblical and Muhammad follows the Bible narrative.
We have already mentIOned that Lot is supposed to have
3 A. also ~ and 'Oi;S in v. US.
- ..<::-..-
" ;fi Stu'a. XI. 7-l!; Cf. oLher two passages, 8W'Do XXXVII. 99 aud 112.
104 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
become a believer through Abraham. The visitation of
the n.ugels, which is related in Genesis, xix. 1-27, is
mentioned in several passages in the Quran,l On the
whole the narrative is fairly true, but the details are not
entirely free from embellishment. For example, in some
passages 2 the warning addreBBed to the people of Sodom on
accounh of their unchaste use of men is treated quite
separately from the narrative of the angels, and
mad makes out that the angels told Lot 8 and even
Abraham 4 beforehand that Lot's wife should not be saved.
The unbelief of Lot's wife receives particular notice in one
paBBage,5 while the destructi9n of the oities is mentioned
in many passsges.
6
Mul;tammad especially attributes to
Lot the dishinguishing mark common to allproo.chera, viz.,
that they ask for no reward.7
It has already been re;..Jarked that, according to
mad's showing, Ishmael * was the son whom Abraham was
1 SUrae VII. 78-88, XI. 79-·8b, XV. 61-78, XXII. 43, XXVI. 160-176,
XXVII. 65-60, XXIX. 27-8b,XXXVII. 188-137, LIV. 88-89.
J Oomp.... esp.oially BUra XXIX. 27-80.
3 BUras XI. 88, XXIX. 82. Acoording to the reading in the
Ace. (sUra. XI. as), Lot did not even once ask her to aooompany him,
but left her with the people of Sadam. This reading is not only adopted
by Hinokelmann
J
bu.t by almost all the Arabia commentators quoted in
EJpherar; whioh readiDg, as he remarks, is confirmed by the variant
reading of Ben Mas'Ud, who puts the word ...lllyol belol·. fj.
• SUras XXIX. 81, XV. 60. • sUra LXVI. 10.
o sUra XXV. 42, and other passages. 7 Sura XXVI. 164•
• On the passsge quoted above (SUra XXXVII. 101) Elpherar
remarks as follows:
.>.AI .s.lll ,JWI I..... d "'" .I..WI <-6I.::A.I,
*J\"...I yo r; JU, J\o"..I ..I .l" J'>I oJ
W
\
u The lea.rned a.mong the Muslims are divided &bout the lad whom
Abraham was commanded to sacrifice I wh.r.... the people of the Book
on both sides (Jews an.d ChriBtians) are agreed that he was IS8&o, and
common people are at Qne with them.
u
Many commentators are theD
quoted, who also share this opiuion. Jo-I yo ""J"-\ JU, "Oth.rs,
ABRAH.uI TO HOSES. 105
commanded to sacrifice; and the reaSOns have been given
which persuaded Mul;tammad to represent Ishmael as a
however sa.y that he was Ishma.els" and for this opinion the authorities
are now cited:
.51...-\ c;olJJI (:l\ <J\ 0", ,.-J-o &Il\ J,..-) <S»! '»!,
(:l'" doll ...,a-ll Wi <llill (:lljll (:l'" I!f"-I
..,... 8),..- d W' .51...-1 <Sr" .>l)ly4 ;:;\ <:>Ijll d u--J,
.51...-q 8)1A,\1 fJ <JI,; &Ill <:>q I!f"-I .r--I ;:;1 <JI .51...-1i
c,,411 cal <Js:. J.iJ l..,l "I...-q JW C,,411 t:.. (:l'" tljl\ .....,
Yf"! .51...-1 .1" 0", .51...-q ..,.. 8),.. d JU <JI,; &Ill <:>U \4\,
*""'" &l.i1.4 "', .51...-1 d.ll Yj"ol <l.\jq .51...-q W'
"Both views are supported by the words of ThOBe who
maintain that Isaao wa3 tbe one saorificed prove it from Sura. XXXVII. 99 :
'We brought him the joyful news tha.t he should have a meek son.t
And when he was grown UPt then God commanded Abra.ha.m to offer up
him who had been announced to hiro. But we do not read in the QaNo
tha.t a.ny SOn except Isaac was foretold to him, as it is written in the sUra.
entitled Rnd: •And we announced to him ISfIaC.'-Sura. XI. 74. Those
however who ma.inta.in bbat Ishmael was the oue sa.crificed prove it from
fact that the e.nnonncement of Isaac comes after the completion of
the story of the sacrifice, when we read for the first time: And
we rejoioed him with the promise of Isaac, a righteous prophet.'-
Slira XXXVII. 112. This shews that the sacrificed person was another
th!ln lsaao.. (The sam.e view is given in detail by Jalalll'd-di'n all quoted by
Maraco.) FL1rther it is said in Sura. Hud (XI. 74): • We promised him
lBaaO and after ISliac. Jaoob. As he had annoanoed Isaac, so he also
announced to him Isaao's son Jacob.' How could he then have commanded
the sacrifice of Isa.ac, he ha.d promised seed through him II' This
last proof is truly not to be 1'anked very high, for a. similal' contradiction
in HDly Scripture ill the case of Genesis, xxi. 12, and Genesis, xxii. would
then have to be explained. Beyond the first proof adduoed. there is no
necessity Bither for tbis argument. or for still another a.l'gument which
immediately afterwards is cited in the commentaryJ viz., that the horns
of the ram are preserved in Mecca., the dwelling-place of Ishmael. It
will have been noted that in the text I have independentl,Y decided in.
favour of the view that MUQammad belil3ved that it was Ishmael whose
sacrifice was ol'derod of God.
Doubtless all Arabian authorities would have come to this same
conclusion, had not the Jews and Christia.ns expressed their opinion 80
deuidadly in favor of Isaac (in which they were followed by the common
o
lOG JUDAISM A.ND ISLi\[.
3 S(1m XIV. 41.
, Sura II. Il9.
very righteous man,1 to include him in the ranks of the
patriarchs and prophets,2 to meut,ion him as the righteous
son of Abraham,S and to make out that he laid the founda-
tion stone of the Ka!bah in connection with his father.
4
people). This fact prevented many Crom giving to the text of the Qurd.n
sufficiently impartial consideration, and hence led them to abandon
Mu\t.a.mms.d'B real view. The metllod by whioh these attempted to
weaken the proof for the opposite opinion is clear from Elpherar's com.-
meDt DD SUra XXXVII. 112 :
Iy.I."J Jt-.\j Jli J--l e=!JJ\ ("",,)
U""" I:)l\ &..;k al» -.;t-.\ 0J"""lI'"""I;l\ Jli Jt-.\ e=!JJ\ <Y'
* d d'=-, <.$0; d'=- f" ... Jli
" He who takes it that Ishma.el wa.s the one sacrificed explains that it
was after this event that Isaac a prophet was promised to Abraham as
a reward lor his obedience; he who tn.kes it that Iaaac wns the ona
sscrificed exp1l.ina tha.t it wag only the prophetic gift of Is:laC which was
a.nnonnced to Abra.hBlj1. .A.khrama in the name of Ibn lAbbtls e!plaina
tha.t Isaao WBS announced to his father twice, OncEi before bis birth and
agJ.in at the atta.inment of the prophetic gift,Jt III the following verso
l
however, which upholds our view still more st.rongly, Elpherar gives
an erroneous explaIUl.tion of oue part. of the veras, and about rest
ma.intains a significant silence. Thus he explains: aa follows:--
U That is to aaYt to Abrahnm in hiBchildren j n
bat the word whioh is inexplicable on this interpretation of
he does not ;xplo.in at nIl. In the legends of Ial6.m, as Elphernr hW!l
already remarked in his comment on the word r,aJ Isaac is almost
without an exception spoken of as the OliO led tQ Si.Wrifica. So also in
Elpberar on Sura. XII. 86, wbere Joseph relates his history to his fellow·
prisoners, and on Surll XII. 86, where mp.ntion is m.ade of a letter wl"itten
by Jacob to the king who WRa keeping his son in prison. Here Isaac is
"The sacrificed of God." And when Jacob in tho
course of the letter (quite according to the version of Sopher lIayyashAr)
alludes to the special prvtection of God enjoyed by his fa.mily he says:
01)\ a\ .... .j.A C"" l..1,
II As for my father, both his hands and his feet were bound, and the
knife was put to bis throat, but God rllllsomed him." Compare also
.A.bulf'eda. Diet. Anteislamica, page 22.
I SUras XIX, b5, 56, XXI. 85, S6.
, sUra, II. 180, Ill. 77, VI. 86. XXXVIII.
ISHMAEL AND ISAAC. 107
This view is certainly not.Jewish, but at the same time it
is not contrary to Juda,ism, for the Rabbis tell us I that by
the utteranoe: "Thon shalt be 1;Juried in a good old a.ge
(Genesis, xv. 15.) God showed Abrahl>m thl>t Ishmael
would repent." And in the Talmnd it is said 2 that Ishmael
repented during his father's life-time. From his habit of
reokoning Ishmael among the patriarohs, fell
into the error of oounting him as an anoestor of .Jaoob.
Thus in one passage 3 he says: "The God of thy fathers,
Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac," whioh Baidhllwi attempts
to explain in the fol1owing manner; 4 "lIe counts Ishmael
among his anoestors, oonnecting him with the father-the
grand-father also is the same as the bther-and I>S
Mu1;>.amml>d says, The nncle is I> part of the father. Then
pointing to t Abbas, his unole, he said, This is the survivor
of my forefathers."
As he hereby transfers to Ishmael the actJ.'\m, which I>S
the most worthy, is attributed by the Jews to ISl>ao, viz.,
readiness to be Sl>orifioed, the latter remains simply a pious
ma.n, about whom there is little to relate I>nd who is quite
destitute of all legendary a.dornment. In consequence of
this, Isaac appears only in the lists of the patriarchs, and
almost always in those passages where Abraham's deliver-
ance from the fire is mentioned and also his reward for
his piety. In these passages Mu1}ammad following more
the popular tradition mentions Isaac and Jaoob but not
Ishmael.
1 nWll nfl'Wi!
:Mid. Bab. on Genesis, }la.ra. 38.
I Saba Batbra 16.
I Sumn.127.
, SlI.olI 4<> ol,ol o4JI, ....\\1 I.,.J.>.; c3\t1 I:Y" Jo-I :;"
* ";4\ \.i0 =c.lll ,f) "",\.,s!I J Ju W' "oll JO. Jo>.;1 ,.- ,.11-11,
108 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
, Sura If. 127.
We are now strnck by the strange confusion which
seems to have existed in Mul).ammad's mind about Jacob.!
He seems to have been uncertain whether he was Abra-
ham's son, or his grandson, the sou of Isaac. While there
is no passage which says explicitly that he was Abraham's
son, yet this idea is conveyed to all who have not learned
differently from the Biblical history. In the angel's
announcement 2 it is said, "after Isaac, Jacob;" 3 and in
other passages 4 we read: "We gave to him (i.e. to
Abraham) Isaac and Jacob." In the Sunna, however,
Joseph is called clearly the grandson and Jacob the son of
Abraham.
5
Althongh these passages do not prove the
point absolutely, yet those passages which can be brought
forward in support of the opposite view are much less
powerful. For if it must be allowed that in two passages 6
Abraham and Isaac, and in one cf these Jacob also, are
mentioned as the forefathers of Joseph, we can also shew
another passage 7 where Ishmael is mentioned as a fore-
father of Jacob without any continuous genealogy having
boon given. And further, since in the passage .last cited
Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac are counted as the fathers
of Jacob, it is clear from the mention of Ishmael among
the others how great was the confusion which reigned in
Mu1)ammad's mind about Jacob's parentage.
We by no means assert that Mul;tammad took Jacob for
the son of Abraham, but it is evident that the relationship
1 .;,;:a •B6r& XI. 14. .;,A~ \ '\i,,;.;
3 The An.bio commenta.tors, who m.ay DOt. and wt1I not understand
these words as we do, are obliged to Beek some other rea.Sons for the
nnsuitable allusion to Ja.oob. Thus Elpherar says;-
10.>l; .ii, <.Sf <.S"<-' ~ ~ \ =;4
U It was e.nnounoed to her tha.t she would live till sbe saw her
son's BOll."
• Sur•• VI. 84, XIX. 50, XXI. 72, XXIX. 26.
Ii Bunna 398 and 400. II Sura XII. 6, 38.
JACOB.
109
between the two was not olear to him. This error did
not spread; on the contrary, the later Arabs were better
acquainted with these relationships. Thus, e.g., Zalllakh-
shari says: 1 "It is related of the prophet that he said,
'If you are asked, who is the noble one?' answer: 'The
noble one, the SOn of the noble one, the son of the noble one,
the son of the noble one is Joseph, the Bon of Jacob, the BOn
of Isaac, the son of Abraham.' "2 But this is no testi-
mony to the full certainty of Mu1).ammad himself, for often
the traditions spread among the later Arabs are more{)orrect
than those given in the Quran, as we said before in the
case of the sacrifioe of Isaac. Only a little is given of
Jacob's life. There is an allusion to his wrestling with the
Angel in the following words: 3 U All food was allowed
to the children of Israel before the revelation of the
Law, except what Israel (as he is here called) 4 forbade
himself." This is evidently an allusion to the Biblical
passage where the prohibition against eating the sinew of
the thigh 5 is mentioned,6 which Baidbawi 7 also gives, but
assigns a wrong reason for it. Beyond this allusion and
the history of Joseph, in which he is also involved and
which we will give later on, the only other thing told
about Jacob is his admonition before his death. This is
1 On Bura XlI. 4.
(,:)I' f'!.fll (,:)II f'!.fl\ l.rp f'!.fll rr J,i IJI """" .illl J. C:J";
*J"">I;!' (,:)I <J-I (,:)I (,:)I .......j. ,.,,fll (,:)I'
(See de Saoy Anthologie Grammaticals, 125)..
j Elpherar has nearly the same words, with the addition however of &
lODg chain of traditions.
• SUra m. 87. J!Y;':! Co
4 Ierael is Baidh4wi.
• • 6
i'TtP.pjJ '''f, Genesis, xxxii. 33.
110 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
given in accordance with rabbinical sources llB follows: 1
"And Abraham commanded this to his sons,2 even to
Jacob: 'My children, verily God hath chosen this religion
for you, therefore die not unless ye also be resigned.'
Were ye present when Jacob was at the point of death?
When he said to his sons, 'Whom will ye worship after
me ?' they answered: 'We will worship thy God and
the God of thy fathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac,
one God, and to him will we be resigned.' " We find
something similar in the Rabbinical writings: 3 "At the
time when Jacob was leaving the world, he called his
twelve sons and said to them: 'Hear your father Israel,4 is
there any doubt in your hearts about God?' they said:
'Hear Israel our father, as in thy heart there is no doubt
about God, so also there is in ours; but the Lord is our
God, the Lord is one.' 5 Then he spoke out and said:
, Praised be the name of his glorious kingdom, f01' ever.' "6
The sons of Jacob are not individually mentioned, but they
appear in the list of the Patriarchs as "the tribes," 7 so
called because of the subsequent division into tribes;
Joseph 8 alone enjoying an honorable exception. Besides
1 SUra II. 126-'1. :II Compare perhaps Genesis, xviii. 19.
3 Midr. Bah. on Genesis, para. 98, and on Deuteronomy, para. 2.
c,?i310 M¥o/f.
'!;l .,1q¥
31 i,
l'l:! 'rJ:;l 'M 'il I Mr.'!:!\; 'lJi!'{;;r l'l:!tP. OW?
W:lP "ll:! "Tr;!l$ 'n "n ni(:'t'i\;
O,?i1l7 "Ti:r? OW
.. Genesis, :r:lh:. 2. 5 Deuteronomy, vi. 4.
e Comp. the two recensions of the Jerusalem. Targum aD Deuteronomy,
vi. 4; also Traot Pesaobim, page 56.
7 ,c:.'ff, C'r,1=fWtl
JOSEPH.
111
being alluded to in one other passage,! Joseph forms the
theme of almost the whole of the twelfth Sura,2 which
is named after him. This Sura contains the narrative
given us in Genesis,S with many abbreviations it is true, but
also with many additions and alterations, whioh must be
pointed out. We must first mention the additions which
are derived from Jewish legend. Among these is the
statement that Joseph was inclined towards Potiphar's
wife, but that a sign warned him from her.
4
The Rab-
binical oomment on the words "He went into the house
to do his work" 5 runs as follows: 6 "Both intended to
commit sin;" and on words "She caught him by his
garment saying, 'Lie with me,''' Rabbi Yohanan remarks,
"Both had got on to the bed, when the form of his father
appeared to Joseph at the window and said: "Joseph,
Joseph, one day the names of thy brethren will be graven
on the stones of the Ephod, also thine; wilt thou that it
shall be effaced?" 7 The fa.ble that the Egyptian women
1 SUra XL. 86. • sUra XII. 4-108.
3 Genesis, xxxvii. 9-86 and chapters, x:z::z:i:r. to xlvi.
• Sura XII. 24. !0 (;;u:; ..st f; 16.!
5 Genesis
l
xxxix.. 11. IS Sota-h, XXXVI. 2.
':ill i1'1?1'l't7t niw.ll1 nJ;li;;JiJ n.:1iJ ci'iJ? ';:1il
-,btol? "p=¥ ";17'? i;r,Ii'
MVO/ t:I'l1l::!1\ '1!l',? M;J?rP
i" ii1:>i:1:ll i7 M'l:l"H1 "l#
';T?ill7 MJ;ll:l1 -,itll:l 'rl1l:l 'if'!)l:l i"'1;1,":
'if!jlrP
1 Elphersr in his comment on the verse qnoted gives some of these
particulars :
4-w .,..-L>, ",WI J... JU doll U",,", (:}l "'" ..s'"
"It is said on the authority of Ben r.Abbas that he said he had undone
his girdle and approaohed ber with a sinful pnrpoae.
lI
f'Sl J JU
112 JUDAISM: AND ISruUr.
mocked at Potiphar's wife, were invited in by her, and in
contemplating Joseph's beauty I were so absorbed that they
cut their own hands, is found in an old Jewish writing 2
which, though not genuine, is certainly very ancient, and
is written is very pure Hebrew. This work is sometimes
referred to in the Midrash Yalknt under the name of " The
Great Chroniole." S In an old Jewish German translation
however, it bears another title.
4
It is this translation which
I have before me as I write, and for this reason I will not
quote the actual words.
5
Also the discussion about the
J ·1eW1 Jo.!> J...s JJl"., .... B),.. .lJ\ 0",;-A+ll

Keblda and the greater number of the commentators say that he sa.w
tbe form of Jacob, who said: '0 Joseph, thoagh thy name is written
among th. prophet. y.t thon h.havast like the fools.' "
1 .EJphera.r on %ii. Sl, agreeing with the Sepber Hayyasha.r, gives,
contnry to Wa.hl's foroed interpretatioIl) tbe oorrect meaning as follows:
,J, 1:"", "'»"- -.;1
* Uo.J"I r:)<Jlf' JW "''''''
U They cut; themselves with the knife whioh they had in their handa,
thinking they were cutting the orange, bat they did not feel the pa.in
on a.ccount; of theu- absorption in the contemplation of Joseph."
• "lW:tt • !:l'!:l'" '"0'1 • "lct'" !:lM
6 An allusion to this fa.ble is found iu 80 passage from the Midra.sh
Abhkir quoted in the Midr. Yalknt, ohapter 146.
The Qu:n1n story is seen to be still more like the narntlv8 in 8epher

Hayy4.ahlr, when one e.dds tbe following deta.ils. The word ('Verse
81) oomes from tl; (viii) to lean against, Ek. the Rabbinic..r
from '1:>'9 to support, prop; and like the Hebrew ::lQl;l from
it signifies Q, meal, not on aocount of the new strength and l!i'Upport 'Which
food gives (to whioh one might easily be led by the expression ::t,
compare especiaJly Psa.lm, civ. 15h bllt on a.ooount. ot the oriental method
of leaniog agawst supports e.t meals, au Elpherar rightly observes:
\.0\01. -.;\ .u;... .... M::i , , J"'+ "" JI.i
JOSEPB',
118
tearing of the olothes, whether they were torn in front or
at the back,l is found in the same way in the Sepher
Hayyashar. In tho words, " and a witness bore witness," 2
which we here do not take striotly aocording to the
meaning of the oontext, bnt rather in the sense of an
"arbitrator decided," 3 othera seo au allnsion to a witness
...,-.... .>iL..,lI ",,s:.:a I,...-l;- IJI rl.>.ll J.oI
*
U Several Al"u.bio comlncmtaturtl say that means food, because
th.e people when they sit eating leRn agn.inst pillows. Therofore food is
rolled by way of metonomy \.S::;:...." On this word the same Elpherar
f.xthel' oomments as follows: WI ..j Ij!,
J.i <.S,lJ' i' V'4<> (:)! J\J d IFI,
d' ;foe JIi, ";,\-..;lI JIi, i'
"'\;:.. .....r
l
'""'" J6' WS' "lj JlI JIi J
*l,lI, ,...J4

({ In the oopy of Shnwaz is written with a vowellcBB te'
Opinious are divided as to the meaning of this word. Ben eAbbna says it
is all O1"8ugO. MniAhid f\Sserts the same thing. Some Bay an OrRDge f9
thus called in Abyssinia. Dhn'tlltk says it is the Indian fruit Zumawal'd.
!">
'Akr sa.ya ¥J every thing which is cut a knite. Abu Zaid
tho Christia.n, says that whenover anything is Ollt with a knite it is caned
".. G Co.. pc. ..
by tho BiDce and with mim (,..) and be. meB.d
• 0_
among the Arabs cutting," According to the rencHllg which som'
Mf
adopt, it would mean an ol'ange or and we are told e:r.praBBly in
Sephor IIayy5.shnr that JOSOph'B miBtrGsB offered this fruit to the
visiting ber. Now onr rending Boems to me the -right one, Rnd the
...
meaning given to very doubtful, for the Arabia commentator"
thcms-olvoa m'e much divided in opinion, and their explanations are
clflrivcd only from tho passago itself, as often happens. NevOlotheleaa
from their words this much is olenr, thnt tho whole legend as it is fonnd.
in tho above.mclltioned Jowish book has pnsfled over to the Arabs, 80 that
Intor commontatol's have tried to discovcl' evcry detail in the worda of
tho Qumn.
6 _ ••
I Sura XII. 25. • ""I>, , S6ra XII. 26.
3 ,.s'1o.,.s;"., So aI,,, Elphorar.
114
JUDAISI{ AND ISUM:.
-7 ..<,-
S Sura XII. 42. 6W\i
who was present at what ocourred between Joseph and tha
woman, and some of the commentators quoted in Elpherar
express themselves quite in harmony with the Sepher
HayyasMr as follows: 1 "&'id Ben Jnbair and Dhu:t>ak
say it WMl a child in the cradle which God permitted to
speak. This is the tradition of the Uphite commentator
according to 'Abbas." In the Sepher HayyasMr it is also
asserted that there was present a child of eleven months
who till then could not talk, but then attained to spocch.
But there is a difference in the Jewish book makes the
child confirm the utterance of Joseph, while the Arabic
commentator puts into its mouth the decision about the
rent clothing, whiclJ other Arabic writers reject as highly
unsuitable. Many commentators say that this was no
child,2 but rather a wise man full of penetration. It follows
from this that Mu:t>ammd either mixed the two legends
inappropriately, or else that the second one oame later
into Arabic tradition and was read by the Arabs into
the words of the Quran. The words
s
which Walll
translates: "But the devil would not allow it.j that he
(the cup.beal·er) thought of him (Joseph)," are explained
by the following passage: 5 "The talk of the lips tendeth
only to penury,S because although Joseph reminded tho
1 ltl»,.. ,<IllI &;WI.lQ+II d' (;)'IS r-<"" <.:ll JU
* u-l,.c: d',-JI
• 1',.) (;)IS ,-l ."w, ....."""', ... JU,
* <.51; IJ
• Wahl does not explain what means her",.
• tl'i?tPlil;:! .,iII? ''li ?1l .,br;U;l? ';J'i;
Vj?7;l i? nRim '¥J:l"1::1!
(lllidr. Rabbab on Geneeie, para. 89.) O'/,):
a Proverbs, xiv. 23.
JOSEPH.
115
cup-bearer twice 1 that he should remember him, yet he
had to remain two more years in prison; for it is written,
, And it was after two years.' "2 The seeking of protection
from tho butler is here regarded as sinful, and therefore
MuQ.ammad says: "And Satan made him (.Joseph) forget
the remembrance of his Lord (God)," in that he trusted
not in God but in man.
a
In the same Snra
4
Jacob
recommends his sons to enter by difEerent gates; in like
manner we read in the Rabbinical writings 5 that Jacob
said to them: "Do not enter by the same door." 6
The statement 7 that the brothers said, when they found
the cup in Benjamin's sack: "If he be guilty of theft his
brother hath also been guilty," is evidently an erroneous
change in tho words of a passage found in the Midrash
quoted above,S according to which they said, "See a
1 Genesis, xl. 14. i Genesis, xli. 1.
3 Elphm'ar bas the following:
\:f. J\;") 'fJ .WI> 'j.-w ...u..Jl Ul..J! fJ ..;>W\ ........\ Joi
'r-!' <:Y' l';jU\ &/) fJ '-"-J! WI U"l,JO
* """ Ul..p ......f' .lJ.Ij, ..u; ,
U It is said that the butler did not remember to mention Joseph to
t.he king. The virbual meaning of this is that Satan made him fOfKElt
mention of him to bis Lord (Pharaoh). But Ben IAbb4s and
most authorities after him :aoy tha.t Satan made Joseph forget the
remembrance of his Lord) so that he sought help apart f!'OlU Him and
proteotion from a creaturo
J
and this was an omission to which Sa.tan
tempted Joseph." 'l'hen he qnotes many other passuges whioh represent
this step of Joseph's as siofn].
" 81.11oa XII. 67, :) Midr. Rabbah on Genesis) para. 91.
CO'? "1"'l$
6 The same rea.son is given a.like by tbo Arabjc commentators and in thl'$
Midrosh, viz. ,.e.L> -.II;. l'.:o.1y 'rl9r,l-(CI. Elphsrar on tho voraol
UFor fear of envious looka/' which the anoients regarded as vel',
disastrous in theil' ooneoquenoes.
7 SUra. XII. 77. 8 Mid. R.b., p""" 92. "1:jl toIQ
116 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
5 Geneais) u:r.vii. Sll.
TBUra XII. Ill!.
thief, son of a thief," with reference to Rachel's having
stolon tho Ternphim.I From the <,Juran it appears 2 that
Jaoob ,knew by divine communication that Joseph still
lived, which is opposed to one Jewish view,3 but agrees
with another,4 which runs as follows: "An unbeliever.
asked our teacher, 'Do tho dead live On f Your fathers did
not accept this, and will you accopt it f It is said of Jacob,
that ho refused to be comforted.
5
If he had believed that
tho doad live OU, wonld he have refused comfort?' Then
he answercd him. 'Foolish Olle I he knew through the
Holy Ghest that he still lived (in the Hosh), and one does
not take comfort conceruing the living.''' 'rho story that
.Joseph told Benjamin beforehand who he was, is commou
to the (luran 6 aud the tiepher HayyasMr. Besides these
additious from Jewish legends there is also other matter
which owes its origin to error, or possibly to traditions
nnknown to us. AluJ.>ammad's statement 7 that the brothers
asked their father to send Joseph with them cuntradicts
the Biblical account; ij and the statement that one of the
1 Genesie, 19. The Al"abiUD commentators give the roost varying
accounts. One of these confirms our view of an erroneous OODfuaiOl1
with Rachel, viz., the following in Elpherar: r-* 01 ...- JIi
'r .....1.1 •.....-a ,.,." ..., ,-"I .,..s (:)\! "''''',
S'ald' Ben Jubair end KutOda say tb.t bi. I!rand.falher, hi. motber'.
father, bad an image which he WOl'sbippHl. 1.'his t,e stole secretly."
• Sura XU. 86, 97. 3 Pirke Il.bbi Elie""., section 38.
« Mid. Tanohuma quoted in Mid. Yulkut, oh.pter 148,
!:1'O;:ltl 0".1:1 O'O'!liio/. "1W!?!::! '0;;)17 'l;I\l
C'1io 0'1;0
;? "1l:l;l tl'OliliJW n' nil1
1'1:11 ';:I ';;'; i1l::1;!11
'" •• • •• • "J'
'r;tlj '''' l'?;l'Ii'1J1!l
• Sura XII. 69. . .
8 GepeBia, xxxvii. IS if.
JOS.\l:PH.
II?
lshmaelites who went to draw water found Joseph in
the pit is against the clear word of the Scripture that
the pit was dry.! Mul;mmmad makes Joseph expound
Pharaoh's dream, and only afterwards does he have
him fetohed from prison,2 ill oontradiotion to the Bible
narrative.
3
He asserts that Jacob became blind from
grief, but that he recovered his sight by the application
of a shirt to hiB eyes. He was perhaps thinking of
Jacob's loss of sight 4 later on, or possibly the idea is
based on some legend unknown to me. .According to
the Quriin Joseph's parents 5 came to him in Egypt, in
spite of the fact that according to the testimony of the
Scriptures 6 Rachel was long since dead. Mnl;uunmad's
idea probably was to bring about a complete flllfilment
of the dream, which mentions both parents.
7
all this, howeve r, some of the Rabbis remark that this
is a sign that no dream ia without a mingling ef some vain
matter, while others say that Bilhah, Joseph's subsequent
foster-mother, is alluded to. Something like this is quoted
by Zamakhshiiri, to the effect that "this means his
father and his aunt;" B while Elpherar has 9 still more
clearly: "Katiida and &da say tllat by the moon ill
meant his aunt, because his mother Rachel was already
dead." Thus it is possible that Mu].tammad moona
this aunt here, even as Elpherar relllll1lkB on another
1 Genesi8, Invii. 24. c ~ ~ iZ l'l:! i"'J ,i:lll:T1
• sUra xn. 47, bOo 3 Genesis. Ili. 14 ft.
"SUra. XII. 84, 93, 96. Of. Genesis, xlt.iih lOJ,
• sUra Xl!. 100, 101. ~ : ; ; i • Oooesis; .xnv. 18 ft.
7 SUr3 XII. 4. or. Oene8i8, lXxvii. 10. 'm'Il;I.1,l.':ll:!
8 On sUra XII. 4, .ul.Id., ',lI1 Ji:i, (De SlI<>y Antb. (Jramm, puge
121.)
• ................I! ~ ~ .w.l I ; ) ~ .ulld. rJIl' ",...Jl JIi, i ..W ollli
118 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
passage,! to wit, that "Most commentators say that by
these are moant his father and his aunt Leah, his mother
having died at the birth of Benjamin." It is quite in
acoordance with llful,J.awIIiad's usu"l procedure to put into
Joseph's mouth a long discourse on the unity of God and
the doctrine of a future life. This is given before the
interpretation of the dreams of his two fellow-prisoners.2
With Joseph we finish the first period, for botween J'oseph
and Moses :I.{ul.utmJD"d mentions no one elso. It almost
seems as if, with Justin, Mul.utmmlld regarded Mosos as
J'oseph's son, although of eourso wo cannot soriously
attribute suoh an opinion to him.
SECOND OllAI"'Ell.
Second Pewt.
Moses and his TimB.
'l'he history of the earlier times was p"userY"d ollly in
brief outlines, and was not so important either in itself,
01' in the influence whioh it exerted on tho subsequent
1 sUra Xl!. 100. J l,l "-'II.. J J'" 0'!;-4!' .J"!' JU
U-W d ...,;1... .u
g The Arabian commontators, who .are quite cOllscious of this
unsuitability expluin it away VOl'y clevorly by sayillg that Joseph made
th.i8 digressioD
1
because it gl'ieveu him to bo obliged to forotell evil to
ono of hia fellow-prisoners. Elphorar comments on 'fergo 37 fl8 followa :
(;)0" cll.l d ,.L> W I... 40l "" ....n..J! 4,}I ..",., W Wi
loJlI , (;)0" d .1;.' , 4ol;" <J'J"'u l,..o,....,
*......rJ' wi'
"After they had told him the (lream, he was ul1williug to givo them
tbe explanation fDr which they had asked him) btlcauso ho J'ecognised
in it something that would be disagreeable to ono of t.hem. EoI' this
reason ho put aside their questioD, and Logan a different discourso, in
which be taught them about tho gift of mirucle·working nnd ex.horted
them to belief in the Unity of God.
MOSES AND HIS TIME. 119
ages; therefore Mututmmad adopted from it only suoh
legende as were edifying in themselves and to which he
could append pious reflecticns. In the period of which
we are now going to treat, there is certainly still a long
array of legends, but historical facts are preserved for us
with greater distinctness and clearer <letail, and these
facts are of greaber religious importauce The giving of
the Mosaic Law and the eventful life and noble personality
of lIIoses himself afford Mul).ammad plenty of material for
his narrative. Here we will first put together tho whole
life of Moses aa represented in the various passages of the
Quran, and then we will go on to consider the details to
be commented upon. Among the oppressive enactments
of Pharaoh against the children of Israel was an order
that their children should be thrown into the water.
Moses I the son of Amram 2 was laid by his mother
in an ark; Pharaoh's wife, who saw tbe child tbere,
saved it from death and had it nursed by its mother.
Vlhen Moses was grown np he tried to help his oppressed
brethren, and once killed an Egyptian; the next day
however he was reminded by an Israelite of his yesterday's
deed. This made him afraid, and by the advice of a
friend he fled to Midian,3 and married there the daughter
of a Midianite.
4
When he wished to leave Midian he saw
a burning bush, approached it, and received a command
to go to Egypt to warn Pharaoh 5 and to perform some
miracles to make him believe; he asked for his brother
Aaron as an assistant in tllis work.
6
He obeyed the
command and accomplished his mission, but Pharaoh
remained uubelieving and assembled his magicians, who
- .. i .. _Co_
I <$'''' (:l're
• Suras XX. XXVIII. 2-29.
• Silras XX. 8-37, .g-ul, XXVI.
lu-20.
3 ,>_Co_
01""
5 .. ,,_Co.

9-17, xXVnL 29-S6, LXXIX.
120 JUDAISM: AND ISLb:.
indeed. imitated the wonders, but were so far surpassed by
Mosas and Aaron that they themselves became believers
in spite of the threats of Pharaoh.! But a mighty
judgment overtook PllarBoOh a.nd his people, who remained
stubborn in their unbelief; and at last the Egyptians
were drowned in the aea, while the Israelites were saved.
2
Nothing is related of the journey of the children of
Israel before the giving of the Law, except the striking
of the rock with the staff so that wa.ter Hawaii. out, and
this comes in only incidentally in two passages; 3 in the
former of which however other facts about the stay in the
wilderness are related. Moses then received the Law,4
and prayed to see God's glory.5 During his absence the
1 Sllrllll VII. 101-125, Jr. 76-90, XI. 99-102, JrX. 50-79, JrXIIl.
47-51, XXVI. 15-52, XXVII. 13-15, XXVIII, 36-40, XL. 24--49,
XLIII. -l.5-M, LXXIX. 20-27.
, sUra. II. 46-47, VII. 127-139, X. 90-93, XX. 79--82, XXVI. 52-
69, XXVIII. 40-43, XLUI. 05.
.s Sura.s II. 5'1, VII. 1611.
Sura VIT. 102 and 149. On tho firs' pa••age
Elphorar ha.: 0'.Jrn e\;l11 .l!;! U""" "" JU "Ben 'Abb:i••ay. tha,
by Alwa.1} he meana the Tomh;" on the second passage he Bays
more correctly; El.JrJ' .. Wherein is tho Torah."
• Surllll VII. 135-141, 170, II. 52-55,60,81, IV. 152. In ,he Qur£n
Moant Sinai is never mentioned in connection with tho giving of the In.wI
although it is so mentioaed by commentators, 6.!10, Elphcrar 011 VII. BO.
Bat it wns not unknown to MuQs.mma.d, seeing that it is mentioned On
other occasions. Thus it is nsed as an oath in SUra XOV.. 2 ;;
probably On acoonnt of the rhyme. Compare Again ib i;
- .
tioned in tho accoant of the creation of the olive tree. Sura XXIII. 20 :
--"- f
"And a. tree sprinl!ing from the ;,b
J
" in which passage the COUlmen"
tators cited by Elpherar ta.ke the name I1B an appellation. Among mony
diverging explanations one is adduced which appoars to me right,
u:<4l\ &.lil.;--l4 ". J,,;," It i ••aid 'hat in Syriac it moan. a
place thickly planted with trees.;f) so that would be connected with
DISPUTE Wr1'E! KORAH. 121
Israelites made the golden calf, which Moses on his return
dashed into pieoes and gave to the Israelites to drink; I
and after that he appointed seventy men: 2 Later on ho
sent spies to Canaan, but they all exoept two were godless.
The people let themselves be deceived by them and in
consequence were obliged to wander for forty years in the
wilderness.
3
Further, Moses had a dispute with Korah,
whom the earth swallowed up,4 and he was wrongly
accused.
This last statement may be either a reff\rence to the
matter of Korah, or to the dispute with Aaron and Miriam.
These are the main events of Moses's life as they are
given in the Quran, aud we have arranged them partly
according to the order of their mention in that book, bnt
more with reference to our better sonrce. Besides all
this, a wonderful journey whioh Moses is said to have
taken with his servant 5 is given, abont which we shall
speak further on. To pass on now to details. Haman 6
Compare Ben Ezra, who in his comment on Exodus. iii. 2, admits a
connection between and n:lo· It is to be noted that those mentioned
above who take Sinai an do not rega:rd it. a.a identical with
the II1onotain on which Moses received the Law
J
whioh identification
is merely oite.d as a possible view:
.....,.. ..... ..sJj ..s.ll\ J.,q,l\ fb -',!J 0'1 Jli, .. Ben \loid .oy. thot thi. i.
the mountain from whioh Moses was addreased.
n
D'Herbelot (Biblio. Orient. nnder SinaJ page 793) saye: The Aru.bs
0_
sometimes call this monntain Sinaini (whioh however should be
(:)U-
J
Sinani) with reference to ita- two peaks Horeb aDd Sioa i in this way
Sinks. might perhaps be taken as the genitive of the Arabic word
SmUDa
1 SUr... I!. 48-52, 87, VII. 148-155, XX. 82-99.
• SUra. VII. 154. 3 SUra. V. 23-29.
• Sura XXVIII. 76-83. • Sura XVIII. 59-81.
• Sura. XXVIII, 5, 7, 88, XXIX. 88, XL. 25.
122 JUDAISM ANI> ISI,AM.
ana Korah I are mentioned as counsellors of Pharaoh and
persecntors of the Israelites. The latter is alluded to in
this capacity by the Rabbis,2 who say: "Kol'ah was the
chief steward over Pharaoh's house." As to the former,
Mu].lammacl must at some time have heard him mentioned
as the Jew's enemy,3 and therefore have put him in
here, although later Arabians do not thus designate the
Haman 4 who lived in tbe time of AbasueTUs. The Rabbis
also say a good deal about Phal'aoh's advisers, amongst
whom they sometimes mention Balaam, Job and Jethro.
Of these the first agreed with Pharaoh and faT this reason
he was afterwards killed by the Israelites; the second
remained silent, tllerefore he had to endure sufferings;
the third fled, and so the happiness of being the father-in-
law of Moses fell to his lot. 'rhe two chief magicians,S
who are also mentioned in a letter of the apostle Panl,
are specially namod as abettors. Fear on acconnt of some
dream 6· is given as the greatest cause of persecuticn;
and this is in accord with the statement of the Rabbis that
it was foretold to Pharaoh by the. magicians 7 that a boy
would be born who would lead the Israelites ont of Egypt;
then he thought, if all male children were thl'owll into the
river, this one would be throwu with them.
s
The finding
I cl;U Sf"", XXIX. 88, XL. 25. ' Midr. Rabb. an Numbersi par. H.
n17"W 'tP oij?'?ir-lj1 "'11"
3
l ';1-.1-_ .I .;c... (
Not (j.... w but compa.re Makarizi in De Sa.c-y's Chrest.. Al'auo.
page 143, lioe 9 of the first edition).
• lol..,nO and • Sur. XXVIII. 5.
Pirke Rabbi Eliezel·, Section 48.
8 1ol':?" "I':niJ? "I'(1¥ i117"1!;17
'i' b'<il "ll,?l;l1 ::ltPi11 'l:llW;
"liN'" 'l::!
THE KILLING OJ!' AN IIGYPTIAN. 123
of Moses is attributed to Pharaoh's wife,! and she is
mentioned as a believer,2 evidently having been confounded
with Pharaoh's daughter, by whom Moses was found
acoording to the Scriptures,S and in the same way the
name 4 given to Pharaoh's wife by the commentators is a
corruption of the name 5 by which his daughter was known
among the Jews. The words of the Bible: "Shall I go
and call thee a nurse of the Hebrew women? "6 give rise
to the following Rabbinical fable: 7 "Why must the nurse
be a Hebrew women?" This shows that he refused the
breast of all the Egyptian women. For God said: "Shall
the mouth that is one day to speak with me suck an unclean
thing? "8 According to Mul).ammad Moses regarded his
slaying of the Egyptian as sinful and repented thereof,9
which is contrary to the Jewish view,10 expressed as
follows; "The ve'l'se in the 24th Psalm (according to the
reading of the Ketblbh; 'Who took not away his soul out
of vanity') refers to the soul of the Egyptian, which Moses
did not take away, nntil he bad investigated his case judi-
cially and had fonnd that he deserved death." That the
Hebrew whom he released strove again on the following day
with an Egyptian,ll and that he betrayed Moses, because he
would not uphold him, but on the contrary reproved him
3 Exodus, ii. 5.
• SUra LXVI. 11.
1 Sura XXVIII. 8.

Ii 1 ehron. iv. 18. 6 ExoduS
J
ii. 7.
7 Sotah 12, 2. ":fl":;; ire';>/? ni',:tl? n",

.,:t1 ''il11 ":1n,?
8 There is an allusion to this also in BUra XXVIII. 11.
• S..... XXVI. 19. XXVIlI. 14.
10 Midr. Rabb. on ExodllS, pnra.. 5
J'J;;t "W iii. lol; .,t!?t!
1'1"1 ill '''.li'ili'J M\'1
11 S{U'a XXVIIl. 17 fr.
124
JUDAISM A.ND ISLU!.
for his quarrelsome temper is mere embellishment, as is
also the very happy invention of :1 man who warned Moses
to flee.! There is a mistake to be found in the very brief
account of Moses' flight to Midian and his residence there,
for Mul)."mmad speaks of two 2 instead of seven 3 daughters
of the Midianite. Instead of letting the vision in the
bush be the occasion of Moses' leaving Midian, as it is in
the Bible,4 Mul).ammad erroneously makes out that Moses
had formed the resolutiou to leave the country before this
eveut, and that the vision appeared to him on the way.5
The appearance of Moses before Pharaoh is connectod in a
remarkable way with the divine commission to the former.
So closely are the two circumstances bound together that
in many places Pharaoh's answer follows immediately upon
God's command, without its having first been mentioned
that :Mosos and Aaron had gone in obedience to God
to Egypt, had done wonders before Pharaoh and had
admonished him. But on the other hand in those passages
where only the admonitions given by Moses to Pharaoh are
related, withont the preceding events being given, the
part elsewhere omitted is of course supplied, but as we
might expect with Lhanges. Pharaoh is said to have
reproached Moses with the murder of the Egyptian.
6
This
is a ,ery s;mple invention, which however is contrary to
the literal sense of the Scriptnres,7 unless we accept the
Rabbinical explanation S of the words, " the king of Egypt
died," 9 that is, "he bocame leprous and a leper is as one
dead; " and also of the words, " for all are died who sought
I Sura XXVIII. 19.
3 Exodcs. ii. 16.
, Sura XXVIll. 29.
7 Exodus, ii. 23. iv. 19.
11-'2l;l;"11
.. : T T: - :
'l l!:xodul>, ii. 2:\.
g Sura XXVIII, 23.
, Exodus, iii.
, Sum XXVI. 17 If.
a Midr. Rabb. on Exodus, par. 1.
O:'!¥'l; 11';:1
MIRACLES OF MOSES.
125
thy life" 1 whioh is as follows: "Were they deed? They
were Dathan and A.biram, who were involved in the dispute
of Korah. This only means that they had become power-
less."* Further, Moses is supposed to have shewn the sign
of his leprous hand before Pharaoh,2 whioh is not men-
tioned in Scripture,S but whioh agrees with the following
statement in the Rabbinical writings: 4 "He put his hand
into his bosom, and drew it out as white as snow from
leprosy; they also put their ha.lds into their bosoms and
drew them out as white as snow from leprosy." The
magioians who were summoned asked at first, in distinction
from God's messengers, for their reward; 5 but when they
had seen their serpents swallowed by that of Moses, they
believed, praised God and were not intimidated by Pharaoh's
threats. This is qnite contrary to the Bible, in which
such a confession is found only after the plague of lioe,6
and there too only in the form of a mere hint. A.mong
Moses' own people only his own tribe is said to have
believed On him,7 and the Rabbis say s that "the tribe of
1 Midr. Rabb. on Exodus, par. 5.
O;::!) O;::! lQ1 l'l'?tp ':;>1 '?i1 ':l)
. O¥
!Z Siit"as VII. lOS, XXVI. 32. .3 Ex.odus, vii. 8 II.
f Pirke Rabbi Eliezer} Sedion 48.
OD 0.1 1112"1.ilt!;l ij?'1J7
. . . 01;
.5 Sums VII. 110, XXVI. 40. e Exodus, viii. 15.
1 Burn. X. 83. The suffix refers to 'Moscs
l
as aome Arabic com-
mentators cited by BaidhAwi (lienzii Fl·agm. Ara.b. page lOS) and by
Elpherar take it.
S Midr. Rabb. on Exodus. para. 6.
'1;' '0/.
• AOCQl'ding to Midr. Rabb. on Exodus, ptll'a 1, Dnt.bl\.n and Abiram. were
tho two disputants, ono of whom reproached Moses with tue murder of
tho
126 JUDAISM AND ISL.hr.
Levi was exempt from hard labour." Pharaoh himself was
also a magician, aud this he claims, according to my
opinion, in his address to the other magicians.! This is in
accord with the Rabbinical statement 2 that the Pharaoh
who lived in the days of Moses was a great magician. In
other passages of the Quran,3 Pharaoh claims for himself
divinity, which assumption no doubt is intended to be
nccepted by the people. This trait is also developed in
Jewish legend,4 where we read: "Pharaoh said to them:
'From the first have ye spoken an untruth, for lord of
the world am I, I created myself and the Nile; as it
is written: 5 my river is mine own and I have mado it
for myself.'" In another passage 6 Mu!).ammad puts the
following words into Pharaoh's mouth: "Is not the
kingdom of Egypt mine and these rivers which flow
beneath me?" Elpherar, with others,7 remarks on the
words" beneath me," that they mean "by my command."
A quite new but charming fiction is that of a pioua
Egyptian, who warned his countrymen not to despise the
teaching of Moses and not to persecute him.
8
Certain
features of this story sound familiar. For instance, the
words in verse 29: "If he be a liar, on him will the
punishment of his falsehood light; but if he speaketh the
truth, some of those judgments with which he threateneth
you will fall upon you," bear a resemblance to the words of
1 Suras XX. 74, XXVI. 48. t Midr. Yalkut, chapter 182.
il+yW
3 Sur•• XXVI. 28, XXVIII. 88. , Midr. Rabb. on Exodus, par•• 6.
l;,t:l H'!J" ':(l C0l:l C1)7
'7 '!:)'!11 '''loll'' ';lii1 C7il'i;!
,t!;,ipl'
:. Ezekiol, xxix. 8. (i Sura XLIII. flO.
7 JIJ iI AIUUWill da.yl:i by my IJOnlnland. n
'3 S(u'a XL. ::!9 iI.
THE PLAGUES OF
127
Gamaliel in the New Testament. The allusion to Joseph
in verse 36 is found in a very dissimilar .Jewish tradition,
as foHows; 1 "If Joseph had not been, we should not be
alive." Mul).ammad is not clear about the plagues. In
some passages 2 hll speaks of nine plagues. In another
passage 3 ho enumerates five, which stand in the foHowing
order: Flood, Locusts, Lice, Frogs and Blood. Although
we cannot here find fault with the want of order in the
plagues and with the omission of some of them since Mu-
here is not, any more than is the Psalmist,4 to be
considered as a strict historian, get the mistaken inclusion
of a flood, which is not to be confounded with the overthrow
in thE' sea,5 may fairly be considered as a proof of the
want of reliable information on the subject. The fear of
the Israelites 6 at the approach of the Egyptians by the
Red sea is also mentioned by Mul;1ammad.r
Now we come to a circumstance, which is also taken from
Jewish legend, but which has been almost entirely misun-
derstood, from ignorance of its origin. The passage 8 may
be translated as follows: " and we caused the children of
Israel to pass through the sea, and Pharaoh and his army
followed them in a violent and hostile manner, nntil when
he was drowning, he said: 'I believe that there is nO God
but He on Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am
now one of the resigned;' on which God said, (or perhaps
this is to be read in the first person, so that this verse too
oxpresses 'Pharaoh's penitence, and the next verse begins
the expression of God's answer); 'Thou hast been
hitherto one of the rebellions and wicked doers. This
1 Midr. R.s.bbc. on Exodus.. para. 1
c"n 01" .,
• SUrao xvn, 103, XXVII. 12.
• E. g, in Paalm, CV. 28 If.
& ExoduB, :llv. 10 iI.
B Bum X. 00 if.
F)!;!;'
3 Sura. VlI. 130.
:J first mentioned in v. 182.
Sum XXVI. 61 If,
128
JUDAISM AND ISI,AM.
day, however will we s"ve thee with thy body, tha.t thou
mayest Le a sign to those who shull be ufter thee.' "I This
is the quite simple meaning of the words, whioh has been
tU'l'ned aud twisted about by others, because they were
ignorant of the following Jewish legend: 2 "Recognize
the power of I Pharaoh King of Egypt rebelled
excessively against the Most High saying: 'Who is God
that I should hearken to His voice? '3 but with the same
tongue he repented saying: Who is like Thee, 0 Lord,
among the Gods? '4 God delivered him £rom the dead, for
it is written: 'For now I had put forth my hand and
1 Que Al'abio commentator among those quoted ia Elpherar appears
to have hud a. sl1spiciun or the explanatioll given above, which is BO wen
Baited to the words; still it is not quite unknowll to BaidhAw'i. Alollg
with other explanations he gives tHOllZii Fr<..l.gll.l. At'<l.b., page 201) the
following: ;=lIT' 0" ..."\,.,,. ... &, '- ..,,)Jk ,.;).;;'1 ;;";Iu
* \,j\k
C, And to-day we save thee i.e., we will bring thee back from where thy
people are Bunk,-even fl'om the depth of the sea, a.nd we will put thee
Oil dry land." Aud fUl'tber on: Ii",- "Wir.h thy bodYI i.e.,
whole and unharmad." But on the other h<1.ucJ. the words: "That thou
mayest be a sign to those who Bhan come after thee," are explained by
him only in the ordinary way, viz. that be Bhould be a horror and a.
warning to them.
Pirke Rabbi Eliezer, Section 43.
C:,-'1!? nil"'];)!? 0'; '17 111B
1'1,i'o/tl 'i1 '!? '?o/
'n 'I;) nip¥ i:ll
'1:@ O'lDI@t' 'n 'R7J
C'8l;10 1\11!? 'n 'il 'ijiJ i"7;lii,iJl '1J,i>l '0i;l?o/
i"I;)¥no/. in';

Compo also 1Hdl'a,lSb 011 Pl:ia.lrll, cvi. and MidI'. Yalkut, chupter
3 b:X.OdU8, V. 2. ., 1';XOUU8
1
XV'. 11.
THE STRIKING OF TilE ROCK.
129
smitten thee,' 1 but God let him live to proclaim His power
and might, even as it is written in Exodus, ix. 16."
On the occasion of the striking of the Rock Mu:[J.ammad
makes twelve streams gush out, so that eMh individJ1al
tribe 2 had its own particular stream. .Apparently this is a
connrsion of the events at Raphidim, where the rock was
struck,S with those at Elim where the Israelites found
twelve wells.
4
On these wells the commentator Rashi,
probably following earlier expositors s\"ys: 5 "They found
them ready for them, in number as the twelve Tribes."
When it came at last to the giving of the Law, the
Israelites are said to "have rebelled; but God threatened
them that He would overturn the mountain 6 upon them
if they would not accept the Law. The Jews also say
that God threatened to cover them with the mountain as
with .. basin turned upside down.7 But now the Israelites
demanded that they themselves should see God; they died
at the sight of Him, but were afterwards raised again.
s
The corresponding :Rabbinical statement may be trans-
lated as follows: 9 "The Israelites desired two things of
1 Exodus. ix. 16.
• -t
:il c....l not h.- although the twelve Bona of Jacob are also called
Still in SUra. VII. 160 and':':; are used
side by side in a,u entirely Bimilar senBe, so tha.t onB recognizes the
identical meaning of the two, and therefore one ma.y with pel'fect right
tra.ns1ateI:\ as
3 Exodus, xvii.. 6.
"ExoduB
J
xv.27. Camp. also thetwo reoeasioDsof Jerusalem '!'argum.
5 1:11;'7 "1o/¥ I:IW\7
• S6ra.a II. 60,87, Vll.170.
1 Abodah Zarah II. 2.
• SUra II. 62 If. IV. 152.
• ;,;::1
1
1:I',:t'! '?tIi
m ;";j?-n\:l ;";j?
130 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
God, that they might see His glory and hear His voice; and
both were granted them, as it is written: 1 (Behold the
Lord our God hath shewed us His glory and His greatness,
and we have heard His voice ont of the midst of the fire.'
Then they had no power to bear it; for when they came to
Sinai and He appeared to them, their soul departed at His
speech, as it is written: 2 (My soul went forth when he
spake.' The Law (the Torah) however interceded with
God for them saying' I Would a king marry his daughtor
and slay all his household?' The whole world rejoices
(on account of my appearance), and shall thy children
(the Israelites) die? At once .their sonls returned to them,
therefore it is written, 3 'The Law of the Lord is perfect,
restoring the souL'" The atory of the caJ! is alao one
of those which Mul).ammad, following the Rabbis, has
found it easy to embellish. He says that the people would
have killed Aaron, if he had not made them a calf; 4
and the Rabbis Bay: 5 "Aaron saw' Hur (who had wish-
ed to oppose them) killed; then he thought: if I do not
listen to them they will do with me as with Hul'."
According to another statement of the Quran 6 one of
:l'l:1::r' 'M
M'm1 'J'1?7 ,it:ll1'? lJ3 ";Q 1l'1 Wr.li;!
'r;!!?J ."no/ '11 "lT1¥J
l'l'WQ t:l'I;lI:p l11if.ltI
C'I:1l;l t:l'J:1l;l!f c'fillO"f in'" 'rP.tl:1 iJ:l::;l
n::;l'W,,? M'il'!;lf;1 'n min n'WJ
1 DeuterouOlll.YJ v. 24 (neb., v. 21). 51 Canticlcs, VI 6.
S Psalm, xix. 8. 4, SUra. VII. 150.
, SaDhedrin 5 .,.," "l;l1
'7 '"'!=tv NJ;1WO lin?
Raahi m..ake.s the samo rCJnw:k on x:lC.xii. 4.
fi Sw-. XX. 87, 90, 96.
THE WOBBHIP OF THE OALF. 181
the Israelites, named Samiri,! led them astray and also
made the call'. This arose perhaps from Samael,2 the
name of one who is supposed by the Jews to have been
helpful at the making of the calf; but at any rate the tale
has been differently developed by Mul),ammad. According
to him this was one of the Israelites who was present, and
whom Moses condemned to everlasting wandering,3 so thai.
he was compelled to say perpetually, " Tonch not." 4 One
recognises that this legend is composed of different
elements. It is not foreign to Jewish tradition that
another Israelits, not Aaron, made the calf, and according
to one legend, Micah,5 who is mentioned in Judges, helped
in the making; 6 whence it comes that many Arabians
assert that S8.miri and Micah are one and the same
person.
7
Perhaps Mu1;lammad formed the word Samiri
from a confusion with the name Samael.
Samiri was the name for Samaritan, and according to
the A.rabians the Samaritans said, "Touch us not." 8 With
how much reason the Arabians hold this is indeed
unknown, perhaps only from confusion with a seot of the
Pharisees desoribed as bad in the Talmud, where it is named
"The set-apart, touch me not;" 9 but I have only a dim
reoollection of the passage. In short the Samaritans were
oertainly known to later Arabians by this name, and
III
I ..s)"WI •
3 XX. 97. Compare the wandering Jew in the Christian legeud.
4 5 Judges, xvii.
6 Rashi aD Sanhedrin 101. 2.
7 Of. Al}mad Ben Idris in Hottiuger's Rist. Orient., page 84.
8 Cf. Yakarizi (in De So.oy, Chrest. Arabe, i. 118 in the second edition
189 in the first edition): V''-- I:)}fi. ..s.ill J and fnrth.,";
&"..'-- 1Il1j .Jyu b)"WI 1:)1 (:)'l ....",. )/1 JU on whicb
passage De Su.cy quotes the SUl'a
l
ll,long with Bu.idb6.wi'B COlUment.
• "I;l
132
JUDAISM AND ISW.
MuQ.ammad doubtless knew them by it too; and since hi,
gave the name of Samarita.n I to the maker of the calf, this
man must have seemed to him to be the founder of the
sect, and the "Touch me not" must have originated with
him, which as a punishment was 'known to MuQ.ammad
from the similar story Qf the wandering Jew. Mu1).ammad
says that the calf lowed as it come forth.
2
With this is to
be compared the Rabbinical statement: "There came forth
this 3 lowing, and the Israelites saw it. Rabbi Je-
huda. says that Samael entered into it and lowed in order to
mislead Israel." 4 In the Quran it is said 5 that among the
people of Moses there was a tribe which kept to the truth.
This seems to refer to the tribe of Levi and especially to
their behaviour about the calf, althongh possibly it may
refer also to their belief in Moses's mission to Pharaoh of
which we have spoken before. In the biblioal account a
statement is made,6 which is explained by the Rabbis as
follows: 7 "From Exodus, xxxii. 26, it is olear that the
tribe of Levi was not implicated in tbe matter of the
golden calf." The Arabian oommentators produce the mcst
unedifying fables about this passage.
In the events which follow abbreviations are to be found,
but neither ohanges nor embellishments, except in the
story of the dispute with Korah, whio:" gives rise to some.
Korah is said to have had suoh riches that a number of
• •
1 loS)'"W\
--
S Exodus, xxxii. 24.
':<l"l iniH
"H<W'-nH
.. T:' ".' :
, Sma VII. 169.
, Suras VII. 147, XX. 90.
" Pirke Rabbi Eliezer, seeHon 45.
i1¥lt i1Ju
n¥3 bin,? "l:l7fo.
6 Exodus, x::a:ii. 26.
7 Pirke Rabbi Eliezer, section 46.
nw
o
",;111y nW,?!;1il iojt>' toI" '1'2 tl:;jW
",'2 "?l:l
KOBAK. 133
sbrong men were required to carry the keys of his trellllure-
chamber,! and the Rabbis tell ns,2 "Joseph buried three
treasures in Egypt, one of which became known to Korsh.
Riches kept by the owner to his hnrt 8 may be applied
to the riches of Korah. The keys of Korah's treasure-
chamber were a burden for three hundred white mules."
It is implied in the same Talmudic passage that he became
overbearing and quarrelsome from the possession of sllch
riches, and Mul:tammad embellishes this ide.a in a fine
manner. One passage in the Qumu may refer to this
dispute, for it says there that some persous had accUBed
Moses, but that God Cleared him from the charge which
they had brought against him.
4
Some of the commen.
tators also refer the passage to this event, while they bring
forward the following story, which we give in Elpherar'1l
words: 5 "Abn'I-'Aliah says that it refers to the fact that
Korah had hired a bad woman, who accused Moses before
all the people of bad conduct with herself. God made her
dumb, cleared Moses of the accusation, aud destroyed
Korah." This is actnally supposed tohave happened after
Moses haa made known the law about adllitery, and
the enqniry as to whether it applied to him also had been
answered by him in the affirmative.
6
The Rabbis also
allude to this in the following words: 7 "And whe!l Moses


Numbers
j
xvi. 4.
1 sUra XXVIII. 76.
• n":!f7'? 7'!it;ll;r w':np
w,JP m,'l "1# "tp¥ "t.
'1# "m f1'<f """\1
3 Ecclesiastes, v, 12. of Sura XXX!lI. 69.
• J" \e-A.:I ...,...,.. .....lai ",,;1:; ",' ,., 460\ JI' JI:; J
*",,;I:i ...u..\ J ..llJ (:Y' ...,...,..1;1' J olll\ \e.-i lW\ U"I;
6 Cf. Abnlfeda. Hist. Anteisla.mica. page 32.
7 '12'?t;I '>'1;?o/ ;-n;;t:l
134 JUDAISM All]} ISLAM.
heard it, he fell on his faca. What did he hellr? That he
was blamed for being intimate with the wife of another; "
and in another passage we read: 1 "Each man suspected
his wife on account of Moses." Other commentators
understand that the accusation was that Moses had killed
Aaron, because the two we're alone together when Aaron
died on Mount Hor; but Moses was cleared from this by
the angels, who produced Aaron's corpse.
2
This is also a.
Rabbinical idea, for we 'read in the Midrash Tanchuma: 3
" All the congregation saw that Aaron was dead.4 When
Moses aud Eleazar came down from the mountain, the
whole congregation came together against them asking
them: 'Where is Aaron ?' They said: 'He is dead.' They re-
plied:' Howcan the death angel come to a man who has once
resisted him and held him back? for it is written: 5 He
(Aaron) stood between the dead and the living and the
plague was stayed. If yon produce him, well; if not, we
will stone you.' Moses then prayed: 'Lord of the world,
clear me from this suspicion.' Then Godimmediately opened
1 Sauhedriu 110.
• Elpherar h'B' &,,>31 d (:)!J)IJ>, ""l.oW <Ill I\!I ,....,I.ill rj JU,
..).llr-I ...,-'l .Je &j I,.r- &s:."4l1 olJI )"'U oW <Ill <$',...Je 1f',)1
Compo Abulfeda. Riat. Autel.Iamlca. pp. 32 and 34. ol::.i\l (;)1 I,.;d
*Ii" '- <IIlI .Ir-'
3 1'F! 1"'ql:l :11'l4
1"'ql:l 1=.1'0 Q;::!7 'O!iij"'f 1!;l
'1l:l71,;) '1'3'0 Ci}7 1'\1,;) Cv'f
C'J:1!fltT 1';;l :l'J:l:;>"! i"¥'?l n11¥tT
t:J;)\:l t:Jt;l linlo1iJ "!;lllm 1':;'1
lio/,t:l 'l;l7 lillo/ i'lQiN=¥ "ilt?: l'oI'
lillllilTl1\:! 'i'T 'i1 '110 n,'J\i' 'o/l)iJ )!;l ':I1'W':;;'1
n11?;;J-'f ';0/, t:Jr?
" Numbers, xx.. 29. Numbers, xvi. 48. (Uebrew, xvii. 13.)
ACCUSATION AGAINST !lOSES.
135
the grave and shewed Aaron to them, and to this refers the
passage: 'The whole congregation saw, etc.' JJ Here I omit
entirely a third very insipid :fable which the commentators
mention, and which seems to them to be the most probable
occasion of the verse, but I cannot trace it to any Jewish
souroe. The most correct view is, as Wahl has already
remarked, that the verse refers to the reproaches of Aaron
and Miriam.
l
In short the fifth verse of Sura LXI is
about the answer of Moses to the disputants. Here the
commentators give only the fable not quoted by us, just
because here, as in the second passage, they repeat only
the most universally accepted view. But this cannot
prevent us frcm holding to our opinion. Of the journey
described by Mul;mmmad 2 I could not find a trace in Jewish
wriGings, although the colouring is Jewish.* Moses is said
to llave gone with his servant to see the place where two
seas meet, and to have forgctten a fish, which they were
taking with them for food and which sprang into the sea.
When they went back to seek it, a servant of God met
them and made the journey with them, telling them before
hand that his actions would ronse their impatience. He
sank a ship, killed a youth and propped up a wall; and
ouly whon they parted did he give suffioient reasons for
these actions. The story following this about Dhu-'I-
1 Numbers) xii. 1 IT. , Siir. XVIII. 59-81.
:j. Tho 3.uthor adds tho following note in the Appendix:
Zunz (die gotteBdicllstlichcn VOl'tri.i.go dar Juden, historisch entwickolt
J
S. 130 u. Aum. do) ha.s pointod out the Jewish source of this story, in
which tho servant of God according to the Arabians is said to be Elias
(of. under Elias); only that, according to the Jewish source, the traveller
is R. Joshua. hen Levi, a man who plays a.loa.ding pa.rt in to.les of Ii1arvel
and 3.uventuro (cf. Z u n ~ pp. 140-141) nnd whom this adventure Buits
much bOLter tha.n it does: Moses, who atands on too high n. pl:11lo. We
may oasily recog-nize therefore tho Jewish origin of this legend, which has
been embellished qUlte ;).fto!" tLLo manner of the Qumn.
136 JUDAlSIl AND ISLAM.
Qaruain I wight well refer to MOBes, the shining one,2 if
anything of the sort were known about him.
Of the individual lawswhich are mentioned historically in
the Quran,s only one, viz., that relating to the red hei£er,4
affords material for a narrative, arid that is given5 in very
unnecessary fullness !lJld with manifold errors. In the
first place MuJ.u;mmad confounds the red heifer 6 with the
calf which is slain for one murdered by an unknown hand,1
and he also makes the dead man live again 8 on being
struck with a piece of the animal. In view of such great
distortions we must not deal hardly with him for the
following small one; he says that the cow must be of one
year,9 in contrailiction to the rabbinical statement that
she had to be a two-year old)O
As to those persons who come into the history of Moses,
we have already disposed of Pharaoh, Aaron and Korah,ll
while we have only mentioned others and therefore must
add more aboutithem. Miriam12 is praised in the scripture
and called a prophetess,IS but the Rabbis value her still
more highly and say of her: 14 " The angel of death had no
power over Miriam, but she died from the divine afIIation,
and therefore worms could not touch her." According to
1 sUra. XVIII. 82 Ii.
S See Ap:osndix.
• sUr.. II. 68 Ii.
7 Deuteronomy, x:ri. 2 if.
9 flo ..._
(:llf' Sura. II. 63.
10 Vid. Midr. Rs.bb. on Numbers, para. 19.
S Exodus, nxiv. 29 if.
" Numbers, xix. 2 if.
• SUra II. 67.
8 sUra II. 68.
>-G.
" f"-J'" 13
1" Baba. Bathra, 11.
nJ;l1;;1 'Tl-37l:i J:T¥
"If"! mil lIJ'<o/
muBO. 187
1 Miriam is the mother of Jesus.
2
Although
Miriam's name is not mentioned in the passage where she
is alluded to in the history of Moses,3 yet there is not the
slightest doubt that Mul;1ammad took both Marys for one
and the same person; for the Talmudic ntterance already
cited, viz., that Miriam did not die through the angel of
death, conld easily be turned into a statement of a long,
if not endless, life for her, especially by Mul;1ammad, who
treats chronology pretty much according to his own plea-
sure_ The other person who appears in the history of
Moses is his father-in-law Jethro. Now it is true that his
name, like that of Miriam, is not mentioned in the story of
1>1oses,4 hence the Mu];mmmadan tradition connects this
(as the Quran simply designates the father-in-
law of :Moses) with Shu'aib, the Arabio name for Jethro, and
so they came to be considered as one aud the same, not
however without more or less opposition. Thus Elpherar
says: 5 "Opinions are divided as to the nllme of Moses'
wife's father. Many say he was the prophet Shu'aib i
others that he was Jethro the nephew of Shu'aib who died
before him i others llgain that he WIIS a man who believed
on Shu'aib." But the most widespread tradition is that it
was Shu'aib himself.
Thus Elpherar always calls him by this name, when
mentioning him in connection with these events and
1 ;,,;;. ";';"i; Su....o LXIV. 12, VII. 188.
2 Cf. sUm 111. title and verse SO if..; Sura XIX. particalarly verse 29 j
Sura LXVI. 12, and Sunna.
I Sura XXVIII. 10. • SUra XXVIII. lIS If.
• Elpherar on sUra XXVIII. 28•
........... f' ..s.>-ll, .-l\o,.QlI, ....4-0- JIA> 1&.11 .-' .... ,
....."..... (:)\S, .....1<:ll' r-* (;l! , ......., JIi, ,.aL. ..rl\
* 1:1"" 1:1'" j..) J,:.i, ...u.l J.,i ....1.0 .»
s
188 JUDAISM AND mL...t:.
Abulfeda 1 relates just this one t1 ing about Shu'aib, viz.,
that he was the father-in-law of Moses, without giving any
other opinion. Thongh his name is not mentioned in this
oonneotion in the Quran, other events independent of Moses'
life are related of him, particnlarly his admonition of
the Midianites, whioh is said by the Rabbis to have been
the oause of the' hatred of that people towards
MuQ.l\mmad took up the admonition without mentioning thf
oonsequence whioh it entailed on Jethro, viz., the drivin/l
o.way of his daughters, whioh was just the oiroumstance
which led to Jethrc's oonneotion with the life of Moses.
Aooording to an immediate pnnishment fell on
the Midianites.
8
The Rabbis have the following on the
subjeot: 4 "The priest of Midian had seven danghters.
5
God hates idolatry and did He give Moses a refuge with an
idolater? Conoerning this our teachers tell us: Jethro was
pries/; of the idols, but knew their worthlessness, despised
1 Hille. A.nteis1&micBr, page So.. i Exodos, ii.!?'.
• Suras VII. 88-92, XI. 85-98, XXII. 48, XXV. 40, XXVI. 176-92,
XXIX. 85-6, XXXVIII. 12, L. 12-8•
.. Mid):, Rabb. on Exodns. para, 1.
n11::l11, l'::Jrf
, ,¥t:l nWl:l7
"0-;1;1 WWl;> l'!¥ 1't:lo/ ''1':;>
t:J1;!7 "1;l1;l1 ''''l! NlGi Ml!?1:l N=¥ N\:>rf 111 niw'1'
t:JC?? NP:rl1 'lZ
cry? ';; '?f 1ol'!i
in
1 "'1:11-3
n:w'1: ""1 " N"1 C1l;l i" i'i2'Ii: Kl,!f5
t61 n\:l i" t'1ill'17 1!;l
C'l;'1
Y
1 1lJ::' C'l!"i7

S Exodus, ii. 16.
JUlIllO. 1S9
• sUr> XXVI. ISO.
7 .. , , ~ ...
.........
idolatry and ha.d thought of being oonverted even before
Moses Cl>me. Then he called his fellow-townsmen and
said to them: 'Till now I hve served you, but now I 10m
old, choose you another priest: and he gave them back the
vessels of service.' 'l'hen they put him under a ban, so that
no oue conversed with him, no one worked for him, no one
tended his flocks; and when he asked this service from the
shepherds, they would not give it. The shepherds came
and drove them away. 1 Was it possible f Jethro was the
priest of Midisn and the shepherds drove away his daugh-
tel's? But this shews that they hd put him under a bah,
and for this reason they drove his daughters awa.y." In the
mouth of the people, or mora probably from Mu];1ammad
himself, the legend received the embellishment that Jethro
wanted to ccnvert his fellow-countrymen to the faith, and
that they were punished on account of their unbelief. A.
reproach which is specially brought against them, or rather
the poiut of the exhortation, viz., to give just weight and
measure,2 must be founded on some lagend or other,
although I have not yet ccme aoross it in Jewish writings.
S
Jethro shows himself as a preacher quite according to
Mu!).ammad's ideas. He preaches about the Last Day 4 and
asserts that he desires no reward; 5 on the other hand his
townspeople reproach him with working no miracles.
6
I
have presented the facts and quotations here as though
there were no doubt that all these passages refer to Jethro,
but exception might be taken to this. An altogether
different name 7 is found in the Quran, and it is not easy to
1 Exodus) ii. n. 2 Sura.s VIi. 88. XI. 86.
3 It seems as though MulJammad had oonfoundod the Midianites with
the inhabit.ants of Sodom, to whom such things are imputed by the
Rabbis,
• sUra XXIX. 85.
• S6ra XXVI. ISS, 187.
140 JODAlSI! ANP lSLAI!.
explain how Jethro came by it. However, we must first try
to shew that Shu'aib and Jethro fa" idontical,and then put
forward our conjectill'es as to how the many-named Jethro
added this name to his others. The identity is first shewn
by the fact that those to whom he was sent are called
" 1 in the ,second place, the two first passages 2
give the events concerning him between the story of Lot
and that of Moses.
Now if we can find among the Rabbis any intimation
favourable to this snpposition, then nothing important will
remain to oppose its adoption S as a probable hypothesis.
Very little, however, can be adduced to shew how Shu'aib
and Jethro came to be one and the same person. Mu!}.am-
mad may have confused the name Hobab 4-often used for
Jethro and probably pronounced Ohobab-witb. Shu'aib.
Perhaps an etymological explanation may be thought of
here, for the Rabbis assert that the staff used later by
Moses and called the divine staff 5 grewin Jethro's garden.
6
Now Sha'ba 7 means staff and Shu'aib S may be taken as the
posse&sor of the staff. If Shu'aib is the same as Jethro,
1 Su.... VII. 88, XI. 86, XXIX. 86. XXII. 48

where is regarded as the name of a. town).
, B"r.. VII. 88-92, XI. 85-98.
, It i. all vary well for Ahme.d hen All Sal(m (quoted by 11""""'0. on
SUra. VII. 83.) tORBsert that this is the opinion of "a. heap
of.. fools," Some regard Jethro, as the father of Shufaib, (as Elpherar on
8uro VI l. 83: (:!'l .,....... I' J,i, ); others, aa hi, nephew (cf. the
pn.saage quoted above itom Elpherar on Sura. XXVIII. 23.). Tho
ence in the Dames CDnflJsos the commentatOl"S, and also their ignora.nce
of the source from which here, as often, MU.I;IlJ.Inmad drew.
• '
& That Mosea obtained tho sha.ff from Jethro is asserted also by D'Herb.
B. O. under the word Shu1aib, p. 772, according to the view.
1 !O..(,.. 8 to ...
....... .........
141
there are passages I in which the former is mentioned,
while those to whom he is sent are not called Midianites;
and so we nnd a new name for these peopJe,2 viz., "men
of the wood," 3 which name is evidently derived from the
thorn bushes which were in the vicinity.
It remains for us to justify the bringing forward of two
more passages, 4 and it is all the more difficult for us to do
so, because in order to prove our point we must accuse
MuJ;iammad himself of a misunderstanding. In these pass-
ages Shu'aib is not mentioned, but the people who are held
up as a warning are oaJled "men of the well," 5 without
any other partioulars being given about them. But further
these" men of the well" 6 are mentioned in one passage
along with the" men of the wood," aud so it seeme oerbaiu
that regarded them as two different peoples;
but nevertheless we allow onrselves to believe them to be
really identical.
The real reMon for bringing Jethro into the Quran is,
&9 we have already remarked, the quarrel of the shepherds
with his daughters, although the fact itself is not men-
tioned in that book; and it is thus easy to understand that
the Jews may have sometimes calle,d the Midianites by this
name i.e., "men of the well." No other circumstances
related abont these persons mentioned in the Quran would
authorize this appellation. The story of Jacob at the
well (setting aside the fact that not the slightest allusion
1 E.g. SUra XXVI. 176 iI. •
3 Elpheror on 8u.... VII. 83 bas: r-J", (:)!"" ; bnt this same
Elpherat wiU not a.llow this with regard to SUra XXVI. 17'1, because in
connection with Midian Shu'aib is mentioned as their brother,
which is not the case with the If people of the wood."
• BUras XXV. 4<>, L. 12. ' -t)i
• 8Ura L. 12.
142 JUDAISM AND ISI,AM.
to it is to be found in the Quran,) has in it no trace of
hostility; and so the conjecture is not too daring that, as
a matter of fact, all these three,l viz., the Midianites, the
people of the wood, and the peoplo of the well, are the
same, but that Mul}.ammad regarded the first two only as
identical and looked on.. the last as different. Still this
tradition seems to have been received even among the
Arabs, for we find in Elpherar
2
among othor explanations
the following: "Wahb says that the people of the well
Bat beside it (the well), and the shepherds served idols.
Then God sent Shu'aib, who was to exhort them to Islam,
but they remained in their error, and continued their
efforts to harm 8hu'aib. While they sat round the well in
their dwellings the spring bubbled up and gushed over
them and their houses, so that they were all ruined." In
like mauner Jalalu'd-din says: 3 "Their prophet is oslled
by some 8hu'aib, by others differently." This admission of
the Arabic commentators strengthens our opiuion con-
siderably. Another person of some importance in the
Mosaic age is said by SOme Arabic commentators to be
alluded to in the Quran,4 but many others dispute the
allusion. Elpherar quotes four different opinions on this
passage. first opinion is that it refers to Balaam,
for which he quotes many authcrities, and relates the
history cf Balaam in almost complete accord with the
I _
• On Sur. XXV. 40. ....l"...I, 4.lo. J.'>I Ijlf ........, JIi
.JI f""i"00l rL.lI o.,J.c J>. ,i" ol1l1 u-"I,..
J,.. f"" <.Soil d, ,..eJ\..ob d
* 10."...". f"")\a"l, r.JI =)1> l:JI
3 On Sura XXV. 40 (vid. Maracc.) Jol, J"J ,.eW
• SU,," VIl. 174-5.
SAUL. 143
Bible narrative.! Jalalll'd-dln and ZamakhsMri 2 refer
this to Balaam, and call him Balaam the son of Ba'ura.
S
Beyond these nc other persons who come into the life of
Moses, or who were imporoant in his time, are mentioned,
and thus our second parh comes to an end.
SECOND SECTION.
Ohapter II.
Third Part.
The three kings who ruled ouer undiuided Israel.
The history following immediately on the time of Moses,
including the time of the Judges, must eihher have seemed
to Mu);lammad nnedifying, which is improbable, as the
story of that heroic age Was quite in accord with his feelings
and aims; or else it must have been wholly unknown to
him, and this appears to have been the case· from the fact
that he speaks of the choosing of a king as an event
happening aIter Moses,4 in terms which can only mean
immediately or very soon after Moses. Saul stands very
muoh in the back ground; for on the one hand his history
was known to Mul}.ammad only in a very abbreviated form,
and on the other hand the Prophet had suoh an undefined
notion of Saul's personality that he attribuhes to him the
aotions of others. Saul's history is related in the Qnran 5
in the following manner: ".AHel' Moses the Israolites
desired a king, in order that they might go out under him
to the Holy War; 6 to which however only a few of them
1 Elpberar calla bim, following some authorities, ) P ~ ~ ~ j and
following othera, ;,,11 \:)l ~ .
• Maraca. on the pasaage. ' ~ " ' ~ \:)l ~
• • ~ c... " !»
sUra II. 247. <.S"'r ~ ~ SUra II. 247-68.
6 1 Bamnef
l
viii. 20.
144 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
afberwards went. The prophet (Samuel) gave out that
Saul was sent of God, still he seemeJ despicable in the eyes
of the people) As a sign that the rule pertained to Saul,
the prophet of Israel announced the return of the Ark of
the Covenant. Saul then proved his troops, and allowed
only those to belong to his army who drank water lapping
it with the hand; this was done by very few, and even
these were afraid of Goliath and his armies. David at
length overcame the Philistine and his hosts and gained the
dominion." The circumstance that through Saul the .Ark of
the Covenant came back 2 is contrary to Scriptnre, accord-
ing to which the Ark came back earlier. The stcry of
Saul's proving his troops is evidently a confusion with that
of Gideon, concerning whom this is related in the Bible,S
and has doubtless risen from the similar story of Sanl's
forbidding food to the army.4 This confusion with Gideon
accounts too for the saying that only a few mighty men
followed Saul. The name of the prophet is not given, and
later Arabians also are in ignorance about it.
s
Sanl is
called Talnt,6 a name probably given on account of his
height.7 MuJ.tammad notices in the Qnran that Sanl was
of great height,S and Baidhawi gives this derivation for
his name. Goliath is called J§Jnt.
9
The personality of
David 10 is ·certainly more clearly grasped in the Quran,
but the actnal historical events of his life are scarcely
touched upon. David's victory over Goliath is mentioned
1 1 Sa.muel, x. 27.
11 SUra. n. 249 must be thus understood
J
and perhaps it would also be
better to read ..;"W\ ,.s:,,;\! here.
a Jodges
J
vii. 6 ft. • 1 Samuel, rive 24 if.
b Baidhawi Baye: .}.,.....I ,I (?0"'-""-") 0,-00 ,I {f>j. ". ,
15 ";';l[. probably derided from J'U;" to be tall.
7 1 SamQsl, ix. 2, x. 23. 8 Sum II. 24a.
• ~ ; . . : . . 10 ~ ; , . >
DAVIlJ.
145
incidentally in the history of Saul. Again, the story of
David and Bathsheba is only distantly. alluded to, in that
(setting aside the passage I in which he is called
" Penitent" probably with reference to her) the parable of
tho case in law devised by the Prophet Nathan 2 is
narrated,3 and to it is added. that David perceived that
this was a sign j and after he had repented, he was received
back into favour by God. According to the Quran the
oase in dispute is not related. by the prophet, but the twO}
d.isputants themselves corne before David. In another pas-
sage 5 mention is made of David's and Solomon's excellent
judgment on the occasion of some quarrel nnknown to us
about shepherds tenmng flocks on strange fields at night.
A remarkable circumstance is given in several passages,6
where it is stated that David compolled the mountains and
the birds to praise God with him, which, as Wahl rightly
romarks, owes its origin to David's poetical addross to all
crel.tnres, in which address he imagines them endowed
with life and reason, and calls on them to join with him
in extolling the Almighty. According to th" Quran 7
mankind is indebted to David for the invention of armour.
This legend probably arose from David's warlike fame,
although there is much said in the Bible about Goliath's
armOur. In another passage 8 we find a general mention
of David. In one of the Sunnas 9 it is mentioned that
David did with very little sleep j and Elpherar 10 in a long
chain of tradition beginning with Ibn (Abbas and ending
J} ; : ~
1 Sur. XXXI'IlI. 16. -.-1,1
3 SUra XXXVIII. 20-S.
~ Baumel, xii. 1 ff.
, Sura XXXVIII. 28-6.
5 SUra XXI. 78.
6 Suras XX£. 79, XXXIV. 10, XXXVIII. 16-20.
1 Sura XXI. 80. 8 Sur. XXVI!. 15.
9 Sunn. J4S. 10 Ou SIll'O XXXVIfI. la.
'1'
146
JUDaiSM .!.ND ISLAM.
with 'Arom, says: 1 " '1'ho Apost1q of God said: '(David)
slept half the night, rose for a thil'd, and then slept again
for a. sixth.''' The Ra.bbis also speak of this, on the
strength of the 2 verse, tc At midnight I will rise to give
thanks nnto Thee," and they assert that David used to
sleep only during sixty respirations.
3
David is also known
to Mul,1aromad as the author of the Psalms.
4
The affair
of the Sabbath-breakers, who were punished by being
changed into apes, is also supposed to belong to the time
of David, but the circumstance is mentioned 5 only in
general terms, and nothing definite is given about time or
details, except in verse 82, where the time is given, but not
the fact. Among the Jews there is no trace of this legend.
The life of Solomon & is in itseJi unimportant, and it
is only the wisdom for which he is famed in the Bible
which makes him the hero of the whole East, one might
therefore expect to find much more about him in the
Quran than really exists there. Mul,1ammad speaks of his
wisdom,7 and especially brings forward the fact that
Solomon understood tr,e language of the birds. This is
also asserted by the Rabbis, and is founded on the Biblical
statement: 8 "He spake of trees ..•.•. and birds." The
winds 9 also performed hia will, and the Genii were fonnd
in his following; 10 this is also related, e.g., in the second
I "'0- JJl' ....w (,:lIS' ,.,-Lo All' Jr; Jli
• Palms, oxix. 62, 3 '!,l\Oi 1'0!!i (Berachoth).
1) ..- .
• )"j SUra. IV. 161, XVII. 67.
• SUrs. II. 61, IV. 60, V. 6" VII. 166.
• (,:l4,l.. 7 Sura XXVII. 16, 16.
, 1 King., v. 18. 9i17y "<,)......... tl'¥!.'y "11 "1:;)'1i1

g here proba.bly means the spirits of the air, like
10 S6>ss XXI. 81, 82, XXXIV. 11, 12, XXXVIII. 36-9.
SOLOMON.
147
Targum on the Book of Esther,l thus: "To him were
obedient demons of the most diverse sorts, and '.he evil
spirits were given into his hand." This legend. i,; derived
primarily from a mistaken interpretation of a passage in
Ecclesiastes.2 Mul;mmmad relates the followiug tale: 3
"On one occasion the lapwing 4 was not found in attend.
ance on Solomon, and the King regarding him as a trnant
threatened to kill him. Then the lapwing came with the
news that he had discovered a land as yet unknown to
Solomon, which was not subject to him, the land of Sheba,
in which the people together with the Queen worsh5pped
the sun. Solomon sent the bird back with a letter summon-
ing these people to adopt the belief in the Unity of God.
He himself went thither at once with his troops, and had
the Queen's throne brought to him by a ministering angel.
The Queen had been already cOllverted, and she oame into
Solomon's camp; he had her brought before him into a
hall, of which the flooring was glass, and she imagining it
to be water, exposed her legs." This same story is to be
found in the Targum 5 already referred to, together with
some other circumstances which I shall omit here. The
story runs ns follows: "Thereupon the partridge was
sought and not found among the birds, and the King
commanded angrily that it should be fetched, and he
wanted to kill it. Then the partridge answered the King:
':My lord and King, attend and hear my words, for three
months I considered and flew about the whole world to
find the town where thou wast not obeyed. Then I saw a
town in tho Enst cnlled Kitor, where there are many
1 On Estbel", i. 2,
l'lt
h
:[l l';l'Jl C'1W r-r,
• Ecclesiastes, ii. 8. l1;":'(tth
'. T •
• •
:1.. e;, ..
SlLl'. XXVII. 20-46. JJbJJb
I SecOlld rl'nl'gum 011 the Buok of Eslhel',
148
JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
people, but a woman rules over them; she is called the
Queen of Sheba. If it please thee now, my lord King,
I will go to that town and bind the Queen with chains
and its nobles with iron fetters and bring them all here.'
And it pleased the King, and Scribes were called who
wrote letters and bound them to the wings of the
partridge. When the bird came to the Qneen she saw
the letter tied on to its wing, she opened it, and these were
the contents: 'From me, £olomon the King, greeting to
thee and to thy princes I 'I'hou knowest well that God hath
appointed me King over the beasts of the field and
the birds of the heaven, and over the demons, spirits
and spectres of the night,. and that the kings of ~ l l the
countries under heaven approach me in submission. If
thou also wilt do this, great honour will be shewn thee;
if not, then I will send against thee kings and legions and
horsemen. The kiugs are the beasts of the field; the
horsemen, the birds of the air; the armies, demons and
spirits; while the legions are nightmares, which will
strangle you in your beds.' When the Queen had read this,
she rent her clothes and sent for the eldel"8 and lords and
said: 'Do you know what King Solomon has sent me?' They
said: 'We neither know him, nor heed him.' But the Queen
did not trust them, but called for ships and sent presents
to the king, and after three years she went herself. When
tho king heard that she had come, he soated himself in a
glass room. Sho thought tho king was sitting in tho
water, and bared horsolf to go through it. When sho saw
his magnificoucH, sho said: 1 'Blossed bo tho Lord thy
God, which delight.ed iu thoo, to sot th"o on tho throne .....
to do judgment and justice.''' We must forgive MuJ.tammad
tho two slight changes he makes in the story, viz., that
ho turns tho matter from one of government into ono of
1 1 Kings, x. 9.
SOLOMON.
149
roligion, and that he begins the letter I with the words: "In
tho name of the Merciful God," Solomon built the Temple
also by the help of the spirits, who even went on building
after his death, while he remained sitting on his throne till
a worm gnawed him.
2
Once when Solomon became arrogant he was driven
from the kingdom, lind a spirit reIgned in his stead until
he repon'od.
3
The Sanhedrin 4 gives the fallowing brief
account: "At first Solomon reigned even over the exalted
ones, as it is written: 5 Solomon sat on the throne of the
Lord; but afterwards only over his own stick, as it is
written: 6 What profit· hath man of all his labour? and
further,7 this was my portion from all my labour." 3 Wben
he repented, he gave up his useless extravagances, and
had his horses disabled,9 to which the following passage
alludes: 10 "It is wisely ordained that the reasons for the
commandments are not given; they were given in two
1 ,..,.}\ om,..::... StU"' XXVII. SO,
- - - - -
:I: SurD. XXXIV. 13. Cf. on this point Gittin, 68.
S Sura XXXVIII. 33-5. 4 Sanhedrin, 20.
'11 i'1b'?t¥ ?1I i'1b'?o/
tlli$7 ?1I !J?11 l'l'i 'i'1
'il71J i'1;,7 i'1), i?'i!)?-?;1:lt
5 1 Chronicles, x:d:s:.. 23. 6 Ecclesiastes, i. 3.
7 Ecclesiastes, ii. 10.
8 Of. also Midi'. Rnbbn. all Numbors
J
par. 11 ; on Canticles, iii. 4 j and on
Huth, ii. 1·1.
9 Sih'a XXXVIII. 20-32. 10 Sanhcddn,21.
nil-lli?7;l '-.tp '']1:;'0/ i'11
in

i? o'filliJ lV¥ 'iW:m
'?31m :l'tPl$ i'1ij"1l,l i'1b''itp
nil-ll,;l Ww.:p.
150
JUDAISM AND ISLAM.
cases, and one of the groatest of men sinned. For it is
written: I The king shall not multiply horses to himself,
nor oause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that
he should multiply horses. Then Solomon thought, I will
get me many horses and nol; send to Egypt j but il; is
written: 2 And a chariot Came up and went out of Egypt
for six hundred shekels of silver." A story about spirits,
which is said to have happened in Solomon's time,3 has
already -been mentioned in connection with Noah. A story
about the ants, whiQh fled befOl'e Solomon's army, is
related in the Quran,4 and remains to be noticed. It is
evidently founded on the verse,5 <r Go to the ant thou
sluggard ..•.• and be wise j" and based on this same
foundation we have a beautiful fable in the Talmud,6
but I could find there no trace of the story given in the
Quran.
The story of the lapwing 7 has gained a firm foot hold in
Arabic legend, and a pretty myth about the bird is found
in Fakihat Elcholafa.
8
For Mu1).ammad there were no very
important personages between Moses and Jesus j and such
as he does mention he merely allndes to. This is not to
be wondered at when Solomon, the wise man of the East,
who is endowed with all manner of legendary adornment
comes, comparatively speaking, so little before us in the
Quran.
1 xvii. 16.
3 SUra II. 96.
s. Pl'overbs, vi. 6 II.
lIKings, x. 29.
• SUI'" XXVII. 18-n.
6 Cbnllin, f/1. 2.
8 rage 91,
HOLY MEN AFTER THE TIME OF SOLOMON. 151
SECOND CHAPTER.
Fourth Part.
Holy Men after the time oj Solomon.
Many important men might be mentioned here, but
Mul).ammad knew but few of them, and about those whom
he does name he gives for the most part nothing special,
but mentions them only with other pious persons. Some
only are treated with a little more detail, and we will
mention them here first, so as then to put the others
together briefly. Of Elijah I his dispute with the people
about the worship of Baal is related briefly. In the
legends of Islam as well as in those of later Judaism
Elijah plays a very important part. He is that mystical 2
person known under the name of Khizr. He is therefore
the same as Phinehas,3 erroneously called by some the
nephew of A.aron 4 instead of his grandson, and, like
Elijah the prophet 5 in lftter Jewish traditions, he is the
mediator between heaven and earth. It is he who appears
1 Sur.. VI. 85, XXXVII. 123. In nne place he is called

(Sura XXXVII. 80) on account of the rhyme. We find .moug
- .
other opinions in Elpherar the following:
J J J--.I J!"" U"l,l\...,. Ml 0'O"'l,l1 J.,i .ill
"It is said that. Ilyasfn is a dialeotic change for EIYM
I
as Ismcall for
IsmlalD and Mlkhay.il for Mtkhayin," These examples are certainly
unsuitable, for in them the change is only from J to <:) , while here the
oomplete addition of the syllable takes place. This the Arabs,
in spite oE the similar mentioned before, seem to shrink from
explainiog as a change deliberately made on account of the rhyme.
• .r": •
• (:)Jr" ifl (:)'1\
152 JUDAISM A.ND ISLAM.
to the pions nnder tho most varied forms, who visits the
schools, and imparts to famons teachers that which Gcd
communicates about this or that opinion expressed by them.
The Muslims too know him in this capacity, and they
recognize him in the servant of God' who proposed himself
as a travelling companion to Moses,l and in these actions
they have the prototype of his ministry as one who appears
in a miraculous manner, has intercourse with men in human
fashion, and performs incon:'prehensible actions which
only receive true significanoe through knowledge which is
hidden from man.
Jonah is mentioned in several passages of the Quran.
2
His mission to Nineveh, h i ~ being swallowed by the fish,
his resoue from it, and the story of the gourd whioh shaded
him, are all given very briefly.S Job's 4 sufferings and
healing are mentioned in two passages,5 and in the latter
passage Mnl).ammad adds that Job produced a cooling
and refreshing fountain for himself by stamping on the
oarth. ,We know of no parallel passage to this in the
Rabbinical writings.
VV0 como now to a passage 6 hitherto wrongly referred
which translated runs thus:
U Slain were the men of the pit of the burning fire,
When they Bat around the same,
And were witnesses cf what was done to the true believers,
and they wished to punish them only because they
believed in the mighty and Glorious God," &0.
1 Sura XVIII. .9-82.
'..;.J;' Suras VI. 86, X. 88, XXXVII. 139, XXI. 87 C ; 1 ~ 1 ,.l , LXVIII.
48 =;Sl ..;:...c..
- -
, 8Ul'a. X. 88, XXI. 87-8, XXXVII. 138-148, LXVIII. 48-51•
. '"
• YJ'I • Suras XXI. 83-4, XXXVIII. 40-0.
Ci Sura. LXXXV. 4 ft.
TIIE THREE WITNESSES.
153
Commentators make this refer to the punishment of a
Jewish IIimyarite Kiug who persecuted the Christians,
but the appellation "believers" as applied to Christians
has no parallel elsewhere in the Quran, no detail bearing
on this event is mentioned, and just this one form of
porsecution (burning) is not given by the martyrologists.
If we compare the passage with the story of the three
children I all fits in perfectly.
Tho three believers would not bow themsolves beforo an
idol, and were thrown into the fiery furnace j those whb
threw them in were slain by the heat and the believers
were saved. Evidentlj Mul).ammad here alludes to this.
2
It is possible that there is an allusion to the story of
the revival of the dry bones
s
in a passage of the Quran,4
which tells us that many who left their habitations for fear
of death were slain by God, but were afterwards restored
to life.
5
The Talmud troats the narrative given in Ezekiel
more in detai1.
6
Another biblical reforence may perhaps be found in
1 Daniel, iii. 8 fi.
:I An intimation that this passage refers to this circumstance is given
by tho Arabian commento.tor Muqatil (cited by Elphel'ar), in that he
asserts that there were in fact thl'80 II people of the bUl'ni cg fiery pit :It
, _<1
..... and of the pits one was ill U"}' , i, e. Pel's;', and
indeed undo,' yo» Nebuohadnezzax; but he adds: cJ.l\ J.P- ,.JJ
\';';i, God l'eveo.led nothing in tho Sura. about tbis or about the other
event which took place in Syria, but only :revealed about the one nnder
Dhu-nawus. But this intimation is enough for the strengthening of our
opinion.
:l Ezekiel
J
xxxvii. ' sUra. II. 244.
5 'Ihe Arabian commentatol"S know of this but dimly, for Ismail Ben '.Ali
gives ont in the name of Ibn Talib that this event took place in the time
of the Judge (?) J::-ij=>-, i.e. Ezekiel, who came aftel" the Elon of
Caleb, this offioe. (Maraco; P"odr. IV, 83,)
15 Sanhedrin 92.
U
154 JUDAISII AND ISr1ll.
the words: I "Dost thou not see how thy Lord stretches
(lengthens) out the shadow when he will, makes it qnies-
cent, then sets the sun over it as an indicator." This I
think is perhaps an allusion to the sign given to Hezekiah.
2
We find more in the Quran abont Ezra,3 if not about his
history, yet about the way in which the Jews regarded
him. According to the assertion of Mul).ammad the Jews
held Ezra to be the Son of God.
4
This is certainly a mere
misunderstanding which arose from the great esteem in
which Ezra was undoubtedly held. This esteem is expressed
in the following passage: 5 "Ezra would have been wortlly
to have made known the law if :M:oses had not come before
him." Truly Mu1,J.ammad sought to cast suspicion on the
Jews' faith in the unity of God, and thought he had here
found a good opportunity of so doing.
This uttorance as an expression of tho Jewish opinion
of that time loses much in value when we consider the
personality of that Phinells the son of A.zariah, to whom it
is attributed.
In the traditions of Islam there iq a great deal about
Ezra as the compiler of the Law. In this ch:m,ctor nlso
1 Sllra. XXV.
!i 2 Kings
,
U:. 9--12. ;.;;
(rho Arabian gratnmarians dispnte as to whether tho word should
l'eccive a.- nunnation or not, but it seems to me that the omission of it is
mora suita11e to t.he form of the wOl'd which is like a diDlinntive.
Severa.l of the Arabians regard this as correct.
, Sura. IX. 30. Sanna, 462.
In D'Herbclot (under the word tl Ozair" page 691) much is adduced
from Muslim commcnta,tOl'S and historin.na to explain this passage, which
hOWl}ver, in harmony with the To.lmud
l
only o,sserts Ezrata renewing of
the Law.
5 Sanhedrin 21. 2.
ir.l'Tj? rl? ?11 111;l'l lIJ¥f:1o/ n;y
n¢r.l
EZRA.
155
he oomes before us in Soripture, and the Jews believed this
of him; so the probability becomes great that Mul,1ammad,
on the one hand, intentionally exaggerated, a,nd, on tho
other hand, eagerly oaught up the ha,sty and mocking
utterance. of some individual to prove this point against
the Jews.
The Arabian commentators according to Maraccius 1
refer another passage in the Quran 2 to Ezra, namely, the
one where it is related of some person that he passed by",
ruined oity and doubted if it oould ever be restored. God
let him die for one hundred years, then revived him and
imparted to him the assurance that one hundred yenrs had
gone by, while he believed that but one day had passed.
The proof was that his food and drink had perished and
his ass was monldering away. Then behold! God put
together the bones of the animal and clothed them with
flesh, so that the man acknowledged: (( God is mighty
over all." The fable is derived, as Maraccius rightly
observes, from the ride round the ruined city of Jerusalem
mado by Nehemiah,3 who is often confused with Ezra.
Two other Biblioal charaoters are merely mentioned:
Elisha 4 in two passages,5 and eaoh time strangely enough
immedmtely after Ishmael; and DhU'1-Kifl,6 who aooording
to his name which means the nourisher, and from the fact
related of him that he nourished a hundred Israelites in
a cave, must be Obadjahl Perhaps however he may be
Ezekiel, who according to Niebuhr 8 is called Kephil by the
Arabs.
9
1 Pl'od. iv. 85. 2 S(U'll. II. 261.
3
" .. ~ - t > _
Nehemiah, ii. 12 II. ~ \
5 Suras VI. 86, XXXVIII. 48, • Suras XXI. 85, XXXVIII, 48,
7 1 Kings, xviii. 4. 8 Reisebeschreibnng II. 260.
9 Acoording to Khondemir (D'Herbelot Bibl. Orient. nndel" 'Elisha. ben
Akhthob) Dhii'l-KiIl 'was a foUon'or of Elishn
1
but Obadii::th was coutem..
1)o1'o.1'y with Elijah,
156 JUDAIS)1 AND ISW.
Now all the historical allusions havo been put together,
aud when we examiue them we see unmistakably in them
the verification of the hypothesis whioh we laid down at
the Leginning-namely, that Mul].ammad borrowed a great
deul from Judaism, that he learned that which he did
Lorrow from oral tradition, and that he sometimes altered
it to suit his purpose. We have tried to shew in the first
part that external circumstances must have raised in
the desire to borrow much from Judaism, that
ho had the means thereto within his reach, and that other
circumstances, particularly his own main aim, offered no
obstacle to, but rather fitted in with such a borrowing.
Iu the second part, we have attempted to show that
J\lul].ammad really did borrow from Judaism, and that
conceptions, matters of creed, views of morality, and of lifo
in general, and more especially matters of history and
of traditions, have actually passed over from Judaism into
the Quran.
.And now our task is practically ended. If a thorough
demonstration has been made of all these points, then
the questions as to whether Mul].ammad did borrow from
Judaism, and what and how he so borrowed, have been
sufficiently answered. Now, as a supplementary note we
add a summary of the passages iu which 1I:ul].ammad's
attribute towards Judaism seems to be negative and even
hostile. Some of these passages oppose Judaism, somo
abrogato laws binding on the Jews, and some allude to
Jewish customs without imposing them upon the Arabs.
But since we consider the question, the answer to which
forms tho subject of our theme, as now fully answered,
without giving the results of further investigation, we
therefore do not give these results as a part of this work
its"lf, but add thorn as an appendix.
157
.APPENDIX.
STATEMENTS IN TilE QUEAN IlOSTILE TO JUDAISM.
Just as we tried before to shew from the personality of
and from tho spirit of his time that borrowing from
Judaism had taken place, even so we wish here to shew that
statemonts hostile to Judaism are to be found in the Quran.
M11!,annuad's aim was to bring about a union of all oreeds, and
no religions oommnnity stood more in the way of ilie attainment
of this end than the Jews with their many oumbersome laws,
unknown to other religions. Further, MnJ;1ammad's aim was
to establish in and through this union such religious doctrines
only as were in his opinion purified. The observance of indio
vidual lnws did not seem to him of great importance, except
in so far as such laws resulted immediately from those special
dootrines; moreover, he loved the old Arabian customs and kept
to them. The Jews on the contrary laid the greatest stress upon
ths punctilious fulfilment of the revealed law, and shewed net
the slightest desire to depart from it. While these two oauses
of mutnal separation were founded upon the differenoe in the
fundamental opinions of and the Jews, another may
be addcd which arose more from an external differenoe. As we
have already rsmarked, the Jsws pressed very hard,
and often annoyed him with repartee and evasions, thns rousing
in him an inextinguishable hatred. Governed by this he mis-
understood their religions doctrines, putting false constructions
upon them, and so justifying his own deviation from them. He
wished therefore to make a final separation from these hateful
Jews, aud to this end he established entirely different cnstoms.
Later Arabians confess that he made ohanges 1 "from tho
I .••Il> ...wl ...1 • ""If
;v;:-. ... I.,;.i ,+.I
158
APPENDIX.
neccssity of abolishing resemblanoes to Ihe Jews." 1 Thns,
Mnl,ammad asserls that the Jcws are the enemies of the
Muslims," that they slew prophels,' a probable reference to
Jesus; further, that they in common with Christians thonght
thcmselves specially favonl'ed by God,' that they believed that
they alone should possess Paradise,' tbat thcy held Ezra to be
the so" of God,' that they !J'nsted i" the intercession of theit· self
pious predecessors,7 that they had perverted the Dible 8 becauso
in its existing form that Dook contained no aIlnsions to him, and
that the Jews built temples on the graves of the pl'Ophet8.' Such
accusations alld the reasons given earlier supplied Muhammad
with grouuds on which to jnstify his departure from Jcwi;h laws.
A. Prayer.-Supper precedes prayer.
10
This is in direct
opposition to the Talmnd, which laY8 down exactly how 10lig
before prayer one may cat that the hour of prayer may not
he let slip. Truly in this :>luJ,ammacj wished to livo so as to
pleass his Arabs.
B. Laws about ,,·omen.-Mohammad says; 11 "It is lawful
for yon on the night of tbe fast to go in unto your wives." This
is elearly prascl'ibed in opposition to the dircctly contraI'] ruling
in the Talmudic la.w prohibiting cohc.bitatiouon the. night before.
tho fast day in Abh, that bcing connted as part of thc fast day
itself.
Thc laws o£,ilivorce J' are probably identical with those of the
ancient. Arabs. There is a remarkable pa.ssage in t h ~ QUl'an)1J
which says that thc man a£ter he has pnt away his wife for tho
second time cannot marry her again until sho has married
another man, and been divorced by him too. This is dircctly
contrary to the tcachilli;' uf thc Dible.
Jl
1 Pocock uotm Misc., chap. 0, page 3LiO.
3 Suras II. 58, V. 7 > ~ .
, Sura. II. 88, LXII. 6.
7 Sura II. 128, 135.
8 SUra II. ~ 3 1 and other passugca,
10 Sunna. 97 ft.
12 SUl'o.lI. 229 if.
Ii Deuteronomy, u.i\'. 1 fr.
51 ::;{u'a Y. 8:i.
~ Stlr,l, V. 21.
6 SlLl',,\' IX.. 3l). Sunna ,10:?
g Seuna 70 n',
II Slira II. lR3.
l;) 8(11',( II. :!3J,
S'rATEMEN1'S 1l0STILE TO JUDAISM. 150
The Muslims assert 1 that the Jews of that period laid down
that cohabitation was to take place iu the usual way. On this
Mnhammad to please himself and his Arabs says:' "Yonr
wives are yonr tiIlage, go in therefore nnto yonr tillage in
what manner soever ye will," etc.
O. The most important aud prominent change to be cousi-
dered in this connection is the removal of the prohibition about
food, concerning which asserts that it was imposed
upon the Jews ouly on account of their iniquity.' (It is interest-
ing tbat Jesus states jus. tbe converao when he speaks of the
lLbolition of divorce.') abolishes the Jaw about
meat in sovcral passages,' bnt holds to part of it in others,"
following wonld seem the precedent of the apostles, to whom
almost the sarno utterance is attributed in the New Testa-
ment.' Thus he forbids carrion, blood, swine's tlesh, and that
which has been slain for an idol; to which he adds in. tho first
passage, that which is not properly killed, viz., that slain by
strangling, or by a blow from all axe, tbat killed by a fall from
a mounta;'1, which is gored, and that torn by wild beasts.
Theso last rules, considering thc tot",l silenoe about them in other
luter passages
J
may bo regarded as "abolished." B In another
pass"'go 9 :1ltul)amm"d mentions particular meats which were
forbiddon to the Jews."
D. Lastly, the following ntterance It of MnlJ.ammad is decid-
edly combativo: "We have theroin commanded them that they
shonld givo lifo for lifo, aml eyo for eye, and nose for nose, and
cal' for car, aud tooth for tooth; and that wounds should also be
pnnished by retali",tion; but whoover should remit it as alms
it shonld he accepted as an "tonement for him. And whoso
1 StUlUO, ,1GO.
3 S{U"ll IV. HiS.
5 Stll·n.s III. ·H, 87, IV. 158, V. S9, 90.
lS S(Ll'D.S V. 4" VI, H6, XVLl.16.
B ? .. c._
'Cr'-
10 Lc\·iticu3
,
xi. 3, 7, 27, rf. and 3D iI,
2 S(trn, II. 223.
(. St. Matthew, xix.. 8.
7 Acts, xv. 19-28.
9 Sura VI. 147.
11 Stirn Y. -19.
lW APPENDJX.
j ndgcth not according to what God hath revealed they are
unjost." Thu passage of Scripture which Mul)ammad here haE>
iu miud is in Exodus; 1 and those who do not observe it are the
Jews, in that theyexteud to all cases the permission to make
atonement with money, which is given only when the iDjnred
parby agrees to it. The Mishna 0 runs as follows: "If a man
has blinded another, or ent'oJ'f his hand, or broken his foot, one
must regard the injured persall as though he were a slavo sold
in the market, and put a price npon him and reckon how much
he was worth before the injury and how much now, etc."
These are ahout all the chief points showiug a consideration
of Judaism, and the eolIecting of them gives ns another proof
that Mn};lammad bad a personal knowledge of J ndaism througb
acquaintance with the Jewish manner cf life and throngh
interconrse with the Jews.
If we now once more consider this treatise as a whole, we
ehall find that by the establishment of the fact which was to
be demonstrated, viz., that harrowed from Judaism,
we come to a clear understanding of the Quran in general
as well as of individual passages in it. Fnrthermore, tho
stato of culture of the Arabians of that day, and especia.lly
of the Arabian Jews, is to some extent made clear, and light
is thrown upon the plan of Mul)ammad and npon his intellcc-
tual power alld knowledge by many authentic dccuments.
Then in collecting the passages which serve as proofa we
are compelled to dismiss at once the iII.cousidered confidence
with which people are apt to speak of each legend as a
drcam of the rabbinical Talmudists; for although the anthor
neither can nor will maintain that no passage bearing on his
thesis has escaped him in the Rahbinical Iiteratnre, still this
mnst be accepted as a fact nntil it can bs proved that tbis
1 Exodus, xxi. 28 iI. Mishua Babn., namma viii.!.
inilol i?:p.-n\;! -,:;;!1i lll;;li? loll!:,?
i1?i i11f:<1 n?i niT;! l'l;lo/1 piw:;I loW'
STATEMENTS HOSTILE TO JUDAISM.
161
or that has been omitted, and thus for the presnnt we mnst
attribute to some other source every thing of which the
Jewish origin has not been proved. By this, however, '1 do not
intend to say that everything wbieh, according to our ideas, is
mJthical and for whieh a Jewish sonrce appsars to be forth-
coming, may be laid npon Judaism; for, on the one hand,
tbe opinion or legend may originally have had " different
signification and it may have reached its present extravagant
development in the mouth of the people, and, on the other
hand, the sonree itself may have had no obligatory importance,
and therefore does not hold the same place with regard td
Judaism as the Quran holds with regard to Islam. We mnst
distiDgnish betwe8'n Jndaism and views derived from the
Jews; this distinction, however, is nnfortnnately either from
ill·will Or ignorance often not made.
And now I snbmit tbis treatise fa yon, hononred readers, and
yonr judgment will convince me of the correctDc8S or £aloity
of my opinions, and as to whether my wOl'k fnlfils its end or
bas failed in its pnrposo.
102
INDICES-A.
INDICES.
A.-LIST OF HEBREW AND !.RABIO WORDS
EXPLAINED.
Page Page Page

0_0, o ..w
77 35

41
(;1\;;;>
-.
• 0 35
'"1.;)1;1 35

82
-.
o '(6
J..ii::;
•••
40

80
20

43

o •
,--.
36
u
34

.,-
31
"".'II;
37
34 tlbr:r':!
...
32
,,- .. 42 (;1,e\.o
.
37
1#"1
..
42

33
,--.J 36
--
(;1 •
33
0.0 ii
42
0"_
"",'
38
""'<-
44

f·-_<::
32
n.li "'"
39
36

26

39

T • ;
36 w":!''.!
35

31 n:l'11
, .
88
o ,
tl:r:)!i
'..0.-
"J'>
34
32

INDICES-JJ. 163
B.-LIST OF PA.SSA.GES errED FROM: nm QURAN.
Page
Pag6
sUra II. 27 ...
47
Sura. II. 201 8a
"
28-82 75
"
223
169
"
46-7 120
"
228 ... 69
"
48-52 ... 121
"
229 ff ... 108
"
50 42
"
2-30 168
"
52-a
120 ..
283 69, 1.6
"
5:;'6
13
"
240
... 66
"
67-8 ...
120 ..
244 !li8
"
68
IG8
"
247-a3
143
"
69 16
"
24S ...
144
"
60
IO' 120, 129
"
2 ~ 9 32, 144
"
61
39
"
257
41
63-8
136
"
269 ... 41
"
67·8 ... 13G
"
260 96,100
"
71
16
"
261
155
"
73 1a8
..
262
100
"
82 8
StU-a. III. 2 32,42
"
87 ... 120, 129
"
10 85
"
88 158
"
30 ff 137
"
91 6,9
.,
43 ... 32
..
96 84
"
44
159
"
98 13
"
58
.., 82
"
118 102
"
60
.., 9a
"
...
119 96, 106
"
68
28
"
120-'1 110
"
69 ...
20
"
l27
."
1 0 7 ~ 8
"
78
36,38
"
128 99,158
"
77
106
..
129 9.
"
86
82
"
..
130 106
..
87
... 109, 1a9
"
134 05
"
l27 ...
49
"
135 99 158
"
148
20
"
136 H
..
163
58
..
H9
63
"
172
a7
"
l81 41
"
117
11
"
183 G9,168
"
188
.., 6G
IIH INDICES-Jl'.
Page Paffs
Sura Ill. 101 70 Bura VI. 84 ... 19
"
196 86
"
86 151
EtU,.
IV. 46 66-8
"
86
'" 106, 155
..
48-9 18
"
95 60
"
50 146
..
106 37
"
58 55
..
146 ... 169
..
63 ...
15,41
"
147
... 159
..
87 71
"
167 81
"
96
86 Sura. VII. 10-18 ... 77
"
99
85
..
18·25
..,
73
..
102
..,
66
"
19 79
"
to6 15
..
38 ... 52
"
116 ... 15
"
41 l! ... 61
"
120 36
"
57-63 85
..
12_
... 96
"
61
."
87
"
162 120,9
..
63-71 89
"
158 159
..
71·8
."
93
..
161
... 19,1<16
"
78-83 ... 101
J
104
"
162
..'
19
"
83-92 ... 13S, 140
S{U'o. V. 4 169
..
83
." 13n, 140
"
8 08
"
10J-26 120
"
9 66
..
108 126
"
21 158
"
110 125
"
23-9 121
..
127-39 120
"
80-6
."
SO
"
180 ..,
J27
..
35 81
"
J32 127
..
48 35
..
135·47 120
"
49 169
"
142 120
"
65 146
..
107-56 121
..
68 85
..
147 ... 132
"
69 12
..
160 ... 130
"
70 82.3
..
15·-'
'"
121
"
73 16
"
J56-58 20. 32
..
N 158
"
169 132
"
85 168
..
160 120
"
89-90 ... 1(>9
..
161-62 ... 13
8m'a V!. 67
7
"
1133 8n
"
74·82 n6
..
166 ... 146
..
74 ... 100
..
/68 86
"
75 ... 44
"
170 ... J2o·n
"
79 ... %
"
174-76 ...
142
"
tl1-6
on lOS
"
18_
,.. H
INDICES-D.
165
Page
Pags
sUra VIII. 29 41 sUra XI. 85-99
140
"
31
27
"
85
ISS
"
42
... 41
..
86
189
SU,,.
IX. 26 ... 40
"
99-102 ... 120
..
80 11,164
sUra XII. 4-108
111
"
81 85-6 ..
4 ... 109,117
..
84 85-6
"
6 ... 108
"
38 ...
52
"
Uff ... 116
"
40 40
.. Il4
... 111
"
56 58
"
25 ...
118
"
78 ... 88
"
26 f!
'"
113
"
86
68
"
81 ff ...
112
..
112
... 82
..
88 ...
lOS
"
116 ... 95-98 ..
42
6S,114-
sUra X. 8 46
"
47-50
117
"
9 83
"
67
... 115
"
13
66
"
69
...
116
"
72·5 85
"
77 ... 116
"
76-90 ... 120
"
84
117
"
88 126
"
86 ...
116
"
00·3 120,127 ..
93-6 ...
117
"
94 ... 28
"
97 ... U6
"
98 152
"
100-1 ...
117,118
sUra XI. 9
46-8
"
111
... 24
"
27-50 ... 85
sUra XIII. 23 83
"
31 ... 87
"
26 ... 63
"
33 87
sUra XIV'. 40 96
"
37 8S
"
41 ... lOG
"
40
86
Sura XV. l ~ ... 63
..
42 ... 86
"
27 62
"
44
86
"
28-44 ... ~ 7
..
45
86
"
84 63
"
48
86
"
44< ... 50
"
52·64<
89
"
61-61 101
"
53 $0
"
54 ... lG2
..
n2 89
"
60 104
..
6S 90
"
61-78
1M
"
6 ~ - 7 2 ...
93
"
80 if 94
"
72-9 101
"
87
43
"
H
... 102-5
SU""
XVI.
26 ~ 7
"
70·85
ro.;
"
28 ... 92
"
83 ... 10·j
"
33 ...
33
166
INDICES-B.
Page Palle
SUra XVI. 38 41 SUra XX. 91 ... 131
"
105 ... 27
"
115 ... 77
"
115 ... 159
"
116.27
78
"
121 95
"
118 ... 79
"
95
"
133 28
"
125 39
Sura XXI. 49 42
sUra. XVII. 4-8 ... 75
"
52-69 ...
95
"
46 47
"
69-74 96
"
57 146
"
71 99,lO1
"
60 ... 55
"
72 108
"
63-8 ... 77
"
78
'"
145
"
78 ... 8 ,. 79 145
"
87 ... 62
"
80 145
"
103 28,127
"
81-2 146
"
110 ... 6S
"
152
SUra XVlIl. 23 71
"
85-6 82
"
30 .. ; 93
"
85 106,155
"
48 ... 77
"
87
j52
"
59-82 121
"
96 55
"
82-99 136
"
98 55
"
93 55
"
10. 5.
"
107 ... 34 SUra XXII. 2 55
sUr. XIX. 29 137
"
11 16,48
"
8S 139
"
43 85) 93, 10il
"
42·61 96
..
43 140
"
50 108
"
46 58
"
55-6 82,105
"
55
'"
33
"
57 ... 82 Sura. XXIII. 3 66
"
58 82
"
11 ... 34
..
62 33
"
17 48
Sura XX. 8-37 119
"
23·32 85
"
37-•• ... 119
"
27
86
"
39 31
"
33·44
89
"
4-!-·51 119
"
37
'"
9t
"
00-79 120
"
47-51 120
"
N
]26
"
85
27
"
78 33
"
88 47,48
"
79-82 120
"
90
'"

"
82-99 121
"
117 48
"
87 130
Suru. XXIV. 24
05
"
130
"
31
"
% 130
"
49
10
INDICES-D.
167
Paga
Page
Burn XXV. 1 ... 42 SUra XXVU. 20-46 147
"
6 ... 27
"
26 ... 48
"
6 27
"
SO ...
149
..
89
0" 85
"
46-56 93
..
40 89,98.188
"
49 ... 94
..
42
104
"
65..60
0"
104
.. 47-48 ... 164
"
70 ... 27
Su,.. XXVI. 9·17 ... 119
"
89ll'
65
"
15.. 52 ... 120
"
112
... 106·6
"
17ll' .. 0 124 Sura XXVIII. 2-29 ...
119
"
19 128
.. 6 121
"
28 ... 126
"
1
121
"
82 ... 126
"
8
128
"
40
125
"
10
187
"
48 126
"
11 ... 128
"
62-69 ... 120
"
14 128
"
61ll'
12'7
"
16
145
"
69-106 on
96
"
11ll'
123
"
81 100
"
19
124
"
85 38
"
23
187
"
87..8
54
"
23 ll'
124
"
86..104
96
"
29-86 ...
119
"
88..104
99
"
29
124
"
105-21 ... 85
..
86-40
... 120
"
109 87
"
88
121
"
123.. 41
on 89
..
40-8
120
"
127 ...
91
"
'76-88 ... 121
"
128
90
"
76
188
..
129 ...
89 sUra XXIX.
7 65
"
141..60
... 93
"
13-4
... 85
"
160-76 104
"
13
86
"
1 6 ~ 1(>4
"
15-23 ... 96
"
176-92
138
"
17·23 ...
99
"
180 ... 139
"
23.'7
... 96
"
186-7
139
"
25
99
"
196
28
"
26
108
"
197
28
"
27..85
... 104
sUra
XXVII. 12
127
"
80.2
... 101
..
12..5
120
"
31
on 104
"
15
145
"
35·6 ... 188
"
16·6 ... 146
"
86
0"
140
"
18·20 ... 150
"
87
... 89,93
IGS INDICES-B.
Page
rage
Sura XXIX. SS 121 S{i.l'R XXXVIII. 29-33 ... 149
"
45 ... 15
"
S5-40 ... 146
"
4·7 .., 4,18
"
49-5 152
Sura XXX. 49 GO
"
48 106, 155
SUra XXXI. 7 S3
"
00 ... 33
"
lltl' 87,101
"
71-86 ... 77
"
18 69
"
78 ... 63
"
2S 58 SUra XXXIX. 19 ... 41
Sw:a XXXII. 4 58
"
24 22,43
"
11 ...
62
"
67 5·1
Sura XXXIII. 7
... 22
"
G8f! 65
"
40
23 SUra XL. 7f!
62
"
69 ... 183
"
8 83
Sura XXXIV. 10 145
"
24--49 II'
120
"
11.12 146
"
25 121
"
18 ... 149
"
2911' 126
"
33·6
149
"
32 89.93
"
43
86
"
36 111
SUra
XXXV. I ... 62
"
78 ,.. 19
"
SO
83 Sum XLI. B·11 46
Sura XXXVI.
SS
60
"
11 47
"
65
56
"
12·18 38,93
"
8S 44
"
12-16 ...
89
SUra XXXVII. If!
62
"
16 90
"
7
63
"
19 05
"
42
33
"
30 60
,.
80
151
"
92 ... 82
"
5Of! 60 sUra. XLII. II
22
"
78-81
86
"
50 61
..
81-95 96
..
52
18
"
96-9
96 Sura
XLIII, 10
(10
,. 99-114 108,105
"
25-8
96
"
101 104
"
45-5-:L ••• 120
,. 112.3 108
"
50 126
.,
128 151
"
55
.. ,
120
"
133-37 104
Sura
XLIV. 9tl' ... 55
"
189 162
"
·13 tl' ... 00
"
139..19 152
Sura XLVI. 9 ... 28
sUr. XXXVIII. II ... 89
"
10 27
"
12 ... 93,138
"
II ... 22
"
16-20 145
"
12 137
..
23-6 ,.. H ~ : ;
..
H 69/;1
INDICEs-n.
169
Page Page
Sura XLVI. 16 ... 27
S6m LXVII. S ...
41
"
20-5 ... 89
.,
5
68
"
28 ff
90
SUra LXVIII. 15
.., 21
SUra
XLVIII. 4 40
"
84 ... 33
"
15 ... 21
"
81 ... 86
"
18 40 ..
48 152
..
26 40
86m LXIX. 4-9
... 89
..
48 ... 1&2
"
4-6
.., 98
Sura.
L. 12 93,141
,. 6ff 90
"
13 89,138
"
13 ff 55
"
29 .0
86m LXX. 88 38
..
87 ...
"
LXXI. 14 ...
47
Sura
LI. 24-38 ... 101
Sura 1-29 85
"
41-42 ... 89
Sura LXXII. 19
64
"
41 90
Sura. LXXV. 23 58
"
43-016 ••• 93
Sura. LXXVII. Ill' .. , 62
SU1'a LIII. 50 89 Sura LXXVIII. 12 48
"
61 93
"
38 ...
61
Sum..
LIV. 9-18 ..• 8:>-9 Sura LXXIX. Ill' 62
"
18-22 ... 89
"
J&·20 ... 119
19 00
"
20-7 120
"
23·33 ... 91 Sura LXXXI. U 63
"
28
LXXXIII. 18 ... 27
"
83·9 104 Sura LXXXV. 4ff 6,152
Sta-a
LVI. 88 33
"
15 ... 48
Sura LVII. 4 46
"
18 98
Sura LX. 4-6 96
LXXXVlI. 19 96
"
13 7
LXXXIX. 6-9 ... 89
Bura
LXI. 5 186
"
6 .., 89,92
"
6 32
"
8 88
Sum LXII.
r;
82,71
"
27 ll' 58
"
6
1&8 Sura XCI. 11-16 83
sUra. LXV. 12 ... 47
"
12
LXVI. JO
86.104 86m XCVII.
4
."
61
"
11 128 SUioa C. 9 69
"
12 ...
181

CVIl. 1 ...
42
y
170
INDICEs-n. AND C.
C.-LIST OF PASSAGES CITED FROM THE SUNNA.
Page Page
Snnna.
41 ... 54 Suons. 398
... 108
"
52 62
"
400
...
108
"
70 If 158
"
405
...
137
"
86.89
68
"
445 8
"
97 l! 158
"
460 159
"
141
M
"
462 1M
"
148 ... 145
"
608 12
"
395 96
"
689
72
D.-THE CHIEF AUTDORS CITED.
Abulfeda
J
Annales :Moalemitici.
7J Historia Anteisla.mica.
11 Vit.a Mohammedis.
Asscmanni, BibHotheca Orientalis.
Haidbawi
J
Commentary on Quran.
Ramaaa.,-
D'Herbelot, Bibliothcqne Orientale.
Hottinger, Historia. Orientalis.
lbu Arabscba, F a l d b a ~ Elcholafa.
Pococke, Notac J)Hscellanero.
II Specimen lIist. Arabum.

JUDAISM AND ISLAM
BY ABRAHAM GEIGER

PROLEGOMENON BY MOSHE PEARLMAN

KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, Inc.
NEW YORK

1970

FIRST PUBUSHED 1898

NEW MATtER

© COPYRIGHT 1970 KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.

SBN·87068·058-7

UBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 79-106524 MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PROLEGOMENON IN"RODUC'fION FIRST DIVISION.

... ...

..,

..,

Paye
VII

1

First Section.-Did Mu~"mmad wish to borrow from 4 Judaism? ... Second Section.-Could Mu\;tammad borrow from Judaism? and if so, how was sucb borrowing possible for him? 17 Third Section.-Was it compatible with his plan to borrow from Judaism? 21

...

SECOND DIVISION.

First Section.-Did Mu\;tammad borrow from Judaism? l!6 Second 8ection.-If so, VI hat did he borrow P ... CBAPTER I.-Tboughts belonging to Judaism which have passed over into the Quran FiT8t, Part.-Conceptions borrowed from Judaism Second Part.-Views borrowed from J udaismA. Dootrinal Views B. Moral and Legal Rnles ... C. Views of Life ... CHAPTER n.-Stories borrowed from Judaism ]!'i.,.t Part.-Patriarchs.-A. Adam to Noah... B. Noah to Abrabam. C. Abraham to Moses. Second Part.-Moses and his Times ... ... !l'l.ird Part.-The Three Kings before the Revolt of Ten Tribes ...... Fonrth Part.-Holy men after the time of
t:)olowon ......

29

30

so
45 64 70 73 75

es
95 118 143

•.. 151

v

Snnna The chief Anthors oited .VI CONTlINTS...-Statements in the Qnran hostile to Jndaiem . 157 INDBx. APfEl/D!x. 170 .ges cited from the Qnr£n Do. do. ••• 163 ••• 170 ....-Liet of Pasllll..

was never followed by him with another in this field. the Muhammadan law. who was a disciple of the renowned French Arabist Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy (1758-1833) and who himself was a distingnished authority on Arabic poetry. Abraham Geiger's study on the Jewish foundations of Islam was originally composed in Latin and submitted to the University of Bonn in 1832 in response to a contest announced by the Faculty of Philosophy on the subject: An enquiry into those sources of the Koran. the book was actually composed almost by accident. Although it was translated into English.") Presumably.PROLEGOMENON A series of curious circumstances surround the history of the epoch-making study by Abraham Geiger herein being reissued. A pioneering work that quickly achieved recognition as a major contribution to the field of Islamic studies. moreover. while crowned with succeSs. the subject of the contest was fOIIDulated by Professor Georg Wilhelm Freytag (17881861). All this. despite the fact that the work has never lost the high regard in which it was held by its first readers. the English edition became a rarity almost from the moment of its publication and has remained all but inaccessible to most English and American students to this very day. editor of basic medieval Arabic texts and compiler of the monumental VII * * * . ("Inquiratur in fontes Alcorani seu legis Mohammedicae eas qui ex Judaismo derivaridi sunt. that is. the first real scholarly effort of a very young author which. It was. which were derived from Judaism.

2 In 1896." under the title Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen? the title page indicating that the essay had been crowned with a university prize. diverging only to the extent of relegating Hebrew and Arabic quotations to the footnotes in order to allow for greater clarity in the body of the exposition. The English translation adhered faithfully to the original. history.VIn PROLEGOMENON Arabic dictionary. India. The award to young Geiger thjls constituted a stamp of approval by one of the most accomplished orientalists of his day. penetrating perception and critical acumen were applied to a variety of historical. This study was but the first achievement in the author's remarkable career." Two years later the translation was published in Madras by the Delhi Mission of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. F. "a member of the Ladies' League in Aid of the Delhi Mission" stationed in Bangalore. he was instructed in Bible from the age of three and launched on the Tahnud at the age of six. M. literature and philosophy. Born into a strictly orthodox family and milieu in Frankfurt. talmudic and medieval research in such diverse subjects as Jewish lore. Subsequently he was to distinguish himself in the rabbinate as one of the fathers of Reform Judaism and as a Judaic scholar and theologian whose astounding erudition. At the time that Geiger wrote this first of his scholarly masterpieces he was but twenty-two years old. Although secular studies were relegated to the background. Geiger proved to be equally at home in the areas of biblical. translated the work into English in the hope that it would be of assistance to Christian missionaries in their "dealings with Muhammadans. "at the expense of the author. Lexicon Arabico-Latinum.' One year after it had been compiled the essay was published in German. The University of Marburg subsequently accepted the essay as a thesis and awarded its author a doctoral degree in June 1834. Young. philological and theological subjects. philology. he absorbed Ger- * * * .

Indeed. the subject of his writing mqved far afield . in any case. authored distinguished works. which contained the record of adjustments and reforms that were often conscious. Breslau. Inevitably. writing and thought. he served at Wiesbaden. simultaneously. provide the foundations for further reform and new adaptations. In Geiger's view his own program of reform was but one more link in the long chain of Jewish historical experience.PROLEGOMENON IX man and classical languages and literature in due course and.' So much has been written about Geiger's Jewish scholarship and communal leadership that little notice need be taken here of this aspect of his work. Frankfurt and Berlin. Suffice it to say that his driving conviction was the need for a new adjustment of the eternal ethical verities lying at the root of Jewish faith to the changed and ever-changing social realities of the modem world. This process of adaptation and metamorphosis in response to the needs of contemporary society was reflected in the literary heritage of the Jews. he engaged in a variety of scholarly and communal activities-published a learned journal of his own. which in fact constituted the overwhelming bulk of his activity. contributed to various periodicals. that was indispensable to any continuity worthy of Jewish faith and ethic. one. this continuous process of readjustment and adaptation constituted the very essence of the course of Jewish history. systematic and fundamental. Much of his scholarship represented an effort to document these convictions and to provide the scientific support for his theological stance. at the age of nineteen. In the Jewish community at large he was remembered as the moving spirit of several historic rabbinical conferences and of on-going discussions on the problems of contemporary Jewish life. until his death in Berlin in 1874. Beginning his career as a rabbi in 1833. and taught in his last years. a link that would. in an institution of higher Jewish studies which had been established under his influence and guidance. began his university studies at Heidelberg and later repaired to Bonn. then. in turn. in his view.

he could not go along with Geiger's view that Muhammad had been a sincere religious enthusiast.this aspect of Islamic research. Muhammad reflected a different personality at various moments in his career. To the nineteenth-century French scholar. it was only in his work on the Jewish foundations of Islam that he delved into the field of Islamics itself. pp.x PROLEGOMENON from that of his first major scholarly effort. . these connections derived from ancient bonds between Hebrews and Arabs. 4 Before proceeding to analyze some of the major themes in Geiger's treatment. He also thought that Geiger missed the point in his explanation of the connections between Judaism and Islam on the basis of certain historical conditions." Curiously. While the study remained but a first effort beyond which he never attempted to go in this area. he felt. it is appropriate to record the reactions of some of the major Islamists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries testifying to the view that the work remains a pillar in its field. Geigers discussions of Muhammad's borrowings from Judaism. et calculant de sang-froid tout ce qui pouvait favoriser et assurer Ie sucres de ses projets ambitieux. The simple designation of Muhammad as a siocere enthusiast (Schwiirmer) . which were reflected in common origins. One of the first to take notice of the book was the renowned De Sacy himself. toutes les discussions precedentes que je pourrais appeler prejudicielles. who accorded it a full review in the Journal des Savants (1835. he felt. did not make for greater clarity in understanding the prophet's activity. * • • . Muhammad appeared to remain "un imposteur adroit. the work elicited high appreciation from authorities in the field." Similar reservations had been registered io a somewhat earlier and much briefer appreciation by Heinrich Ewald (1803-1875). 162-174) and who recommended it highly. In Ewald's view. "rend presque superflues . While he continued to betray deep interest in the Arabic-Islamic phase of Jewish history. as well as some of the subsequent oontributions to . premeditant toutes ses demarches. .

registered. felt that Geiger's main conclusions were cogent and that the work opened many new vistas for further inquiry. in his renowned history of the Quran. An up-todate revision of the book. was an urgent desideratum for Islamic studies. too. 7 Since this task has not as yet been undertaken. who re-examined thoroughly the Biblical motifs in the" Quran. Theodor Noeldeke (1836-1930). Finally. pointed out that modem historical-critical research on the origins of Islam as a whole must be considered to have heen initiated with the works of two Jews with Talmudic training! . Even in recent times. who ranked as the leading Semitist and Arabist of his day. he." Noeldeke indeed went out of his way to express his regret that rabbis of the generation following that of Geiger were not responsive to the challenge implicit in Geiger's study to carry his researches further. Geiger with sincerest thanks for the wealth of new and valuable data gleaned from his book. He concluded his study by "taking leave of Dr. "6 Later. his appreciation of the "epochmaking work whose findings rapidly became the common stock of scholarship. H. could observe that Geiger's. Characterizing Geiger's work as genuinely scientific. Heinrich Speyer. Rudi Paret. Fleischer indicated that his critical remarks were in no way intended to detract from the recognition that the work deservedly enjoyed. he felt. L. scholars continue to consult Geiger's as a comprehensive treatinent of all aspects of the subject. Fleischer (18011888).' A signal honor was accorded the work with the appearance of a detailed analysis of the Arabic materials iti Geiger's study from the pen of the foremost German Arabist of the second half of the nineteenth century. he was nevertheless able to see beyond the isolated details and to give an insight into the total conception that the Prophet of Islam had had of the Biblical narrative and its personages. Despite these differences of opinion.PROLEGOMENON XI customs and religion. in his study on the teaching of Islam in German universities.great and enduring merit lay in the fact that while he drew on minutiae embedded in classical materials.

the conquest of Byzantine holdings from the Taurus to Libya within a dozen years of its first campaigns outside Arabia. from The early history of Islam was nothing short of cyclonic in the speed of its development and in its effect on every area which it mastered. Ibn Sa'ad) had not yet been pUblished. the outstanding students of Islam have."9 His achievement looms even greater if one considers the paucity of materials at Geiger's disposal. religion and language over the vast areas of the Near East and Mediterranean littoral-all these will forever remain a chain of events constituting one of the most remarkable upheavals in history.q. for more than a century. an eternal reminder of the possible swiftness and permanence of fateful change. nor had Tabari's invaluable history and commentary on the Quran been recovered the oblivion into which they had fallen. centered in Medina and under the guidance of the prophet Muhammed." he felt. its lightning campaign and spread abroad immediately following the death of its Prophet. been virtually unanimous in their acclaim and high esteem of this pioneering effort. its rapid success in gaining adherents. Motivation. "The essay by Geiger. underlying and forever hovering over each of these developments was the central figure of the Prophet and his revelation. Waqidi. "is distinguished for its clear structure. its successful assertion of its dominion over the Arabian peninsula within a decade of its emergence. The rise of the new faith. However. elan and legitimacy flowed ultimately from his teach- * * * .XII PROLEGOMENON Abraham Geiger and Gustav Weil (1809-1889). the consequent entrenchment of the new imperial power. the quick and efficient liquidation and take-over of the Sassanian empire. its swift development into a theocratic state. for all their reservations about the work and their feeling that the subject required further treatment. its thorough treatment of source material and its sureness of method. In a word. The renowned early authoritative Muslim sources which contain the crucial material for a study of the problem (Ibn Ishli.

discussion and debate over its numerous and often ballling allusions and references. abounds in echoes of the earlier revelations. since the latter makes frequent references to the contents of these earlier scriptures. the compilation of his prophecies was more than a religious landmark.PROLEGOMENON XIII ings. Through Muhammad. the Quran. To Muhammad God revealed anew what he had oft disclosed to prophets and believers of more ancient times: God. had been transmitted orally long before Muhammad. as enunciated either in his recorded prophecies or in the traditions of law. the immediate question . Accordingly. the overall message of the Arabic scripture is clear and unmistakable. theology and practice associated with his "attested" statements or acts. cuhninating in the revelations to Muhammad and in the Quran itself as the acme and "seal" of prophecy and prophetic ministry. human dependence on Him and man's duty to worship Him. therefore. and the succession of prophets and scriptures. God further revealed the essential facts of man's past-the development of mankind under divine supervision. Creator of the universe as a whole and of mankind in particular. For all its enigmatic characteristics. and in the Quran. However. sacred history proceedd from Adam to Muhammad. each of which had appeared centuries before the Quran. In short. revealed such truths as the existence of God. the two earlier monotheistic faiths constitute in this scheme but varieties of one and the same revelation of the One God. especially in the form of poetry. The Quran sets the prophet Muhammad in a framework of universal sacred history. of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament. the many obscurities of the book evoked constant interpretation. Indeed. While Arabic literature. The Quran.·Judaism and Christianity are construed as but steps in mankind's progressive march to Islam. The Quran became actually the firSt written Arabic book. With its rapid dissemination to millions of new believers and with the daily emergence of new challenges to the leaders of the young community. The core of his revelations to mankind became embodied in the holy scripture of the new faith.

The reader of the Muslim scripture finds himself in the world of Adam and Noah. very early in the history of Islam. and "borrowing" is. the reference in the Quran is quite obviously to some report or body of lore unknown to us from explicit classical texts. However numerous and puzzling the frequently astounding references to Jewish and Christian religious antiquity. however. on the one hand. Whence did the Prophet derive his unprecendented information? It is at this point that scholarship entered the picture to try and unravel the sources of Muhammad's inspiration. Its meaning is most clear when it recites Biblical data known to us from clear and attested texts. on the other. these figures are equally inescapable: What exactly did the Prophet appropriate "from these earlier religious traditions. is the repository of God's verbal communications to the Prophet. above all. and how much did he deliberately or even unconsciously modify? What determined his selection and rejection of materials from the earlier lore? What.XIV PROLEGOMENON facing the reader of the Quran is the extent to which the allusions and references of the latter are in consonance with the actual contents of the Hebrew and Christian scriptures. Nimrod. the student is never in doubt that both the Quranic conception of history and the manifest significance of a host of details establish a clear and definite nexus between the Quran. Frequently. after all. out of the question-in reality. Pharaoh and Haman as well as in the presence of Mary and Jesus. and the associations with. As every reader of the Quran quickly learns. Jacob and Joseph. the Baptist and the Sev~ Sleepers. were the sources at his disposal? While in theory orthodox Muslims might well reject such questions out of hand-for the Quran. Abraham and Lot. Muslim scholars were already displaying interest in what could be gleaned from "the people of the book" to elucidate and illuminate obscurities in . the Muhammadan scripture is often an opaque body of literature. the knotty problems associated with the references to. and Jewish and Christian lore. While the evidences of "borrowing" or "influences" are obvious. therefore.

purport and overall significance of each case in which borrowing or influence seemed plausible would have to be cogently set forth in order to make the proposed background of Muhammad's new faith convincing to the critical student of history. Geiger preferred to remain on sure ground that could not be explained away as post-Muhammadan borrowing or influence. * * * The principal characteristics of the environmental seed-bed in which Muhammad matured had long been evident from the Quran itself and from attestations in pre-Muhammadan literature. only those Jewish sources and tenets that unquestionably antedated the rise of Islam could legitimately be invoked. The Arabian peninsula of pre-Islamic times had a substantial Jewish settlement. Conversely.PROLEGOMENON xv the text of their scripture. Above all. Needless to say. to be sure. Geiger determined to test the notion punctiliously with respect to Quranic borrowings from Jewish sources. which exercised considerable influence on the general population in many respects-- . for such borrowings that became manifest at but a later period might be challenged as later accretions. and that. Evidence of this interest is attested in the early commentaries as well as in the body of tradition with its multitude of stories (l]adit) about the Prophet and his Companions. occa-' sion. While the notion of borrowing forces itself upon any student of the Quran almost at once. the claim of specific sources of influence would have to be justified at every step and with respect to every single item. only those parallels tt) Judaism that made their appearan<::e in the earliest stages t)f Muslim history and development could serve as a proper field of investigation. he was aware. Geiger. the analysis would perforce have to relate the suggested sources of influence to the environmental background of the Prophet's life and activity. accordingly. The circumstances. was aware that Biblical lore could just as well have been gleaned from Christians as from Jews.

After repeated rebuffs from the Jews. Jewish settlements figured prominently in agriculture and handicrafts. he now ordered the Muslims to orient themselves to the ancient Arabian shrine of Mecca. aggressive kings who were adherents of some form of Judaism ruled in the Yemen. Indeed. politically. and the Jews whom they encountered. When Muhammad began to entrench himself in Medina. and it is very likely that many of his informants were not either. he sought to win their adherence to. on the one hand. The Prophet was certainly not 'a scholar. To. rather than from any study of the text of Scripture or any other authoritative Jewish text. or at the least their sympathy with. He soon turned against them openly by denouncing them and exhorting the faithful to avoid contact with them as a group hell bent on conspiring to lead genuine believers astray. he now set himself to widen the gulf between the two groups.Abandouing his original practice of facing in the direction of Jerusalem at the time of prayer. in a number of towns. such as Medina and Khaybar. The emphasis was now to be on the differences between the two religions rather than on their affinities in faith and usage. Organized in their settlements "Very much like the Arabs as independent tribes. and they were quick to express their derision for the howlers he expressed with his references to Jewish lore. a century before Muhammad's activity.XVI PROLEGOMENON economically. these Jews were. his young cause. the mounting irritation of the Prophet finally turned into outright hostility. In the south. quite conscious of their relationship to Jewish groups elsewhere and were possessed of considerable religious learning. To the modem student it is clear that Muhammad had absorbed his notions of Jewish lore from oral communication and impressions gleaned by ear. From the text of the Quran itself as well as from subsequent traditions it is virtually certain that discussions were held between the Muslims and their Prophet. Theory was quickly devised to keep abreast of . nevertheless. intellectually. on the other. the north. The Jews found themselves unable to take the prophetic claims of the newcomer from pagan Mecca seriously.

were now to be regarded as fulfilled in him. More than once the Prophet himself had suggested that he had learned much of what he taught from others. Hell. as the messenger of God and as legislator in Medina. it is also evident that the prophet felt that his message was unfairly rejected by the Jews. it should be evident that difierences between Muhammad and his Jewish interlocutors were virtually inevitable. Among elements borrowed from Jewish sources that could be traced. and so on-fourteen ideas and terms in all. divine presence (saklna. Eden. Jewish messianic expectations. His essential purpose brought him squarely into conflict with basic Jewish commitments. Rabbinic scholars (a&biir). Geiger found that the basic concept of Islam. he failed to see the reasons for their intransigence. Muhammad countered with a theory of abrogation. Turning to abstract religious ideas.PROLEGOMENON xvn practice--Abraham was now declared to have been neither Jew nor Christian. From the speeches of Muhammad in the Quran. At the root of the chasm lay not so much Muhammad's bizarre construction of early Jewish history as hi~ essential purpose in preaching: his mission as a prophet. ~ Geiger set out to trace with precision and exactitude those elements that the herald of Islam had appropriated. presumably Jews of the Arabian peninsula. calm). To the Jewish postulate of the permanence of the Torah and its law. and the Ka'ba. was designated as the place hallowed by Abraham and his son Ismail.85). qeiger pointed to the notions and terms of the Ark. But given the deep affinities between his teachings and those of his Jewish neighbors. the sanctuary of Mecca with its venerated stone. variation: assistance. Bliss in the hereafter is characterized in similar phrases in the Quran and in Talmudic lore (although in the latter earthly pleasures do not figure). On the other hand. the unity of God. must have been of Jewish rather than of Christian origin. . since his was merely "the truth confirming what is with them" (Quran 2. he claimed. The same was true of the ideas of the cataclysms announcing the end of the wicked world and the advent of the Messiah.

in his version of the narratives connected with these figures. half his book is devoted to tracing the Judaic sources of the Quranic story material.XVllI Pll. indeed. the tale appealed to Muhammad's poetic intagination and certainly suited the sintplistic level of his audience far more than abstract doctrines and arguments. More than any other literary form. the biblical stories are innocently intertwined with post-biblical haggadic embellishment and are invoked as prototypes of Muhammad's own fate. are singularly. Christian points of stress in the Old Testament. or for qusing corruption in the land. Although the Quran's ethical and legal stipulations and general notions about life at first blush show considerable affinity with those in Judaic sources. could well have derived from Christian influence. and Gabriel. absent in the Quran. an obscure passage in the Quran becomes quite clear only if read in the light of its Jewish antecedent. this ignorance cannot serve as evidence against Geiger's thesis. On occasion. such as the notion of original sin. Moreover. divine spirit. and he who brings life to one shall be as if he had . shall be as if had killed the people in a body. to be sure. much could have been due to a common Near Eastern social background. to be sure. "Because of that We have prescribed (as a law) for the children of Israel that whoever kills a person otherwise than (in relaliation) for another person. However. Accordingly. Moreover.0LEGOMENON The Quranic notions of resurrection. The Quran. Muhammad's interest was focussed on a limited number of personages of the biblical narrative. for Christians of that period placed greater emphasis on materials of the New Testament. and Muhammad's notions about the angels IDilY go back to Persian sources. displays no knowledge of the history of the Jewish people. Geiger was aware of the possible methodological pitfall. Geiger's emphasis on the Biblical narrative as an irIdex of the avenue of influences on Muhammad's thinking was predicated on plausible methodological considerations. In Geiger's judgment the tales of the Hebrew Bible pointed to Jewish sources rather than to Christian informants.

PROLEGOMENON

XIX

brought life to the people as a body" (Ouran 5:35; Bell's translation). Geiger rightly points out that the verse in its present context is virtually unintelligible unless one assumes the association of ideas in which Muhammad heard its background expounded. The form of the Mishnaic proposition of this idea, on the other hand, makes the verse quite lucid. According to Mishna Sanhedrin 4:5 witnesses in capital cases were admonished before they gave their testimony with the following words: "Know, indeed, that capital cases are not as non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may make atonement (for false testimony) by making restitution. However, in capital cases the blood of the condemned and of his (unborn) posterity to the very end of time is on the head of the witness. For so we learn in connection with Cain, who slew his brother and to whom it was said: 'The cry of your brother's bloods' (Gen. 4:10). Scripture did not say 'Your brother's blood (dam)' but 'Your brother's bloods (demay 'ahika),' meaning his blood and the blood of his posterity. . . . It was on that account that but one man was first created, to teach you that if a man destroys a single life, Scripture reckons it to him as though he had destroyed a whole world; and if a man preserves a single soul, Scripture reckons it to him as if he had preserved a whole world." How pervasive this Jewish influence was may be seen from the fact that even some early post-Ourauic Muslim exegesis on occasion reflects such sources of inspiration. In some instances biblical data are transmitted in distorted !form. Abraham, in particular, appears as a prefiguration of Muhammad. Wbile Isaac and Jacob are but pale images in the Ouran, Joseph stands out as a substantial figure reflecting the possible traces of midrashic stories that Muhammad heard but that have since been totally lost to us. However, the figure towering above all others, the one with whom Muhammad most evidently identified himself, is that of Moses: the messenger of God, who, rejected by his people, finally prevailed despite many tribulations. The embellishments on the Moses story reflect Jewish influences and the large corpus

xx

PROLEGOMENON

of haggadic reflections and fantasies about the "father of pro-

phecy." Having absorbed a considerable amount of lore from others, Muhammad aimed at bringing about a fusion of existing creeds within his own new one. It was the Jews who, more than any other faction in Arabia, stood in the way of the fuIfiIIment of this aspiration. Accordingly, Muhammad felt obliged to denounce their adherence to many peculiar and cumbersome laws. He further proceeded to reinterpret native Arabian customs and, after purifying them of blatant pagan overtones, to associate them with the name of Abraham. The actual confrontation with the Jewish tribes, the continued scoffing and derision of the Jews, alienated him further. As a consequence of his denunciations the Jews soon came to be viewed by the young Muslim community as enemies of all believers, killers of prophets, arrogant claimants to divine favor and to all of paradise, if not, indeed, as syncretists of a sort. The Jews were soon characterized as worshippers of Ezra as the son of God, and as people who relied on the intercession of the pious of the past, falsified scriptures, and converted tombs of prophets into sanctuaries. It was right and incumbent on the Muslim to differ from them, and the Prophet, therefore, encouraged departure from Jewish custom and law in such matters as prayer, marriage, dietary restrictions, and the law of retaliation. These very stipulations, on the other hand, give evidence of Muhammad's acquaintance with Jewish usage through personal experience and observation."" In sum, Geiger ceuId conclude that Muhammad had appropriated much from Jewish sources by means of oral communication, frequently without being aware of the difference between sacred text and later embellishments or exegetical comment, between primary stratum and secondary confiation, between biblical and post-biblical materials.

*

For all the detail and conviction that went into the presentation of his case, Geiger never lost sight of the possibility

*

*

PROLEGOMENON

XXI

of an entirely different construction of the origins of Islam. He was keenly aware of the actual or possible Christian influences on Muhammad, of a possible Near Eastern substratum to his faith, and of the indubitable legacy of pagan Arab lore. Such an evaluation was, indeed, not long in making headway. In subsequent research, especially since the third quarter of the nineteenth century, scholars in ever growing numbers did actually come to the conclusion that Muhammad's development owed far less to Jewish influences than to Christian sources of information. Such a construction, they felt, would account for Geiger's iindings as well as for much for which he had failed to account. The assumption of a Near Eastern Christian impact, for example, could well explain the transmission of patently Christian elements as well as those considered to be characteristically Jewish. I I Thus, it was clear that the Quran reckoned Jesus among the prophets, indeed as an exceptional and outstanding messenger of God. What is more, biblical names and terms appear in the Quran in forms that have a decidedly Greek imprint: Firaun, Pharaoh; Y ;mus, Jonah; Sulaymiin, Solomon; llyiis, Elijah; iblfs, a devil (besides the more Hebraic form shaytiin). The fear of imminent doom and of the end of the world permeates the early strata of the Quran and points to a religious mood far more in consonance with Christian apocalyptic than with Jewish attitudes. It is noteworthy, too, that the persecuted followers of Muhammad sought refuge in Christian Ethiopia. 'rhis new explanation also dovetailed with what was known of the dissemination of Christianity in the Arabian peninsula. Christianity was the prevailing faith, or at least was widespread, in many parts of Arabia and the surrounding areas of Byzantium and Ethiopia, in areas forming part of the Sassanian sphere of influence, where Arabic-speaking people were governed by the princes of I;Iira, in the lands of the Ghassanids living within the Byzantine framework, and in the Yemen. With so strong and numerous a Christian presence in the area, the infiltration of Christian influences into pagan Arabia was virtually inevitable. This influence could

XXII

PROLEGOMENON

well have left an imprint not only in the form of ideas expounded through religious teaching and preaching but also in actual names and terms, locations and dictions, words and images that an occasion penetrated regular Arabic usage. The studies of Julius Wellhausen, Richard Bell, Tor Andrae and K. Ahrens succeeded in gaining greater sympathy for the view accounting for the birth of Islam as a consequence of Christian Aramaic inspiration and information. This view gained its widest currency in scholarly circles in the 1920's and after. And while Charles C. Torrey's attempt to reestablish The Jewish Foundations of Islam was far from convincing, the "Christian" thesis also sustained serious blows. With further research, the J!,wish factor in pre-Islamic Arabia was more fully demonstrated and elucidated by such scholars as J. Horowitz and Z. Hirschberg. Plausible, and on occasion less than plausible, hitherto unknown points of contact with a Jewish background were suggested by Hartwig Hirschfeld, D. Kuenstifnger and R. Lesczynsky:The biblical elements in the Quran were submitted anew to a searching examination by H. Speyer, and a cumulative "Jewish" commentary on the second and third suras of the Quran was composed by Abraham KatshY Nor did a middle position fail to gain support in some scholarly quarters. A. Sprenger, the first major biographer of Muhammad, suggested that since neither Jews nor Christians could evidently be at the root of the Meccan revelation, the only plausible explanation lay in seeking for some group that combined elements of Judaism as well as of Christianity. Taking a cue from research on sectarian and dissident groups in Christendom, this view found support among several scholars who traced the origins of Islam to sectarian and heretical Christian groups with strong Judaizing tendencies. In recent years the whole subject was given a fresh stimulus by the researches of Shlomo Dov Goitein. In his earliest investigations on the subject, he noted the clear affinities between the Quran and elements of Syriac church poetry. On the other hand, out of purely textual considerations he

It was in all likelihood these very elements that introduced into their environment tales of Arabian prophets of more ancient times whose chastisements went unheeded. while at the same time traces of Christian piety were also in evidence. Muhammad appropriated his basic orientations to religion and to ancient religious history. Goitein even ventured to suggest that the early' impulse to Muhammad's religious activity was stimulated by a proselytizing Jew or Jewish group who was also fired by . From these. for the figure of Jesus would have suited Muhammad's needs. In a close examination of the earliest forty-eight suras of the Quran Goitein could not find a single reference either to Jesus or to any other patently Christian element. Jesus had preached the Kingdom of Heaven. Muhammad may have at some time in his career have been especially moved by a Christian homily such as that contained in Paul's Epistle to' the Galatians (3 f. ~esus and the Gospel. Arabian Jewish gtoups that combined. on the other. accordingly. . had had to contend with opposition from within his own people. not to mention many more allusions to him-are scattered and vague in their import. suggested that inasmuch as the bulk of the early data pointed to a Jewish source of inspiration.) on Abraham as the forefather of all true believers. Jesus. This is noteworthy. Goitein. whereas Moses' principal task was to take on alien tyrants. after all. on the one hand.far better than that of Moses. Only later did he learn about Christianity. The six references to Jesus in Meccan suras--as against 108 explicit references to Moses. combine to point clearly to the dominance of the Jewish sources of inspiration in his preaching. while Moses had led a people in an exodus from the country of their enslavement. But the initial and formative influences in Muhammad's prophetic development. these Jewish and Christian elements.PROLEGOMENON xxm stressed that it was implausible to posit Christianity as the principal source of inspiration of Islamic revelation. and his later contacts with the Jews of Medina.. accordingly. The local ruins were cited by these gtoups as evidence of the fruit of ignoring prophetic' admonitions. the material pointed to the influence of local.

It was this group that caught him unawares with its total rebuff and generated his later intense hostility to the Jews and Judaism. Muhammad gave fresh design. To whatever materials he encountered and approximated. California . the Christian influences to which they were now exposed were bound to gain greater weight in the new community. Quite obviously the inquiry into the religious and literary origins of Islam is by no means over.rejection of the latter's divinity and his death on the cross. and to the course of history he generated a new direction." After the "first hijra:' when some of the persecuted followers of the Prophet left for Abyssinia. (Such a combination is not unattested in Jewish history. originality and personal contribution of the Prophet of Islam to the treasury of human experience. With their retnrn to the peninsula. the first Muslims must have brought with them a host of Christian notions and a body of information about the Christian faith. when Muhammad later repaired to Medina he encountered a strictly orthodox Jewish community that saw in his doctrines little more than blasphemous heresy. However real these influences' may have been. I< Whatever the results of these new researches. To this new lore the Prophet felt compelled to respond ambivalently. such as that represented by Manichean and Gnostic groups.) However. they can in no way detract from the genius. with expressions of reverence for Jesus himself and with a. Moshe Peariman University of California March 15. Further research has suggested the influence of other streams of religious thought. they remained marginal at best and can hardiy serve to account for the preponderant Jewish and Christian strains in the Quran. 1970 Los Angeles. German Jewish pietism of the eleventh and twelfth centuries betrays the manifest influence of the Christian pietist trends of its age and environment.XXIV PROLEGOMENON the notion of Christian monastic pietism.

1. Wiener. For a listing of the critical reviews of the work. 208 f. Geigers Preisschrift: War hat Mohammed dus den Judenthume aufgenommen?/' Der Orient: Liter~ aturblatt des Orients. see the work referred to in D. Fleischer. Herzog!. Cf. 5 n. R. Gdger and others. 2.. Die biblischen Erzaehlungen in Qoran (Berlin... pp. refers to Geiger's. Johann Flick. Noeldeke. 107-138.ibliographie des Ouvrages Arabes . The first edition of Th. see G. B. 11 (Leipzig. 7. pp. "OOOr das Arabische in Dr. Geschichte des Qorans (Goettingen.ou Relatifs aux. Schwa!ly). Cf. 12.PROLEGOMENON xxv NOTES 1.Literatur (Berlin. Pfanmiiller. J. col. More pertinent to the real issue was ~ observation that Geiger had ignored the apocryphal and pseudepigraphical literature of the Jews with its wealth of relevant data. vol. The title page read: Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume auf~ genommen? Eine von der Konigl. nassauischem Rabhiner zu Wiesbaden.Ar. see M. . Baa~ den. 226 f.. 5. 400.H. p. 1833. VI (1903). Similar sentiments were echoed by I. see V. 2. Abraham Geiger and Liberal Judaism (Philadelphia. H. Gedruckt auf Kosten des Verfassers bei F. pp. lOa. noS. aTJd. 4. 10. 5. -and a new issue of the German original has recently been announced. 1968).preussinchen Rheinuniversitiit _gekrOnte Preisschrift. pp.9~ f. vn (1904). X (Liege-Leipzig. 11 (1888).. 77 n. 1834. 174-5. The review is sigried by H. 1969).. • 6. E. Waardenburg on Qoranic polemics in Liber Amicorum in honor of C. pp.Abraham Geiger.abes Pu!?lies dans I'Europe Chretienne de 1810 d 1885.Jslam at German Universities (Wiesbaden. 8. II (1841). Speyer. 438-440. Chauvin. The work was reprinted in Leipzig iri 1902. Bleeker (Leiden. reprinted in the author's Kleinere Schriften. 10. 4. (Horovitz?) in the Zeitschrift fuer Hebraeische Bibliographie. ibid. 3. The 1902 repriot of Geiger's book evoked a review by Hobert Grimme in which he characterized the work as an achievement in its own day that had become obsolete~ OrientaliBtiJiche Literaturz. 9. 1919). For summaries and appreciations of his activities and scholarship. . 1962). pp. Baden. Cf. Die arabischen Studien in Europa (Leipzig. 6. who caviled about the dry style of the study. 10. vii-viii. The Study of Arabic. GiiUingische gelehrte Anzeigen. Paret. 1955). I. reprinted in Dat'mstadt. .l. L. H. 9. Von Abraham Geiger. 4-5. .eitung.ebenswerk (Ber~ lin. 1931.J. 33 f." and accepts one of the points made by Geiger. 1962). p. 1910). Leben und. 19~3). as well as on other aspects of Jewish influences in Arabia and on Islam. For the latest treatment of his thought. L. \ 8. The remarks' cited in the text appear in the second edition of Noe1deke~s work (edited !ly Fr. 17. 1860). "scharfsinnige Untersuchungen. For a survey of the early modem literature on the subject of Geiger's work. 1907). Handbuch der lslam. p.

. Baron. Weil Jubilee Volume (Jerusalem. . Cf. ill (Philadelphia. 1955). Y. J. "Die Anfaenge Mohammeds im Lichte der Religionsgeschichte. 10-23 with a summary in English. 1966). idem.scension (Uppsala." Festschrift Walter Baetke (Weimar. Obermann. Rosenthal in his introduction to the reissue of C. s. S. Rodinson. The Quran as Scripture (New York. cL J." Wiener Zeitschrift fuer die Kunde des Mor· genlandes.. Faris (Princeton. 1944). 12. Cf. XL (1950). 1>. Goitein's preliminary edition of a Hebrew volume on Mu~ hammad's Islam (Jerusalem." Revue Historiq~e. "Von Muhammads Wll"kung und Orig'inalitaet. idem. Cf. and His A." The Muslim World. 169-220. XLIV (1937). i966). 1954). no. Mueller. A Social and Religious History of the Jews.v. Spuren christlicher Glaubenswahrheiten in Koran (Schoeneck/Beckenried ISchweiz]. 20 (Winter 1957). idem..XXVI !'ROLEGOMENON 11. The Jewish Foundation of Islam published by the Ktav Publishing House (New York. Moubarae.83-95. 1964). Abraham dans le Coran (Paris. Judaism in Islam (New York.W..I. Cf. pp. M. C. 1957).G. S. Kirche und Mission unter den Arabern in vorislamischer Zeit (Tuebingen. G. XC (1936). A. Jews and Arabs (New York. Torrey. the A.C. "Islamic Origins/' The Arab Heritage. pp. 1967). Jeffery. Henninger. Rudolph. 58-120. ch. 2nd ed. 256-268. See also the survey of recent res~arch by F. Altheim and R. uBilan des crudes mohammediennes. Katsh.D. J. F. 28-51. 1958). Muhammad. 9CXXJX (l~63). Issawi.K. Stiehl. pp. Gotthold E. In the Encyclopaedia ludaica.29-50. On recent trends in research on the rise of Islam. 13. edited by N. 509-525. 1967). cf. von Grunebaum. 1955). especially pp. "Die originalitaet des arabischen Propheten. 1952). 1951) j G. A. Widengren." Diogenes. 298-326. Studies in Islamic History and Institutions (Leiden. "Who were Muhammad's Chief Teachers?" [in Hebrew}. 61-72. ''The Life of Muhammad and the Sociological Problem of the Beginning of Islam. pp. "The Historical Role of Muhammad.postle of God. Filck. 52-58.D. 14. and !he opening chapters in idem. Die Araber in der allen Welt (Berlin.. C. 4. 1956). Koran he surveyed the older literature on the subject. 75-86. On the problem of !he originality of Muhammad.A." Zeitschri/t der Deutschen Morgenlaendischen Gesellschaft. 1952).

. The Rev. A. Griswold of the American Presbyterian Mission at Lahore has very kindly put in all the Hebrew and Arabic citations for me. I undertook to translate this Prize Essay by the Rabbi Geiger at the request of the Rev. BANOALORE. YOUNG. F.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. D. Lefroy. H. XXVII . 1896. and has also revised my translation. who thought that an English translation of the book would be of use to him in his dealings with Mul}ammadans. G. the Head of the Cambridge Mission at Delhi. \ March 17th. M.

.

and those of the Quran.PREFACE. It is llSSumed that Mu!). can take place only on condition that the Jewish sayings are \a. The pomt of view from which the subject was to be approached was left by the terms of the question entirely to the different workers. viz. deserve and receive consideration.m.ammsd borrowed from Judaism. and of which no trace can be met with in the Quran. and are explained and developed at the hands of later writers. and historical critiqism must find its doubt as to this the more deeply rooted in proportion to the number of times in which the sayings are found among those of other creeds. a comparison between Jewish sayings. in order that a right judgment upon my essay may be formed.rudaiemo derivandi BUnt. ThirJly. or unless it is certain that such sayings. Secondly. <t Inquiratur in fontes AleMani 8BU legis Mohammedicae Bas..' sa: .m. from which thero is probability that thoy woro adopted. is rightly based. I VENTURE to offer to the general public a work which was primarily undertaken with somewhst scanty msterinls. in the hope of setting forth the former as the source of the latter. and this assumption. q"'. The question propounded by the Philosophical Faculty at Bonn. but on the other hand all such religious ideas and legends as are hinted at in the Quran. In this connection everything of course is excluded which appears only in the later development of Isl8. as will be shewn later.ctually found in Jewish writings prior to Isl8. existed earlier in the synagogue. thoogh only recently recorded." served as an inducement to the undertaking. and that from which I have regarded it must be considered. those who undertake this work must considor soriously the XXIX . But this certainty cannot easily be attained.

The materials at my disposal. that we must be very careful not to ass~rt rashly that anyone idea fonnd in the Qnrlm is taken from Jndaism. which do not bear the impress of a borrowing. from which I believe myself justified in the conjecture that the.. Mter I had once settled the subject in this way.the arrangement ofthe whole. they are fragmentary and occasional in that they were chosen according to what Mul. How far I have succeened in reducing these details to orner the reader may see and junge from the book itself. The borrowings are of details not of anything comprehensive. in orUer to shew the basis on which the probability of a general borrowing from Judaism rests. has t". were only the bare Arabic text of the Quran in Hinckelmann's edition from which the quotations are made. For these three reasons many citations which I might have made from lster Islitm and later Judaism are exclnded.Lammad's reporters knew. '. Fltlegel's edition.u. There are so many general religions ideas that are common to several of the positive religions existent at the time of the rise of Muhammadanism. • In the translation the quOf. when I first nndertook this work. I have therefore given in the different sections the marks and indications. and according to what was agreeable to the prophet's individual opinion ann aim.re has been such a borrowing. gave me no less trouble. and more especially of the many disconnected divisions and sub·di'risions. qnestion. whether a mere simihrity in the tenets of two different religions sects establishe~ the fact that an adoption from one into the other. the reasons also. and in the case of some points of greater difficulty. * . On the other hsnd. the first division had to be adnen. consequently there is no close connection.ken place.xxx PREFACE.tioWl are made from. . and in like manner many statements also.

and an intimate acquaintauce with Judaism aud its writings.wi ~n the 10th SUrah (in Henzei's F. A transcript from Ba. and two parts of an excellent unpublished Commentsry by Elpherar which begins . I had besides the pleasure of finding out independently many obscure allusions. was the only help ontside. viz.allmenta A. on the one hand. the works of Pococke. In this form my work received the prize.. XXXI Wahl's Translation of the Qurin. historians.raccius in his edition of the Quran. All observa.l'llEli'AllJII. To these belong especially the valuable Prodromi and Comments of 1fa. and many other works which will be found quoted in the book itself.erwards learned from Arabic writings. and to use them for the remodelling of the work in German. of the ci/. whioh Professor Freytag made for himself and which he with his nsus.nd of quotations from other Arabic anthon (with the exception of the .' and the narratives of their. D'Herbelot's BibliotMqus 01'ientals. n. of the explained Arabio and Rabbinical words.l kindness allowed me to nse... seeing the pBllllSges through the spectacles of the Arabian commentstors.with the 7th SUrah and WIIS bought by the famous Seetzen at Cairo in 1807.Ccess while the work WIIS in the press are given in an Appendix. nor on the other finding in the Qur~n the views of the Arabian dogmatists. and expillining them correotly. the Qurin.ed pIlaBagBll oj' tbB Quran. I had thns the advantage of having an unbisssed. The Ilodvllntages of II three-fold register. whence I rooeivad it through the kind mediation of Professor Freytag at the expense of the University Library at Bonn.abica) . the Commentary of Baidhil. and only after that had been gained was I able to collect more materials.tions drawn from writings to which I first obtained. To these may be a. not. as I aft. lJ. mind. and is now in the library \ at Gotha.i.dded Abulfedre Annales Maslemitici and Hiat01w Anteislamica.dhiwi's Commentary on the Qurin on some passages in the second and third SUrahs.

xxxn
constantly-quoted E1pherar and Maraccius) need not be dwelt upon in detail The Jewish writings which I have used consist almost entirely of the Bible, the Talmud, and the Miclrashim, and in accordance with my determination to reject all Jewish writings latsr than Muhammad's time, they had to be thus limited. The few passages which aro taken from other writings, of which the age is not so exactly known, snoh as the sections of Rabbi Elieser, the Book HayyasMr, and the two differing Reoensions of the Jerusalem Targum on the Pentateuch (which are placed in a somewhat later period than that of the composition of the Quran by the learned Zunz in his latest valuable work Die Gottesdioostliehen Vorlriige dar Juden historiseh entwiikelt: Berlin, 1832, A. Asher) are all of such a kind that one can generally point to some deciclecl declaration in Holy Scripture itself from which such opinions and traditions may have arisen, and therefore their priority of emtsnce in Judaism can be accepted without hesitation. I must publicly offer. my thanks to Professor Freytag for the many different lcinanasses he has shown me in connection with this work, and also to my dear friends S.Frensd~rf and J. Dernburg for their help in the correc. tion of the proofs. Finally, I here express my heartfelt wish that this little work may be true to the epirit of our timo, the striving after true knowledge, and that learned men may givo mo tho benefit of thoir oriticiams upon it.
THE AUTHOR.
WmSIlADEN, May 12th, 1833.

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XXXIII

JUDAISM AND ISLAM.

,

INTRODUCTION,

IT will be fonnd, speaking generally of the whole sphere of hnman thought, whether we consider matters which have already become the clear and certain possession cf maukiud, Or those which are left for the future to unveil and to determine with scientific precision, that almost always a correct intuition precedes scientific knowledge, so that a generally correct idea, though not yet supported by adequate evidence, obtains some hold on the miuds of men. In this way the thesis of this treatise has long been recognised as probable, namely that Mnl;tammad in his Qman has borrowed mUQh from Judaism as it presented itself to him in his time, though for this opinion no sufficient grounds have hitherto been advanced. And the very endeavour to give this just coujectura its place among scientific certainties seems to have produced in the faculty the wish to see the subject accurately and thoronghly worked \ out by scholars, conVersant with both the Qumn and Judaism in their original sourcas; and to meet this wish I take up my present task, conscious indeed of feeble powers, but determined to use unsparing industry in the stoodiast pursuit of my purpose. This is the end which we have in view, to wit, a scientific presentation, and not a mere list of apparent adaptations from Judaism, nor a statement of isolated facts dissevered from their historical connections. For this we must stndy the connection of tho foots to be demonstrated with the whole life and work of Mul;tammad, as woll as with those events of his time, which either

ts.I proof of the kind referred to acquire scientific value. in which will be given a collection of those passages in which Mul}. determined his actions or were determined. him? Was it compatible with his plan to borrow from Judaism? The second division must bring forward the facts to prove the borrowing.{ul}.ammad's plan. Only in this way can an individuiJ.!. from Judaism? Could }. To this an appendix will be added. which has beon stated on general grounds to have taken place. by him.2 JUDAISM AND ISW.ammad seems not so much to have borrowed from Judaism.mmad's life and age. and partly as showing the intrinsic necessity of the fact and its actual importance by virtue of its connection with other facts of Mul.ammad borrow from Judaism? and if so. . partly as throwing light upon the nature of :A{ul. of which the first has to answer the following questions : Did Mul}. how was such borrowing possible for. And so this treatise falls into two divisions. as to have reviewed it and that toe in a hostile spirit.ammad wish to borrow.

Tudaism to be a sonrce of the Quran. Rather is it our task to shew how it was Bound up with the spirit.ammad means.Tudaism had taken place wonld still have great \ probability. of attaining to a knowledge of Judaism? i. : Had MulJ. and that. Three questions oome prominently forward here : First: Did Muhammad really think he would gain any objeot by borrowing from Judaism? or. a comparison with it makes clear many passages in the Quran. or at all events limited such a borrowing ? . in other words. the conjeoture that a borrowing from . Did Muhammad wish to borr~w from Judaism? Could Mu~am­ mad borrow from Judaism? and if so.BlIILATION Oll' JUDAISM TO ISLUI. and what means had he. and used it in the establishment of his new religion. e. 3 FIRST DIVISION. aud thus to demonstrate the faot that. how was it possible for him? Third : Were there not other oiroumstances which militated against. Thus it is necessary for us first to acoount for this as the philosophioal development of a process. even were we deprived of all proofs which undeniably shew .ammad. Did Mu~ammad of set purpose borrow from Judaism? Second. further. in order to shew that Muhammad really possessed a oertain knowledge of it.Y of the passages which appear to have some conneotion with Judaism. Could he thus borrow? and if so. with the mind of his time and the constitution of his surroundings. the striving and the aims of MulJ. afterwards to be confirmed by historical evidence. how was such borrowing possible for him? Was it compatible with Mu~mmad's plan to b017'OW from Judaism? It is not enough for us to give a dry meagre summlU'..

fl. That the J ew~ in Arabia at the time of lfu1). . '0' the Word of God).\ ~. lix.\lL.4 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.t. .ammad possessed considdrable power is shown by the free life of many quite independent tribes.. . far in advance of other religions bodies I in that knowledge which Mul. the power which the Jews had obtained in Arabia was important enough for him to wish to have them as adherents and."i ~ Abnlfeda (Vita Moqa. gave him so much trouble with witty and perplexing remarks that the wish to propitiate them must certainly have arisen in him. and if so on what grounds? These three enquiries form the different Sections of the first division. 1.." i) ~ ~~ ~ I. moreover. ~~! :. there are traces of hatred against both j-still it is evident that.her coaldeat.. Was it compatible with the rest of his plan so to borrow? Was it permissible for him.. also of the Bann Nadhir' in the 4th year. that they were. Did MII~ammad wish to borrow from Judaism? Although we may by 110 means ascribe to Mu1). • Sura XXIX. though themselves ignorant.ammad a special liking for the Jews and for. 207.mmedis ed.2 as indeed he liked to assert of all his knowledge. .:. as well as in the writings which he left behind him as laws for posterity. Salo'a Translation• . 11) r S.. ~ ~. on the one hand. 67~ .i ... . I Thon didst not l'ead any book before this. ulao Commentators on SUra. 71.~ . This fact is known especially of the Bann Qainnqa' 3 in the second or third year of the Hijra. neit.1':: f.Judaismand indeed in his life. pp... thou write it with thy right hand. p.. GagnIer." (t. . II. FI RaT SECTION. and also Vita MOQammedis p.1ammad professed to have received by Divine revelation. which sometimes met him in open battle. The Jews. The latter are spoken of by 1 See Jost's Gesohichte des israelitischen Volkes.i In Pococke (Specimen Historian Ambum p. Vol. on the other. 47 .

ammad. which continued in Arabia. 2. and the fastnesses which they possessed would have banished thonghts of a capture.POWER 011' TlIE JEWs. partly because of the indefiniteness of the allusion and partly because on this supposition the Ohristians are called" tho believers. Bpea. A century before MulJ. J '.Ji 11'11" ljIlcl Miobaell!& . fearing a -long siege. or if. 4 Although it seems to me altC/gether improbaHe that the passage in Quran Ixxxv.~. 19 If. Oriontal. 4 refers to this event.. 1 This fact is further known of the Jews in Khaibar 2 with whom he fought in the 7th year. I:)'" .'\j. • QnrAn LXXXV.tammad with probable exaggeration expresses it. The want of settled civil life. 7. Assemanl Dibliothoo. till the rule of Mullammad. as Abulfeda with greater historical probability asserts. though as a rulo Mnl}. 561 ByriHoheChrootcnmthie p. 1.." 5 which is never the case elsewhere. and it was only the mistaken zeal of the last Jewish Governor. they. who hadfied to that country in large numbers after the Destruction of Jerusalem. DhU Nawas. inasmuch as it enabled them to gather together and to maintaiu their independen ce.. ~. was very favourable to the Jews.. The Banu Nadhlr are supposed to be referred.:: &lo.ammad's treatment 1 .3 which led him to a cruel attempt to suppress other creeds (which attempt is pictured for ns with the very colours of a martyrologist).". that bronght abont the faU of the Jewish throne by the coming of the Ohristian Abyssinian King. 11.b as a great family of the Jews.. to in Qnran lix. thia independence had reached such a pitch that among the Himyarites the Jewish ruler actually had jurisdiction over those who were not Jews.i • 1+ Pco. p.I 4 Camp. They are there described as so powerful that the Mnslims despaired of their conquest. 5 \ JanIJ. they themselves had not destroyed their houses with their own hands. had not withdrawn themselves and turned to quieter regions. if as MuJ.

and is moreover clearly shown in a pasBBge soon to be quoted. That the Jewish system of belief was even then a fnlly doveloped one. of the Christians was indulgent. 49). unu. ignorant. and Kinda. A good vouoher lor the importanoe to which some Jewish familios had attained might be found in 8 poem of HamQsa (ed... Tho ---'" only thing for it is the name of tho author j g. the Banu Kin'na Banu Hareth ben Kab. if only tho endDDoo that.! . That the remains of snch a power. viz. 8.-.. .ioll of llz..eatnesa of his former power.tuily iH lJl11. he was no less afraid of their mental superiority and of appearing to them as ignorant. tho family referred to Wa.-l\ whioh. whiob penetmted the life of eaoh member of the commnnity.s'J"' .he Araus. 111" :molt a.. 1 nevertheless this very mistake of the commentators shews the importance whioh the Arabs attached to this conquest of the Jewish ruler. ParI. Cha. Freytag p.. d~ .\) bat which might easily have oome into OBO ul1long t. even when shattered continned to be of importance is plain in itself.. An Ambian author 3 mentions other tribes beside the Himyarites as adherents of Judaism.. Evon in tho vel'S6 Uftlb pago i2.lhlrJiou is found. > Vide Pococke Spo•. and is a proof of tbe gr. Jewish one were sufficiently certain. p. Thongh the Jews of that region were among the most. whoro tho ptu'O twd uumixeJ UOlilclmt of tt.... which is full of the spirit of chivalry and self reliallce...pter II.2 where the Himyarites are depicted as particnlarly nnbelieving.. mtlut. Hebrew name (Jo. and although I give an entirely different interpretation to this paBBBge-an interpretation borne out by every word. .JlolWl ~\ JIi " o. • lIaidMwi on Qarao IL 91. iB .iaoJ. whoro ouo might w::poot Q.8 a oommen· tator oitod by Elpherar remarks.. 186. is proved both by its antiquity and by the faot that the Talmud had already been completed.6 JUDAIll!! AND IStAH. IV. partly respect in Mu~ammad's mind...l... as is shown by the silence of the Talmnd concerning them. and so his first object must have been to conciliate them by an apparent yielding to their views.r'Jwi~h Ilri~lII..8 8. Seotion II. 4 While this physical power of the Jews inspired partly foal'. and also by that which was borrowed from them and incorporated 1 See Division II.u" fu.

7 \ in the Qllran.~. J.. The met that Mul). Thus it came about naturally that Mul).r'c..-IJ ". xxxiii. 2 do not sit with the ungodly people after recollection. . depart from them nntil they busy themselves in some other subject. and so ~ined for them honoar in the sight of others.ammad very often came off second best in religious disputes is evideut from several sayings.. 4. 18... yet very many hraditionsand pithy sayings survived in the month of the people. sUra VI. shews how much Mul...1_ W f1J _ J ".ammad feared the power of the Jews to shake the faith of others iii the religion revealed to him. . in which he makes God declare it. /.An inheritance for the assembly of Ja.I ~ \.I .. but also the way in which they defended their own cause and their mode of dealing with him.4 1 u..~I "'»"'~ I"IS' ~~ Ip (:r'" I. and particnlarly from the following very decided one :-" When thou seest those who busy themselves with cavilling at Our signs." This remarkably strong statement. I :li'7>?. and he warns them against too frequent communication or too close intimacy with the Jews.l . other than the right ones..~ n'i?ry~ n~i!:l \'}.. Ou ~hi8 Elpherar remarks: ~I )~..ammad wanted to learn their views and to include them in his community.lammaa had to fear from argument. ..01.. but the real reaSOn for the warning' is obviously that Mu1..ll." Dent. Intercourse with the Jews appeared to him to be dangerous for his Muslims also.. • SUra LX.J. 67...B He natur"lly puts this forward on grounds. to be a work of the devil to be present at controversies about the truth of his mission.INTIllLLIGERCII OF :t'HIll JIllWS. f"'»W (:r'" I:I~ ("Sl}->\rt. whioh doubtless gave to the Jews an appearance of intellectnal superiority in those dark times and regions of ignorance. and if Satan cause thee to forget this precept.cob.i 'j - . It was not only the idea of swelling his society with these numbers of adherents 1 that produced this wish in him.

Mostcharaoteristically. Thus they said to him once :_CC we can do nothing for our unbelief. 286." u:. or else did not wish to enter upon a long dispute with him.UJI! u-lU I. They either got rid of him with an answer which he could not gainsay.4 (:)\ •l".. accordiug to the Jewish saying: S cc Propheoy is not fouud out side the Holy Land.l-'41v 7'kl .. :2:< ". this is shown in a witty and satil'ical play of question and answer." 2 On another occasion they advised him to go to Syria... but of different and even contrary meaning. in that he regarded their ntterances as bona fide expressions of opinion and not as mere teasing mockentls. and doubtless quite in accordance with the intellectual mannel' of the Jews. who eithel' did not have the courage to withstand him. Further the ce This (was revealed) beoause BOmB of the poor Muslims instruqted the JeW8 in the doctrine of the M. lJ • Compo SUDIl. I.1ammad complains bitterly.. 446.uslims." So Elpberer et aI. L 16. so that there was unity between them and the former received of the fraits of tbe Jatter. as the only place where prophetio revelations were possible. 78 4. p.>' • JaIAlu'd-dlu (Ma.. Foudgrubou do. 82 ." This is given by some expositors as the cause for the revelation in Sura XVll.l\ JIi W Jj This verse was revealed when the Jews said j 1£ thon art a. and also because he was uudel' the impression that. 'l'hus.r.. ..l he made the attempt with some.8 JODAISH AND lBLhl. and which often gave him apparent weapons against the Jews.!itzi i'1!. if eame (he says ten) of the Jews would join him. • SW. in order to gain reputation.l~\ <. . II.. u Circumcise therefo1'8 the foreB'ki~ of yoar" heart and be DO more stiffnecked./>J\ \alII ""e. for Our hearts are uncircumcised. Vol. for Syria alouo is tho laud of prophets. PJ:Opbet. Orlouts.JIb ~mtl Comp. Deut. but others assigJi a different reason for the verse. tbeu go to Syria. all 'the rest would become his adherents. about which Mul... or they mixed up the words which he required from them with others of similar sound.raeci iu loco)• • v~~'f U i'1¥~n¥ i'1".

..As the occll8ion of Quran II. 2.. \I....l"q .. but between these two there is enmity.e.z' .lly held by the Jews..-\..'f ~J'!.3 Whosoever is the enemy of either angel. .4 and although accordingly there is much of trnth in this narrative j JiJ* ! l/i.t>. S. 0 Omar...l ~) .briel is the messenger of puniehment.OAllRIlIL AND MICHAEL. ~~~ n.e.J1#1 AIl1 . S"lomo Ben Adore'b on Tree.l... 'Thy Lord has already agreed with thee..tl f'l':a T . 88 s. he reveals onr secrets toMu4ammad. JIa ..g.' Then Omar went away and found that.#1 ...J d>..0 oY\.".-\. ti}_~ l3" J...."" jib.l\ u-'.I.J. p. he is the enemy of God.' " Although what is here brought forward is to some extent what is rea.su . that Ga.n:r'i l:l~i"'..lla AIl1 l3" r'6~~ "'" JIa .. he is also the messenger of wrath and punishment j Michael on the oontrary brings us prosperity and plenty...' But he said: 'God forbid that it should be as you say j they are not enemies. \1)'... and Mu4ammad. *J"" I.-JI.... .. tf!:". •• l3" ~w ""J! ~..us I... ..e unbelieving than the Himyariks.l\ ~ JIa rU'... ~ AIl\ <S') ~ J'ol J"J ~ JS" ."" (:)\$ <:Y' .M/ '-oU (:).. . but you are mor... ~..sp W" (:)\$..s4 &A. 9 commentators cheerily relate many anecdotes by way of explaining the reason for certain passages. ~. ..J""" '.~ l:>'" ...}1#1 .>-1 ~ I.. 91. said to him.... 0lI... Jip .o Ji~. J"" ~) ~ . Gabriel had prececed him with a revelation.~. .>id . 4R.. which appear to the unprejudiced quite in the same light.' Then Omar said: 'What is their position with regard to God ?' and the Jews replied: I Gabriel on His right and Michael on His left. Baidhawi relates the following tale: 1 " It it said that Oroar went once into a school 2 of the Jews and asked them about Gabriel.w" 3 TheBe ere the words reForred to above. ~ l3" J. I..... 7"'" m·li Jl l:lij?lil ""~ n"ba Bn'hro '14.. They replied: ' He is our enemy..wI.....

1'0 Midraab'T.4 This position is reversed by Mn1plmmsd. as.l~ I. explained at tbe . in order to give the highest rank: to Gabriel 5 to whom he attrib'ltes aU hie revelations.?\oll:lo/!. V.. th.ter. the latter out of fire.t'/J~il? tl~ilolW in th. wipes them away.l. S. nevertheless even the qnoted saying ie perverted. the evening pU.." Camp. because l Be m~keth peaee ia Ria high placea. 26.t!it?tl Tho versa Job. beoause he stops np the sine of Israel i.xooution of God's punitive judgments to Gabriel. "~'''1=1i '. for Gabriel ie regarded ~s the messenger of God for the pnniehmer. mos" be tak. 'Sanhedrin ".m in the . 96.?~" f. Further. e. Also the prayer on the Day of Atonement.et.. 2. 2. Onr sag••. 3 These .1 i1~ nl$ U 'Comp.l .ll:l~'!. written 'r:T~~ ?l:l.. 21.ir memory. the milder. th.' n Here aU the {acta whioh we Bought out and separately are given brieRy.netian Ed... The Jews assert that Michael stands at God's right hand and Gabriel on Hie left.. bnt they are novertbele•• in perpetual hormony.llloInmad's intentional misrepresentation 3 is shown by hie changing the order assigned by the Jews to the Angela.yar of the Jews. 21.. 11>15. still they do not hurt each other..e. c. ~ Dominion and fear are with Him.t of sinners only. 95.stops up.1). and Gahriel namo to a••troy Sodom. 2. • Oomp.l '1$""1=1i M1: ""ti-'l:)¥ Ci?W Miif'l1 "ll.nh. This 'lJ i !JQ'1loll 'I$"~~ ~iT1i2=\l l~.tJ1 '~'''1~) loll 0l'1~f '1$"'1~'? ci'p"'nlol ."1: i'iI'iQ Wl:'!1 Wl'ly l~ 'l:l''1=1i1 t:l~~jj l~ 'l'l~'!.~ 't1!l~'tr!21 '\\i!ftl . in that the former is made out.. attributea the .l'!. .. Gabriel tbe mora terrible.l ". . Michael i. of wa.o Se.. Mu!.' refers to Michael and Gabriel.li-ll:lo/!. bl. for inatanw.nebnm..n • 'l:!1~ 'W cr. .. and therefore he could !lever he represented to the Israelites as their enemy. whero it i."rd•.l~~ I. ll. xxv. Gabriel came and overthre.na of the 8rd Section cf Jhe lst Division.l '~'!.a b...l'~. and in another passage of the Talmnd 1 it :'s aotually said of him that he is called the 2 one who.li-l '1<.arth (Sanhedrin 19.l '1:'!' '1=1i ?!?tT/? l'!.ll:l~'!.10 JUDAJSJ£ AND JSW.!<~!! I.

' . to offer free will offerings and to give God a good loan." ~ 1Il1 . This is even more clearly shown in the following narrative related by a commentator on the words" God is poor" 1 : "Thus spoke the Jews when they had heard :-< Who is he that will lend unto God a goodly loan 7' Qurl>n II.\.Utl...s. J.which however to Mu).t"'J. . nnd thu. JI.. 30..i WI ~ (:II .I.on of God (ix..Js> 6llI..:C_ III r-U ~I (:II "God is poor. There can of course be no question of enmity between Gabriel and the Jews...r. ‫ס‬I.•lI ..:..<l..)1 Q.t waa Phineas the BOD of Azariuh... SU:.)\ ~ ci.sthe son of Azaria. 80) is attrihuted by sowe.~ &Ill "..UI... that he desires a loan' f Abu Bakr boxed his ears and said: '1£ there wero not 11 • BaidMwi on Q~n Ill.. It is related that Mu:Qammad with A.>J &l\iWI 6... 246.. fIi _..nco that Ezra i.. \.o) r4 .i'l ". . ~\Iry.. .oj &Ill lrOf'! "...' calling them to IsUm. III . JI. according to which the positions "on the right" and "on the left" mean only the decision to adopt either merciful or punitive measures..h In'''l....s' • Pbin. n ..-"I (:".lH '-'.... • ~'h ollli "" .l.oj r4}!1 .e!.I JIl 1)>>1<0 (:)l 1J'\.\.s. 1'17.ill.. l:1"'"' r-!" 6111 "..JJ1. l:l'" I.a> ""'ly<.u v"jIlI Jl.l1 JUO '-'.ibid ben C Utnr says: Only one Jew used this expression. Then Phineas the son of Azarish 2 said: 'Then God is poor..4 .w.l\ l:l'" ""'1.4 rUI..me to whom tho uttora..lll I.I .. wo w:o lioh...~ On)t)). to faithful observance of prayer. 11 is in spite of the fact that the other view is so fully in accord with the spirit of the doctrine about angels as accepted by the J ewe.b\ ~...0-o1 ""e.eI "" '} 4." (Elpborar on u. t116 same man whc said: God is poot" aud u .l "PII l:l'" l. and the speech is nothing but a repartee.. .oj 6lltuofi .i ""..:. r UI 6Ill .~\ ollli c:..) .I...1)>>1<0 (:II IJ'~ ~ 6Ill J.oJ ..GABllIllL AND MICHAEL.tammad's thinking justified him in making an accusation against the Jews... the .. or between Gabriel and Michael. 01. ~f'J.bu Bakrhad written to tho Jews of the Bann Qainnqa.I .. tho .0.

I. iu /. A good story is preserved for us in Sunna 608 which runs as follows: "Mter the conquest of Khaibar the Jews set a poisoned lamb before Mu1. Then came this revelation. or with a play on the Hebrew "r." but no/. and Phineas denied having made the speech. he had them called together.ammad." The meaningless cha.te sense intendod by Mu1." The same thing is. he asked if they had poisoned the lamb. ·trnce between us. In the prescribed salutation thoy said indeod "118'iua. poison will do you no hn. but either in the souso of "couut us guilty.J. and he then enquired. viz. 'For what reason?' 'To rid ourselves of yon. if you are a deceiver.' was their reply. and putting them on oath to tell him the truth. It was an answer to an expression. When he discovered this.ammad.rm! " Who can fail to see in this Sllswer a desire to free themselves from the importunity of :M nJ.ve broken your neck! He then took him bound to Mulunumad./' in . "loGk on us".u~mmad. which in its simple mooning "To lend to God" must have· seemed to them ridiculous. and which might easily give rise to the retort.J. we shall see clearly the teasing and scoffing tendency of the Jews in their dealings with Mu)." if God now needs money. and if we take into consideration the occasion of the remm'k. They confessed. I would ha.racter of the sentence shews in itself that the Jews were not in earnest. 'for if you are a prophet. He must be poor!' It was only by a certain smOU:lJ of distortion and mutilation that Mu1.ammad could twist this speech iuto an accusation against the Jews. and the way in which it was made. fouud in another passage 1: " The Jews say the hand of God is tied up.12 JUDAISM AND ISLiIl.J. or used words of double meaning..ll\mmad by biting l'epartee ? At other times they changed his words.

9."2 Fllrther instead of l).:J. The cowUlentators appear." 1 So that he was obliged to substitute "andhurua.ublmt" '. II rq.. * ~ . have induced him to try all possible means to conciliate them...t • ...COMPLAINT AGAINST THE JEWS. to have had in mind tb~ Hebrew wUl'd CO... poisoll..e.e. ." Then they changed the salutation"As-salam 'alaika" 6 i. as is ELlso U oontempt "J whioh is more apPl'oplinte lor ... for they 1 :Pi...Je i.e.. 98. 48. II.. into" As-sam 'alaika" 7 which means" Mischief on thee." lJ. they said probably" Khayiat" 4."8 and this is the ground of Mu\J. must at first.. " ~abbat Ii sh'alrah" i.l.P.. 56. .::-.ul ltIf.:.iHat B....wI 6l. love.niDg Udeath" whioh ElpLerar here asalgna to the \volod tt'*-' is quite foreign to i~. though they led later to I> grcat hatred on his part towards the Jews... . 3 LVII. • ..r. "forgiveness". "And this is among the Jews" word of reproach meaning foUy.abbat fi sh'airat" i. which with r U \ (:). 55. 161. 101''' ir-""' .. \ t..(:)Y'-~ (:)IS ~"eJI (:)1 cllJ.... unders~ood w~uld mean -. "Peace be upon thee". 162." which also means "look on us. ~'ha nles.-II. therefore.e." Jahtlu'd·din 5 gives another variation and says that instead of the required word "hubbat"..~ QUl'an II.:f &:.llf.. rW1.) a grain in an ear of barley.ammad's complaint in Surah Iviii. ~I .nj'fiJ .... ~~I ""'" "'. "A grain in an ear of barley.u ...II <:>'" . • 'k&< 5 JaJalu'd-dln (}taraco.. the Jews said "\J.t "". " Jal<llu'd-din MyS (Maracci in loco): &J. 7~'r~ 8 On this EJpherar comments as fonows: ~ r . 13 the sense of the evil one. "Sin.. IV. while he still had a hope cf converting them....'1>. Such occurrences. 49.

ammad to Jerusalem.\ &:.u..\r pI . Besides the frequentreIigioUB controversies already alluded to.JUDAISX AND ISLilf.nd thon h.y..r . were not only important politically. and it was only when he recognised the fruitlessness of attempting to conciliate the Israelites that he changed back to the former direction.JI """" " After hi8.. He was anxious therefore to persuade them that his views were on the whole the sa. only a complaint about the second . The first change is not. This is said to have given occasion to some believers to 1 Qarlin IL IS6. in all of which they are admonished in a very friendly way that the Qur"n would serve as an arbitrator in their own disputes. this howevcr. or place towards which prayer was to be made.altel'lltion is given..rabs had always regarded as holy.. and we shall now give proofs that he actually made great efforts to win them over to his way of thinking." .: \~ ~ ..whioh was done to conoiliate the Je". was changed by Mti(>. but were also able to hold him up to derision by their intellect and wit.:~~: . there are many passages in the Qurau specially addressed to the Jews. from Mecca.gain:' J. At first simply and solely on account of the Jews the Qibla. stated in so many words iIi the Quran. but some commentators maintain that the allusion is to the former change.~ \All.. ~ \jlt ~ . he sctnally did many things on purpose to please them.. l In disputes between Muslims and Jews he shewed himself at times perhaps too lenient..:. . ollaDt:od it a. (J"..Fllght he ordered his followers ro turn to the Temple at Jcru""lem (W1~11 1"1'*).0> W Jal'\u'd·i!ln (!!a_oi in loco) has ss·follo"... We have giveu sujHcient r6llS0ns for Mulmmmad's treating the Jews with consideration.me as theirs with some few differences. the spot which the ancient . o.A. it is true. held good for six or sovon months olll. Co JI.1. Not only did he address them with gentleness and consideration.J. ~..

S. 45.nd again in another passage 2 he asks. in the following pasBage : " Dispnte not against those who have received the Scriptures..6il...lf1 .. In another passage 1 he gnards himself ..wI \Nol \i~. nor call thom liars. of which he complains in Surah IV.J1 _ • ~MSt A_ __ _.. a. \ * .'" Fnrther.) JIU Jj\ l..)\ .0.. ...-l4 \e!..1" 01 4 SI".4 A strong proof that Mu1.. -'0 ~\ ~ ~~ ~ ':!'~ $0'1 I}'!<.An~ri <5)\.. and explained it to the Muslims in Arabic. <5J'"\hl\ ". . &. which reads ss follows: * .iol' w:n .ith Sfl..i ~ U (.Jl\.'.r"' Jll BByS: rL31 J... c. 80 :M~ammad said: f Neitl. 63. 106.lammad held the Jews 1 SUrah IV.o em\ ..mlatu·I. against the lIoCcnsation of giving wrong judgment by saying that he judges only according to the right.sors of the Scriptares (the Jewa) read the Low in Hebre.r6'.a.If':. and unto you.I! . \~.<bl "... c ~ Jl\ but which can be traced back to AbU N. Elpherar in • long ohain of braditions beginning with . J. and say we believe.<b' l...ij ~ \. . there is another similar nllrrativ8 first related by AbUSs'fd. except against such of them as behave injnriously towards you: and Bay. Ij. i. f""JlJSJ 'J . our God a.:ij~l. Dispute not for those who deeeivo.Lo 6Il\ J. etc.boy\ ¥ and ending . 15 rofnso to submit to his judgment.tion to mild dealing..nd your God is orie.-\ (jI <!..HlLD!lESS OF CONTROVERSY. ~~ .er agree ~ith the possessors of the Soript.o J 6Il1l "The posss.~.n1s them p" 3 SUrah XXIX.s as e.. though· the commentators relate another event as the occasion for this utterance..'J..-.<bl \~J. and unto Him are we resigned' ". if they are afraid that God and His apostle will do them wrong.. • In tbe opinion of Arabic commentators this passage is more a proof of fear of the Jews than & reoommonda..g.oue anotber!' • SUrah XXIV.=l\ "'.11.9.oI... II . t We believe in the revelation which hath been sent down nnto DB. 4.ures..ll\ ..us:l\ J.\4.~ ~ " Or do they fear lest God and Ris ApostJe act unjustly to.If J.o... unless in the mildest manner. J"~l. ~1II J}ij 4l\ j)t( ~~.. He advises his MUIllims also to go gently in disputes with the Jews..

yot even in this passage it is very plain that precedenoe over other religious bodies is given to the Jews. noroall them lial'S...td the wish to adopt much from . J. thna the meauing here seems to be almost identical with that of the word J *!""..JUDAISM . _ • :.. bat this is probably tho opinion of n.q.. lIro4 (:)\$ (:)li.) ns~crts on tbe contrary thM. (:)\$ (:)\.}l~ (. but 80. '>. !""'.» ... In Muslim traditions it is said that tho sinful among the Muslims will go into the first. lU y~1 Jl>' (?) ~.(.> ~..) .= u-Jl..:l . o:Il4 While he was sitting by Mu1}ammad J a Jew who had just passed by a corpse came up and said: '0 Mnl}ammad. Part II A.j4t \. 7 p. ~. rJ U . the mildest of the seven he11s.'. 50 as on no account to expose yourselves.. I.j\.. XXII. ~lI...bl (. which produced in Mu~mm.v.l\ ~. SurohsU. .>'"' (:)!. if it is true.).0\ If':. 289.\'I ~ the Muslims.t ~:. and though in the third and last he is not so lenient. and threatens that a distinction between them will bo made...~.:I. he mentions the Jews immediatoly after the Muslims.\. V.. 3 D'IIcrbalot in his Bibliotbcquo orientale (uudor U Ja}Jond U pnge 411..YO ~) ~.. !""'. In two of these passages he even promises Godfearing Jews absolute equality with :Mnslims.u...... and so on. <Ill\ J.o.. 50. 78.iaus. strictly negative attitude. SI Boe DivisioD L Seotion H.~. .. !""'ft~ ll. preserve a.:...2 the Jews into the seoond..rudaism into his religious system.t~ in hell than tho Chl'hit..lli the Jews. ~ 01._'yr ~ l'efcrred to above. His angcls J His word and Bis Apostles.... 17.y: We believe in God.o. \a JW ..e. the 'Muslims give tIlt) Jews n lower pll\. ".:. Christians 8 into the third. later ug'o.) JW .. DJ.\ . in great respect lies in the fact that in pl1Ssages enumerating the different creeds 1.. do Dot give them the lie.. Chap.l. .. If what the Jews say is vain.. we must considor tho fantastic developmont which the J" . do not confirm them.l.AND ISLAM.' n i.ll r-l lib.... i.4 In addition to all this. does this corpse speak? I He said: (Neither agree with the possessors of the Scriptures..lI J. Pococke notre misccllamc) Call.

leading at timeS even to mutual discussion of views. 7l. while allowing him the first source of information. partly in the kuowledge which might be imparted to him by word of mouth through intercourae with the Jews.INTEIWOUIlSIl WITH mws. and partly in persoual knowledge of their Scriptures.bdu'll&h ibn Sahtm.tammad.tammad was anxious to incorporate much borrowed from Judaism into his Qurim. we must deny him the second.0 far as he had the means to borrow from Judaism. a learned man and aoquainted with the Hebrew I 86m II. the cousin of Khadija. and with Warab.A. who was for some time a Jew. From passages already quoted-to which we might add many others-we gather that there must have been great intimacy between Mu].! where the Jews are represented 4a double faoed. Mnl.tammad's intimacy with '. as oertain to appeal powerfully to the poetic genius of the prophet. professing belief when they were with him anil his followers.tammail and the Jews. how was such borrowing possible for him '1 The possibility of borrowing from Judaism lay for Mul. and so we cannot doubt that. that they may dispute with yOIl ?" This shows that the :Muslims learned the Jewish views from conversation only. and then when they were alone saying: "Will ye acquaint them with what Goil has revealed unto you. c . but this is still more clearly shown in a passage in the second Sura. in 8. Whether he had any suoh means will be discnssed in the second section. 17 Jewish traditions and history had reached in the mouth o~ the people. and so long as the Jewish views were not in direct opposition to his own. Could Mu4ammad borrow from Judaism '1 and if 80. SECOND SECTION. We shall speak later of Mnl.

not nnderstand before this wbat tbe book of tbe QDrin was. and which would certainly have been avoided by anyone who had the very slightest acqnaintance with the sources. which cannot be regarded as intentional alteraticns. etc.le explained in detail later. First. if there was any widely diffused critical knowledge of the Scriptures.7 where he denies any previous acquaintance with "the Book" or the "Faith.{abib ben Malik. Elbecar in ~raraco. and then Sura XLII. Prouomi I." Even if these are mere figures of speech to prove the divine character of his mission. Though we must not ccnclude from this that the Jews knew nothing of the Scriptures and.ammad had ample opportunity of becoming acquainted with Judaism. p. Thus Mu1J. 52. Einleitung XXXV. f Compo the pa. ana we may be quite certain that Mu~ammad himself possessed none.ssage quoted above from Baidhtiwi in the 1st Section. These all afterwards became followers of the Prophet.rahian prince.2 who for sOme time professed the Jewish religion. I Compo the passage quoted above trom EJpherar in the Firat Section (foot note)• • sUra XXIX. in spite of their political power. The contempt in which the compilers of the Talmud held the Arabian Jews. . nor wbat the laith wos. 1 SO also was J. J This willl."-(Sale).A. Einleitnug zur U ebersetZllllg des Koran XXX. since there are mistakes. 1 Wahl.5 still wa must doubt.s It is evident also from the low level of culture to which Mupamrnad himself and the Jews of his time and country had attained. we may take apassage already quoted. 44. can be attributed only to the ignorance of the latter. still it 1 Vid.18 JUDAIBY Al!lD ISLm. 1 "Tbou did8/. a powerful.S where he says he had fOl'mel'ly no kuowledge of reading and writing. language and scriptures. from the matter actually adopted. Many passages testify to this. though we hear of schools among them 4 and even of their reading the sacred writings in the original. 47.: and Wahl.. That his knowledge thereof was not obtained from the Scriptures is clear.

ss well as the parts which he sssigns to them in history. then Job. Mul. Jonah. a BUra IV. Had he known anything of Jewish history he would have been aware that. Aaron. Jonah.THE JJCWISH Pll. and so we t Qnt-an IV. This mistake must have been obvious to the Arabic -commentators. • Qtu1In VI. Solomon. Moses. Aaron.! In another passage2 the order is still more ridioulous. 16!. were both called John. and defends himself very neatly against the possible charge. Ismael. He actually asserts that before John the Baptist no one had borne the name of John.have quite enough proofs in these passages. Zacharias. and last of all David.ammsd was singularly ignorant of the Jewish writings. Job. Solomon. the father and the son of the celebrated Maccabesn -high priest. apart from those whioh· will come before us fully in the second part. 78. Elisha.>ammad himself was aware of his ignorance. apart from some historically unimportant people of the name mentioned in Chronicles." thus cleverly defending himself agsinst the accusation of having overlooked some of the prophets. of others we said nothing to thee. for here we have David. Jesus. .Ol'HIIlTS. We . had he really known anything of the Jewish writings. only about some of them. 19 is evident from them that henever enjoyed any reputation for learning. suoh as would neoessarily have been accorded to him. 84 If. for immediately after the patriarchs he plaoes first Jesus. Elijah. 162. Mattathiss. for they try to give another meaning to the clear and nnmistaka)Jle words. Joseph. XL. th~t Mnl). and possessing which knowledge he would have lived in fear of being proved to be an impostor. and Lot I 'rhe incorreot spelling of the names of these prophets. John. For instance in two passages S he asserts that God said to him: "We have not spoken to thee about all the former prophets. proves that he had never even looked into the Hebrew Scriptures. The order in which he gives the prophets is interesting.

but all are unsatisfactory. Us..fI'ord to give np one tIling which is generally brought forward as speoially proving our point. the Muslim. aud mentions it as a proof of Mul. n because the Jews became conscious that they' themselves were a little community aIDoDg the other inha. J & ~i~ m.ong themselves. firs.. Mul.ve been suggested.q~ madina (see Ewald's Critical Grammar 01 the A""mo language.:. derive it from DB examples 01 !' similar formation from L. ms. give maJrlyUD.niDgs of two words.kk:a." later on coone to mean a.n.3 got This word. who were the U people" proper (compare the expreasiou V1~Y tlV)' So ".mmad calls himself an "ummiyun/' I a word which is usually translated "unlearned" "ignorant. ""d ~. viz.tammad could 1 I sUra XII. But this wOJ:d has here the same meaning that is expressed by it in other passages. § 261. 'hen 'hey do not exphin 'he connection between the mea. being to them one of the t:l..AM. can a.run ft. thus <1esigne." Wahl takes it so.4 But. ~(..but also on account of that of the Jews around him. . 2): bu.bit&nts of the land.r Rabbinical word "1.!e. It is used. This is the fact that in oertain passages Mnl.ning of the simila. 156. when we OODsider the development in the 'mea.tammad's ignorance..\. as already stated. and so the word came to bo usod of all those who did Dot believe in ~vealed religion past and present. Bome commentator~ quoted by Elpherar. 1. 69. III."2 of the Arabs in their former ignoranae of Islam. viz. lorany difterent derivations ha. mea. also must have looked upon themselves as a small community in the midst of the popul~et the &:\. II nott-Jew. and 1. and. and Mu:qammad. eVen without this proof our oonclusion holds good.. .. belonging to the Arabs.tes himself 8 without reference to his own individual knowledge.ning in the Hebrew "people.'l-nmmJySll& or 0 ~ nmmlyDD. Or an :. This becomes clear.20 JUDAISM AN1J ISr. like the word "jahiliyat. The derivation of the wOl"d 8eems to me to support this view. sUra III. having risen from among them. that because of his own ignorance especially.. however. madani. ummat. each man who waS not counted am.

religions body lest he should beaooused of want of individuality. and then. and secondly.H TO lIAllLllllB BllLlGIONS. no new religion which should oppose all that had gone before. too. we have to consider and answer the question: Would suoh a borrowing have been consistent with the other views and opinions held by Yu~ammad? THIRD SECTION.ono which should adopt this or that now idea. In general he was in favour of borrowing from earlier religions. Was it compatible with Mu~ammad's plan to borrow from Judaism l' We must consider this question from two sides. before finally determining that a borrowing from Judaism really took place. First. waS the case. and which . he had aleo a strong wish to win over the Jews to his kingdom' of the faithful upon earth. we find that neither. and now in the third section. he sought rather to establish one founded on the anoient oreeds purified from later changes and' additions. In the first section we have shown that Yul. 21 attain to no knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures. though on the other hand he had abundant opportunity to study Judaism with its wealth of tradition and legend as it lived in the mouth of the people. it might have appeared to Yul. By so doing he hoped to strengthen the opinion that he was taught by direct revelation from God. there might have been something in the very faot of adopting from Jndnism whioh would militate against his other plans. . the legends and fanciful sayings of the Jews harmonised with hie poetic nature.1ammad had good reasons for incorporating much Miren from Judaism in hie Qurlm. He desired no peculiarity.BELATION 0'1 ISL!. On closer examination. however. In the seoond section we have shown that he had abundant opportunities of acqnainting himself with Judaism..1ammad as inadvisable to borrow from the system of any other.

as the last of the t Sura XLV'I.five "Viz~. masl1ni which is omit-ted by EJphexat" see beloW' Second Division. thull Elphemr on sUm XXXIIl. 3 a writing like nnto others. and by restoring to their proper position those of them which had been spoiled by additions and perversions.. and those which had been too little accounted of." If· this is not the meaning.}\ C:)''' r~l It)l. that it is only a repetition of them. First Part.. 4 He seems to distinguish between la.vgivers and prophets... ~e. XLII. because they were the compilers or.\. for while he gives the names... as is seen from the lists of the prophets quoted above.L.nd were men of strong character among the apostles. 7: ~~ ~\ C:l"" . . ~ .S. I:. 11.:! ~~ • ~~ ~r.ws revealed to them.22 JUDAISY AND ISLAM. ~..A. it is incomprehensible how Mu!). a repetition. 242 as follows: "God hath sent down the most excellent tidings..iJ\j . d_t£. he might gain some advantage by being in accord with earlier reve"led writings.. he mentions the former in their right order.. i. the four given a.J">o lIe distinguishes these . Third Section.e. But if his assertion were true. should above aU things acknowledge him as a divinely commissioned prophet.. viz" Noah. He let all that was already established stand good. C'''lrJI.bl'aham. 4 with this distinction however that he. First Chapter. a. . and he counts it as a point in favour of his Quran that it is 1 in accord with the earlier writings recognised by him as revelations.ing them alone ot: the prophets.ammad could try to prove the superiority of his Quran by poinmng to its continual and almost wearisome repetitions. n.'-. Another time he even says that the Quran is similar to the earlier religions writings.+. Moses and jesns (BUras XXXIII.lli 3 On tho word. if I am not mistaken in forsaking the general interpretation and translating the passage SUra XXXIX. J. writings and la...bove and 'Muhammad nam.. of the latter in utter confusion. <.ll ~.) Arabic commentators recognise this difference. He claims for himself only the same honour which is paid to the other givers of revealed law. :~ ~~ ~~i ~l Jj d..

and.. Thus.l.J and therefore as the most perfect among them.J. With regard to Judaism in particular Mu1. because he believed that he might rely on their ignorance. as to cousider the followers of one oreed only as in the right. tc restrict to Christians the elements common to humanity.1- _ J (:). carefully avoiding the while those points in his doctrine whioh would be unacceptable to them. partly. and who can now assert that any objeotion to an agreement with Judaism would have been raised by Mu1).it is clear that a borrowing from other religions was quite compatible with Mul)ammad's general aim.ammad maintained that it was all revelation. .• - ~_ .e. XXXIII. no apostle would be needed after himself. is to be considered as the seal of the prophets. a reproach which.J.. did not hinder him..ammad found no special difficulty. It is clear in itself that he could not adopt the whole of '. prophets.ammad to lay before the Jews the points of union between his religion and their own. he did not altogether escape. Thns it was possible for Mul). We have already observed that much in it accorded with the Prophet's poetic spirit. partly.TION. therefore.ammad's contemporaries? In those days people had no.. because his . beoause he had only to prove the harmony which must neoessarily exist between the various revelations of the same God. and to regard everything belonging to another belief as . and to oondemn Judaism as crafty and lifeless. the fear of being called a mere compiler. Consideration for his Arab followers.. that he derived nothing from Jew or Christian.t reached such So pitch of so-called enlightenment. book is so clear 2 that no disputes or misunderstandings can arise about it. but that God Himself revealed to him the contents of earlier Soriptures.THlil Qum A PINAL RIlVllL. Mu1. SlIr.4G.0:'1\. and the historical faots concerning them. from such borrowing. worthless..

• "J'" ~ e-.l1'. while be totally excluded some things. in Mu:Q. On the 1 S6m XII.ammad's mind. so that he was forced to assert 1 that the Quran is not a new invented fictiou. and also in the Appendix.~ .em. He could not maintain with the Jews that their Law was immutable. 81)pendix to Porta M08is t cap. and with a well-weighed consideration of each step as to whether or no it would help him towards his aim of deluding others. Pocock... page 260... Judaism into his system. therefore.s~ u.a deceiver who deceived intentionally. ill. Of this he either became aware himself. Notm Misoel1aD. he Mu:Q. JUDAISll AND ISLAlI.. for that would have been fatal to his system of religious syncretism j nor could he with them expect a Messiah. adopt from them suoh points as stood ill oomplete oontradiction to the views of other religious bodies j and so. with the doctrine of the expected Messiall of the later Jews j and the saying existed:2 "The name of DajjlLI among the Jews is Messiah the son of David!' Much in confirmation of what has been stated ahove will he brought forward in the Second Section of the Second Division.. because if there were another prophet yet to come."JtJ' """ JI. or others reproached him with it. or might well have been.ammad could no longer claim to be the seal of the prophets. in order that they might still more streugthen his own position. "I."\5" (..' . he was obliged to elaborate and alter other things with which he oould not dispense.24. . or deceiver. While this investigation has for the most part consisted in enquiring into what was.. This last point was carried so far that the Arabs later on confounded the doctrine of 11 DajjILI. it is by no means to he imagined that we regard him as . In bringing the Jews to his opinion he had to be careful not to alienate others j he could not. Wahl regards him in this light. but parts only and even these he was obliged to alter and i·earrange. which they had ~borrowed from the Christians.

and during these Mnl. could do nothing but what was demanded by it. hut even so the harsh judgment generally passed npon him is unjustifiable. in feeling and in action. as a result of this investigation. who was himself convinced of his divine mission. in the most fanatical minds there are occasional lucid intervals. of persistent prejudice and total misunderstanding of the human heart. Mnl. just because this one idea ruled him. for this one idea so possessed his spirit. and that is. Of course. could feel nothing but what harmonised with it.MU¥AJUIAD AN ENTHUSIAST. There is no question here of design. to demonstrate by careful reference to the Quran that borrowing from Judaism has actually taken place. that every event seemed to him a divine inspiration. It is evident that Mu1. Every thing necessary to the attainment of his aim stood out clearly before him. We may say. we must guard ourselves carefully against such an opinion.lammad sought to gain the Jews to his side. that other considerations favoured rather than hindered such a borrowing from Judaism. so that every thing which entered his mind was shaped by this idea. He could think of nothing but what fitted in with it. 25 contrary. that it would be very remarkable if there were not much 00 bt~ found in the Quran which is clearly in harmony with Judaism. heart snd will as to become the sole thought of his mind. and this could best be doue by approximating to their religious views j it is also evident that he had ample means of acquainting himself with these views j and lastly. and look upon it as Ii sign.Iammad seems rather to have been a genuine enthusiast. . He so fully worked himself into this idea in thought.Iammad certainly deceived himself and others j it is also undeniable thet at times ambition and love of power were the incentives to his actions. And now the chief work remains to be done. and to whom the union of all religions appeared necessary to the welfare of mankind.

)JJ """ * I. ..\so ~".alW I. we must sholV some general historioal grounds for th.y c A8hura..s. word Aschour.wl . which like "'. page 127.::?... .\so . and thus this division faHs again into two seccions..W. p.-34 ".3"")'" ~) "". J "'~.ys of the Jews..e. 46 he says: And they went out (of the ark) on the day {. for he assigns an equally erroneous canse.26 JUDAISll AND ISLAlI.. FIIlST SECTION.. See also DJHerbelotJ Bibliotbeqlle Orientale.. XI. howevel'.= . 809): <3-' " It is said tha.e opinion that " borrowing from that source haa taken place.. he found the Jews fasting on 'Ashura.W ". Tho cause of the institution of the fut da. . what did he borrow? Before we pass to the consideration of individnal passages as instances of borrowing from Jndaism. which was afterwards abolished like the Jewish Qibla. the tenth da.... when the Apostle of God came to Madina.. (LeviticQs XXIII.l.lll M lyW . Did Mll~ULmmad borrow from Judaism? For the answer to this question we are thrown back entirely on the Quran.. Spse.t. He asked them their 1'eason for so doing.(:)" ~ J"') ej . a general and a pal'Cicular.. is related by Kaznin-(poe.. .¥ ..id: 'I stand in closel' connection with Moses than they do'.:...w- "'Y''''' ~tory. .s)J ~) <. SECOND DIVISION. and they answered: 'BecauBs on this day Pharaoh and his people were drowned.lll/-'o .. u In any CaBO.l. that MUQammad acJopted one of the fast da.-) ".. EJpherar is Dot more exact.l with him to fast out of gratitnde to God."..\.. but Moses and his followers were S&vsd '.. and then he commanded the fast day I Ashura...\SO . the ilnportant fact remains.. W c. 27) clea.) ~ c.J and Noah fasted and commanded aJ.lll J.4shura.r"l ]"U ~ <.3""J"'I UI JW. on which Mnpammad sa. I as we have no other literature 1 The following ... under the U J.y of the seventh month..rly means the day of atonement J is very uncertain.. Did Mll1ytmmad borrow from Judaism? 11 so..I .y. On sUra..

XLVI. .. by this he means the Jews!' Could anyone desire a ole&l'er historical witness than this accusation. XXIII. 6. l~ .tors take this view.. 3 ~ ~ W\ SUra XVI.AllAll OOIll'LAINT AGAINST mlJl:AMMAD.i Jli 7 ". and indeed think that it was ' Abdu'll8.ammad's oontemporaries at his borrowing from Judaism.W- . <:!lo\ Sura XLVI. with whom Mul.S~\ II _to. 1" ~J::l\~\"\ ~ _:II Compo Suras VUI..'.. as witnesses of the truth of his assertions..ulJnmad. 27 of the same date which treats of the ma.... 105. ".. and who is frequently mentioned in the oommentaries. . ~ 4il<. J -- ~ . .h Ibn Salam. LXVIII. '"". 13• • . XXV..... or else an appeal from him to the Jews.oW' (:l _ Abulteda.e. " _ lie. 2 Sometimes they said still more definitely that a certain man taught him. 10... Is. XVI... 3 and the addition of the words: 4 "The tongue of the· person nnto whom they incline is a foreign tongue. Commenta. ti." on whioh Elpherar remarks 7: "Mujahid says. .~ l:l.... • Sura XXV. 85. and indeed they aU contain either the blame expressed by Mu1]..l~ <.1ammlld was in constant and olose interoourse. 15..... 26.. He complains bitterly in many passages that the Arabs said his words were not original..... 5. LXXXIII.... which was so often brought against :MnJ." shows plainly that this man was a Jew. a learned Rabbi.~ ... 70.f' (:l \~ _ . Still there are plenty of passages there preserved to us.! and even caUed them antiquated lies.tter in question. 31. 283. - " It ~ ~ .:..\ W . XXVII. but this is the perspiouous Arabic tongue.. whioh in a general way sufficiently prove our point. tmonlcs Yoslemitici I.. S Another rather more general statement is as follows: 6 "Other people have assisted him therein.l\ ..

.. ~ .<S'i jEu di .1'.. as to why he never worked a miracle. '¥ ~ ~~. • 3 sUra XVII." • S6mX.~ ~ ~~J~ 4...ll ~IJ At (:l"'l This is •••••••• . that muoh related by him is to be found in the earlier Soriptures... . ..mmad....1J ..W. - rL l:1f ol1ll. 8Ild would not believe in him. who testified to the prophetio mission of 'Kll~a.ii ~ Jn~ Jrl.eve. Not only were they to corroborate his words to others... had yet told them plainly of the miraoles whioh are mentioned in the earlier writings..w. 103.Ur. 1 8_XX.s & "&'0 r L l:l! ol1l1 .S and among them one man 4 espeoially..:t • sUra XXVL 197.. lOG. ..u "p.\i.l" J.tJ (:)o<'O't (:Ill • El. 68 is said to refer.t..' di ..)Jr ..1 J .28 JUDAISX AND IBL.. . however...:. the aforesaid (Abdu'llah Ibn Salam.l.~ B.- On whioh Elpherar: .. To the embarrassing question.. 1 and which the learned Jews knew weIl..... .. In.was oalled to be a preacher only.Pherar in the name of .1{~~ oi'l:'i • -~ .J. the ohosen one. sUra XLVI. Thus we have in one place the injunction given to him : G "If thou art in doubt ooncerIiing that which we have sent down unto thee. and which appeared to him so important that he constantly referred to it in the hope of refuting the charge? He himself confesses.. rll. but dews were the arrogant.J'b If t.1 XXVI..<.oya: -.-.. and believed in him. not a wonder-worker.!~::. . ~ - ~. ~.2 They could testify to the truth of these narratives. he constantly answered that he who .. 94.188• .. lo.. (:Ill JU . .. 9.. but also to remove any doubt from Multammad's own mind as to the truth of his Mission.. z.1 oommentato1'1l.......S to whom the laudatory passage in Sura III. . Ijl.

ve 1=800 before thee ma. which Mu1. 29 ask them who have read the book before thee. 7 On this Rlpherar eays: t.. of which the respective subjects wculd be-(l) the points of contact between Isl8. and only in this way could certainty on these points he attained.m and the ancient tradition of the Arabs. aoknowledges the Jews as to a certain extent witnesses to his revelations. that thou art foretold in """II c.g'll."7 If he then. For the complete discussion of the last two points it would be necessary to write two treatises similar to the one on which I am now engaged. and to prove this we have every facility. however cunniugly.bdu'IMh baD. . in order to attain to certainty we must prove that it is really borrowed.. i.J..rs or t. Secondly.\ J ". that it is not founded on anything in old Arabian tradition.s"'l <IJ (:l.. thee. wev 1i (:l\.A.. SECOND SIiICTION.hEtt which we ha.e.ll.. the proof that the passage is really of Jewish origin must reat on two grounds. lead us too far away from our particular subject.:lO\ J-ol\ (:l'" l:l"'\ l:l'" c.. But these investigations would. tbe Qurin is meantj tbOBEI who ha.al\ c." »1 t.. the Law w/ljoh .. ~ . What did MU/iammad borrow from Judaism 'I In the case of any single instance of borrowing.l3m and hill fellon.. Sa. First."'\.s"'l otl.he S0rJpt)lJ"a. it must be shown to exist in Judaism. we are justified in expressing our opinion that Judaism was one source of the utterances in the Quran.hey have. on the one hand. and in this certainty we may proceed at onoe to discuss the aotually borrowed passages...J 1""'= '""rM ~\ <!lJ~ .y instruot.WHAT WAS BOBllOWED FROM JUDAIS. .ammad used largely as a foundation though he disputed some points.ve sent down to thee. and (2) tha points of contact between Islam and Christianity. Then again we must shew that it had its origin in Judaism and not in Christianity." and again: .lilt ~ "He means the believers among the po.

Thoughts belonging to Judaism which have passetl over into the Qurfm l' The new thoughts borrowed by one religion from another are of a twofold nature. . so that the very oonoeptions are new. We must therefore divide this chapter according to these !'Iistinctions. and as i>he Jews in Aral:>ia. praotically sufficient for all scientific purposes. Conceptions borrowed from Judaism ? As the ushering in of hitherto unknown religious conceptions is always marked by the introduction of new words for their expression. Either they are radically new. and the view. and. too. the form in which these conceptions are blended being a novel one. so that on most points we' can without them attain to a high degree of probability. SECOND SECTION. and later we shall have to subdivide again. FmsT CHAPTER. For the sake of clearness. there being hitherto in the borrowiug religion not even a foreshadowing of them. therefore. they would require a much more exact treatment than could be given while handling our main subjeot. and require accordingly new words for their expression ~ or else the oomponent parts of these thoughts have long been in existence but not in this combination.30 JUDAISM AND ISLAx. they are made unnecessary by 'the means which we use in each individual case. Firat Part. Ohapter I. Then. on the other. and which will be shown in the different divisions of the ~ork. which arises from this unusual presentation being new. it may be well to divide the material borrowed from Judaism into thoughts belonging to it. and narratives taken from it.

which is very common also in Chaldaio and Syriao. Oomp.Aschmooil.. and so into the Arabic langusge~ .t. l'i. which. ~. ..n:t'~ G~_ . 31 even when able to speak Arabic. 89.e Orientale Qnder It .. The object oi this chsRt~ is.H..but.)l" Oomp. Arabio word ends in this way. In the seoond S6ra1 we find it mentioned as a sign of the 1 ':"jrj . son into an ark. 7 The Arabians 80metimeu use ~. la.HEBREW WORDS IN THE QUJUN.~~~ "l:.o_§nuJ:p. kept to the Rabbinical ' Rebrew names for their religious conceptions.m Rabbinical Hebrew into the Quran.. and I venture to assert that no pure. The termination 1it is a fairly certain evidence that the word is not.. Hebrew 'l>lQ~:J'~ • Oomp._the. It is used thus espeoially 6 iu the sense of ooming before the ark in prayer. 2 for this dialect of liebrew has adopted in the place of other endings this termination.Ib and 5 ""rlol~~ ~_cr:: • sUra XX.t in the Bible. 3..lammad in writing the Qurfm seems to point to the use among the Jews of a. 4. RabbmicaJ. .. must be held to prove the' Jewish origin of the conceptions expressed.nguage other than Arabic.") .erate. so words I which from their derivation are shown to be not Arabic but" Rebrew. 1 Ark. or better still Rabbinic.words..t=S also in the meaning of U ark of the covenant n (D'Herbelot Bibliothequ.4 the signification being here purely Hebrew.3 Our word appears in two different passages with two different meanings: first. where the mother of Moses is told to pnt her.. but from this it arose that the ark of the covenant 5 was also called by this name. '. of Arabic but of Rabbinical Hebrew origin.. The passage already quoted about the foreign language spoken by those who were accused of helping Mu1. To.n~'~/j . ~2. _passed. . t. Mlshna Bemohoth V. n~ Ex. have.

:l1 ~ J * Jw~' ~ =1. I. &iwl d"":l &lp *S1)i~\#. 58. rightful ruler that through him the ark of the covenant I should return.... . J \"dol !p J ).. and the termination ~J being foreign to Arabio is in that Ia.. Paradise. 4 for among the Jewish prophets after the patriarchs he counts Mosee alone as a lawgiver. If one saya: Instruct me about the allusions to the Apostle of God in the Tomh.1 dl. bat nClt the Gospel.~l J'>\ u. was not able to distinguish so exactly. LXII. 'fhe masculine gender here given to this word.ter Arabians maintained just the opposite.ptures (Jews and Christians) alike read. <..\jl ~l ~ "'1. were it not that perhaps 1 t the old word l'h~ was in mkd.~Ul Compo Bl1ra& III. ani! although M~ammad. particularly those wbicb.r\l u> &Ill J. 2 Taurat. 249. therefore it includes the Psalms. ..r.li SI). ~ . yet it is obvious that he comprehended the Pentateuch alone uuder this name. .."'ol II It is acknowledged that by the word Tora. 'A. 6. the posseaaora of the scri. 5.I. would appear strange..li Sl. 4 La.. 86. Prod.. having only oral. as indicated by the fact that 4 rafel'S to it. S This word like the Greek equivalent in the New Testament is used only for the Jewish revelation.. one understands by that expression all revealed scriptures. since they are all oalled TorAh. VII. - -.. 43. 5. Ahmad ben. 2.y. conviction which we ha..) saya: "'1.h are meant revealed writings. V..1 .'" However this does not alter the.bdo.6 The word '''Adn'' is not sUm II. 70. p.. • . and further: . 5 Jannatu 'Adn.l u> Jo. LXI..::lJI All u~.32 JUDAIS)[ AIID ISLhI... For the most part the Law is mentioned in connection with the Gospel. • Ill:.::lJl v-AS U 0 VOf£D~. 157.Um (MuMo..nguage no sara indication of gender. tradition.. 112. n~il'l \# .'lH. the prophecy of Isaiah and other prophecies.1 y"L.". the Law.. IX.ve already expressed.

Garden of Eden...# • Jdn\lammad lIlI8S it thus in BUras IX.GABDliiN ali' lIDEN. XVI. 0iI' 85. but rather Eden 2 is there the proper name of a region which was inhabited by our first parents in their innocence. 88. 3S. XIIL 28..)~. V. and the part in which they actually lived was a garden of trees. still this expression.~~. means permanence. ~.. X.. vi. XXXVIII. XL. LXVIII.'~ ~ lii '8 Tapa E'Q"O~. which oocurs often in the Bible. •. 12. but carried over its supposed etymology as welL The more distinctively Christian name 5 occurs seldom in the Qurlm. 50. 5ll. It is only natural that this earthly region of the golden age should by degrees have come to be regarded as Paradise. as well B8 (:. 84. XXVI. XVIII.. 78. viz.. . 50. aud • h f iIJ~ 111_ m at or places he translates it ~\ ""u. 42.. . 78.. - • '..~. XIX. 9. 4 though the Jews still held to Eden as a locality also. XXXVII. is never to be explained out and out as Paradise.. 62. LXX. XXII. .. XX. !I.. f"""! c. ss. but this is the meaning which suits the word in this connection) In Hebrew this is the radical meaning. _.""JAI' ~l~I . Elpherar lelllllll to decide for the that . LXI._. and eveu without the artiole. in that the word itself 8 no longer stands for the name of a place but is applied to a state of bliss.. ~11C. 110. though it also is not quite 1 The Arabia commentators give widely dift'erent meanings to the WoM:t but they kuow nothing of that giveu by UI jUlt beoaule it in foreign to the Arabie Iaugoage. eo 11P. 7. It is clear from the translation "gardena of pleasure" that the Jews of that time not merely transferred the name Eden iuto Arabic. Sometimes also he uses it in the siugular LVI. ie-iiI 3 i. as the pious will remain there for ever. XXXI. XXXV. 83 known in the Arabic language in the sense of pleasure or happiness. 70. 8.

Now.tammad got this word from the Christians.annam. which i.z. in SyriaeJ as Gibauo. a The letter milD. like its opposite Paradise...}4 (:l1. Hell.•.. We lay no stress on the fact that the aspirate he.)1 J.34 JUDAISll ./ewva. UVvo8o~.s!lllAl ce :Mui4bid says it means a garden in GreekJ and Zajti. Compare S6ra. reappears in the Arabic.: . pronounced. The vale of Hinnom was nothing more than II spct dedicated to idol worship. though of II locality far less important than that whioh gave its name to Paradise.. 11. but. which stands at the end of the Arabic (Jahannam). i . appe3irs to have been always sounded in speeoh.g. strange to later Judaism.1. even setting aside the argument that. as is shown by the story of the four who went alive to Paradise.::-.. is of Jewish origin.~ JIi ¥. the form of the word itself speaks for its derivation from Judaism. it might be asserted that MuJ. XVIII." ~ays it has passed • • E. and from it is derived the New Testament name Gehe~:na.. not being found in the Syriac word. This holds good of other Greek words which have.AND ISW.l1 JIi.J'" fi. 107. According to its primary meaning and Biblical usage it too is the name of a place. XXIII.• Sunhadus and especially ...j into Arabic. passed into Syriac. as the name for Paradise is Jewish the probabilities are in favour of II Jewish origin for the word for hell also.J\ J'" . ~ c1J"'A .. Chagiga foL 14. 1 Ja. 2 This word also. and it is remarkable that the bllIT9L01 jdolatrrJll~tq the use of its name to designate hell That this is the name for it iu the Talmud needs no proof.. proves the derivation from the ordinary 1 0!"111 Paradise. &"". Among many wrong explanations Elpberar gives the follOWing oorreot oa. whioh is not expressed in the Greek. because this aspirate though not always indicated by grammarians in writing.

196. 7o. properly speaking. . 201. IX.. a Pharisee. in the 1 Suras II. 95. etc.. Among those who were thus separated there grew up a difference from others not only in social customs. This word is fonnd in several places in the Quran in the sense of teacher. each of whom possessed some special knowledge."o~.1. IV. a belief in oral tradition. one who withdraws himself out of motives of piety.. but especially in that they adopted a. 99. properly speaking. 58.I1/j. 1 . They had also some very strict principles for the guidance of their lives.• The word psrush means. different doctrinal view. But the matter was no longer merely one of great carefulness in life and conduct. 48. Hence these learned men.. Now the real Hebrew word 3 "habher. (Gehinnom). one separated.Mr 2.5 The individual members of this community however were called l. and in thia way again a community was formed in contra-distinction to which the remaining people of the country were called the laity. 35 Hebrew word. lli~"Q S "f!My Cll.o~ from 7o." companion.~i • "::lr.abMrim."'." and thus. · . which naturally could not be imparted in equal measure to all members of this sect. has acquired in the Mishna a meaning similar to that of "parnsh. The word is found in many plaMS in the Quran. viz." 4 only that the latter was the name of a sect.e.AJ!:IWI AND RABHEB. i. • C'"l::lq . 120.t tl'"l:<q V. it became one of special learning and knowledge. and the former the name of a party within a sect. 68. SI.34. III. 10. though the meaning' teacher' is not. as distinguished from one who grasps without semple all the pleasures of this life. became greatly reverenced. U5.6" fellows.. a Sadducee.

LXVIII... Snch a diligent enquiry is mentioned in sev. if used with tact and knowledge of the limits of the profitable in such stUdy) I sUra IX..mmad's reproof in the two passages last alluded to. but the clergy.r development of this commuuity is. like qisslsun 3 the word which accompanies it in Sura V.. <iiI...w.. word itself. XXXIV.yo.. whereas qissls stands for the presbyter. Darasa 4=to reach the deep meaning of the Scripture by exact and careful research. but which seeks out remote allusions-thiq (though it may bring muoh of importance and value to light. and qissisun from ·the Syriac qasIDsh6ya.. but. .. 5 But this kind of interpretation. J (:1~ •. 16B..:'.eral passages. the elder. '13. ''.. 37. is to be derived from the Syriac.2 to fear (thus god-fearing) . (:14A.\ ~ 8."". .. JJ • c.... ... who are called daira. 34.~\ U". 85. thus ruhMn is derived from the Syriso word rabhOye. . which is not content to accept the obvious and generally accepted meaning of a passage. This word ruhb6.:...n is probably not derived from rahiba. lU:!~ • BUras Ill. 31. ruhh4n... which language maintained its preeminence among the Christians in those regions.n does not really mean the ordinary monks. He reproaches the Christians too in both places 1 on account of the esteem in which they held the ruhMn. .36 JIlDAISH AND ISlll!.. So then rnhbO. VII.. 31Tange it over aDd .. writing means) to read it and ovel' again.. who is called qashish6 in Syriao.1'" 5]Ololi. The exoessive veneration paid to these "fellows" by the Jews gives rise to Mul. the cause of the :pew meaning of the word. 43. yet the peculia.. On the last passage Elpherar . The tJ""JeJ of a.

DABAIlA.

37

is very apt to degenerate and to become a mere la.ying of stress on the unimportant, a searching for meanings where there are none, and for allnsions which are pll.rely accidental. And so the word acquired a seoondary meaning, viz., to trifle, to invent a meaning and foroe it into a passage. Compare the standing expression 1 current among many who seek 2 the simple primary meaning. The word in this usage oocurs in the Quran, partioularly in the mouth of Mul;tammad's opponents; though until now this fact has not been recognised. The obviously misunderstood passage in Sara. VI. 105 S is thus explained, also that in VI. 157.4 The former may be thus translated: "And when we variously explain our signs, they may say if they like: Thy explanations are far fetched, we will expound it to people of uuderstaudiug"; and the la.tter as follows: "Lest ye should say: the Scriptures were only sent down unto two peoples before us, but we turn away from their system of forced explanation" ; i.e., they have left the Scriptnres to us so overlaid and distorted that we cannot follow them. It is remarkable that this word, whioh is no' a usual one in the Qllran, appears in this sense only in the sixth Sura where it occurs twioe ; and this is evidenoe that just at the time of the composition of this Sura the word in its secondary meaning was used by some persons as a reproaoh to MIll;ta.mmad. This observation fll1'thermore might well serve to indicate the unity of this Sura. RabMni 5 teacher. This Ra.bbinioal word is probably
1

tU1'!., nW;1';1'"
,;.;~

, I:l'~~llilil
3

Ifj.J;

38

JUDAlS!>l AND ISLAu.

forme.d by the a<ldition of the suffix fLU I (like nul to the word" rab," thus, our lord or teacher. For though the termination "au" is common in later Hebrew,2 yet the weaker word "rabbi" shows that people did not hesitate to append a suffix to the word rab, and then to treat the whole as a new word. However that may he, rabMn is a word of itself now, and is only conferred as a title on the most distinguished teachers. The Rabbinical rule runs thus 3 "Greater than rabbi is rabMn." It appears as a title of honour in Suras III. 73, V. 48, 68. RalJMni is evidently a word of narrower meaning than the word al).bar explained above; and this explains why rabMni is put be£ol'e a1).bar in the two passages last mentioned, where they both appear, and also the striking omission of our word in the other two places where ~bar occurs, and where Mu:b.ammad finds fault with the divine reverence paid to teachers, describing them with the more general word. The esse is the same with qissls and ruhMn. Both classes are mentioned with praise in Sura V. 85, and with blame in Sura IX. 31, 34, the latter class however only in connection with, ~Mr, iu that rnhMn (like a~Mr) is of wider meaning: and further, on accOllllt of the combination in on~ passage of two different classes among the Jews and Christians, viz., the :4tMr imd the ruhMn, (OJ. other similar combinations) no special differentiation was to be attempted. Sabt 4 day of rest, Saturday. This name continued to be applied to Saturday throughout the East by Christians as well as Muslims, though it had ceased to he llo day of
1

Suffix

• Suffix

1'T" 7'T"
':;I':)!,;l

like ~~

Syri.... 000, Arabic r.l\

.-

• 1~':)
I ..: : .

';''1 nttP

SAIlT, AND SAKlIIAT.

89

rest. I In one plaoe 2 M~ammad seems rather to protest against its being kept holy. The well-known Ben Ezra. remarks on this in his oommentary On Exodns:xvi. 1,3 where he says: "In Arabio five days are named aooording to number, first day, second day, eto. But the sixth day is called the day of assembly,4 for it is the holy day of the week; the Sabbath however is called by the Arabs Babt, because the Shin 5 and the Sameoh, (i.e., the .A.ra.bic sin. whioh is pronounoed like the Hebrew Samech) interchange in their writings. They have taken the word from Israel." Bakfnat 6 the Presenoe of God. In the development of Judaism in order to gua.rd against forming too hnman an idea of the Godhead, it was customary to attribute the speaking of God, when it is mentioned in the Soripture, to a personified word of Godl as it yvere embodying that emanation from the Deity whioh came in Christianity to 80 veritable Incarnation. In like manner also when in the Scriptures the remaining stationary, or the resting of God is mentioned, something sensible proceeding from Him is to be thought of. This is especially so in the case of God's dwelling in the Temple; 8 and this (emanation of the
1

SUras II. 61, VII. 16s.

• SUra. XVI. 125.

s 0;" .,~lt~l) ~~ ,,~ O'~~ M~!;Il:! ~~Jf '~1~ lit!.'?~ :ll:O~~ ~1prr oi'" oJ;l'f N'1n ,~ 01",:1Ir:t org ;11 :lltlU;H 'rI!~ c,?;'J;1=!~ o,~,?"t;ll,:l~I¥l)' l'~t! ,~ 1'1:10 iniH !IN17 ~rd I:li>?

~~'? 'l:l1!p.l;l. M~1

• 111

Shin.

6~ MNII?
1 ~;:r ~'?'P

AOrtoe;

TOU

Beou.

s

l:l1i n;t

'J;1~;llF' Ex. XXV. 8, Of. Dent. xxxm. 12, 16.

40

JUDAISJ( ANI> ISLA»:.

Godhead' to adopt the speech of the Gnostics, was called on this account the Shekinah, the resting. From this derivation Shekinah came to be the word for that side of Divine Providence which, as it were, dwells among men and exerts an unseen influence among them. In the original meaning, viz. that of the Presence in the Temple over the Ark of the Covenant between the Cherubim,l the word is found in Sura II. 249. In the sense of active interposition and visible effectual rendering of aid it occurs in Sara IX. 26, 40 ; 2 in the sense of supplying peace of mind and at the ssme time giving spiritual aid it is found in Sura XLVIII. 4, 18, 26.3 It is remarkable that the word appears in three Suras only, (but several times in the two last mentioned,) and with a somewhat different meaning in each j and it seems here again, as we remarked above ou the word da'1'aBa, as though outside influence had been at work, i.e., that the use of this word by other people seems to have influenced Multammad at the time of the composition of these Suras. Tagk'll.t 4 error. Though this mild word for idolatry is

I Arabia eommel1ta.torB do not Beem willing to recognise this melm. ing. Elpherar 00 SUr& IX. 26 the word m..". L:."l4Y\, /:l"'3'I, se""rity aod rest; and on sUra XLVIII. " he says distinctly;

""'y.

i.M i),..

ul ~, :It .t:,,;w, ..,eo <:1'J11 ul ~ JS ""~ "" JIi

ce Ben '.AbbAs says this word SakiDa.t in the Qur6.n always means rest except in the second SUra." Bot even if ~\.J, does mean inward peace
of lIlind, still the meaning of ontward security need Dot be excluded. 3 Elpherar uses the expression )U~, j ~ltY, to explain verse 4, and In the .ame way D'Herbelot (Brolio-

\.0,1\, &.;,l\o,Y\ to explain verse 18.
mind.

'bequo Orieot&le nod.. Thaloob, poge 862) gives in the n&me of the oommenta'ora the explautioo }oW, ~ ;.e.. tTanqoillity of the

3 (:jUJlI as E1pherar ezplains it• • (:jUt m1~ • Ibn Ssid aeoordin« to Elpherar e>:plaina this wcml .. for it appears in the Quran 2 in this sense. This is a very important word. ." Elpherar gives five different explanations to this verse.: &"1. 259. 19. a Furqo. I still the Jews in Arabia seem to have used it to denote the worship of falso gods. "follow. and the passage seems to me truly olassioal for the primary meaning of the word. IV..sl:>'1ff r. 181 where this name is given to the month Ramadhan as the month of redemption and deliverance from sin.4 deliverance. In the primary meaning it occurs in the 81. 49. 29. XXXIX. 68." SUra XXI. XVI.r". eaoh as unsuitable as Wahl's translation... This meaning appears also in Sura VIU. MuJ}ammad entirely diverging from Jewish ideas.se thi• . • Silraa II. $nd to have been only renewed and put into a clearer and I It ill to be ob1larved however that the Tuguma frequently . and it is one which in my opinion has till now been quite mtsunderstood. '''''''' .h Sura: "0 trne believers I if ye j'ear God.J. 8 He deolared his oreed to have been revealed throngh God's Apostles from the earliest times.".. 42.. . eto... 5 redemption. . 7 and in Sura II.4l not found in the Rabbinical Writings. intended to establish his religion as that of the world in general. & (:lUJ'l1 Sl'lra VUI.JJ ~ 7 . I .P J""'ll " FnrqAn i.. help against the enemy. 257. 88. further he condemned the earlier times altogether calling them times of ignoranoe. hnt not for idolatry.ord in the plur&1 H~'P1~ for the idola themaelv. where the day oj' the Victory oj' Badr is called the day of deliveranoe.. -". He will grant you a deliveranoe S and will expiate your sins. (iii.

..6 repetition. traced back to its source.~. 7. 4 refuge. and is explained by the Arabio Commentators in a variety of ways. ~ .:l 1 ~rom Oompa. XXI. and seems to me to mean a refnge-".. J l ill?1 ~ (.mat. and the divine revelation granted to himself and his predeoessors appeared to him in the light of deliveranoe from that sinful life which could only lead to puuishment. BUras II. c. forces the most diverse meanings into it.~~~ ..• 1:1. title end verse I. MlUlan'. 2.they refuse refuge. they give no shelter to those Bsking for help..::) S • BUras III. tradition. and there is no need to guess at a different meaning for each.. and thence it acquired the meaning of sapport. This word bears a very foreign impress.. 50. mainly because it has been considered BS an Arabio word and has not been. XXV. ... moreoonvinoing form by himself. It appears in Sura CVII. n~tpl. J~\ .2 and in others to the Mosaic revelation. 7 grew up by the side of that contained in Holy Writ. Golins following them. 49• . Later on the word 8eems to have been regarded as derived from ' ana 5 (certainly not from ma'ana to which Golins refers it). the whole law 1 :. 1 mercy.e. Henoe the oondition of anyone outside his belief must have seemed to him a sinful one. In this way all the passages fit in under the primary signification of the word." i. AB by degrees other teaching viz. There has been much perplexity about this word.G Dot frol11 • d.. as in many he calls it raq. In some passages he applies the term to the Qurim.1""". alms. 8 . Mo/un.·JUDAlSH AND ISW. aud therefQre he calls revelation itself in many places Furqan..e unde.

" and then applied it to the repetition of the written teaohing. In like manner the word tinnah 4 was used almost exclusively of ohoral music.7 Still it seems to have been accepted by the Roman Jews." 3 In the Chaldaio Gemara the latter word means to speak after. however.lo/ tol1J1 n1iJ:l and n~ ?7. Mul]. 6 The error of this explanation is shown both in the use of the word and in its infleotion. 24.ammad putting his book in the plaoe of the whole Jewish teaohing calls it not only Quran (miqra) but also masani. Now.uah in its true Hebrew meaning" to repeat. To oooupy oneself with the former was oalled " to read j" 2 to ooonpy oneself with the latter was oalled "to say. that is the Bible. and the teaching by word of mouth or tradition•. to repeat the teaoher's words after him. 87. • BUras XV. 43 WlIS divided into two parts. Thl1S teaching by word of mouth WlI8 called mishnah.lt:. XXXIX. 9 • I :lJ.S and so also the collection of oral teaching-the whole tradition j and afterwards when this was all written down the book received the same name. 87 dift'er much in their explanation of this word. bat one a.mong them gives what seems to us .l 8 • M'iifol n~tP~ 8eVTlpo)O"t~. an etymological error crept in and derived this word from sM.n commentators on Sura XV. not n~tpt.l 1 ~tp~ in eonstruct. I the written teaohing. 8 The same thing happened in the oase of the Arabian Jews. • n¥:1 • n. in whioh the ohoir repeated verses after the precentor. and thus it came about that in Justinian's Novels the Mishna is called seollnda editio. and so we get our word masani.IlABANf.tpl.=jl!p nriiJ:l • n~~ connected with the poetic M!n and the Syriae tano. The Arabia.

ys give the unexplained passngeu in fllll in their commentaries. =.8 fifteen Sums ma.. and from . malaknt. ~ ~- . seems to me to mean either that this SUra wa.. B. afterward. the idea of the Divine goidance.lse derivation from mala. shew what very important religious oonoeptions passed from Judaism into Islam. . or Rabbinioal Hebrew... . or . viz.in Sura. 75. 85. J gdgmen.ui.t. Elpherar omits the word . I .. XXIII.JUDAISli . : 6J$ 1:l1fl' <.) SUr& XXXIX. VII.~• ~: • _. Malakut.\1 JU..J~ in Professor Freitag's work.U . 184. e- and ~ II . This word is used only of God's rule. • ~t.~e been altogatber missing from El-pherar'a ted. d\1. much ohanged.:l~' . o God's guiding Presence..:\1': (':T~?~) S Compare the worda r. rollowing it).- (J"" l"l'I::l?~ • C. whioh are clearly derived from the later.namely.u" The word Ut. sakinat. . . 5 These fourteen words.n is called Ml188. 87... Fakiba e~••~.tion. Elpborar b. for the Arabic writers alwa.l".. I government..k or malak 4 (a word which comes from quite a diJ'ferent root.!.. . the seventh part.- ElchoIar.a T6J/I ovpa/l6J/I. . 3. Revelation.l\l..Bvontb (tbo ordor of tboS6ra. 90.. factorily aacounted for by the supposition that be telled On an earlier explana.llP n-'::l7tl i] {1auiAe. roally 'bo . "Tavua Bays the Whole Qura.e e- OCt_ bears the meaning oc. and whioh in Arabic has only the meaning of a messenger of God) it oame to be used for the realm of spirits.. thoo.:..um ISLAll:.rter d••th. or el.. XXXVI. and ·thus it seems that this W01-d muat ha. in whioh oonnexion it invariably appears also in Rabbinioal writings.j~ in the latter passage. and we may safoIy a••ort that Sura II is of later date tb.At the same time also a reference is made to the other passage cited by US.6 tbo truo moaning. Sura VI. 24. 3 From this narrow use of the word.. XV. wa. sa. a fact not satis. 2 It oconrs in several passages in the Quran. fa.ke up about one-seventb of the QurAn.

lose in importance and value. shoot of a great tree. Furthermore. masani. For the better arrangement of these views we must divide them into three groups: . if the WOI. we must now pass on from this method of judging and adopt a new test. 45 of revelation. 1831. We mnst prove first in detail that the idea in question springs from a Jewish root. Views borrowed from Judaism. furqan. Moral and legal rules. besides others which will be brcught forward as peculiar to Judaism. in order on. While in the foregoing seotion we were content to consider it certain that a conoeption was derived from Judaism. and O.VIEWS BORROWED FllOIl JUDAISM.a expressing that oonception conld be shown to be of Jewish origin. that apart from Judaism the conoeption would. Matters of Creed or Doctrinal views. Etas Heft. Views of Life. B. of judgment after death. To this argument may be added the opposition. whioh this foreiga graft met with from both Arabs and Christians. the one hand that we may not drift away into an endless undertaking and attempt to expound the whole Qnran. to in the Qumn itself. that it is in £ao~ ouly an off. jannatu 'adn and jahannam. Theol. DoctrinaZ VieW8. alluded. A. then to attain to greater oertainty we must further shew that the idea is in harmony with the spirit of Judaism. Second Part. We must here set a distinct limit for ourselves. and on the other that we may not go olf into another subject altogether and try to set forth the theology of the Quran J an undertaking which was begun with considerable eucceSB in the Tiibingen ZeitBchrift fUr Evang.d. certain general pointB of belief are so common to all mankind that the existence of any one of them in one religion must not be considered as .

. 9.f God. To decide whether these points as adopted in the Quran have come from the Jews or from the Christians. Of this kind is that of the idea of the unity of God. we must direct our special attention to a comparison between the forms in which the beliefs are held in both those religions.. LVII. this view was to be found in Judaism alone. 4.. • Sit.t the time of the rise of the latter.ammad. This is to answer the objection. inllSmnch as he is aware of nothing but the general fact 1 OhriatWlity .ammad.. that God.s Though this passage is nothing but a flight of poetic fancy. &I. the mountains and the green herbs in fonr days. but it is held in so many di:£l'erent ways that we shall be obliged to consider it in our argument. This may be considered as proved. for even the enumeration of them is foreigu to our purpose.Iso te. must have borrowed it from that religion. S... created heaven and earth and all that therein is in six days. L. without any unnecesssry display of learning on the point. still it shews how little Mu~mmad knew of the Bible. and this Mu4ammad gives in accordance with the Bible. • Sura XLI. 2 althongh in another place he diverges somewhat and says that the earth was created in two days.46 JUDAISM AND ISL1H. the Umty . mher views again are so well-known and so fully worked out that we need not discuss them in detail.he. but shall find a mere mention of them sufficient. Every religion which conceiveB God as an active working providence must have some distinct teaching on the creation. X.. 111.her. I and therefore Mul). XI. 8-11. viz. and the heavens with all their divisions in two days more. and the form in which they are presented to us by Mul). that in the following discussion so little is to be fonnd about the cardinal doglDJlB. Oardinal points of faith have also passed from Judaism into Ohristianity. the fundamental doctrine of Israel and Islam. A. . proving a borrowing from anot. The idea of future reward and punishment is common to all religions..

Midra.. " 8 came to Mu1}. XLI."« Suras n. LXV. hut does not reoognise its sanotity. notion due to the different names applied to heaven. whioh veils the glory of 6 God...87. from the Latin velum.mmad probably from the Jews.. In Chagiga 4 we find the assertion that there are seven heavens. We have already remarked that he oalls the seventh day Babt. J. vil6n.o.d\J • Ohagiga 9. ij:. XXIII. 3.. .THE SEVEN HEAVENS.. 46. 47 that the creation took plaoe in six days.ammad speus ofteu of the seven heavens. &. 87. and then tlte names are given.... 5 This name in which heaven is oompared to a ourtain. viz.jJ J)I I t:l~I. . 7 and in one passage he 1 S6m L. IJA • AllU'8OOi." The same thiug is to be found in Elpherar's oommentary but not so clearly expressed. for after mentioning the creation as having talren place in six days.lu'd-d!n oomments as follows :2 "This was revealed as lin answer to the Jews who said that God had rested thoroughly on the sabbath and therefore weariness left Him. "-'l:l' !:l'i?QIf' or ~'in li"l 1IJ l'l"il'1 ~~ . the end ef P. e. is 80 very important one in the Talmud.lm. It remains here to be added that Mu4ammad appears to allude to and rej eot the Jewish belief that God rested on the seventll day. All these names ooour in the Soripture exoept the first.h on the PlII.. 18. which is indioated by the Biblioal expression" heaven of heavens.. gOlf":"'.as.. Mu1). oil ni::l?~ li~9 li31~ .. Of.XVII.lm xl. also the notion that they were SeVen in number.I!.-:II olA.l' .t.XVII. and that he has not any knowledge of each day's separate work. H.. he adds" and no weariness affected Us." On this Jal8. 1 He evidently thought that a neoessity for rest aftel' hard labour was implied.. 8.~tV . l i . LXXI. The idea of several heavens..'1 7 .sl I"jl e'J"-'\ tlIlI (:ll ~<} ~ oIJf"l"p I.

117. 15. theD. .lIP :~ . • M 10. .~~ ~~ 'rl:l' ~:!l H'ln m"~ ~J:I "'41 ct. 9.I"'" XXlIC..~ • 86n. into IslBnl.\oJ..A . LXXVIII.\!J I:)\( J . .. afterwards :became orystallised. $ Bashi on Gen... "l"'l. .. 2 This last expression occurs also in the Talmnd.- 8Ura XXUl. <1 This idea.?"' .\. 86n. I..p '<+.. final aooonnt teaches that it is God's will that His revealed laws shall be obeyed.e. Th1lB the JelVll I .. mere -embodiments of the spiritll&l idea of a stste. calls the heavens the seVllD strongholds 1 and in another the seven paths...1'1. also is borrowed from the Jews.. 88. ~.<. the doctrine of .lsoes were more definitely indicated. . ~I VoJ"'l LXXXV. " This is somewhat more olearly expressed by Elpherar who says: "And this water was in the middle of the air. and both conceptions have passed.. 12. and snfl'ered the fate at every symbol.p 1.~ . "':. xxvrr..n wioh "lb~~:!l I .~ m"'l~ ~~J:I '. His throne W88 upon the waters. as we have already shown.l}l ~ "p.. XXIIC. XI. i. t. ...6. althongh at first mere symbols. " 6 A second pivot of every revealed religion is the belief in a judgment after death. however. • I ~ . This.:.: ~'i11"l .. These localities. they were taken for the thing symbolised. for while the fact of the oreation sets forth the omnipotenoe of the Creator.48 JUDAI~lI AND IBLAH. .. S.!.. in Judaism developed into a looal Paradise and HeU. who say: 5 "The throne of glory then stood in the air. oa.. I"lt'" U"..'11 .. 26. and the . and hovered over the waters by the command of God.. 8 Dnring the creation.

xix..:!1) rescued Absalom from the seven habitations of hell.TJ!l V':)~l n'T:"i." after which the above mentioned na. 6. :.) 8 C'~tl'il~ j'lilt:l j'tll~'il (l Ml'llrP . g. 10. "paradise whose breadth equalleth the heavens and the earth: 3 Generally speaking. 49 have a. ."l\' r.! C·~".r .'J:! YJ\.. out of the seven different names mentioned in the Talmud. Later on these names ca.'.:tP O'~r:r'~ '''l!l''!lt n~:rt.. 1. "2 and in the Qlllil.--:.. subterranean realm.ted cry of "my son" ('. • n1!1'?~1 1~J:! tQ'~' l~NtV "~::l~ mlli .~~ "Ql:I C7 ill s Taauith 10. &nd the dread of a terrible condemnation appeals far more powerfully than the hope of eternal happiness to a nature which pure religious feeling does not impel to piety of life.~~ 1~ 1~ o'q.~.r is stronger than hope. Pesachim 94.mea are cited with a few variations. which is clearly adopted from the Roman ideas at the time of their ascendanoy) are Biblical. fea.' It is also said that David by a sevenfold reitera..I "The world is the sixtieth part of the garden. J n'f:1r.tI?~ l~"'~l'7iNrp See Erubin 19. (Sot.. .TIllII SllVEN HlILLS.me to be construed as seven hells..ve seven portals. 8 M$mmad is not 1 n. viz.v~ O'tP~~ . 3 Sura III... "there are seven abodes of the wicked in hell.'1.n we find a similar expression.. and these' have been developed.. in the Midrash on the Psalms at the end of the eleventh Psalm where 6 it is said. 127.. This is probably the reason for describing bell in a more detailed and particular manner than Paradise. the garden is the sixtieth part of Eden.. _I..."::. 7 furthermore hell is said to ha.. i I .i Zohar II. 4 These names with one exception 5 (Erets tahtith. Seven hells are pictured as forming dill'erent grades of punishment. 1·5. . saying . 150· 1 2 Sam...~~ n~':.~ C':Vrh~ ni.."..

-.'1 ~ n'i.l g~ Bura. ItJ Sukkah 82. 60.~t\~~ i'"'!lQ '1:jl "~l:!.J~9~ H"TJ iT.50 JUDAISM: AND rSUl(.\' i'. 29. 43. 1.~ 'l. .. for we read in one passage that 1 "it (hell] hath seven gates.:~ ~ . XLIV. comes from Isaiah.tammad says similarly: 6 "On that day We will say unto hell.~ r. I ~.~~ !'It.tammad knows a tree of hell called Al Zaqqtim 3 which serves siuners for food.llt' l'1~ '7 lr:I ci'~ ci' "~'1 "7.o.. The step from such a definite idea of hell to the notion of a personality connected with it is an easy one.. -. lo/V n~j. Give me food to satisfy me.. behind hand.F!!) "iloltp n. unto every gate a distinct company of them shall be assigned.l 'J':1~ C'~TJ'~ .. and their names were no longer general terms for reward and . but Mo}.~. ~= ~(j ~ . XXXVII. Othioth norabbi Akiba.l1 t:r~. smoke issues from be~ween them and this is the entrance to hell". "if C'~t"I'~ . v.Q !'lilt'! "Ij~1 j1h '7~7 Q'~ n1~. In one Rabbinical book 5 we find the following: "That the prince of hell says daily. a tree stands at the entrance to hell: 2 "Two date palms grow in the valley of Ben Hinnom. 14. and we find sllch an individual mentioned by the Rabbis as the" prince of Gehinnom . l::l~ ...~ r... C1j'~'¥'7.. about which he has much to relate.:J l:? '~.~t. " 4 he is caUed however in the Quran simply Jahannam. B.:'9~ :J.." Mu}.a.~ J?:V1 l'1~ilol~~ l'1~ictp • Bura L. a third destination had to be provided for those whose conduct had not been such as to • Sura XV. 44.qif~ l~~~ . ~fo~ Ji Jfi.punishmeut.'i. •c • C~TJ'~ .." According to the Jews.'. 'Art thou full?' and it shall say' Are there more' ? " When the conceptions of Paradise and hell became so definite..

tl'l?W1 .'f' ' . Orientala nnd01' A'rtf... R..radi. J . 44....I..... when he gives our ez:plauB. other teaohers however hold that they are so close together that people oan see from one into the other.... Conceraing this itltermediate place S'a..)3 ..~t..nd their plaoe in Paradise.~ ~'~~!1? '1~ Mi'lfi 1r.. "8 The idea just touohed upon in this passage is most poetioally worked out in Sura VII.l ~l:l ':.tioD of vena 4fi.:>. of whioh it is said in the i\Hdrash on Eoolesiastes..ll'l.JI ~I 1.l'.he lost as pu..e6 (D1Berbelot Bibliot.rol' .. &:..088 of bell....)4"""" .""..Ai..heqao.3\ Ul ' .ol~ 1. Thus while the righteous I fou. f"6ll.~I . I • • •0.hose wbo Itaad between.inne..vil deedo .. and the sinners had their portion in hell. 14: 2" How much room is there be~ween them? Rabbi Joohanan says a wan.. 1 tl'it''. vii.nd .. pagaU8).}" J J .zo ~ <Slll .... to t.~w " These IXa th.~ .Y8 : ...e good . f Elpherar comments Oil this pa8sage B~ followlI : &:. .'$ right.. those who belonged to neither olass were placed in . J 0111. fOG! "".51 entitle them to the former nor oondemn them to' the latter plaoe...o who.di oleverly remarks tha.""r-' ri' .1'1 'J...t it !Idem! to the blaBBed as hell. while ~he former save them from hellt therefore they remain standing here until Gcd has declared Hia pleasure ooncerning them. l:l'~'b. Aoha says a span."s J *.. in a long obain of traditions.. J .' (.4 "And between the blessed and 'the damned there shall be a veil . JUlI "'" f"I""'..}\ .tand on the road."U . if they Lurn to the former.'~ "1':) n~~ it...r .:... they ary • Peace be unto yOI1 :' if to the latter U eta.ell..I' Jl>' liJ" rJ ~J.t"'l ""lll.. he aa.'1' np~ .p l"u" U r'.. spaoe be~ween Paradise and Hell.~I (.. Thence they can flee ali Once the inhabUant8 of paradise and tb. .11 halana.31 "'" f"6ll..eou." And Jatel". .-'ola ThOle whOle good and evil deeds are equal are the middJa men anet .u.}" l:J1S dJl. from paradiso..a.... ite M..~ HOi' '~'1 tllj'~.d that the latter prooJQde them.t:ll:\' 1'''~~ 1.1) IJU JUlI ~'J ".

• ~~1 ~.em by their marks. N7'!. 2 The. 24. XIIl.l "':l. IX.att. (partly because of the similarity of the figure. 26.O 'ilQ N:. Z4 i Mark. 88. 38 6 "Neither shall they enter iuto paradise until a camel pass through the eye of a needle. idea of the bliss of eternal life." With this we may compare the Quran: 4 " And what is this life in comparison with the life to come except a passing amusemeut ?" Theu for the difficulty of attaining Paradise we may compare the Rabbiuical picture 5 of the elephant entel'iug the needle's eye with the words in Sura VII. IV.~. :lil:.. 88.. as well as the metaphor which expresses the difficnltyof attaining it.O C7ill~ O~. z:. . and partly because of the frequent mention of the Ilame by the Evangelists) 7. xviii... • 14iahna Ahoih. And when they 1 shall turn their eyes towards the companions of hell fire.. Chap... " It is interesting to compare this view of a threefold dealing with the dead with the very similar Platonic idea. ~ ~1T d q~H. and shall call nnto the inhabitants of Paradise saying. m\. and men shall stand on AI-ArM who shall know tl. . There is a Rabbinical saying 3 to the e1fect that "one hour of rapture in that world is better than a whole life-time in this..in it~ • Phaedon.52 JUDAISM ANn ISLAM.au. . yet they shall not enter therein. 17.'~" ~ . ~~ ~ ~ i1f... the men between. not &I' Wahl and ethen e. '6.. is common to the Quran and Jndaism. and ill only I "They . n~" .! . '1# notl "t'lP "~~ C7illJ. 62. and shew them the folly of their 9l1rthly walk and hopes.zpla. they rejoice that they are not among them. though they earnestly desire it. sUra VII.. F '1 lI. in that t< camel" is the metaphor used iu the Gospels. ?(." This last metaphor seems to be borrowed from Ohristianity.:~ ~. 25 J Luke. Peace he npon yOll .

}~ • sUra LXXV. but :~ living. 28.~ l'1m g~(i ~ . 27 if. To the words: "he who aooerta ~ba.t tho bolief in TQchiya~h B:u.. and so in most Talmudic passages a future world is pictured 1 in which every thing earthly is stripped away and pi01~S souls enjoy the brightness of God's Presence. and in another 4 the condition of a perfectly peaceful soul is beautifnlly described.1 The view that by the expression Teobiyath H. Rather by the side of the pure conception of a continued life of the soul after the death of the body. 2 Echoes of this teaching are to be found in the Quran. world or the {spiritual} continued life of the (bodily) doad ia meant. it is ordered tltat those who fall in. In one passage 8 we read of a soul gazing on its Lord. j~ given olearly in the explanation whioh So Baraith& adds to the quoted uttera.1Wlj n~r:'lf. ~ 5 Take 9.49. Even in their death tbe rigbteous are called living j U aud in BUras II.mmethim the future . it beoomes unnecessary to fix a time at which the judgment shall take place." Given the pure conception of immortality viz. iu • C'J.word in the Qumn.5 there existed that of the quickening of the dead.. 53 deserving of mention here.TUB Il'UTUBIII LIPlil. 168. I II.~ dead. that the life of the sonl never ceases. the Rabbinical saying: C'~lj C':'''j? tl>'X'i!..l:jl ~"!l~ C'il'''!~ . because the faot that in the Talmud elephant is used seems to oonfirm the ordinary translation of the Greek word in the Gospels. But this entirely spiritual idea Was not thoroughly carried out.6 Thus becausE' the man cannot receive the requital 1 N:l11'1 T- c"'l:ll T I M~'~lj .. 1. • sUra LXXXIX. and the Arabie .mmethim is no part of the Jewish religion has no plU. g. and to remove the doubt as to whether they might not be better rendered" cable.nce of the MiBhna.. haIr war shall not be called ~.

87.1 H.at day itself. 2 In Jndaism there is a third period the advent of a Messiah.:r .. 67. the earthly period of the Messiah. ths time of resurrection must be the time for the judgment. ignorance shall take root. and the place of learned meetings serveS for immorality. Compare too the Book Ikbrim. which is generally connected with the other two.nd more especially in Isla. Naturally this time.Il increase.m • 8Umo XXI. IV. though different in themselves. 4.ture world.1 Isaiah XXXIV. which it is not easy to separate from the other two." he adds: 'c he denies the T. of his deeds while he is still in a state of death. . in Islam on the contrary everything is attributed to the last day." The descriptions in the Qnran refer more to the Ia.:i7' 1~. viz. H."o views of the resurrection and the judgment day.i':f 1'1~:r? iT. drunkenness and immorality sha..r. The ntteranOe most in accord with the Talmnd is that in Snnnaa 41 and 141. ID01'tt I I l'W l:l'i' Oompare. 81. 88.). I . In Judaism statements to this effect are to be fonnd only abont the third period. will be ushered in by terrible signs. where i' is also said of those days that the world will bow itself before God..'1"1 l~~ .M. and remind ns of many passages in Holy Scriptnre.t therefore he bu no a portion in it. n':.. .m. XXVI. the heavens will be rolled together 4 and the fa.Ml:ln n'nn and "future. world" are taken as identioal in meaning." Here the expression C'. Of. which is to bring forth two such important events as judgment and resurrection.\?~~ .t the time when David's san comes the' learned diminish.. are both closely connected in Judaism a. 8ura.JUDAISM AND ISLA. which says tha. XXXIX. ••g.1 These t.t learning shall vanish. t:l~~r.l~ CI'l1l'1~l?~ c'~~q ''!'~71. With this we mnst compare the passage in Sanhedrin 97 : S " A.

for it is said: 'Ye yourselves are my witnesses saith the Lord. XLI. 3 SUra XXII.2 and men will be drunken and yet not drunken. by virtue . • SUra XXI.ltl1 '~tq i:ll 0'1'1'11 O~ . "n ~ 'j~ 0J. With this we may compare Sura XXIV. 9 If. are mentioned as dwellers in the uttermost parts of the earth. 'i~i - -- . 7 in one passage we find these words: "The very members of 8 a man bear witness against him. cr. 96. Prince of Magog. 13 If.~ • S6m XVIII. 89. Compo Suras XXVI!. shew themselves as borrowings from Judaism.S Another very distinct sign of the advent of a Messiah.l all cities will be destroyed. 19. a man's limbs themselves shall give testimony sgainst him.. ~. which.GOG AN D MAGOG.li J)I!I 7 Chagiga 16. 68. . • (. is the battle of Gog. 60. 93.:. ~i. .S\S"~ ~ai. and this view has taken root in the Quran in the Rabbinical form. i.:. 12. Gog and Magog. i.lO The judgment 1 sUra XLIV.fq '. . 4 Gogand Magog are.. and hands. and :r:.~ "'"ff'~ 8 Isaiah. • S6m XVII.' Of. named by the Rabbis aB two princeB. 2. however.~i:.- ti also SUr&S XXXVI. 55 vanish in smoke.5 since two persons. I. and feet. xliii. f Ezekiel. Taanith 11.. 24: 9 " Their own tongues.. LXIX..u::i:r:. 6 In the details of the idea of future retribution many resemblances are to be found.of the unity of the Jewish view and its derivation from the Soriptures. Thus according to the Talmud. x1:xviii. ~:J. XXXIX.l)'. 66. shall one day be witness against them of their own doings. which ia remotely alluded to in the Bi:ble but which attained to an extraordinary development in the Talmud and especially in later writings.

l n I ~ " j¥" '!J<. xii.~&.r ~w. ~\ • "l!$~ . .. ...i:ln. and that any single merit which a sinner has gained will be rewarded in this world. expresses himself stilI more clearly about it: S "Verily both ye and the idols which ye worship besides God shall be cast lIS fuel into hell fire.'~tp '1:1) ~.. It is a view which was thought to explain the course of destiny upon earth. but it is worthy of acceptation.ammad. .~?~ '*t!j r...1~ C~1~~ 'O"t..?~' tl'i?''!~ T'T~" 'i'!... 12.T'lj"tj I'ilr# Mi:1i " lol'lJW M!¥l:!1 M~t:!.~t!j I'?'I:I? T'T~v t:i...>~ lol¥l?~ i!li) V~i1~ T'T~'t\fl c'ii''t? l"tl@j i!li)1 M1!:1~ cii'~~ tl'i?''r-t .:. for.!~w~ lol'::.' .:Ti>il - - ..r~~ Exodus." ~'? I'I:! c'~?tp n\!... it is written: 2 'Against all the gods· of Egypt I will execute· judgmen~. ti.l..."l. only reversed. and they too receive punishment with their worshippers.. which so ofteIt seems to rUIl contrary to the merits and demerits of men. 1/8.~ c'". to the end that nothing may impede the course of jndgment in the next.l'll "l~:!r.. The same view.illi <g.1'M T'T~111 '~W N¥rr c'." A view closely interwoven with Judaism and Islam is that retributive punishment is entirely confined to the state after death.!.. those beings honoured by it as gods shall also be punished. .(.l ~l.'" That this general sentence admits of a r6ference to the punishment of the last day is not expressly stated. The Rabblbical view is expressed in the following passage: 4 "Wherennto are the pious in this world to be 1 I'iii? . In Sukkah XXIX we find this statement: 1 "As often as a nation (on account of idolatry) receives its punishment. t • &Ira XXI. but alao those beings who have been hononred lIS gods by the nations.l "liMlf> tlii'~~ "It.. Mnl}.?i~il c'. day gains also a greater importance from the fact that not only individuals and nations appear at it.JUDAISM AND ISLAM.l .. holds good in the case of the l·ighteous. .

Proverbs.f sinners.:T~il n~ilQ Oij? ~'!. IX I EruhiD 26. partly beoause his own ideas were too unspiritual for him to be able to imagine the righteous as truly happy without earthly goods. Thus God sends affiiotions in this world to the righteous. I I ~I# O~ij'~ "1# n~il'lr. wi. but restriots himself to the latter part which refers to the prosperity (.I n".?~ lT1~? ':l:f? . it is cut off and the tree itself stands there quite unolean. also the Targums and their Commenta.l.~ i!Ji~ V~n~ n?tl~ Oiil~? n~j i!li~1 n~~li1 oij'l. II I Ahoth of Rabbi Nathan.RABBINIOAL VU!lW OJ TS:E JIl'IURE LIJE.' 1 Sinners are like a tree which stands in an altogether unclean place. as it is written: 'Though thy beginning was small.I'' JQl!11 w'(ol 'i~7 .:TPl':? l!1i...:T~~ o'I.tors on Deuteronomy. viii. 2. yet thy latter end should greatly increase.)'i'T 0''10/1 rn~7~ 'iollt ~ip~ '.fJ.~1# 1~'~? ~.1·tl r:TJ. 2.tammad expresses this same view in several passagee. and when a branch bends to an nnolean plaoe.. in order to plunge them into the lowest depth of hell.i".l "ij.l~7. it is cnt off and the tree itself stands there quite clean. '1. Sntta eDd of Chap.~~ '. but the end thereof are the ways of death. 172. eDd of Chap.. if a branch bends over to a olean place. 57 oompared? To a tree which stands entirely in II olean place.!"tll!11 il.''' 2 "Mul.~ fl - . that they may possess that which is to come. Thus in one passage S we read: "We grant them long and prosperous lives only il.?~ . 12. 40.~I~}.. as it is written: 'There is a way whioh seemeth right unto a man.:T n~. partly because in so doing his teaching would have lost in aooeptability to his very degraded contemporaries. la.. Thus God allows the ungodly to prosper. vii. .rf:). Oompare Dereoh Erets.?.~~ ~.:T iT<1 "~~~ oij?. I Sura III. KiddushiD. xiv.tP~ 11:J Job. ~~ w1 J. UI I.

as the contumacy of the righteous has been already expiated.. 42 2 says: " It is said that the righteous are punished and tried. In IX... thiB view.~ ~ s:.. and again 6 : I. with the establishment of 1 Compare SUra.uso thee to marvel... though he was much pressed to do so. 4. 55: f"l. 55. .::. ~\ JIi WI I"IJlI S.A.la"l ollll. He e:l(cused himself with the Jewish saying that with God a thousand years are as oue day.d says 5: "Verily one day with thy Lord is as a thousand years of those which ye compute".. J * S. S}\elJ4 .." ..l ~I • ... in order that the day of resurrection may be perfect in light and power. On the day whose length shall be a thousand years of those which ye compute..a1 ~\..Ie! Mej'bid and Ketlld<i eay that thiB verBe bnB been transposed.li8 that their "iniquity may be increased.. 2.sl ~ f"b. 86.wI I J....I ~'. ...)~ . &o-J\ PsalmJ ZO.. 4 ." 1 still the second view is to be found among the Arabians also.. 86. . Sanhedrin 96. e.-:. XXXI. 28.a1 ~~I .. . j.I"all rJl Sjall. (.. .... IX. 4 M~mma.i. "'\. the wordB q~ii (~) ~ are evidently to be conneoted witb .rJI f"Gl.)~. 46. See also Preface to Ben Ezra's Commentary on the PentB"uch where he oppose.s has been already shown...g'J Elpherar in his comments on Quran XII..~~ elld ~ot ThaB Elpherar sayB on IX.:i.." M~ammad naturally avoided specifyiug any time at which the judgment should take place. it Bhould ron: U Let not therefore their riches or their children in this world ca. 1IIofl. Verily God intendeth only to punish them by these thingB in that world•• • )W:SI"p &..Il4 ~I . 55. • Sura XXXI!.1 ~J ~I. . ~ ~ ~ C. 5 Sura XXII. S which was divested of its poehic adornment and taken by the Rabbis in a purely liberal sense. with what immediately precedes.

18. but the union of the two. and there is scarcely a page in it where this dootrine is not mentioned. xxxvii. and those in other passages referring partly to the metaphOlical quickening of the dead land of Israel. fouuded upon this doctrine along with that of the unity of God. the view of the resurrection and of the quickening of the dead was also formed j and this the more readily. and on the other it shows the low level of thought at that time.ry understanding: "How can thi5 body which we have 5een decay rise again. Only one point deserves particular mention. . 9.THlil lllCsUimlIlOTION OJ!' THlil !lODY. as is shown in the argument of Jesus in refutation of the Sadducees.. those in Ezekiel. because it found support in expressions in the Scripture. . To adduce proofs here would be as easy as it would be useless.·t'll:l . ye shall live.tc.. theu the soul without its body is no longer regarded as the same person. •••. I:l. so to speak. J~. so that the same per50nality 5hall reappear 7" Neither the soul alone nor the body alone is the person.•. because on the one hand it contains a detail adopted from Judaism. As soon as it beoomes a question not merely of the immortality of the soul. 2 The Quran is. I: "I have opened your graves.g.. and the question naturally presents itself to the ordina.i'r. as e. since Christianity also has inherited this view from Judaism. but by this means he who died 1 Ezekiel." etc. but also of the resurrection of the body... 59 the doctrine of the day of judgment. and indeed it is not required by our parpose.:t'h~.~ • Mishna Swiliedrill X.'<1 sUm C. 1 .'. and caused you to oome up out of your graves. Of this doctrine it is said that it is suoh a fundamental teaching of the Jewish faith that the declaration that it did not belong to the law entailed the exolusion of him who thus spoke from eternal life. '1:11:11. Now one part of this union is dissolved j anothel' body can indeed be given to this soul. xxxvii.

4<1. another personality. 89. etc. 88. The passage in Qumn VI.mmmad runs thus: 5 "The dead man shall be raised in the olothes in which he died. and can only be set at rest by proving that the very same personality can appear again. The Jews also sought to give prominenoe to this resemblance..60 does not rea. of oourse with some JlIoclliioation. XLI. and they put the eulogium 2 "Who sendeth down the rain" into the second benediction whioh treats of the resurrection. 2. yet differences can be found in the manner of conoeiving of the revelation.l'iE a ~ '"'J'"t ~I ~\J ~ <oWlol . XXX.l and so he was compelled to oome baok to it again and again. This question dimly anticipated obtrudes itself. and here we reoognise again that Mul. of the renewal of the dried up earth by fertilising rain. XLUI...".>' (1'00. a Taanith at the begiJmmg. 2. 96 contains a similar statement. XXXVI. cap. • PW~tl :"''. for llo Slloying whioh is attributed to M. p.ppear. 7.ll 1. used also occasionally in the Talmud. auother oonsciousne~scomes into being.mmad derived his view of it from Judaism. 1 S~ VI.led religion the belief in the possibility of revelation is fundamental needs of course no proof. which is laid in the earth without covering. Instead of showing this Mul.ul.lammad' contents himself with the parable. but a new man. 95. This view is not strange to Isl3m.llJ. He found however that he could nat silence the oommon convictions of men'thereby. 40. • 8a. and in this the views of all revealed religions are alike. but springs up again with many ooverings. 'I That from the standpoint of revea.nhedrin 00. 8I1d Xethilbhoth III. ~I·l . /:I The fact that the righteous rise actually in their olothes 4 (which after all is not more wonderful than in their bodies) is explained by the parable of the grain of wheat. notCQ milo.

ill a dream or t.Jl • . 21. or from behind a curtain. <. t» Buras LXXVIII..J JW o.. (:l'" .~l?l:l'il 'INi tl'l:1':.tioD..t...I r\el~\j JI ru.l~" ~..5 or simply the spirit. 50. to a man that God should speak unto him otherwise than in a vision or from behind a veil. JI <lJ.. XCVII.r.... 4. ~I 0111 ~ ". ni'l:l~ r.." This messenger is the Holy Spirit..'" J J.II"" ~.. ~...l. I "~"lQ N). except in a vision..c "The Jews said to Mll~ummad. but doea not Bee Him.. ~ lot ~ ~ "" ...i thus Elpherar says: e"ll jo.""~.U.\'2n. . prophet.4.. BO that man h~al'8 His Voice.IA1dIUll'S VIBW Oli' INSPI!IATION.HUJ. .hUB to Moses also...>.. ..~J .~'" . lie spoke t.ll1 .a &"ItOI' .'.. "" Commeutators oito this verse os one in which the snperiority of 'MOSAS is disputed.II loS"'' ' ~ .."" r. j" loS"'' ' ..I. ~._... ""':. TO '11'vEiip.~ c. 6.. 'il '. ' n ~ Co _ ~...S".IS ~ ..r:-:J (:)\S... 38. 6 like the spirit in the story of Micaiah's vision. ~ .mmad says: 2 It was not granted.-. 115i~jj "~"l. n''l'~l1 N~!'i<~t?l:l~ nrrjl:l • Sill'a XLII.ll "" <!lJ.. for 1 Jebamoth 49..-j.J\i ". but Moses through a clear one.. .e.l~1 1 Kiugo.. j" 0111 JilO J. 'By God! if thoa art ..l4 . ..u W "t.) J.u I."ll ... dost than speak with God and see Him as 'Moses spoke with Him and sa~ H~m'~' Then he said: • Moses did l!ot see God· And then came th18 verse: ......T~'I:ltP...4oa.l.. 8 and then he adds: 4 " or by the sending of a messenger to reveal by His permission that which He pleaseth. uii.J.. a view which is not unknown to the Jews.". 7 The Arabic commentators take this holy spirit to mean Gabriel. It was not granted to a mall that God should speak to him. 8 .&T ~ ~~ ~. e"ll 1.hl'Ough 8upernatul'al iospil-a.ll1 ~I 6.. 61 The Jews have a saying that" all the prophets saw through a dark glass. - ~ . ".... oIllI .. N'...>.a.. " 1 and Mul}. i. .~(..JI * "wI .

h . XL. who were made out of fire. I."J? W:: nrf?lfi C1l:l '~~ mp?l. S The angel of death 4 is specially mentioned in Sura XXXII. these were mixed spirits. m'''' '~'l. ":'~ '.:. Sanhedrin 44.! c. 5 wlto possessed superior mental powers..i ~ .l • Sura XV. .iJJy4..2nd Sunna. 11.»~" rW~tt '!J~7l. • sUra XXXlI. sc too are the later Jews in their many prayers on the day of atonement. LXXIX. 7. 1 • Sum XVII.)tfiJ '~~7l.l::> nlQ?~ ~'. 1 ft.iammad is unwearied in his desCriptions of angels.. ~ 6". one which is fully explained only by the :. • Oompare Sur.. The Talmud !las the following statement about them: 1 "Demons n'~~l?\l J:t~. say:' the spirit (proceedeth) at my Lord's command. 27. ~' With this the teaching about aDgels is closely connected.AND IaLM!. While angels were regarded as purely spiritual beings who execute God's commands. but who were mostly inclined to evil. but these are of rather late origin. xxxv.lammad's own utterances..i.1 . but there are numerous other names for them in Arabic. C~~H . they were called 6 demons. U. the Jewish oommentators understand the words 1 "the definitely speaking Spirit" to refer to Gabriel. LXXVII.. XXXVII.. but appears to have been developed in later days espeoially thl'Qugh Parseeism.l. and it also had its beginning in Scripture. C''1~~ C"~' nlf!!. Mul. 87. One of Mul.!r. 1. is much more striking: 2 " And they will ask thee of the spirit. 11ft.)i ~... l"\". a class of beings was imagined who stood between man and the purest spirits.62 JUDAIBll .

. XXXVIII.nd the devil is their fatber J he haa thus a po8terity~ which is mentioned with him I the (remaining) angela however have no posterity. ~rd. also states that they are present at the giving of instruction. The Talmulj. The fact that they listened at the canopy of heaven gained for ~hem in the Quran the nickname oithe stoned. . e.!I." The seventy-second Stira treats of them in detail. they are bonnd by no space). They know the future beforehand? No I but they listen behind the curtain. lStlW' (:l'" U r'" J"i ~I f"P Prodr. • ~:"'!1.l:\i Hi179 "l1!." 2 Muslim tradition cannot do enough in their description. I and dio. a. 17. I ~). 4 Thus it is said expressly: 5 "We have appointed them (the lamps of heaven) to be darted at· the devils... IS.I 011 ~\ Yo' v-J.l "QI~1 tl"!t$ '~?:¥ Mo/?o/-! 'i~!'.l .J!.ln'ddin in Maraec Ohaglga 16.l ~).f. to..io' l'~'il 1""1~ "J:lizil . 63 are declared to possess six qualities.S for. 1. The three which pertain to angels are that they have wings.':Ptt W H~l::! '. say the commentators.? 'T'mtti M~ "J'1i'1 ii'l'lo 'Pl tl1i3ly !'li~!.. 7. that they can fly from one end of the earth to the other (i. and that they know the future beforehand. three of which are angelic and three human. 78. compare Sura XXXVII.84. 24.n Jald.I) ~lW' U The genii are supposed to be a species of angels.~j Sum LXVII. but there is but little about them iu the Quran. II.''<=?iH 1 ~ i.DEMONS. 5. l""'. • sUms XV. The three human qualities are that they eat and drink. LXXXI.- • The Moslim explanatioo of falling slats.lry 'jin~ . the angels threw stones to drive them away when they found them listening.. increase and multiply. The following "'J11i' Mi'. and seeks especially to set forth their assent to the new doctrine.

JUDAISH ~ ISLAM.

passage from the Berachoth shows this: "The press in the school is caused by them, the demons." 1 With this we may compare the Qurltn : "When the servant of God stood. up to invoke Him, it wanted little but that the genii had. pressed on him in crowds. "2 It oannot be maintained that the greater part of the ~aching about genii was adopted from Judaism, it must ratber be said to have come from the same dark source whence the Jews of those times drew these conceptions, vis., Parseeisin. Still here, as in the case of any point which is of ineccessible origin, a reference to a mere similarity is not withont use. Under these four heads. then, viz., (1) Creation, (2) Retribution including the Last Judgment and the Resurrection, (3) Mode of Revelation; and (40) Doctrine of Spirits, details are fonnd, the adoption of which from Judaism we may regard as sufficiently proved. . The precaution against representing, ont of love for our theme, that which is commou either to the general religious feelings of mankind, or to all revealed religions, or at least that which belonged to other known religious parties in Mul,tammad's time as peculiar only to Judaism, compels ns to fix these limits. We have fonnd much of interest especially under the second hEiad, so that the demauds of our theme might seem to be fairly well satisfied.

B.

Moral and Legal &le8.

It is obvious that in a revealed religion all individual commands form part of the religion, and therefore one cannot draw any sharp line of distinction between the " religious" and the "moral. " We have accordingly

I

~,n ~n'~~

""::l

n'~1 ~11r;1''t ~n

• BUrt. LXXII. 19, • (~ ~";,;/oi. 1,,~11

MORAL AND LJlGAL IWLJI8.

considered nothing which has to do with condnct under the heading A, even though it might be immediately connected with the points of belief nnder discussion and so we are able to bring together here all commands as to conduct. From the fact that every individual command is Divine, a conflict of dnties may easify arise, which cannot be readily decided by private judgment, seeing that all the commandments are equal, 1 so far as their Author is concerned. Rules for suoh cases must therefore be laid down. For insUlmce, we find the following statement in the Rabbinical writings: 2 "If a father .saith (to his son if he is a priest), ( defile thysel£'; or if he saith, (Maire not restitution (of the thing fonnd to the owner) " shall he obey him? Therefore, it is written: 3 (Let every: man reverence his father and mother, but.keep my Sabbaths all of you, ye are all bound to honour me.'" And MnI;1a.mmad says: 4 « We have commanded man to show kindness towards his parents, but if they endeavour to prevail with thee to associate with me that concerning which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not. "
• Faldhat El.holef&, 94, prove. that this i. reslly the Arabi. "iew :

\.. ,y

41', or IW v-J ~'-?l' <$"~):J' JW~'~' ~ JI:i
":>~

* u-:iw, .JIN )'":Ii ...,\k,. .J' .f'-'l4 ..ll.l, lip )'"3\ ...ol....k

"A meritorious Ulan sa.ys that in the flins of men there is nothing. small, bot whatever is dona contraJ:y to the (I lmmandment is greali with respect to Him who commands, who is eX1..J.ted a.nd holy."

i":> "~l;1 ilol ~li!" ":;!l;l i":> "~l;1 ~lol"'liJ:l "~1 ilOll:l W'l:l "Clol7. ~'!?'?J:l i, 3l~l(i~ ,i::l~ "'TQJ:.1
• Jeb.moth 6.

'1i:q.,
s
Levitious~

t:l':;l~/J t:l~?~ ~.,bo/J; ','h.frV·~'

xi:s:. 3.

I

66

JUDAIBII AND ISL.iK.

.Tuilaism is known to be very rich iu single precepts, and Mul;lammad has borrowed from it much tbat seemed to him suitable. 1. Prayer. Mul;lammad like the Rabbis prescribes the shanding position 1 for prayer. Thus:" Stand obedient to the Lord; but if ye fear any i1a~ger, then pray while walking or riding" ; 2 and also: "Who standing, and sitting, .and reclining, bear God in mind." 8 These three positions are mentioned again in Sura X. 13 : 4 "When evil befalleth a man he prayeth unho us, lying on his side or sitting or standing, " where with a true perception of the right order, the least worthy position is the first spoken of. 5 BaidhtilVi comments thus on Sura III. 188, the passage alluded to above: "The meaning is that the man may take any of the three positious according to his strength, as Mul;lammad said to Amrau Ibn Husain: 'Pray standing if thou art able; if not, sitting; and if thou canst not sit up, then leaning on the side. " 6 The J elVs were not so strict in this ",atter, yet they too have the rule that pray-er should be offered standing; 7 and in Rabbinical writings it is also
I

Not.

the flo.hniea! ••pression Sjl:.s1

rlii
Compo Rabb. il~!1I;1~ ,~:v
---

• Sura II. 240.
3

\;~~ ~~} ;.~t. ~U ~\i
.. 11

JJ I;'}j

Sura 1lI. 188. ~;;'.fi;

l:i;i; i..l;i

• ~;t I~f:i;i ~/;.~
• Cf. also Sura IV. 46.

i1.11 4-e

~
7

;;It! ~u. .....-. ~~I =\"ell ~ (:)f4 ~I.a.. r-l (:)v. l.;eli; ~ r-l (:)\; \.ru J.o _ (:)'! (:)~ rLJ'J
il~!if;1
*~.Ja>
Cf.

"1lf\:l?

nera.hoth

X.

PIU.'JlIB.

67

asid that he who rides on an ass is to dismount, but the addition is made that, if he cannot dismount he is to turn his faoe (towards Jerusalem).l As the bodily position may be altered in urgent cases, so the prayer itself may be shortened on similar occasions. 2 80 we lind the permission to shorten prayer in time of war: .. When ye march to war in the earth, 8 it shall be nO crime in you if ye shorten your prayers." The Jews also were permitted to pray a short prayer when in s. dangerous place. 4 :Mu¥ammad is quite opposed to senseless chattering, for he counts it a merit in believers to .. eschew all vain discourse. 5 Therefore beoause attention and pious conoentration 'of thought are to be aimed at, he enjoins 6 on believers not to draw near to prayer when they are drunk. This is in accordance with the Talmudic rule: "Prayer is forbidden to the drunken. "7 It is also forbidden to those who have touohed women. 8 These persons may not engage in
1

!Ush"" Beracboth IV. 5.

"J:l~ "li~q;:r ~:l! ~'h "~~

• sUra IV. 102.

"t? "l'!r,t~ "l"''2 ~i;'~ U'~ ~ ~ ~t to,;.;. ;f.';j; ~ -t;Jl~ ~"';;. f..l~j
~i~
'!J\;.t1'tJ:!
4.

• Oomp""e tbe similar ""pression In Hebrew":; ~W

, Misbna B""""hoth IV.

?l?~~ Mi~tl 1:I'''l?~

• sUr.. XXIII. 8.

;;,;.;:.

f!i t:i' ;:. iJ\~1)
1:I'~~'t

"1li? "~'<J;1

CGmpo.re Ecel••inst... v. 1.
• sUr.. IV. 46.

'lJ'":Rl

~'J;T~

"';13.::. ~ j fl,I:si ';Ji'
"li"ll1
Bsra.hoth 81. 2. Erubln 64•

iii'"

7 ~1?,"ryi;l,? ""0l;1
• Surss IV. 46. V. 9.

;~ ~i

Cf. !llohua Bers.choth III. 4-

'"ljl "31::

bnt follow a middle way hetween these.?7¥." }. .. 4 1 Samuel..68 JUDAISM AllD ISL. Berachoth 31.. l~~ ~!. 89.l"':.> 1~~ ni~~ l." W~\\lip~ iJJ:u. conoentrated thougb.?!.ll?~'. SUDna 86. prayer before washing with water..IFJ ~ J . purifioation with sand may take plaoe. 9. and indeed prayer in a great congregation. V.1~f\' i?ip ~'!?tp~ N!... Berachoth 46.1~o/. the Talmudi...i"!f~ T'l~l? ~:'.filJ l"..i ~. 2 So in the Talmud: "He cleanses himself with sand and has then done enongh.W ?~\iI. neither pronounce it with too Iowa voice.. Of. ~ . ontward oeremony is necessary. whioh oleansing is reoommended as a general rule beiore prayer both in the Quran 1 and in the Talmud.l 1 Miahna Berachotll I. phrase 3 au!'/! XVlI. 5 "']'he pTayer in the congregation" 6 is greatly pl'llised also by the Jews. 8. . 46. Daybreak. iJ':~ ":?!. r~7'? n~2f. i'':!l . 110. 88. 2.U!.l l'iJ "'~ir.t is nrged as a duty.l . riJ. S and so MuJtammad says: "Pronounce not thy prayer alond." and in the Talmnd we find: 4 "From the behaviour of Hannah who in prayer moved her lips we learn that he who prays must pronounce the words.. .. 87. 1'1" e -':':11:.. it fol1owB that prayer though andible mllst not be noisy. 2. "7 is not mentioned in this connection in the '8ura V. ~:J Suras IV. 13. i.~ n~~f. whose devotion wiH stir up our own.p. and also as her voice was not heard we learn that he must not raise his voice loudly. whioh is mentioned in the Talmud in connection with the Shema prayer." But because our mood does not at all times move us to fervenoy. I . Instead of water..~ :i.o/~ a Of. of prayer.. as the time when "one can distingnish between a blne and a white thread.

.)~ • Sum XXIV.hna Jabbamoth IV." which is explaiued by Elpherar as follows: 4 "He takes the shortest dnration of pregnanoy. t'l'tPl1J • Sura IT. nw.....g.s. • Ketbuboth 60. Mi. but it appears in oonnection with the beginning of the Fast Day:" 1 Until ye oan disoern a white thread from a blaok thread by the daybreak. • SUn.ismmsd pel'mits 6 to see their near relations unveiled has been already notioed by Miohaelis in the Mosaio system. and the shortest of suokling.'f 'iJ7'~1 7:. II..I e\.qf n~ nif'. and he has shewn the oonneotion between theso two laws. 1. Of. 2:l8. ..fi'.i . 'J:Jt¥ r..i.. the waiting of divorced woman for three months before they may marry agaiu.~ 'V? ~''. lS3.c their children two full years.J3 ~~ . 31...:. Compare the note in the first section (p. viz" twenty-four months. ~. viz.'~ nr. 26) for remarks on the Fast.iW~"13 ~I!: elf. XXXI... e. Jil ol!. 1 SUra II...! . ." Compare the Talmndio saying: 5 ". ~\ &::-. &s!. 13. woman is to suokle her ohild two years.I~tq . V~W i'i. Shama. 9.n ~~~'ff ~ ~n~.rp Compare Josephus Ant. after that it is as though a worm suoked. prayer. " 2. Some rulings in respeot of women tally with Judaism. J-ll i ... 2. N.o.. ~f. Of.69 Quran it is true. ~.A.. 10." That those relatives to whom intermarriage is forbidden in the Soripture are precisely those whom Mul. for the Quran knows nothing of a...f.l\ S Jil. Day. t'l'.. " Similarly in Sura XLVI.~ ~r. 233. 14 we find: "Hi3 bearing and his weaning is thirty months. six months. c lshura.~ • 1ft-'" <:l"r>. 2 The time of suokling is given in both as two years: 3 "Mothers shall give suok nnt.

hence the request in the Quran: "Make us to die with the righteous. he alludes to these sometimes as binding on the Jews. " 1 sUra m. As Mu1). . 191. unless they came directly into opposition to these higher religious views.~ 'tP't~ Cf. Death with the righteous is to be prized. and hence we see that it WBB not want of knowledge of them that kept him back from using them. o. it is easily to be explained how so few borrowings are to be found in this part and much even of what is adduced might perhaps be claimed to be general oriental custom.ammad mentions many Jewish laws which were known to him. under which isolated instances of adaptation only will be found. :N umbel'" :aiii. except in cases where the view is directly oonnected with the higher articles of Faith adopted from Judaism. mnch of an Arab to deviate from inherited usages. Uij C'~ n. We shall find mor!'over in the Appendix that Mul:}. 10. since his aim was much more the spread of new purified religious opinions.b1'l ." 1 which corresponds with that of BaJaam. <t Let me die ~he death of the righteous. In putting together these single fragmentary utterances. This remark must apply also to our third headiug. Jljli r:..70 JUDAIS][ AND IBLb.ammad had. and as in the matter of practice he was far too. but his totally different purpose. very little intention of imposing 8 new code of individual laws.. whioh have been already mentioned. sometimes merely for the sake of disputing them.>. it is scaroely worth while to arrange them according to any new system. VieW8 of Life. and we will therefore follow the order of the Quran.

. the Hebrew ezpresslon ell'" i'1~~ . n?lif:1 n.Ii i. U. l'bUo. 8w.!. it is also rendered very dubjons by the wide differenoes between the vanons opinions. Pfeifer I) • Sura LXII.... de OpiOoio Muudi.lj . 'I will. in wbloh Solon aIso agree.r !.n I FnII understa. PArtioolar virtue to the number 7.n Of.:! H~n 'i"l. and an ass carrying books. ~ ~ Of. P.q . 3 fC He who intercedeth (between men) with a good interoession shall have a portion thereof.. 87. man comes to intelligence. 5. .a8. as the A.) sa tTV1IEtTE0~ &"(1-").rll. wbo here take. " 4 This saying is very similar to the Hebrew one: fC He who asks for meroy for a. ~ Of.xvlII.II..~ tM "'7~1 iniN? 'lJ'i~ .VIIWS O. the Hebrew tl'''1~l? Hfl. At forty years of age a. In the Qu~n a oomparison is found between those who bear a burden without understanding the naturo of it and who thus carry without profit. 2 and it is said in the Mishna: . Eel.f .nding is first impnted to IL man when he is forty years old.tu_J ~\i J~:::' i!~"i Cf. ~. I 84m XLVI.bic Commentators do. W12:.if ~ ~. 70-72. • If God please.' llnlooe thou add. Aboth V..nother while he needs the same thing himself obtains help 1 l:i ~U~ f~ . ~Ii. uot reached untU the oompletion of tbe fortieth 7""" is obaervea aIso by Pbno «("TV WIBop." So the hunting for some particular persons.~ "l'il:t. LI1I'lI. he attaohe.. ~':jl~ C'~.CI:l 1:. to whom this sentence of the Qnr8. with him (Vid."!~ l~ That full uuderstandiDg Ii...u shall apply..~ e'~r.. 8ura IV. 'l1 fC Bay not of any matter. appears altogether unneoessary. Babe Kemma 92..ll?" ?.r. ~ . surely do this romorrow. ~i. only beoa.'l' J ~~i . ~ . the forty••eeond 7""".. 23.

xlix.11 ct.'~~ n~rp=t~ c':+i19lJ "ip~~..i7 '!'J'.¥l:! l:l:1 ''2i n'. 689 it is said: "Three things follow the dead. 'I beg yon.lW ~'" i? 1"'7.'1 3 Psalm.!.?!.?l.F? '!'J'? ~l:l O'~. At the time of his depar.Iil'l C17 w~ l~'1J?l# C'fill y 1~ nN¥.l''1i?!.~'2 "J'~ 'l'It.:l~ ~"1 C~ill..1 '~'1n'~li' '1:11 'lil3? ~j7TJ:lJ.r1~ n~"'1lJ i? '!.-his family.I'ni:l? .m .~ "':n. viii.? c'''J.l ~l:l Vi?? '.i7 'lJ7.:p C'P'$? oj'.:p ci.~ IYOQl ci"t.l 1. and says to them.~U'! 'Ill:a C~7.J 17.hi8 family. None of them can by any means redeem his brother.)tl1 iJi~l? nl. first. his goods.:p ClJ? '~lorJ in'~ '. even his I Pirke Rabbi Ellezer 34.l N'lM C'fill y 1~ m.tl~ '11. and his good works.72 JUDAISM ANn ISLbr.. 8.l 't.I n~~.' ll. i.i!? N'lMl '~'2'~tll nr-:r n~~1J' 1!.l '~1!? TJI1!. turf! from earth he collects the members of his family.liol1 C':+i19lJ "4'~!. . I: TJ~I?l:l~ 'n .ll n~tl n~~tl 1~ '~~"'?l:ll 'Ill:ll clJ1 llJl ?"'. in'~ ':I?-' 1'. ~'*~? 'iJ'r. Ml.. t4.I=Au?~ .i:l~ i:I'~ ::u:lN N'lMt# iJi~? ~.i~' TJ~l.? \llj ni'l!?? .1 ilO n.l :l'J:ljl '!'J:il ~'1 nl~lJ Ci'~ 1 7rP l'~r.1l. 1t1 ~1.Q ~. his family and his goods forsake him again.' They answer: I Hast thou not heard 2 that no one has power over the day of death! It is also written: 3 .l' ~'ql b'll.'~.l O'~1!. his property. but two of them turn back .l~j n¢~.~i~ l'"llfi~ Ecclesiastes.~~.J.~ ci'~ n':.l 1e nt:l" N'lrit#? c1iJ7 Q '1'l?t:! c:? ~~'?IJ HlJ"· C'!. 'bful?~ .i!?~ li'l~ 'm.W . and his works follow him.b~lljl '.~~ c''='''~'2 1l.lin "t~7 ~'S[!.':vi' ~.?~1 irn~ l':+'tPZ? ltrl n~1J' V'iQ n~r. ~ C'~N M'f'1J? O'~?!.l ~.l n~'f .'Pt:l'l lI1'~ n~ '..t~~ n.l# TJ. and only his works remain with him.1 \1qt:1ITi:t~ Ci'~ jin . come and free me from this evil death. " In Sunna. " This is also found in great detail in: Habbinical Hebrew: 1 "Man has three friends in his life time. 8..

the glory of the Lord shall be thy rearward. 4. and snited the childish level of his contemporaries. because these narratives.l May thy part be wit1t the righteous.d.he most part embelllshed. rest in thy lot till the end of days.ammad. and I pl'8y yoo. K I Proverbs. Iu the oase of the Old Testament narratives. the only other possible source to whioh they could be &ttn'buted.' They answer: ' Ental' into peace I but before thou departeat we will hasten before thee. Iviit 8. as. lived mostly in the month of the people. 73 wealth whioh he loves avails not. he oolleots his trelll!ures and says to them: ' I have laboured for you day and night. 13. zi. which are seldom related soberly.ammad. xii. OhapterlL srories borrowed from Judaism. partly. support me. but in their narrstives kept to what is strictly 1 Daniel. partly. it needs soaroely a question. for you still JuLve hope in me if I am delivered. a Isaiah. redeem and deliver me from this death' . a ra. bestowed very little &ttention in those days on the Old Testament.. 01' the most cursory enquiry. but are for !. out of this world.68 to whether or no they have passed from the Jews to Mnl).'" S SECOND SIWTIOII. but enter thou into peaoe. for the redemption of their son! is oostly 1Ion. Thy righteousness shall go before thee. . must be let alone for ever. he oannot give to God. for the Christians. but they answer: 'Hast thon not heard that riohes profit not in the day of wrath? ' 2 So then he collects his' good works and says to them: ' Then you come and deliver me from this death.' Whsn the man sees this. it is written. because this fairy-tale form appealed to the poetic fancy of Mnl). This division will prove to be the largest. let me not go.nsom for him.STORIlIll BORROWED PllOH JUDAISH•. drsped in the most marvellous garb of fiction.

but was taught . but rather Mn!). and indeed they could not deny to the latter a greater right of possession in it. the necessity is forced npon us of arranging them in some order. etc. Gemara. Mishna. for all tbat they accepted the Old Testament as a sacred writing. for the Jews possessed it entirely. and were versed in it even to the minutest details. and although in those days no doubt bad ariseu as to whetber 01' no tbey were to put the Old Testament on a level with tbe New in respect .ammad did not gain his knowledge of these narratives from any of these sources. This may be taken as an instance to prove that the narratives about persons mentioned in the Old Testament are almost all of Jewish origin.of boliness and divine iuspi1'8tion.74 JUDAISIl AND IsW. since it was the expression of their separation and indepen~ence.) as Mu!). just thOSe points in the Old Testament which Were speoislly suited to the Christian teaching are found to be scaroely touohed upon in tbe QUnOn. The Christians. viz. Christian. the . (Bible. As we proceed to the enumeration of tbe individual borrowed stories. I say. for instanoe. We have no reason for arranging tbem according to tbeir souroes.-tbe Christians.ammad oontents himself with the plain. a donbt which has been brought forward for example by Schleiermacher in later times. involving the entire corruption of human nature which must afterwards be redeemed. had nevertheless a more lively interest in the New Testameut. wbich afforded them abuudant material for manifold embellishments. narrative of the transgression of the first human pair is not at all represented as a fall into sin. of His disoiples and His followers. and of the multitude of subsequent Saints and wonder-workers.. Further. thus. an intimate knowledge with whioh we cannot oredit the Christians. of that period. simple narration of the fact. Midrash. and this will be more clearly shewn when we oome to details. The Old Testament was common to them and the Jews. the events of the Life of Jesus.

B<lIlS: E.. SECOND OBAPrlCll. who had cOUDselled against his creation. or the narration of it did not suit his object. which is very probable. Holy men who lived after them.n any of them.ammad did not know the history of the Jewish nation. 3. and thus in this arrangement we shall have the following Divisions: I. 51 ra U.PATIII. David and Solomon. and were all called biblical.I. for cnly once is the whole history summed up in brief.-From Adam to Noah. Moses. but are merely qucted as records of historioal mots. 4-8. and so they were all of the same vahul fol' him. Salll. '16 them all verbally by those round him.l and only the events in the lives of a few persons are mentioned. by which means it will be mcst easy to reooguise the numerons anachronisms among them. and God shamed them by endowing Adam more richly with knowlsdge tha. The great event of the creation of the first man gave occasion for much poetical embellishment. was ronsed. . and even in those oases where they are intended to set forth a dootrine. or that of the :Reaurreotion of the dead. Before the appearance of Adam. In this chrOnological arrangement we shall have to pay more attention to the personal importance of individuals than to any changes in the ccndition and circumstances of the nation. The three Kings who reigned over the individed Kingdom.OIl AD. First Part. . Either Mul}. it is almost always either that of the unity of God. .the jealousy of the angels. It appears therefore advisable to sl'1'llonge them ohronologically. and 4. Patriarchs. In the Quran we have the following description:2 "When thy L01·d said unto the angels. viz. furthermore we must pay no attention to their contents.!J( TO NOAII. Patriarchs: A. 'I am 1 BUra XVII. 2. ~ for the narratives are not given as supporting any dootrines of Isl'm. 28-32.

sb Rabbah Sauhedrjb 88.bbo. andasked for their names.~I')~ m.1ll1!1i '.' God. for thou art knowing and wise. and He taught Adam'the nllollle8 of all things.tl i.?~~ "il~'t t:I1~ ~~qj n~ l'Vli ' ~'11 H'1 ioo/ "9 n~ ''f '1. 0 Adam.' They answered: 'Praise be unto thee. and know that whioh ye discover..l'$ 'di!'?~~ 'in9:rr.' Then He brought beaats.l ~1 rn.O "' t:Il:J'd~7 ltl:m t:l~. we have no knowledge but what thou teaohest us.' 1\.I "J. p&r8..17 "l.1 l']i1''7 ".itj nt. ~\l ~rp nl. and birda before them. .n Compare 'Hidrs.1 nJ.. pam.~ wi~~ n~ l"lI:j1 n~T. viii.ise and sanctify thee. 26.~~ ~'. OR Genesis.ud also a. 2 then thoy said: 'What is man that thou art mindful of him? 3 What will be his peculiarity r ' He said: 'His wisdom is greater than yours. 8 and 11. and said: ' Declare unto me the names of these things.76 going to place a substitute on earth' .itti "~ .'1..~ iozr "9 ~ i.I~ i~19 "9 n~ 01~ ~1~!I:l . 'Wilt thou place there one who will do evil therein and shed blood? hut we oelebrnte thy prs.? n~ '. but they knew them not..God said: 'DidI not tell you that! know the secrets of heaven and earth. i.O:v. .~q ~ .)\o!1 'lfi 0'1'0 n~ n~1 lJ? '. tell them their Jl&IDe8 . a. ". if ye say truth. cattle.~'? J1'=t~n MJ~I'). and that whioh ye conceal r'" The oorresponding Hebrew passage may be thus trnnsJated: 1 "When the Holy One.'i? 1.' 'Dl'. But when He had 1 Kidraah Re.h on Numbers. 5.l'$ lJ'Oi"~ . .l'oolm. I Genesis.' God auswered : ' Verily I know that which ye know not'. and then proposed them to the angels.~~ '~~1 Mlf1t\Q 111 'l:lN1=P-o/ Q"'I. :li'~i"] Mi'-~ M~r¥~ "~7 'Mlfl. and said to thom: 'We will malte man in our image. ' and when he had told them theirnames. blessed be He I would create man. 19. he took counsel with the angels....:?~ 01~ n~~ 1\17 "!. said: .=i!'? N'lM '!I'M. '!J'2!?~ O'~Q " ' i'1N. '~ . they said.

!'t~ l~f :1l..n ODe.'~lJ N?f~ n'flP¥ ?'~ry '::1 '~O . S. XV.i:N~ ~lt~.Gotteadienatlichen VOl.ee Hadd&rsban.ADAI( AND THE ANGELS.s refusal to worship Adam. giv. which they sJI did except Iblis. 48.S "Mter God had created man.O oS '. and the angels roasted lIesh for him." page 291.4 "Adam sat in the Garden of Eden.T n~ I'l~n 'lJ~"~ W. for I BID formed of the earth! 'And If' . 3 The legepd of the devi!.) in the MS. hat this never went so far as adoration j indeed when this Wll8 once about to take place in error..y n'l1 l~~ i? l'~~l.2 the devil. 77 created man He ca118etl the animals to pass before him and asked him for their names. triige der Jnden."1~~ n~ W"if "#? .~ /1"10/11 Ql!. 63-68.. this a horse and that a camel! ' But what art thou called f ' .l N~nl(? '?:'. . and wanted to say before him.en by me as a Christia.l.I l:11:l "!f'tr i? l'~i~ Midrash Rabbab on GeooBia. Thou art csJled LORD.1~ l'iWM"'!1. and prepared cooling wine".' which the Jews are far from asserting. in that Adam is represented in the beginning as the God-man.:tt!?~ ~'y1 n.' -.~'<~ i::l ~ll~ C~1. It is fitting that I should be called earthy. was found by ZIlDZ (U Die . 10018. Mid.Q~. for thou rulest all Thy creatures!" From this arose the other legend 1 that Gtld. who however lived in the eleventh century.. is said.h of Rabbi Mo... after the creation of man. para. that an ass.. 28-44.. 115. and. • m. 71-86. We find in Sanhedrin 29. he replied: 'Th. the angels went astray in regard to him.ftQ}.is is an ox. XVII. God frustrated the action. commanded the angels to fall down before him. The legend bears unmistakeable marks of Ohristian development. 1 SUras VII. XX.s It is true that in Jewish writings great hononr is spoken of as shewn by the angels to Adam. • ~I 8te.:T ~1l'''1 n~. Note.Y"1J!1 "?ll :n . XXXVIII. worthy of adoration.. and in another passage i. XVIII..

. ::l''-':P 1'~ 1~ '11'1 "~1iJv n!znf. 1 t .e. 18. and all knew that he was o£ earth.. throughont simply . "~l?~1 7 Pirke Rabbi Eliezer. XX. T Thi.....S In this narrative the Devil is again given his Hebrew nsme.:r H"J~W l1i''1~1j 'i1 Ml..~W n~r:r "tI r:m:':l C~~tf.l".o~) instead of ~~ (lr:iD) . it 21. seems to be eutirely Christisn..." Still we find in a book which... thoug~ forged.25.:r . (&&fJD>..i "i~.. proper Dame Ift Dever used by )fo'"mtilad in this narrative.:r "l':lltQ M~y 0'11.. . l:l~\ • Kid." In favour of the Christian origin of this narrative we mnst count the fact that the name used by Christiaus for the devil is the oue used in all the passages referred to instead of the general Hebrew name'! From this event according to MU4ammad arises the hatred of the Devil against the human race. xiii...h Rahbsh on Genesis. 115·127.!'i\ . whIch shows that the Je"s knew well the distinction between the home of onr /lrst p&l'8nta and PlI1'8di.. Satan (with the initiulletter Sin III like &mach I) ) is cres.1!:l : . o Holy one I then God permitted sleep to fall on him.'1 ". ~ I'I~:V i~~~ "'~1 . psra. 17..~.JUDAISll AND ISUIl.. 8S no such refereuce is to be found in the older Jewish writings j the passage quoted below can only be regarded as a slight allusion: Ii "From the beginning of the book up to this poiut 6 no Samecn is to be found j as BOOU however as woman is orested. I Bursa VI[. H~?~ n~~~tV liil '!J~~ • Geoasis.1 H'1'¥ toI':l1 H'lM '!J~"~ l!i. 'lIP.ted also. is undoubtedly oldl the following statement: ..4 and yet the first explanation of the temptation through the snake as coming from tne Devil.. ~ he u... because on their accouut he became accursed of God j and so his lirst work was to counael man in the Garden of Eden 2 to eat of the tree of knowledge.t.

" 1 Thus this legend. or ~~~ ~ I S("a XX.. 19.J1i ~\ .l\ ~r\ . The former only is mentioned in Scripture as prohibited by God.ni' tl'l. In the details of this narrative some confnsion is found between the tree of knowledge and the tree of life.ammad from the Jews..IJ JIi &o. 21) • "u) ~ Alii 1.J .J wrm.J$\ . In one passage he puts into the devil's mouth the statement that men throngh eating of this tree would become «.ammad confuses the two.~o 'If il'l:V'!~ ~~~ Mifi . it..J '. and N'1 '~.T"N:\l tl'?'~in) 'J:1~ • SUre VII.mica.. 22..Io.' Then Baid He to Eve: I Why didllt thon give it to him P' she replied. .d forbidden it to thee?' He replied.ae lIistoria... Anteiala. appears to have been derived by Mu!). he found none more maliciously wise than the serpent. ~ To the lI&l11e effeot Mul}emmad ben Kols (vide Elpborar on VII. took his companions and went down and inspected aU God's oreatures.. we find the fear mentioned lest men should eat of the tree of life and live for ever.-I n His Lord called to him: cO Adami why hast thon eaten of that. '19 « Samsel. The snake cQmlJ1anded me to do it. 5.ir' JIi lWr' .. when I r"" &ij ~.. I Lord~ Eve ~ve it to me. ha.1i(....- .IT. liS..' n Sea also AbuIfed. even if not entirely Jewish...A." or «immortal.t. * u-oe1l' .' Then said He to the snake: • Why didat thQU command it pi I The devil ordered me to do it. ii. and all that it B&id or did was at the instigation of Samsel.i '~1 "7~ 1 :1::111 M~~ 'TIll? .andiii. • Genesis.~I y ) I. Fleischer's edition.'! N' . I.ngels. After the transgression has taken place. JIi ~ ~ "." 4 but in another passage he mentions only the tree of eternity.2 and to the eating of that alone the serpent incites Eve. the great prince in heaven.~'!W "1. l:}\?J. page 12.'rIIlil 'PALL or IIAN. tl7i:P? (:p7~ :1i~ '. so he mounted.\... • Genoais.5 AU the rest of the history of the first human pair is omitted. iii..S Mu!)..

.:. chapter xxi... Sura V. as bnrial was nnknown to them.~ C'=ib~ C':ttp" i. Historia. took its 1 See Abolfeda. Cf.'?~ C'7:PtlJ7'1:.~~ OiJ'~. This is depicted for us quite in its Jewish colours.l. raven which scratched the earth to shew Cain how to bury Abel.r~ i? .ttention to the possibility tbat in the word Oabil the derivation from is kept to. and in a Rabbinical writing we find the following passage: 4 "Ada. they are called soua of Adam. but in later Arabic writinga I their names are given aa Qabil and Habn.mica...ii. which are clearly chosen ont of love for the rhyming sounds. Then ca.1~ "~Y1 initol niL? ". 30-36. and indeed throughout the Quran. according to the Quran.~. 'I Genesi8." Still. iv.~ t:l1~ ~'iJ ~1i1 tol~ nl"~i7~ c'~~n~ ~'y N?1# ?~!!'? niwl1? n\. The one event mentioned is their sacrifice and the murder which it led to. Cabil calls a. 3·9. J. Eliezer.Tl '~'J ~'y N'l . 2 Mu1)ammad makes them hold a oonversation before the mnrder.'~7 Mt~lfl~ v.. and one is likewise given in the Jerusalem Targum 3 on the strength of the words in Genesis. S Commonly called PS8udo-Jonatban. whose companion was dead.. Anteislft. God sent a. Pirke R.i Mt99"' nt. ~(. iv..J~ 1. After the murder. In this passage. Cf. page 121 for D'Herbelot Bibliotheque Orientale under the heading ~~ . Genesis..~~ ". only one event in the life of C"in and Abel is depicted.?q~ "lr..1# "lr.>1# ir~7~ niL7 "l~~ niifll '~~ ~"ll~ C1~ .80 JUDAiSM AND ISLb.m and his companion sat weeping and mourning for him (Abel) and did not know what to do with him.. "Cain said unto Abel his brother.. Fleischer's Edition.me a raven.!. What is here attributed to Cain is ascribed by the Jews to his parents.l c'~i' .. the matter of the conversation is given so differently in each case that we do not consider it worth while to compare the two passages more closely.

withont knowledge of the source from which it has come.ranslation of Onkelos. "11.S Tl'l'J~ '~1 ?ij'l b "1!. n. 81 body. that he who slayeth a soul. but he who saveth a soul alive. but bloods in the plural." By this comparison it is made clear what led Mul}. but to him who preservAs the life of a single individnal it is counted that he hath preserved the whole race. if one does not consider the following Hebrew passage: 2 " We find it said in the case of Cain who murdered his brother: The voice of thy brother's Lloods crieth. but which will be made clear by the following explanation.1~ 0"1. it shall be reckoned that he has slain the whole race. scrat. 10.I.. then said Adam. and at once he took Ahel's oorpse." One perceives here no connection at all.r:'1l.B "J:l!.'ry~ 0'. .3 It is not said here blood in the singular.q Wp'~ O'i?liJlj ?:tl tl?9 07ili '.)t. V. Man was created single in order to show that to him who kills a single individual. The verse accordiug to my translation runs thus: "Wherefore we commanded the children of Israel.? N~i'l!lI 0':11 il:l'1 Tl.e. ).'?¥. or committed wicked. i. before their eyes. ness in the earth." In the Quran a verse follows I which.! ?t':\'1it'~!.1<1:1 ~!. Compare the t. dog in the earth and hid it. but (plural).:l (singular). Another 1 SUra.~..1 ~ ~!O!1? i~j2.!!.1 N1:.?r nlJl. seems to stand in no connection with what has gone before. shall be as if he had saved the lives of aU mankind. 35.<\01 iJ'l'! .CAIN AND ABEL.l 'l.'l ". 5.?~~ '!.'t':\'1ip~~ nlJl:! 1li!J~ '*l:llplJ ?ilW '!J1I-'177 ". ':I~.he earth and hid it. not 0' ..l ~J'l19 . without having slain a soul.ched in t. I shall do as this raven has done. his own blood and the blood of his seed. i Miabna Sanhedrin IV.l'I N~~ Tl'l.ammad to this general digression j he had evidently received this rule from his informants when they related to him this particular event. iv. shall be as if he had slain all mankind. N29 O~ili O~i? ~"'~il :l~nillJ 8 Genoais.>l:l~ :l~1'1il" rT'f~~ O'i?~.

" 1 No one else is mentioned in this period excepting Idris 2 who.. Anteisla.. • <J""!)~I - . Elpberar on XIX.cs::.6. t~ c.S "And 'we nplifted him to l1 place on high.. XIX.ter he adds ~). XIX." and la.. 57.I~ A - S' uraB XIX. is Enoch.. .m.I "With 8D UDpointed ha. .n. _ U")~ ~l!:~. 57 SDyS: t.l "".r"'-I ". . Sura XL r. n He is the gra." He appears to have gained his name 5 on account of the knowledge of the Divine Law attributed to him.t. and Q.m _ A ~ • . a~d expre••ly remarks: ~ . allusion to Cain is fonnd in the fJnran in a passage where he is called the man" who has seduced among men..I. XXI. 6 Buras. pointed ha ..h.~.. 57.me Abolfeda. XLII. his name is Enoch .JI 0lJ1 (:)1 ~ \eLwl &..ica page 14) spella t... <J""!)~I~. 85." It is remarkable that in both these passages of the Qnran 6 he is mentioned after Isbmael.-I.lld ~ i" .. 68. 92. ~I.lIf~ Ji. """. Compare Genesis. XXI..t" (:)Y' . lOy .e--. 88.. Jalalu'ddin brings this point even more prominently forward' : 4 tt He lived in Paradise where he had been brought after he had tasted death j he was quickened however.. 85. This seems probable from the words. c. u-o.. according to the commentators. .82 JUDAISM AND ISW. • ID Maraeeio. =. and departed not thence again. ~ G." Sura. (Rist. 24 and the Tract Dersch Erez cited in Midrash Yalknt. v. 55. i~... is derived from. 58.J. 66.p." and also from a Jewish writing in which he is counted among the nine who went to Paradise alive..n whioh na. waw.ll ..).". Elpherar remarks: "He was called Idns (searcher) on acconnt of his earnest search in the revealed Scriptnres.ndfather of the fathel' of Noa.. OD Elpberar Surs XIX. i". <. oha. :1 DOD..

.l n7i17i? l-oI"~ 1:l7il'? n.:ll l'i?~J.l~rf Wib9 OWl:! 'i:l1f''i'71o/ ':11 ~" l1'iri'l n~'m ow ini~ 111':..1 11.Flood practised idolatry.T .i~ 1'11!!?'< ~m..a.) 0!.'1¥l? '''~'~1 ~'1 '" .l O'rPjf l:IJ.l ~~'~.. 111i.1W . '0/.l~ "7.1 1'J. said to him : 'Lord of the world.1 " 'I:> '~ O~~ ':l:!tl.1 1114 ~i:J1\ ~':m "~:ll~lJ ..r.ro/ I:l~~r.\ ~~1fil:"l ':.t!.-. l~~"!!' 0JZ1~ 0l:l '~~ ( 11~'~1 '~7~ Of l$.HAlll.~~? ~"~1 'lS1~1 '1t1l:tf/l O':.~il' "W .t~7il' ~ J..~n"")J:I? 1:l1~ ':l~ n!.l~. God was grieved at it.J.. and one event which is s~ated by the Rabbis to have taken place at this period is transferred by Mul}. Shamhazai and Azael.1i~t9 l:l'rP~ Compare ¥oma 67. . and two angels.J~ nv:r~~l ~~r:r I:l'<il ~"'<5n1 l:l'tP~ ~~f.l l1!?i' :Jl~ "1'l.!:! "lil ". tl~W 11.?i:l nv::tt!' .ll$rf 111:.'~. i.) "~1 O'~ill=il~ ':l'!. ' .~ n~ uii:!!?'? iol"=t1.?Q ':It¥ ~'9.. 2.l~ ~'?~? ~..r.' '~!... did 1 Midr.FIlOlll NOAH TO A8IlA.ll.. .:1'~r. Y&lknt Ch&p..l70 ~"l:ltV :Ji!11r. i...l ~11 '!J~"~Wi'~".l ''. l'1?'rP?t"l '. XLIV. Abhkhir quoted in Midr. Oil ~1:>~7i? '~7. ~::J!f:lW ':l~ ~"?lJ 1:l':.. ~'9:Vo/ n:. as it treats of angels and genii.~ O~:.~~ l-oI't1 r:.r ni~:lt. 26...'<1..l uii~.~ n.ll... 83 B.1 n~w"1 ~~7 1J::1 l:T?o/~ nlJ~ 11?'1 'lt11fW 11i:11 '~7.~ il:> n11f~ '7 '~7frfi7 ~7.'.l .l O!.~.l?!.~ nJ.) n~':.l~ l:Til . n"):. 11~.-From Noah to Abraham..mmad ~o Solomon's time.l~¥fr. Zohar on Genesis. to which he considered it better suited.) 1'1911'<1 nttl'"~ "'~il1 'n ' ~ '~ry "r. The Rabbinical passage runs thus: 1 "Rabbi Joseph was asked by his schclars:' What is Azael ? ' aud he auswered: When men at the time of the ... The corruption which spread in the time of Noah is not described with any details in the Quran.~ lJ~l':tm ~:l? l-oI"l ni!l~ ~'r. ~ t1l1!. ui '~"1 ~"9~ "'7¥ ~iJi 11~ 07il'l O!.~ . and Raahi.r "m~p ~t:Tl ..i'T ~b1 .~r nJ.1 V":)t$¥ "T~o/ l'tli1i2l? ~~~ '!J'~ "11l1:"l1 ni'1:!tl:! 0l? '~'.1 ~'9t' n:.~tl1 VJ~ "(:199~ n¥rv~ 11'i?1~ i:J 117.~ "l:li1\ ~11l..'7.J!J:I ow it.

. for these were beantiful.84 JUDA.. that ye may enjoy her for ever' .' 'Then give ns permission to live with men...o .the seven stars.. and yon wonld become even worse than ..' 'Go and live with them. and which seemed even to me at first. l'iii.. We find in Maraooiu... Azael was master of the meritricious arts and trinkets of women which beguile men to immoral thoughts.. Then God said: 'Because she tnrned herself from sin. lust would overcome you. Yalknt..n authors.ND ISLAM. we not sa.eIJ ~ .~ ." It is evident that this story is alluded to in the passage in the Qnran..' He taught her this name which she then nttered and rose unspotted to heaven. Bnt they lived in immorality with the danghters of men.hall a conjectnre. say about the angels..~~ \lIS:! I.y unto Thee at the creation: 'wnat is man that Thou art mindful of him?' I But He said: 'What shall become of the world?' They answered: 'We wonld have made use of it.. and so she was fastened into the Pleiades... s During this state of 1 Psalm. 5.. teaohest me the explicit name of God. reoeives fall corroboration from that which later Arabia. well I fasten her between .. Then they' took wives and beget sons.I) .. ~»\i 3 This oonnectiou llnd oomparillOn which might wen appear verY doubtfal. 82..ISM A.man.me Istahar.... quite in harmony with the Mid.' to which she replied: ' I will not listen to thee nntil thon.' Then Shamhazai saw a maiden by na. Hiwwa and Hiyya. the following: JIAl J-)\ ~. 96.\ '-"" ~ t:l"" ~\ . He cast his eyes on her and said: ' Listen to me... and Thou wilt see how we shall sanctify Thy name. if you lived on the earth.~ JU ) "". through the mention of which thou risest to heaven.2 where the two angels Harut and M~rut are said to have taught men a charm by which they might cause division between a man and his wife.. and they could not tame their lusts.~\. .I}\ d \:l~ ~y\ ~\ ~ \»~\ ..>.' 'But it is well-known to Me that. I SUra II. nothing more t. ~.s Prodromi i".

\s. God is going to bring a flood upon you.iii 'oW ~ C~ :Muja.~ ~ \... 48. 5 rofers to Noah. thl'lD their Lord (God) said to them: C Choose out two of you. LIV. just like the Y..1 Q\:liM lJ':.-~.. for Apostles bad already been Bent to them.+l' ". that the woman through whom they were led astray was a human woman. 18.. * 1.. 9-18..lkntiah ".''' Other particulars \.mmad sayB: 'Yabya.T7 "~t.wu \aT» . • Sanhedrin 108. .. LXXI.. but ahe fled and went back to where ahe was before .u.. 78-81. XXVI. XXXVII. I-end. 1.WI .:u:i.. par.t and Marut were chosen.~ ~ i..' The union of these two views is to be found in the passagefl quoted from Midrssh Yalkut.. however..lO lJj M~y~ '~iJ Ci!~ "l.nrTOH for the Hebrew.Il.1l\ J'>I C. and I will send them that they ma.:\lfl?l:l' like "f:lt?l:l the Persian ~)I..Jy u"- .)" . 1 BUras VII. He builds himself the Ark and is saved.'~ 1ii.:... 14. According to rabbinical writings.T' 'jiiitl7 Ii:'...ru. teaching men and seeking by exhortation to turn them from their evil ways.l~ 'n '~ . XXII. states OD a..1.y judge npon earth.. 26 tho Targnm puts -.. "who rebuked them and spake to them words as severe as flames.:\1 SI..FROM NOAR TO ABRARAM.r"}1 ~ ..~tP nir:lq..:.'?~ M':. for what purpose is this ark 7' He.1 . .. ""I ~I . X........' Then Ba. 14... xii. 67-68..hrah (the star Venus.jtl ~'1..:. Midrash Rnbbah on Genesis.1 nlil7 iT M..... XXV. XXIX. as Noah in this way is a type of himself... Old man.. and serves Mul.. In Job :x......... 28-82.. but they scorned him and said: . 1.. ily-I i).. XXIII. 72-75... 27-60. and they judged righteously.id: .nothe:r: authority than that of Mnjahid. 80 and ss. 85 corruption of morals Noah appears.l7 ::l'lJf"! Ml.I ""'~ ~ ~ .uQa.) ?~.M. sa.1 7~::I "!.2 Job. XI. ~yl =)Uoi \e-Al .iW came in the form of a moat beautiful womBn and complained about her husband. while the rest of the people perish) His whole appearance as an admonisher and seer is not Biblical but Rabbinical. 89.1ol7 "'::I~l:I ntl C1.litl j'l''1). till Ze. also on Ecclesiaate8~ ix.1ammad's ends perfectly.hid says: The angels wondered at the wickedneBS ot tbe sons of Adam. 105-121..1 i? ~"!?1 ir1iM 1'~:. and the Greak aUT11P). JU .I tl'1'!i7f tl'tPij tl'''\:t'l tl!.. They were led astray by her and lusted after her. (Comp.

.I l-r:'J. Midr. ix. ~I.6 although he is silent as to wherein her unbelief oonsisted.bbinical tradition.butous referenoes. 44. and XXIII.":ll~. Sectloo NOBh.) nndll1'8ta. 4 This idea probably arose from a misunderstauding of H"m's evil oonduot after the Deluge. XI.:S (oompare ~na8iBJ ix.l. Genesis. 22 ffr The commentators actnally call this BOn Canaan. 1 Slim XI. and he represents one of Noah's sons as disobedient to him. Rosh Hashanah 16.. • sUra LXVI. 10. . 42.~ jli.meraHoQ of the Bons.hree nnly. 8 Slim XXIX..g. I Su.5 MutLammad also makes out Noah's wife to have bean nnbelieving. vi•. which is not mantioned either in the Bible or in the Rabbinioal writings. .l'h~ . 46.. ('L. . 40 Ot. ~'\':r. but believed himself safe on a mountain peak. and states that this same B{)n did not follow him into the Ark. 48.. Of. 5 Genesis.:r "'1i'I The Arabia Oommentators BOOm to me to have quite misunderstood. 27.:rmed by & oomparison with tbe Talmadio utteraace.' appears to me sufficient-Iy confi. (.ammad makes Noah to have lived 950 years before the Flood.s whereas this is really the whole term of his life." Still many inaoouracies aud perversions are to ~ found.. those paasage8. Orient. in this way.)l. Tall<lhuma.m l'~~~' 'I!l7?~ l'i?~1? 'l'y ju. NOBh..tioo) which is: justified by Do figutativ9 interpretation of the words i And tha oven glows. 18. Also V'lIerbelot (Bib. page 671." 1 aooords with "They mocked and laughed at him iu their words. SiDoe they assume t". ('.. also llooord with Ra.nds . 2... XI. 29. ix. e. Of. • Su. Mul).~ t:l'." "The waters of the Flood were hot.. Oal" explana. 25 if) aUhough they. and I can lind no reason for this statement. like the Bible. aud &nhedrin lOB.86 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. do not reckon any 50Q or this nama in their enu. for instanoe. but count these t. "The people laughed at the ark.." 2 with "The generation of the deluge was punished with hot water.

Thus he puts into the month of Lnqman. viz. Third Section . 61.FROM NOAR TO ABRAHAM. yet he makes him say everything which is not clearly contrary to the historical facts related about him. that he is a mere preacher.Lammad. While these vari!>tions are due to errors and to the confusion cf different times and events. S3. I Sura XXXI. and for this he asked no reward. and if it had not been ratller that he saw evorything from his own distorted point of 1 The wor. 11 If. 109..ammad had written it down with full consideration of Noah's position as one threatening the world with punishment.4 But he was divinely commissioned to warn the people. was saved in a miraculous way.2 words suitable to his own circumstances and opinions. 110 that we may use it from DOW on without fllrther explanatory oomtQent.s and did not pretend to bo anyone wonderful or supernatnra1. and speaking in his spirit. 3 Sura VII. 5 0 sancta simplicitas lone would exclaim in considering this last point. Noah although he worked no miracle.Lammad cannot put into his mouth the same words which he nses of himself. was misled by the analogy of the wiIe of Lot. and so Mu!. And of this kind are those details not mentioned in Jewish History. which represent Noah as one ocoupying the same position as Mu!.d.ined in the Firat Division. as a wise man known to the Arabs. aDd XXVr.lready Buffioiently expla. .amma. This is the case not only with Noah. 3J. iI Mn!). • Sum Xl. others are to be ascribed to deliberate 1 alteration and elaboration. • Sum X I. He was only an nnimportant man. and the same thing happens in the case of Noah and the other preachers of Jewish history to whom he alludes.d Ie deliberate U is to be und~rstood in the se-nSG a. who is mentioned in the same context. as well as ascribes to other forerunners of himself after Noah's time. This applies particnlarly to that which is pnt into his mouth as admonisher. but with aU who appear in the character of the righteous in any evil age. 87 Porh!>ps Mu!).

viow.ell ~. insolent behaviour is mentioned in the Scripture. Rabbah on Genesis. IS. believed that the name in question was that in use at the time. The Jews.:)'i' ~)' (.1ammad from God (or Gabriel). to whom it was known that their nsme was derived from an ancestor.>"e Yshud. para. (j and says direct..l'l ~l. VII. of the Jews round abont him. and in which the littla word (translated " speak ") I actually occurs.) .. ""'1~V . 6 His time is that in which a second punitive judgment from God on acconnt of bold.? • "1' ." (Genesis.88 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. 3 This seems II striking example of the ignorance of Mul.1l1mmad.:.)'f '-oSJ. Among the A. '6 "'1n~ Yahlidi. and that the ancestor therefore was this patriarch Hiid.~p 1.. According to the Rabbinical opinion 4 the name Hebrew is derived from Eber. • Elpherar (ou Su. ~. XXIX. iv.).- from .rabs sometimes. often "1' HUd. xiV'.l~ 'W. the &utbor of the book •• ti (. which is always regarded as a word of address to Mul... The same thing will be noted further on in the case of Abraham.:. I Ji XI.ly Hud is j. as it appears to me more probable here. 92.:jl~ K~M~ ''"l:t~y C'Pl::1? n Abram was called the Hebrew because be was descended Crom EL('r." (Mar. . but in later times this name was almost entirely forgotten and the name Jew 5 was commonly nsed. In another place he goes so far as to interpolate n verse into Noah's discourse.logy the following correot one.r'- (.~.~*' Compare Mid.. . 53) give••Iong with an incorrect gene. which is entirely character.'~. m0re . istic of his own.. and was determined to make every thing accord with his ideas. or. Prod. 37. 42. Cf. After Noah the next mentioned is Had 2 who is evidently the Biblical Eber. 19' 3 . '.

agrees perfectly with the Rabbinical view expressed as follows: 7 "And it came to I BUras VII.TOWER OJ!' BABlIL.h on Genesis.?il1 .-.j~. 402.!ij • sUra XXVI. 88.. ri. 9. since the children of Ad are here reproached for obeying the command of every contumacious hero. XXVI. 5-9.. 40. 41.. under the heading Nimrod. 8. 7 Midr. c.. 43.And ye erect magnificent works.. 37. Oompare Genesis..~ 15 D'Herbelot. 83-' XXV. 62.:1 Of.l In order to have the right to refer what is said about Hild to the time of the oonfusion of tongues.2 we must adduoe some particulars which point to this reference. ~.. .rabic commentators take it that the buildings would afford them a perpetual dwelling-place... 32. 13..4 In one passage5 there appears to be a reference to Nimrod...'r.~i . LXIX. XI. or. • n. where Nimrod's surname is always .. XXIII. XL. 20-25.)l'.t" ~ll'l¥ry C"J~.\. GeneBiB .JS.. • sUra XI. 89 and this is treated of in several chapters of the Quran. Rabba. asserts that the Arabiana connect Nimrod with the building of the Tower. 50. The following verse S possibly refers to the building of the 'rower: ". XLI. 63-71.. LIlI. hoping that ye may continue for ever. " make by bnilding it an everlasting name for yourselves. par. LXXXIX. for the statements are very general in their tenour and might be referred to other occurrences.iij .." -9. 4. XXII.(. L. X&VI." The neighbourhood is oalled in the Quran the "Possessor of Pillars. 129.. as the Rabbis oall it. who lived at this time and in this region." The A.6 The idea that they were idolators...j . XXIX.stJ ~c. the Dispersion. 123-141.. 12-16.i '.~ i~it:l-m~ 19.2l.... • Sura LXXXIX. ~. XXXVIII. 18-22. 11.. 60 "'':f . LIV.. whioh is brought up against them in all the passages in the Qurin. :1::.~ Ct'l?f~ 'ry~l M . 52-64. but the verse might also mean.i. 2. L1.

ammad's treatment the essential point of the puuishment is lost sight of.J:ii.nhedrin X.tT ory? PI:! n1 ?l?lJ . 23/f. > XLI.~1 ~~b ~"'f~ n~?!?lJ . LI.:! o. 'n O~'!tq 9rp~~ • SU. he speaks of an absolute annihilation of the sinners by a poisonous wind. Exodus. to practice idolatry)..ammad's motives in making the alteration. zX. Mishna Sa.·W~ ~~? n\?:>. 128.i':f nr. In Mul).90 JUDAISM AND ISL. . 19. 9.bll pass when they journeyed from the beginning (East). LIV. Resemblances are also to be found with reference to the punishment which overtook them. for the twice-mentioued dispersion applies to this world and the other..5 One sees at once the mistaken sonrce from which this change is derived." Mul). 6.~l(! lol.. And the Rabbis tell us 2 that the race of the dispersion contemplated' building a tower and putting an idol on its summit.?i:p. to play.ammad says of these people 1 that they bnilt an (idolatrous) symbol on every high place in.e.6/f. Mul. when they withdrew themselves from Him Who is the beginning of the world. LXIX. 8. We recognize partly from our knowledge of Mul).i':f iWlol"f n1+ .J. o'fp~1 . n1'i:l>'.1ilol ~.>ammad tells us S they were followed in this world by a curse.l OJ.41. and partly from the minuteness with which 1 Sura XXVI. and that they shall be followed by the same on the day of resurrection.. 3. order to play there (i. Oompare j?tTi>': .:! O?i:P? i'7.:! O'{ill~ oOi~ 'n V\?~l V1~r. and the Rabbis say 4 that the ra. lij.J-'~ '~!f '11 Orpl... XLVI.ce of the dispersion had no part in the next world. that is to say. Genesis J xi. for instead of describing it as a simple dispersion and confusion of tongues. 'n V~~ "~.

Much also is said of the school of Eber. But of the fact that Eber preached to the people. not a traoe is to be found. for Jacob's sojonrn in the home of Eber. 62.n I'j~"=¥ J7. • Sura XI. 91 the new punishment is described.'-".. and Rebekah is aaid to have gone there j for it is written: "She went to enquire of the Lord. Seder 'Olam quoted in Midra. . Decided traces of this are certainly to be found in Jewish writinge...2 where we are told that Eber was a great prophet. tlw-n~ ~l1o/.! ':>i.TOWEB OF BABEL. "~l? M. . 58.1j iJ:p. xxv. The remaining deviations and additions.I'." 4 and Jacob is supposed to have stayed there for fourteen years.5 One point still remaius to be cleared up.. who by the Roly Spirit called his son Pelag.~ N'=1:j VJI. 22. by oonfusion with Mu1).68. still lesa of the faot that he took no reward from them. . which would not have been accorded to a fiction.ammad's own time and person. Genesis. ::1:. XXVI.r. 87.. why the race under discussion is oalled in the 1 SUra XXIII. pa.68. because in his days the earth was divided 8 (which Eber had known beforehand). who delight in minute descriptions of punishment.' 3 Mi'm "~~=t ':ll 'JW .ammad places great stress. Also pa. Midr. he being their brother (on which Mu1). W"i~.!i. . are oaused. Ohap. 127. This is the case when he transfers 'unbelief in the resnrrection to the time of Rnd and counta it among the sins of that time whioh were worthy of punishment. as we have already remarked in the case of Noah. particularly the latter... It appears therefore that the history reached this development in the mouth of the people.! This is seen too especially in the great importance assigned to Eber and to his desire to turn the people from their evil ways.sh Yalkut. 26. Genesis. because he himself was sent aa an Arab to the Arabs). Rabbah on Genesis.

4 where the fact itself is brought forward much more in accordance with the Biblical account. but God came into their building to overthrow it from the foundation. and the roof fell on them from above and a punishment came upon them which they did not expect. 2 Nevertheless it seems to have come about chiefly from the fact that all these occurrences are describod with an Arabian colouring. whence it comes that he transfers the events to the land of Aram or Iram. before this the language of men was Syriac. 6. (o) • • Sura XVI. assert that befo. but quite withotlt specification of time or persons: "Their predecessors devised plats heretofore. and so they oould not finish it. th"n they spoke . and further: "And wheu the tower fell the language of men became llonfused.n the people of Ad) The C0mmentators state that Ad was the son of Uz. In another passage there is an allusion to this occurrence. Qura. SUra LXXXIX.92 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.eventy-three languages. . on this account the city was oalled Babel (confusion). 3 Poe. the son of Noah. Speo. the Bon of Canaan. who built a tower in Babel iu order that he might mouut to heaven"." The Rabbis. amongst which an ancient extinct one had the name of Ad . 3 perhaps in it there is also an etymological reference to a "return" to the early evil conduct of the generation of the Deluge. the son of Shem. the son of Aram. too. 28. 3 . . and so they were attributed to Arab tribes.e this "'"IJ." On this Elpherar remarks: 5 "These Itre Nimrod.) p. and Mul)ammad seems also to have been of this opinion.

64-72. 48 and LIll.TOW~R OF BABEL. L. LUI. Thie narrative is about !?amud.1 and adds that Nimrod built the Tower "in order that he might mount out of it into heaven to wage war with the inhabitants thereot" 2 But the identity of this narrative with that of Rnd and Ad is no more accepted by Abulfeda 3 than it is by Elpherar and Jalalu'd-din. it actually precedes the story of the Deluge.raoo. on the passa. 1 The passages whioh treat of this are the following :-SUt'&8 VII. 93 men spoke in Hebrew. 23-33. 18. 6 Po•• Spe•. ~C Stllih. In Suras LI.a.S §amud. But in the case of another narrative which follows this one in almost all the passages of the Quran. s ~. XXVI. 46-55. 40. XXXVIII. and LXIX. :J . ~\ . 87. where it preoedes. XXVII. II-IS. LXXXV. XXIX. XXII. and thus no ohronological order is followed. 51. 1 !:Ia.M .. LXIX. 8. 71-78. 4. AnteisM. 18. yet the identity of the two can be shown by putting this and that together. 8.-11 . LXXXIX. JaIGJu'd-din says the same thing. 12.4 it is very difficult to find out the subject of which it treats and the Bible characters to which it refers.JI 6. 61. LtV. . 43.5 which like Ad is an ancient extinct Arab tribe. 18 snd 20. In the former of these two passages it precedes the story of the Midianites a) so. XLI.mud on account of the rhyme. XCI. 12. 12.. XI. and in SUrs. LXXXV.1. but afterwards in seventy languages. 82.ge. XXV. LI.l Rist. p. 48-46.. 4-6. 12-18..6 to whom their brother Salih was sent when they fell into sin. and by explaining the way in which the individual differences arose. XL.miea.7 Salih is said to have exhorted the !?amndites to righteousness and to have commended to them a certain she-camel as especially nnder divine protection. Pharoah is placed before §a.JlJI"l . even on the view that Rnd is the same as Eber. Although the colouring of this narrative as given in the Quran differs muoh from that of the Biblioal account. t Except in BUras L.. pp. 141-160.

the son of Shem.a however a different genealogy for SAlib in bis comment on Sura VII. and so divine punisbment o"er. Lite~". (Maraec. < • Genesis. (Compare De Sa. of Lot in connection with Abram 5 and of the Midianites are given e-arlier. 4 On the whole. 47 5 110. . 12. 24. becanse in this PAssage where chronological order SgemH to be observed. x. " y _ (. This is also D'Hel'belot's view. 71.ppears improbable. 80 are supposed to be the same as the §amuditesJ as" Elpherar also says j but this opinion has DO foundation and a.7 Moreover §amtid was.) "'W c3l.. the stories of Abram and the Angela. 6. Orient. In.. which fits in fairly well with the date all'eady assigned to Shelah..>~~ :i. pp. nnder BAllli. he even bade them share water with her..ainty as having been originally a proper name. I find nO similar OOOUl'l'ence in Jewish writings.~~ tJ~'s-.J "to dema. 6 It is however impossible 1 Sura.. S Perhaps the story of the houghing is founded on the words in Jacob's blessing of his sons."'U ben 'Ali Qsserta howevel'that SAlih lived after E(ld. in a copy of the Samal'itan Arabic tr&uslation of the Pentat~uch M?W' is t.:11 . 5 Later AmbianB call Shelah also as in the passage quoted above trom Elpharar. Prodr" iv. XCI..6 and the sharing of the water on the etymology of the name ~amtid. 49. 1 From g The . the son of Gether the san of Aram.W ~. the son of Noah. 93).A:t:oOl mentioned in Sura XV. . 1 But the unbelievers of his time (according to oue passage 2 only nine in pumber) hamstrung her.nd water. who give...ibliothek der Bibl. See his Bib. B See Genesis. X. would have deserved mention before him. as the father of Eber. the word is so general in its meaning of "a pions man" that we cannot trent it here with c'ert. BUra XXVII. Stm.l'analated by ~\.ay in Eiohhorn's B. according to the commentators." ~. LIV 28.:. e Ism.94 JUDAISM AND IsLAM.ook them. xliJ:. but the likeness of the name points to Shelah 3 who however.

~~~ ~\ft~ ~\SI:'. Tbe meaning is. VI.. but he was a believer iu the uni... oIlI In 0'''...jUS ")r!' J..... 60. 124. 'My commn. Abraham's faith 2 is that which is preached in the Quran.ns disputed about Abra.~.II J<o/~" 'r'h '*'" <Il' .. 3 He was a believer in the unity of God. They appealed to M.ham.-Abraham to Moses.J..nd thereupon ca." 6 1 ~ . and ea-cb party believed they could connt him on their side... 124. 8(lra II.> . 95 for me to give any more exact explanation from J ewiBh writings. so similar to his own. ~.:JI * ..s.~ ..ABRAIIAM TO MOSES.~.>' "1~\:R.!'P1:1 l1r. U--r . Jy. and kept M.l'J .. given up to God (a Muslim).... 5. i'I~~ .1..'P' <s)I.. r. and though their condition. d . and the one with whom he liked best to compare himself and to make out as one with himself iu opinion.. 4 ~ . yet Abraham 1 was his great prototype.me this revelation.y charg-c.. C.ltp u Ollr forcf::Lth~l' Abr. XVI.. Sura II. that Judaism and Christianity first came into existence by the sending ot the Law through MOSBS and the Gosp~l throngh Jesus..use Abl'ahnm obeyod 'My voice. .?1:1 C!J7 ''<ii'~ C.ro".. fOl' it ill written (Genesis..". xni. 129.". (5 (:..xviii.ul}ammad a.l.y-l &. ~ Ij.. 3 SiIra X VI.ndmcutil..> .o/...y of God. 2).]a "The Jews and the Christia. ...j J .tammad.)...1> That this is the Jewish view is shown by the following passage :- "1o/~ :JR.) x."...." (Yom.): U Bec:l... encouraged him as weI! as verified his statements... Though the saints mentioned earlier bore some likeness to MuJ:..Iyo-JI.l Cy. nora Christian. On this Bllidh<iwi has the following: . "My statutes and lly laws. the man of whom he thol1ght most highly. 134.. III. 4 He was neither Jew nor Christian for it is written: 5 "Abraham was not a Jew."l1'1'1iJ . 121..o.Cs' ~ . J5 .<\ .:\ham observed the whole Law.. 79.~ "'1$ ~":)I... . ~9 ~.

we first come across the beautiful legend of his attaining to the true knowledge of God.5 This opinion is also held by the Rabbis. 4-6. •Sura IV. lead us to expect much about him in the Quran..96 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. He sought thus to convince the people. XXI. VI. 124. Passing to the events of his life. 42-61. S8. LX... but that he was rescued from that fate by divine intervention. XXXVI!.. 1 Suras IX. S " Terah was an idolator: once 1 . LX. Sunna 396.4 and to have composed books. J. XXVI. 74-82. which Judaism offered. 119 if. putting the staff into the hand of the largest. It is to him that the foundiJ?g of the Ka'bah is traced back. 40. XXI. ~)4 ~\fl' m. and.. 81-96. Weare told also how he tried to persuade his father and his people thereto.l'tl? I. XXIX. XIX. XLIII. .ul ~ 3 SUra II. XXIX.\. 69106. many of whom attribute to Abraham the well-known cabll.. 25-2B. on Genesis. 86-194. 116.. 8 Sura. XXXVII. 4. 62-69. II. XXII. 2 Abraham's importance and the rich legendary material concerniDg him. He is represented as the friel'd of God. who quite perceived the impossibility of the idols ha. Sura XIV.Y ""l/J~? i'''? J1.. ~ MidraBh Rabbn. XXVI.listic and undoubtedly very ancient Sepher Jazirsb. and our expectation is not disappointed. where we read as follows.r C'r. 260. 6 Abraham is represented as praying in vain that )lis father might be released from the punishment of hell.ving done it.-. 43.:?. since they could not move. 19.) . s The whole story is taken from the Rabbinical writings. 16-23. wanted to have him burnt alive.s He is supposed to have lived in the Temple.y~. A special instance of this was when he destroyed the idols. ' • Su.l and this is his name throughout the East. attributed the action to him. n"lJ:. 95-99. 5 LxxXVn.a. 23-27. 69-74.7 We are told too that the people.'l'( i/J . embittered by Abraham's conduct towards the idols. but they were not thereby persuaded. CY1=1~? :l'. para..

I Ti~~t# Ti7t.'1~ n~b1 "~'Q 1ol1t:! J:l1':+ ~'\'~ j:T7.W ~11l?~ 'T"~ ' 2 'I.W? l'I-'.".~1 ~ ~1jI)lI»1 \:I~) ~ ~J ~.qf::1tr!. ' ~ H~~ l'~tp1 ~.? 'T~~~ '7...S~ "'" J.r.'~.! 1ol~'1 ':>'~~1 Wt:ly 7tP=t=t'? 1 Abulfede.J~"'? 'T~.~ M~!11. 'Who would JJuy that '"hich harms him and does him J:W good P1 n 1'1 * . put this before them. '1.l Cl.?~? "M~"1¥:ll "~9~ l'1tl 1'11 '~1i2 '?~.<\.. '"1I.'2.l '9'~t# 111.> TiJ:.'':11 1'J:l~ iH l'~l?/J ':1.:l"" r..1 li~Z1t11 "I}?~ '.9~1 t:l!.!$ ::l':lif ~? HtT ..l? '. 'Here.) ~) rv. with a dish of wheat and said.:P.9~ .'2 l'~~ o~ loly~' '?:.~ "J9r. '1$ .q ..fi lolW? "'!~!:I"l 1olr. Abraham asked him his age.r'l \" I.1 ~. '~ lol. I am fifty.> '9'~.t.:. 97 he went away and left Abraham to sell his idols. If he roplied..7 'W~l " '1. '1$ lor.1tl M9 '7. '~..r'2 "''7.1J<l ~Ql '1. ~'<'Q'1 lin. but Abraham.:.l '9'?'~~1 . Whenever a buyer oame."'1 W~=llJ.:> M~qf::1o/!.:)~ I. or sixty years old. atloid.~.. II.ABRAHAM TO MOSES.ther of Abraham made idols and J:Ierved th em and bade Abraham sell them.'1 ..r'7 lo1~'\'tp ~~ 'm::l~ ~.:\1 1ol:1f'1 l'1y t:lif ~ii2 ':>=<"l:i ~~ '11.~ '~~ ':v-ro/7.~ n:}~~l n?b'1 .r'7.~ 1olV-l r... .1 "1i:i1 1oM~ H-'Inr.' 1 Onoe a woman oame.9'1 1ol~:W '.1 7'1 Tilq "I'I'~'W.j 1'l7. ~ Mll:!1 l'1l! l'~~ M~~ .~ ~t1 'l..f-1 nJJ~ l~! 'TO i':> .l.! lol1tl 7'!l~~'1 lol. Abraham Baid: 'Woo to the man of sixty who desires to worship the work of a day.i1' 'T~'9~ 7~ t:l~ ''i.ge 20) says: ~1j1 \:II.. 'I. '1 r.! "Azar the fa.? ::l':lif .11~~ 7'~tP ':.' n-.! 7~~~ 1':1(1.ilol? lol~~ Ti~.t'1':+ 1oll?'?R~ ::l~~ ~1 liM'~liZ i::lin=¥ 'iJ:('.l .> '~~ '-.~.?1.J1=?-l 'T~ ~~1ij!.r:m lil1'~li{ ~'m~ ::lO? ""'~'~ Ti1'.q~~ l'I.~~ M.1.~ ~ My-! NilTir:t 'db M.> '1:1 '7..'.¥~ '~=1~ M~ '? '1$ l'J~ liM? 'T~~ llfl j:T'i.'! n~ l"M'~':jj Tilt!1 H41'1i iol1'i1 H9'?i?~ ::l. po.9~ '..?o/l.l~ ~~.. (Hid. so that the buyer went away ashamed.1 loly~"'? ' 7.l 1oI'?1 ''i.? 'T~q~ 1ol1T:1 ~ .l ~1j1 J-'>.li' .::\l 1~1~ ~ ').. '1.l1.'I lolL! r. bat Abraham took a stiok and beat down all the . Anteislc£mica.l ~~ lon.? '~..<> Ia-.? n:.~..~.

bnt was saved from it.~ ~i:l~ l'1f.r'. xv.' 'Rather the wind which scatters the cloud. 'Why shculd I deny it?' A woman Came with a dish of wheat and bade me set it in front of them.l seems to directly contradict the Jewish view aa expressed in the ~ol1cwing passage.1~1 ~"=ln J~ ~ See Genesis. a Rabbinical saying 3 declares as a general rule tbat "the son makes the father clean. I had scarcely done so when each wanted to eat before the other. but not the father the son. 38. C'' rr:1t . 1&.. When his father returned. and the greatest beat them aU down with the stick which he had in his hand.z 'i1!'7i ~'7 ~=¥l::1 ~~~ 'i1!t? ~'p . on Genesis..' Abraham was then thrown into a glowing fnrnace." Further.' ' Rather men.o/~ a Sanhedrin 10~. 115.cession for his father is not mentioned in Jewish writings. it was shown to Abraham that his father was a partaker in eternal life.? tz!. arriving at a clearer understanding. Terah said: "What art thou inventing for me? Have they then understanding?' Abraham replied." The inter.nds of the largest idol. lind that this was fruitless.' Nimrod at this became angry and said: 'Tholl art only making a speech.ammad very often combats 1 Sura IX." But MIl1). 'Do thine ears not hear what thy month says?' Then Terah took him and gave him over to Nimrod.Zl.98 JUDAISM AND lStAH. 2 "By the words.~t!? i. he said. 2 Midrash Rabba. thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace.:.' 'The cloud then. The God whom thou dost worship may come and save thee out of it.' 'Rather the cloud which carries water. 'Who has dcne this f' On which Abraham replied. para. which extinguishes fire. who endure the wind.i::lt! . I worship fire and will throw thee into it. i'?Cl ~':.. f T tor):. who said: 'We will worship fire.' 'The wind then. idols. desisted from his attempt.' Abraham said: 'Rather water.. and put the stick into the '". yea that Abraham.' Nimrod replied: 'Water then.!. c"?i'J)'l.

.. 99 this view and the similar one that the merits of ancestors ccunt for good to their posterity. 26. Mn!).ammad appears sometimes to have so confounded himself with Abraham that. • S{lra XXVI. Anothsr circumstance which is mentioned in the Quran. but tnrned to Abraham's opinion after the deliverance of the lattar.3 may possibly have arisen from a passage in the Midrash immediately following that qnoted above. where the MidrlLSh has one with his father only. still the words here seem rather forced into hin speech.ammad brings forward a dialogue between Abraham and the people. which says that Haran the father of Lot was at first irresolnte. 128. they have what they gained and ye shall have what ye gain. In one passage 4 a long description of Helland Paradise is found.. 135. and thns falls from the pari of narrator into that of admonisher. is chiefly derived from the acconnt given of his subsequent life. Hnd and Salih. and indeed in one verse we find the word " say" which is to be regarded in the Quran as the stand• n':lN n':ll ' SUra II. and it is probably for this reason that Mn4ammad connects him with the eveut jnst related. is explained by the fact that Abraham is intended to be a type of Mu4ammad. however. 71.. and so it is necessary that he should be represented as a public preaoher. The idea of Lot's conversion. Haran however failed in the ordeal of fire to which he w. in the middle of speeches ascribed to the latter. viz.5 the declaration that those who came before had also been charged with imposture.ABRAHAM TO MOSES.! For example he says: " That people (the Patriarchs) are now passed away. No doubt Abrah. and in another.. 3 BUl'RS XXI. • Sura XXIX. 88-104. 17-23. and ye shall not be questioned concerning that which they have done. then snbjeoted. XXI~. that Lot became a believer with and through Abraham. in which he shows himself to be a picDJ! man. he indulges in digressions nnsuitable to any but himself.m might have said this with reference to Noah. ." 2 That Mul).

iug address of God (or Gabriel) to Mu!).li "It is said that.! This view renders it unnecessary to adopt the desperate expedient of Wahl.1.i ..:Oll\l> J'" ".100 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. 9.II JA::lI.zar s is at first sight not olear.tiv9 and had to paBB over to another argnment. JIAl 1eI".. N.. he is not oontent with making Abraham preaoh against idolatry. Abrabsm answered: 'Quiokeniog is brougbt about by the ratom of the spirit to the body.co. Sura II..m could not a.. The true explanation is rather Mu!). 5 GaneBisJ XV. after Nimrod had said: 'I make a.lflj 7'* n':f 7 n.1.1iiI ". Abraha..I ~~I <:II JU .u il.2 The laok however of full oertainty about this dootrine S oaused Abraham.. he represents him alao as teaohing the dootrine of the Resurreotion of the dead. Eusebius calls him Athar 10 whioh is an easy transition from Thara. aocording to the Mu!).. Al'Ubic. or an interpolation. 260.I JU W J. Oompare above on Noah.live and I kill. namely Eusebius.. In his Churoh History.J:1 8 SUra VI.}1 e. (whose name is given in the Bible as Ters.ammsd oame to call Abraham's father...ammadan view.h.aI J/l <:I1)oliIi . How Mu!). who supposes a trausposition of verses. )j' -~ . . 3 Baidbil. 260). ft..l""1 J c.7 A... if it were put to him again.jl &-olooI ~".ammad. 81.nswer in the affinna. Ploor. iv...-.6 a view whioh is foreign to Judaism. in order that his mind might be easy about an answer to this question.. II.fii ..of ~I)l. Further. XXVI. 'ii' h(')'I1C6 G Pointed out by Mara.. and then was vouohsafed to him what the Rabbis oa1l 4 the "covenant between the divided pieoes!' ~ He was oonvinoed through the faot that the divided birds oome together again and became living..' (II. 262.. C'''J. 262 : I • SUras II. 90..' " 'A()ap from FJapa.. but is oompletely explained when we oonsfder the source S of his inforJlllloo tion.ammad's entire identifioation of Abraham with himself. On this he prayed to the Lord for Bome revolation. ... to pray for a tangible proof of it...U * = .' Nimrod replied: 'Hast thou then seen that (.wi 8&ys on Bm'll..<:II .. .s ill) JI. -'..s~I By$-.

pp..J~ • BnbnMozia..1» ~ lo. .ABBAlIAK TO MOSllf1.ljl n!.I!"7 ~~!...it1'?~ ~'':1tP' ~"?lfoo/ nl.~\1 cl! JIlIj ..AntsislOmica.l The reason which is given by some Arabic commentators 2 is ridiculous. l:I'~.l " ~l:l\~ toI. too... • sUr" XI. .. 72.l.j~ .: &sJl4l\ J. 71.l~ ~""I:l to/!.l l:I. 101 and then the Greek Athar was easily converted iuto the Arabic Azar.}4 "l. SG.. J~ ~ ~. t)1:s ~ <:l~v.nd stepped back in fea. 0. LI."lft\ ~\ fb 1:>l.." lmd in another passage 9 it is sa.»'. In one passage of the Ta. on the pa. Be. though somnge to eay whenever they speak of Abraham they use the name but when on othet' occasions they mention Abraham's father. Also on Sura. Ho say' fb.mes are the same-. 24-88. 51-61. XXIX.1».\ ~\ The loet ~\ here rarers again to Leo.. perverted one.r. (whioh is shown by the mannsr of wrioing ~\ wHh an alif) jnst as later Abraham is called tho ~. t)l:s.? ~''!~ I1jrfll '.l'.6 whom he receives as guests. 80-82. Thus Elpherar on BUm VII.l. . 72-19.~ " By mesaangors he means Angels.3 and that this means: 4 "0..l .:! iJ'i'jl1 tolj7?lil ~"?l.. I. t}3 ~ l. on whioh Elpherar remark.sage. 18 and 20.id 1 Aooording to the TArikh Yl111takhob. ~":. s We now pass on to the more mature married life of Abraham and come to his mee.." and Abraham is supposed to have thus addressed his idolatrous father. . BOQ Elpheraron Sura XXXI.. .it • Bno later Arabs know the right name t)3 . ~ by fb. 2. Elpherar bas the following: ~ f:)1!. erring one.."lft\ ." 7 Genesis. whereupon they announced to him that he would have a Bon and told him also of the coming destruction of Sodom. ?S: t)1:s ~ <:ll.).J~1 n~~.lmud S we read: <t They appeared to him nothing else but Arabs. xviii. nnder Abraham. Buras XI. 3 .>t. t\ Attention is more rarely called to tho fact that both na. Amr WllB the fother of Th.. Vide MarllOO.7 Abraham took them for Arabs... uncle of Lot.ting with the angels. they call him by the ooher name.. They maintain that Azar is like YAzzar. was much surprised that they did not eat n. Orient.. ll' 8 Qiddu8hin 62.wI:. XV. XXI. 11 wherein giving the genealogy of Lnqmlin.. 01'0 Abulfsda His!.h (D'Herbelot Bib. page 11).

l~ Cil"l~~ nlf~0~ niJi'?~ n~ip¥ . • y. he himself is represented as donbting God's word..n.-4 ~\.l. ~ ... "'rhe angels descended and ate.1iWl ~ ~~l (:)~ J.. .1..! ~. but in very mild words. Elpherar by the side of these explanatious (many of them quite wanting in truth) gives the right one in the following words: 4 " Bin 'Abbas and Wiihib say: 'she laughed from astonishment that she should have a child.-. This is referred to in general terms in Sura II.102 JUDAISM AND rsull. Tho doubt as to whether in the advanced age of the pair a son could come into the world (which in other passages and in the Bible is put into the mcuth of Sarah) is here uttered by Abraham.2 In other passages the position of words and clauses might give rise to many errors.. and then she laughed.--g III ~J':... 118) thus: =~ &:.l. Thus in one pMsage 3 the laughter of Abraham's wife is given before the announcement is made..>lJ \el (:)~ (:)1 0'" 'j.. 2 Genesis) xvii.o&.W S .-' '~J 0'" . They ate? No.0> ~ J 4... Jacob.J ~ . and after Isaac. ~J ~ * ~ .. 74... ". ~\ftl ~l 01.oJl 1. which leads the Arabic commentators to manifold absurd guesses.' WI.. if we did not know the story better beforehand from the Bible. I S6ra.' Then the verBe was transposed. 17.e ~ JliJ 3 sUra XI.. v. but it ought to run thus: 'And his wife stood while We promised him Isaac.J.. &lyol J t.. ~. Mishna Aboth..r It is true that in the other Biblical account of the promise to Abraham. for both she and her husband were of a great age. 3.".l. 64 if.Wl.. because he is regarded as the ancestor of the Arabs j and so too the eusuing temptation 5 connected with the sacrifice of his son is made to refer to Ishmael.''' It might seem that this Bon who was promised to Abraham was with deliberate forgery identified with Ishmael..." There is only one error to be found in the account as given in the Qur§. but it appeared as though they ate and drank.~ "... XV.

seeing that in one of the tllree places where the same word 4 is used of this angelic announcement. And then the passage continues : 2 "And We rejoiced him with the promise of Isaac.AllIlAIJAII: TO MOSES. in order to show him his fatherhood and the destruction of Sodom." That the announcement of Isaac first appears here is a proof that the preceding contexb 3 refers to Ishmael. 7-l!. it is explicitly applied to Isaac. oLher two passages.! when after the dispute about the idols has been related.<::-. It is thel'efore evident that according to Mul. That thl\ angels had a two-fold mission-(l) to Abrallam. 8W'Do XXXVII. Abraham said. We have already mentIOned that Lot is supposed to have 3 A. and We blessed him and Isaac. in order to remove him from Sodom bef{)re the desbruction was accomplished.fi -~ and 'Oi.''' He declared himself ready.J. and of their offspring were some righteous doers. a righteous prophet. also " .- in v. Cf. on which Abraham heard a voice telling him that he had aJready verified the vision j and a noble victim ransomed him. . Stu'a. 99 aud 112. and further on this will be shown more in detail. and (2} to Lot. 99 as follows: "Wherefore We acquainted him that he should have a son who should be a meek youth.ammad's representation the sacrificialactioll was performed on Ishmael..S . my son 1 I saw in a dream that I should offer thee in sacrifice. .. unto him: '0. But it is not clear that the annonncement of the angels refers to him. US. and others who manifestly injnred their own souls. 108 Gronnd for this acceptation is given in another passage. XI. and when he had attained to years of discretion • • . we read from v. is Biblical and Muhammad follows the Bible narrative.

in some passages 2 the warning addreBBed to the people of Sodom on accounh of their unchaste use of men is treated quite separately from the narrative of the angels.lllyol belol·. 65-60. 101) Elpherar remarks as follows: . 7 Sura XXVI.. whioh readiDg. 188-137.. xix. J\o". but the details are not entirely free from embellishment.I yo r.XXXVII. and M~m. The unbelief of Lot's wife receives particular notice in one paBBage. J Oomp.. who puts the word . 60. 82. according to Mu~am· mad's showing. is confirmed by the variant reading of Ben Mas'Ud.. and common people are at Qne with them.ugels. 79-·8b. 78-88. 88-89.oially BUra XXIX.. 164• • On the passsge quoted above (SUra XXXVII.. • sUra LXVI. fj. XXVI.::A. mad makes out that the angels told Lot 8 and even Abraham 4 beforehand that Lot's wife should not be saved. the people of the Book on both sides (Jews an. 61-78. 1-27. who also share this opiuion.Il ~I"l\}"\ . 6 Mul. For example. 88.r. XI.I. • SUras XXIX.. but left her with the people of Sadam. This reading is not only adopted by HinokelmannJ bu..JWI I. * J\"... 27-8b. as he remarks.I . "Oth. XXVII.rs.Jarked that.s. 42. viz. JU.. which is related in Genesis. . 3 BUras XI.t by almost all the Arabia commentators quoted in EJpherar. Acoording to the reading ~I in the Ace.7 It has already been re..>.tammad especially attributes to Lot the dishinguishing mark common to allproo. XXIX. Jo-I yo ""J"-\ JU.I ... that they ask for no reward..AI ~.. XI. XXII.104 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. is mentioned in several passages in the Quran.. (sUra.lll . as).mong the Muslims are divided &bout the lad whom Abraham was commanded to sacrifice I wh.chera. 81.l" l:J'Ol~1 J'>I oJW\ u The lea.l On the whole the narrative is fairly true.u Many commentators are theD quoted.I. become a believer through Abraham. LIV.rned a. XV.. 27-80. The visitation of the n. Ishmael * was the son whom Abraham was 1 SUrae VII. XXIX.d ChriBtians) are agreed that he was IS8&o.. o sUra XXV. esp. 43. XV. and other passages.. 10. 160-176. d ~I "'" .WI <-6I. Lot did not even once ask her to aooompany him.5 while the destructi9n of the oities is mentioned in many passsges.

...a-ll ~ ~ Wi ~ r~ ~\l~ <llill (:lljll (:l'" I!f"-I ~\l.t a..51.51. had not the Jews and Christia.51.d promised seed through him II' This last proof is truly not to be 1'anked very high.ny SOn except Isaac was foretold to him......... XI.. ThOBe who maintain that Isaao wa3 tbe one saorificed prove it from Sura. would then have to be explained.-) ~ <S»! ~.-1 . 74. (:l'" tljl\ .411 cal <Js:. &l.I .-q ~ W' *""'" "Both views are supported by the words of :M~ammad.4 ~y<1 "'. J..uI TO HOSES. favour of the view that MUQammad belil3ved that it was Ishmael whose sacrifice was ol'derod of God.51. ... 74): • We promised him lBaaO and after ISliac..>l)ly4 .d W' ..ll ~\a ~ Yj"ol <l.m\ '»!.-q 8)1A. wh~n he ha... 8)..t And when he was grown UPt then God commanded Abra. there is no necessity Bither for tbis argument.-q ~\l.tammad to represent Ishmael as a however sa. entitled Rnd: • And we announced to him ISfIaC... (The sam. and the reaSOns have been given which persuaded Mul.... the dwelling-place of Ishmael.. Jaoob..:. Beyond the first proof adduoed..t he should have a meek son. This shews that the sacrificed person was another th!ln lsaao.-\ c.-. . .51.. It will have been noted that in the text I have independentl.. Hud (XI.' How could he then have commanded the sacrifice of Isa.ha.. when we read for the first time: ~ And we rejoioed him with the promise of Isaac.-1 <Sr" . as it is written in the sUra.) FL1rther it is said in Sura. and Genesis. xxii....l'gument which immediately afterwards is cited in the commentary J viz.-1 d.. . 105 commanded to sacrifice.olJJI (:l\ <J\ ~J 0".iJ l.. ... so he also announced to him Isaao's son Jacob.crificed prove it from th~ fact that the e.1" 0".:..ABRAH.l "I...-q ~\l. But we do not read in the QaNo tha. XXX VII. Yf"! .y that he was Ishma. Doubtless all Arabian authorities would have come to this same conclusion...-J-o &Il\ J..'S lira XXX VII.inta. a righteous prophet... 8)..\1 fJ <JI.\ <:>Ijll d u--J.. &Ill <:>q I!f"-I ... or for still another a.411 t:. 112. (:l'" doll ~".'-Sura..51.m to offer up him who had been announced to hiro.51.r--I .. for a. Those however who ma... d JU <JI.i1. ~y4 .. &Ill <:>U \4\.nnonncement of Isaac comes after the completion of the story of the sacrifice. similal' contradiction in HDly Scripture ill the case of Genesis.Y decided in..els" and for this opinion the authorities are now cited: .r4l JW C.e view is given in detail by Jalalll'd-di'n all quoted by Maraco. As he had annoanoed Isaac..ac.1 <JI ~J ~.in bbat Ishmael was the oue sa.r4l .ns expressed their opinion 80 deuidadly in favor of Isaac (in which they were followed by the common o . that the horns of the ram are preserved in Mecca. 12.-1i ~~ c. xxi. 99 : 'We brought him the joyful news tha.51.\jq ~ .

II. page 22. XXXVIII.A ~\ C"" ~lI. r.2 to meut.A.. XX I...khrama in the name of Ibn lAbbtls e!plaina tha. as Elphernr hW!l already remarked in his comment on the word Isaac is almost without an exception spoken of as the OliO led tQ Si.n sufficiently impartial consideration.a. whioh is inexplicable on this interpretation of ~\l.mms.meDt DD SUra XXXVII. VI..\ e=!JJ\ ~ <Y' " He who takes it that Ishma. 4 people).hBlj1. OncEi before bis birth and agJ. and hence led them to abandon Mu\t.m. b5.bulf'eda. Elpherar gives an erroneous explaIUl. XII.t it wag only the prophetic gift of Is:laC which was a.lOG JUDAISM A. Iy.mily he says: 01)\ a\. II As for my father.ion him as the righteous son of Abraham.in at the atta.k al» -. Sura II. 18~.nnonnced to Abra. very righteous man.\ ~ ~'.I. 86.-» ~\~ =~.t-."J Jt-.. 85. both his hands and his feet were bound.ND ISLi\[.j.A. The metllod by whioh these attempted to weaken the proof for the opposite opinion is clear from Elpherar's com. where mp. So also in Elpberar on Sura. he who tn.1 to include him in the ranks of the patriarchs and prophets.tion of oue part. wbere Joseph relates his history to his fellow· prisoners. but God rllllsomed him. 86. .yacaUed!ill'~"\ "The sacrificed of God. Thus he explains: ~ aa follows:-~~~.tl l.Jt III the following versol however.l\ ~ Jli Jt-.intains a significant silence. Il9.Wrifica.1.. ~\iU . he does not . Anteislamica.. which upholds our view still more st. .kes it that Iaaac wns the ona sscrificed exp1l.aJ . S6.." Compare also .inment of the prophetic gift.fi\ ~ ~ U That is to aaYt to Abrahnm in hiBchildren j n bat the word \~a~~J.in at nIl.ntion is m.. 56.S and to make out that he laid the foundation stone of the Ka!bah in connection with his father.\ 0J"""lI'"""I. Diet.t Isaao WBS announced to his father twice. 112 : U""" I:)l\ ~ &. and on Surll XII. Here Isaac is alwB.$0.\j Ul~"" ~r Jli J--l e=!JJ\ d'=-. and the knife was put to bis throat. 77.ina tha. I SUras XIX. ~8. In the legends of Ial6.) *d d'=. Ill. ~ Jli ~.ade of a letter wl"itten by Jacob to the king who WRa keeping his son in prison. 3 S(1m XIV.." And when Jacob in tho course of the letter (quite according to the version of Sopher lIayyashAr) alludes to the special prvtection of God enjoyed by his fa. and about th~ rest ma. ~ ("".. .~f" . <.rongly. This fact prevented many Crom giving to the text of the Qurd.d'B real view. 41.s the one sacrificed explains that it was after this event that Isaac a prophet was promised to Abraham as a reward lor his obedience.xplo. of the veras.el wa.. sUra.. 180. 86.

107 This view is certainly not. From his habit of reokoning Ishmael among the patriarohs.ti~ nfl'Wi! . 4 "lIe counts Ishmael among his anoestors. Thus in one passage 3 he says: "The God of thy fathers. Isaac appears only in the lists of the patriarchs. the latter remains simply a pious ma.olI 4<> ol.1 .ra. Jo>. is attributed by the Jews to ISl>ao." whioh Baidhllwi attempts to explain in the fol1owing manner. I Saba Batbra 16. 38." * ". In consequence of this. his unole.i0 c. he said. In these passages Mu1}ammad following more the popular tradition mentions Isaac and Jaoob but not Ishmael. and almost always in those passages where Abraham's deliverance from the fire is mentioned and also his reward for his piety. oonnecting him with the father-the grand-father also is the same as the bther-and I>S Mu1. xv. Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac. = ..ism.s!I J Ju W' "oll JO.Juried in a good old a. }la.J. ~':. which I>S the most worthy.t no/~ 'IolP~¢~ I Sumn." And in the Talmnd it is said 2 that Ishmael repented during his father's life-time.lll .'\m. for the Rabbis tell us I that by the utteranoe: "Thon shalt be 1. . 15.\. viz.Jaoob.11-11.I~ ~~lJ~ n~~Wr.n.>.127...ge (Genesis.. readiness to be Sl>orifioed... Bab.. but at the same time it is not contrary to Juda.amml>d says. about whom there is little to relate I>nd who is quite destitute of all legendary a...dornment.f) ""..ISHMAEL AND ISAAC. .~. Then pointing to t Abbas.>." As he hereby transfers to Ishmael the actJ.\\1 I. Mu~ammad fell into the error of oounting him as an anoestor of . on Genesis.. c3\t1 I:Y" Jo-I :.~ :Mid.t~wJ.4\ ~ \.1 nWll 'IolP~¢:o/ i"1p~ n.ol yll~ o4JI..Jewish. 1 n.. The nncle is I> part of the father. SlI. This is the survivor of my forefathers.) God showed Abrahl>m thl>t Ishmael would repent..

XXIX.Sf <. XXI. the sou of Isaac. 72. 50.tors. and in one cf these Jacob also." In the Sunna. 84. And further. who m. We are now strnck by the strange confusion which seems to have existed in Mul). however. to Abraham) Isaac and Jacob.. For if it must be allowed that in two passages 6 Abraham and Isaac. Bunna 398 and 400. yet those passages which can be brought forward in support of the opposite view are much less powerful.108 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. are obliged to Beek some other rea. In the angel's announcement 2 it is said. it is clear from the mention of Ishmael among the others how great was the confusion which reigned in Mu1)ammad's mind about Jacob's parentage.tammad took Jacob for the son of Abraham. 127.t she would live till sbe saw her BOll.S"<-' ~ ~\ =..>l.. .ammad's mind about Jacob. Sura If. 26. XIX. . We by no means assert that Mul... 3 U 10.1 .ay DOt. Ishmael and Isaac are counted as the fathers of Jacob. 14. since in the passage .last cited Abraham. II Sura XII. but it is evident that the relationship B6r& XI.A '\i. and wt1I not understand these words as we do. While there is no passage which says explicitly that he was Abraham's son." 3 and in other passages 4 we read: "We gave to him (i.oob. 6. 38. yet this idea is conveyed to all who have not learned differently from the Biblical history..Sons for the nnsuitable allusion to Ja.. <.. Thus Elpherar says. or his grandson.bio commenta.! He seems to have been uncertain whether he was Abraham's son." son's Ii • Sur•• VI. Jacob. ~\ The An.e.4 It was e.:a • .ii. .nnounoed to her tha. "after Isaac. 5 Althongh these passages do not prove the point absolutely. are mentioned as the forefathers of Joseph. Joseph is called clearly the grandson and Jacob the son of Abraham.. we can also shew another passage 7 where Ishmael is mentioned as a forefather of Jacob without any continuous genealogy having boon given.

as we said before in the case of the sacrifioe of Isaac.:)II f'!. 125). (.fll (. ~l C:J".. the BOn of Isaac. except what Israel (as he is here called) 4 forbade himself.fll rr J.:)I' f'!. j & • SUra m. for often the traditions spread among the later Arabs are more {)orrect than those given in the Quran.JACOB.:)I Y~ (.!' (." This is evidently an allusion to the Biblical passage where the prohibition against eating the sinew of the thigh 5 is mentioned. the son of the noble one.fl\ l. Elpherar has nearly the same words.fll (. .':! r~ Baidh4wi. 4.i IJI """" .:)I' f'!J~' (See de Saoy Anthologie Grammaticals. the SOn of the noble one.j.:)I <J-I (. Zalllakhshari says: 1 "It is related of the prophet that he said.. Thus.:)I . the later Arabs were better acquainted with these relationships. 4 ~-?. 'If you are asked. 87. on the contrary..... There is an allusion to his wrestling with the Angel in the following words: 3 U All food was allowed to the children of Israel before the revelation of the Law.g.illl J.. in which he is also involved and which we will give later on. 6 Co Ierael is • Y~ • i'TtP. Only a little is given of Jacob's life. the son of the noble one is Joseph. This error did not spread. xxxii. . Beyond this allusion and the history of Joseph. This is 1 On Bura XlI.rp f'!. the Bon of Jacob.. * J"">I.' "2 But this is no testimony to the full certainty of Mu1). but assigns a wrong reason for it. who is the noble one?' answer: 'The noble one. e. 109 between the two was not olear to him.. Genesis.pjJ '''f.fi J!Y.6 which Baidbawi 7 also gives. with the addition however of lODg chain of traditions. the son of Abraham.ammad himself... 33. the only other thing told about Jacob is his admonition before his death.

'!:!\. and on Deuteronomy. 126-'1.j~~:!! l'l:! 'rJ:.l 'M 'il I ~1j .?i1l7 iM~:J. para.' Were ye present when Jacob was at the point of death? When he said to his sons.I1.. 4. on Genesis. .!l$ 'n ~~. 3 Midr.l ~ll!?tP l:liJ~ . 4. 'Whom will ye worship after me ?' they answered: 'We will worship thy God and the God of thy fathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac. Joseph 8 alone enjoying an honorable exception. e Comp.~ N~¢ l:l~'=1~ 'l:!1o/~ '!.~ Mi?:'q~ l:l:. para. as in thy heart there is no doubt about God.~ "n N~l$ ni(:'t'i\. one God.4 is there any doubt in your hearts about God?' they said: 'Hear Israel our father.' 5 Then he spoke out and said: .~~ ~'~# . Praised be the name of his glorious kingdom. :II Compare perhaps Genesis.1=fWtl .. Targum aD Deuteronomy.. the Lord is one. the two recensions of the Jerusalem. he called his twelve sons and said to them: 'Hear your father Israel. but the Lord is our God. w.~1 ~'l?~o/~ . :r:lh:.2 even to Jacob: 'My children.ti. 5 Deuteronomy. ~~*'{'t '¥~ O. so also there is in ours... but they appear in the list of the Patriarchs as "the tribes.110 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. C'r. 7 C'.~ Mr. and to him will we be resigned. page 56. Genesis. vi. therefore die not unless ye also be resigned. i. xviii.'ff. f01' ever. 2.?l.l "Ti:r? OW 'lJ~"~ "\.' "6 The sons of Jacob are not individually mentioned.c:.' " We find something similar in the Rabbinical writings: 3 "At the time when Jacob was leaving the world. Bah. 19. Besides 1 SUra II.~o/7 ~lt1 c..1 N~n 'rJ'''~ wi"T~tr . verily God hath chosen this religion for you.r l'l:!tP.l~ ~"l?1. 'lJi!'{.1 W:lP N~n "ll:! "Tr. 2. OW? ~~':.?i310 1~ "~9~ ~'=1~ :Ifl~! M~O~ M¥o/f. 98. also Traot Pesaobim. given in accordance with rabbinical sources llB follows: 1 "And Abraham commanded this to his sons." 7 so called because of the subsequent division into tribes.1q¥ 'll'i~ 31 \. vi.

:1~ "l# tol.. 9-86 and chapters.ll:l1 -. but that a sign warned him from her. • Sura XII. wilt thou that it shall be effaced?" 7 The fa..": t:I0'~'4!!t 'if!jlrP MQ~lt«l 1 Elphersr in his comment on the verse qnoted gives some of these particulars : ':ill .ble that the Egyptian women 1 SUra XL.S with many abbreviations it is true. one day the names of thy brethren will be graven on the stones of the Ephod..2 which is named after him.''' Rabbi Yohanan remarks.. 'Lie with me.17 '? t:Ii'J'''~ i..JiJ tol~~l n. 4 The Rabbinical oomment on the words "He went into the house to do his work" 5 runs as follows: 6 "Both intended to commit sin. ".1f. !0 (..st ~ f. .! Joseph forms the theme of almost the whole of the twelfth Sura.! ~. (:}l "'" .? 'l1l~ M.:1il ~I ~ 4-w "It is said on the authority of Ben r... 111 being alluded to in one other passage.~~7 n{1~¥ '..s'" . -.. also thine. 5 Genesisl xxxix.T?ill7 t:Ii:)'~'.". We must first mention the additions which are derived from Jewish legend. • sUra XII..li. '1!l'. This Sura contains the narrative given us in Genesis.. Among these is the statement that Joseph was inclined towards Potiphar's wife. lI f'Sl J S.r.J?rP ~P" ~oi' i" . x:z::z:i:r. 24.~tP..Ii' MVO/ M{1'N~ t:I'l1l::!1\ t:IV'~~ M~l1l':? ~..'~ ~~~ ".~~ i1'1?1'l't7t niw..JOSEPH. "Both had got on to the bed." and on ~he words "She caught him by his garment saying.u:. xxxvii.-L>. XXXVI. 16. but also with many additions and alterations. 86.)~ JU .)l ~~~~t. 11.btol? "p=¥ ~nW~J.itll:l 'rl1l:l .Abbas that he said he had undone his girdle and approaohed ber with a sinful pnrpoae.~ ~:JJ.WI J.~~ ii1:>i:1:ll i7 M'l:l"H1 ". whioh must be pointed out.J MJ. when the form of his father appeared to Joseph at the window and said: "Joseph.ll1 nJ. 4-108. 3 Genesis.1~~l!! 'if'!)l:l i"'1.:1iJ ci'iJ? '.1. Joseph. IS S ota-h.. to xlvi.. JU doll U". 2.

l from ~9 it signifies Q.u..r on %ii.~ B).J"I r:)<Jlf' JW . -.5 Also the discussion about the ~\ J ·1eW1 Jo. J"'+ ~ ~. agreeing with the Sepber Hayyasha.i .t meals.havast like the fools. though not genuine. 4 It is this translation which I have before me as I write.EJphera.. and in contemplating Joseph's beauty I were so absorbed that they cut their own hands. and is written is very pure Hebrew. mocked at Potiphar's wife.. The word L~ ~ ('Verse 81) oomes from tl..w tbe form of Jacob.~ ~ JJl".u-I. meal.ahlr.tl ~ ~\ ~4 "'»".r. This work is sometimes referred to in the Midrash Yalknt under the name of " The Great Chroniole.ccount..lJ\ 0". Ek.. themselves with the knife whioh they had in their handa. au Elpherar rightly observes: \. ~.' " 1 . and for this reason I will not quote the actual words. y..~ .lm.>. 15h bllt on a.Y~\d""~ I~ Keblda and the greater number of the commentators say that he sa.\ . (viii) to lean against.. -.dds tbe following deta. thinking they were cutting the orange.t thon h.s u.. prophet. who said: '0 Joseph. ..ils..ooount. ot the oriental method of leaniog agawst supports e.. ::t.in on a. ohapter 146." S In an old Jewish German translation however.absorption in the contemplation of Joseph.112 JUDAISM: AND ISruUr. thoagh thy name is written among th. is certainly very ancient. tj~\ ~ ~\ ~ 1:"".J. The Qu:n1n story is seen to be still more like the narntlv8 in 8epher Hayy4... M::i .. prop. the Rabbinic.r "~~111? from '1:>'9 to support. ~...sh Abhkir quoted in the Midr.. and like the Hebrew ::lQl. gives. contnry to Wa..J> "" JI. when one e. Yalknt.-A+ll *. Sl.hl's foroed interpretatioIl) tbe oorrect meaning as follows: U They cut.-.. ~l . were invited in by her. bat they did not feel the pa.-l~l "'''''' • "lW:tt "l~li • 1"'~"j !:l'!:l'" '"0'1 • "lct'" !:lM 6 An allusion to this fa.1 * Uo. not on aocount of the new strength and l!i'Upport 'Which food gives (to whioh one might easily be led by the expression ~~. compare especiaJly Psa.!> J.. of theu. it bears another title.ble is found iu 80 passage from the Midra.. is found in an old Jewish writing 2 which." .0\01. civ.. .

as often happens. In tho words.... for the Arabia commentator" thcms-olvoa m'e much divided in opinion...S)I. S6ra XII. which som' adopt.." 2 which we here do not take striotly aocording to the meaning of the oontext..lJ' iSj~1 i' V'4<> (:)! ~ ~ d' ~ . BiDce ~ ~ ". says that whenover anything is Ollt with a knite it is caned by tho Arabs~. 80 that Intor commontatol's have tried to discovcl' evcry detail in the worda of tho Qumn. I .:..t.." According to the rencHllg Mf ~i\. .~ ~I+...xthel' oomments as follows: ""\~ ~ <. . J\J ~\:.IJI rl....bio comlncmtaturtl say that ~ means food.>.S.~~I'p * th. Abu Zaid tho Christia.mclltioned Jowish book has pnsfled over to the Arabs..lI ~ U "." On this word the same Elpherar f... " and a witness bore witness.e people when they sit eating leRn agn.... .-l~1 J. d IFI.ll J.o_ ~~ ~ WS' <.. JIi J ({ In the oopy of Shnwaz ~ is written with a vowellcBB te' (~). . l '""'" r JIi.. Rnd the meaning given to ~ very doubtful..n. 6 _ •• ~ 3 ..shnr that JOSOph'B miBtrGsB offered this fruit to the wome~ visiting ber. . Dhn'tlltk says it is the Indian fruit Zumawal'd.s:.J4 ~.-l. thnt tho whole legend as it is fonnd.>iL.i .~ G Co...JOSEPB'.." 3 othera seo au allnsion to a witness . Therofore food is rolled by way of metonomy \.. Some Bay an OrRDge f9 thus called in Abyssinia. whether they were torn in front or at the back.) and be. .lI. with mim (.o. it would mean an ol'ange or and we are told e:r.. Ben eAbbna says it is all O1"8ugO. "'\..s...:a Several Al"u. Now onr rending Boems to me the -right one. Opinious are divided as to the meaning of this word.. 'Akr sa. ~ .oI "'~. Sura XII.~1 "lj JlI * l. MniAhid f\Sserts the same thing..inst pillows..d among the Arabs cutting. 118 tearing of the olothes. bnt rather in the sense of an "arbitrator decided.. and their explanations are clflrivcd only from tho passago itself. ~I...~ . !"> c..\-... • ""I>.:.foe JIi.j Ij!..l is found in the same way in the Sepher Hayyashar. ".ya ~ ¥J every thing which is cut wi~h a knite. ~I. Elphorar..~ WI ""~ ~ J'~I . ~~ iSj~1 i' J6' ~. because I. So aI..lI ..s'1o. 26. NevOlotheleaa from their words this much is olenr. and ~ pc.-. 25..S::.praBBly in Sephor IIayy5..".. in tho above. ~ • 0_ (~) meB.

.): a Proverbs.~) * ~»)"'~ (:)~\ 6W\i means her"...T~1 .. Many commentators say that this was no child.. 89.~. r-<"" <. .l? '.. Rabbab on Geneeie.l 'l. .~~o/ O'~!P 'r:J~ i? nRim '~J:l")il!i." are explained by the following passage: 5 "The talk of the lips tendeth only to penury.:! .beal·er) thought of him (Joseph). xiv.U.<.-l . ~I JU. But there is a difference in ~ha~ the Jewish book makes the child confirm the utterance of Joseph. who was present at what ocourred between Joseph and tha woman. para. while the Arabic commentator puts into its mouth the decision about the rent clothing. It follows from this that Mu:t>ammd either mixed the two legends inappropriately. . 23.c: ~ d'.) (.<IllI &.T1 '¥J:l"1::1! O~''J~tP (lllidr.-JI 1 • 1'. . and some of the commentators quoted in Elpherar express themselves quite in harmony with the Sepher HayyasMr as follows: 1 "&'id Ben Jnbair and Dhu:t>ak say it WMl a child in the cradle which God permitted to speak. .br. or else that the second one oame later into Arabic tradition and was read by the Arabs into the words of the Quran.)IS 6J~ ~ ~ S Sura XII..)'IS .tl~l. * <.WI. IJ ~ • Wahl does not explain what • tl'i?tPlil. -7 'r..iII? .) O'/."""'.<~". but then attained to spocch. . 42.. . O~t1~ip ":.1~ Vj?7.j that he (the cup. .. This is the tradition of the Uphite commentator according to 'Abbas."w.2 but rather a wise man full of penetration.lQ+II d' ~ (.:ll ~ JU u-l.114 JUDAISI{ AND ISUM:.J'i..51. whiclJ other Arabic writers reject as highly unsuitable.~~o/ ''li ?1l . ." In the Sepher HayyasMr it is also asserted that there was present a child of eleven months who till then could not talk.S because although Joseph reminded tho ltl». The words s which Walll translates: "But the devil would not allow it.

niJ~ nlJ~=¥ l:l~~~ ~Ot~z:. " 81...>W\ .") 'fJ "'~\ .. for it is written. ~\ . .L> -. 77.. XII.jU\ ~\ U J\...Jl Ul.f ' .. ~?~ "1:jl toI. U"l. .:o.~l WI ". xl. .Ij.. 115 cup-bearer twice 1 that he should remember him.11oa XII. in like manner we read in the Rabbinical writings 5 that Jacob said to them: "Do not enter by the same door. "See a 1 Genesis. 1.JOSEPH.JO * "'~\ """ Ul.p .~\.. xli. when they found the cup in Benjamin's sack: "If he be guilty of theft his brother hath also been guilty.s'~I.WI> 'j. The virbual meaning of this is that Satan made him fOfKElt ~ ~J~ tl1~ mention of him to bis Lord (Pharaoh).. viz.son is given a.... Elphsrar on tho voraol UFor fear of envious looka/' which the anoients regarded as vel'.. 3 \:f." 'l'hen he qnotes many other passuges whioh represent this step of Joseph's as siofn]..<o. 8 Mid. 'r-!' <:Y' l'. 14. p""" 92. Rabbah on Genesis) para..J~ .u. But Ben IAbb4s and most authorities after him :aoy tha.1y 'rl9r. ?~ ~p~~ CO'? "1"'l$ The same rea.tJ. R.lJ.. 6 7 SUra. l'. It is said that the butler did not remember to mention Joseph to t.e.J! fJ .ammad says: "And Satan made him (.' "2 The seeking of protection from tho butler is here regarded as sinful.like by tbo Arabjc commentators and in thl'$ Midrosh.. 91..b.a In the same Snra 4 Jacob recommends his sons to enter by difEerent gates.. Elphm'ar bas the following: i Genesis.S according to which they said...\ Joi ~ &/) fJ '-"-J! ".. yet he had to remain two more years in prison." in that he trusted not in God but in man.tan tempted Joseph. disastrous in theil' ooneoquenoes. :) Midr. 67.l-(CI.J oseph) forget the remembrance of his Lord (God).~ toIQ . And it was after two years.t Satan made Joseph forget the remembrance of his Lord) so that he sought help apart f!'OlU Him and proteotion from a creaturoJ and this was an omission to which Sa." 6 The statement 7 that the brothers said. .... and therefore MuQ.-w ." is evidently an erroneous change in tho words of a passage found in the Midrash quoted above.u...he king.II..

-"I . that ho refused to be comforted.. xxxvii. 'Foolish Olle I he knew through the Holy Ghest that he still lived (in the Hosh).vii. viz. oh.:I t\~i1tP tI5"1~i'J Ij~"" ~'j\ t\~n¢. is commou to the (luran 6 aud the tiepher HayyasMr. ~x%i. « Mid. !:1'O. S'ald' Ben Jubair end KutOda say tb. or possibly to traditions nnknown to us.pter 148. which is opposed to one Jewish view.... The Al"abiUD commentators give the roost varying accounts.l C'1io ~~1 0'1. 97.. Tanohuma quoted in Mid. father..Joseph told Benjamin beforehand who he was.. and will you accopt it f It is said of Jacob.'.1..1. son of a thief.t bi. One of these confirms our view of an erroneous OODfuaiOl1 with Rachel. 1. . motber'.4 which runs as follows: "An unbeliever.N t'~"~ 1'1:11 '. . 8 GepeBia. Besides these additious from Jewish legends there is also other matter which owes its origin to error..tlj '''' l'?..3 but agrees with another. .Juran it appears 2 that Jaoob . thief.l~i. 19.~~ ClJ~'? 1~9~1 ~/?>r~ ~'Oi"TlI. bad an image which he WOl'sbippHl. AluJ.. i1l::1.1:1 O'O'!liio/.." • Sura XU.bbi Elie"".. I!rand. 'r.JIi 'r .''' 'rho story that . '. asked our teacher... Yulkut..:ltl 0". .I From the <.. Ill!. .)17 'l. 'Do tho dead live On f Your fathers did not accept this.l'Ii'1J1!l . "1W!?!::! '0. IS if. • Sura XII.knew by divine communication that Joseph still lived.. hi... 3 Pirke Il.e stole secretly.116 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.1 •.. 69." .l tli.!11 5 Geneais) u:r. wonld he have refused comfort?' Then he answercd him. T BUra XII.? "1l:l." with reference to Rachel's having stolon tho Ternphim. ij and the statement that one of the 1 Genesie.>ammad's statement 7 that the brothers asked their father to send Joseph with them cuntradicts the Biblical account. the following in Elpherar: r-* 01 .'his t.I\l O.s (:)\! "'''''.falher..0 0i'~ '" •• • •• • "J' . 86.-a . . section 38. and one does not take comfort conceruing the living. Sll. 5 If he had believed that tho doad live OU."''ljl'~ .:'l7 1~9l? n~y C'~iJ tl'OliliJW n' nil1 ~l.

. 100. " SUra.W ollli ..) • . and only afterwards does he have him fetohed from prison. xlt...3 He asserts that Jacob became blind from grief. 4.ul.. bOo iZ l'l:! i"'J . or.. Of. Mnl. to the effect that "this means his father and his aunt. .)~ . rJIl' ". in spite of the fact that according to the testimony of the Scriptures 6 Rachel was long since dead.l I. 24. Ili.\l:PH. i . II? lshmaelites who went to draw water found Joseph in the pit is against the clear word of the Scripture that the pit was dry.uunmad's idea probably was to bring about a complete flllfilment of the dream.According to the Quriin Joseph's parents 5 came to him in Egypt. Invii.i • Oooesis. ..I. 4. 7 all this." Thus it is possible that Mu]. but that he recovered his sight by the application of a shirt to hiB eyes. Oene8i8. even as Elpherar relllll1lkB on another 1 Genesi8.Id. Joseph's subsequent foster-mother. c~~ • sUra xn. 84. or possibly the idea is based on some legend unknown to me.xnv.JOS. is alluded to.. 10..1. while others say that Bilhah.. He was perhaps thinking of Jacob's loss of sight 4 later on... 101.Jl JIi. lXxvii. '. XII. because his mother Rachel was already dead. 18 ft..2 ill oontradiotion to the Bible narrative. (Jramm.. Something like this is quoted by Zamakhshiiri. ~:. howeve r.mmmad makes Joseph expound Pharaoh's dream..i:lll:T1 3 Genesis. • sUra Xl!.. (De SlI<>y Antb. 7 SUr3 XII. .! Mul.l.. 'm'Il. 14 ft.ulld. Genesis. which mentions both parents.. puge 121.." B while Elpherar has 9 still more clearly: "Katiida and &da say tllat by the moon ill meant his aunt.iih lOJ.lI1 Ji:i. 96.I! ~~ . some of the Rabbis remark that this is a sign that no dream ia without a mingling ef some vain matter.':ll:! 8 On sUra XII. 93. 47...w.tammad moona this aunt here.

W Wi . passage. *.utmJD"d mentions no one elso. I. although of eourso wo cannot soriously attribute suoh an opinion to him.J"!' JU """'"~ U-W d .. with Justin... who . SECOND OllAI"'Ell..~..u g The Arabian commontators.~ J l. that "Most commentators say that by these are moant his father and his aunt Leah. 01' in the influence whioh it exerted on tho subsequent 1 sUra Xl!. Elphorar comments on 'fergo 37 fl8 followa : cll..118 JUDAISM AND ISLAM..)0" ~r-i' d (.. for botween J'oseph and Moses :I.hem. EoI' this reason ho put aside their questioD. Mul.l d .are quite cOllscious of this unsuitability expluin it away VOl'y clevorly by sayillg that Joseph made th.horted them to belief in the Unity of God..)0" "After they had told him tbe explanation fDr which they had asked him) btlcauso ho J'ecognised in it something that would be disagreeable to ono of t. he was ul1williug to givo them "" ." ~ <J'J"'u l. J ~j...J! ~f 4.awIIiad's usu"l procedure to put into Joseph's mouth a long discourse on the unity of God and the doctrine of a future life.1.utmmlld regarded Mosos as J'oseph's son.{ul.. Moses and his TimB..'.o. and Logan a different discourso.".rJ' wi' the (lream.l "-'II. ~ ~.....J. in which be taught them about tho gift of mirucle·working nnd ex.n... 100.2 With Joseph we finish the first period... 4ol..! to wit.... . 'l'he history of the earlier times was p"userY"d ollly in brief outlines.i8 digressioD1 because it gl'ieveu him to bo obliged to foro tell evil to ono of hia fellow-prisoners. and was not so important either in itself.1.~\ )~I (.. . This is given before the interpretation of the dreams of his two fellow-prisoners. ...-4!' ." It is quite in acoordance with llful. It almost seems as if.....L> W ~~L.}I ... Second Pewt... .' J'" 0'!... his mother having died at the birth of Benjamin.. 40l ~ loJlI .

. and received a command to go to Egypt to warn Pharaoh 5 and to perform some miracles to make him believe. and these facts are of greaber religious importauce The giving of the Mosaic Law and the eventful life and noble personality of lIIoses himself afford Mul).>_Co_ • Suras XX. 6 He obeyed the command and accomplished his mission.3 and married there the daughter of a Midianite. lu-20. This made him afraid.ammad plenty of material for his narrative. i (:l're . XXVI. Vlhen Moses was grown np he tried to help his oppressed brethren. 5 . and once killed an Egyptian. saved it from death and had it nursed by its mother. but Pharaoh remained uubelieving and assembled his magicians. . he asked for his brother Aaron as an assistant in tllis work... xXVnL 29-S6. 9-17. (:l"~ • Silras XX. and then we will go on to consider the details to be commented upon. Among the oppressive enactments of Pharaoh against the children of Israel was an order that their children should be thrown into the water. 119 ages. who saw tbe child tbere. Here we will first put together tho whole life of Moses aa represented in the various passages of the Quran.. _Co_ 3 . 37-4. . who I <$'' ' . but historical facts are preserved for us with greater distinctness and clearer <letail. Pharaoh's wife.~. therefore Mututmmad adopted from it only suoh legende as were edifying in themselves and to which he could append pious reflecticns. 4 When he wished to leave Midian he saw a burning bush. and by the advice of a friend he fled to Midian. 01"" . In the period of which we are now going to treat. XXVIII. Moses I the son of Amram 2 was laid by his mother in an ark.g-ul. 2-29. the next day however he was reminded by an Israelite of his yesterday's deed._Co. approached it.MOSES AND HIS TIME. 8-37. there is certainly still a long array of legends. LXXIX..

152.bJ " in which passage the COUlmen" tators cited by Elpherar ta. 'ef~'ff nin~b. seeing that it is mentioned On other occasions..Jrn e\." ~md on the second passage he Bays more correctly. and this comes in only incidentally in two passages. 50-79. JrXIIl. JrX. indeed.ke the name I1B an appellation. imitated the wonders. XLIII. 101-125. 46-47. Wherein is tho Torah. XXVII.d. El. 2 (~ . 76-90. 13-15..s Sura.. Moses then received the Law.mma. Sura XXIII. 5269. 3 in the former of which however other facts about the stay in the wilderness are related.. while the Israelites were saved. ~en- tioned in tho accoant of the creation of the olive tree.: 0'. tha. II. XXVI. 127-139. 102 and 149. 15-52. a place thickly planted with trees. XXVIII.:r Sura VIT.2 Nothing is related of the journey of the children of Israel before the giving of the Law. BO. In . Compare U""" "" probably On acoonnt of the rhyme. 24--49. and at last the Egyptians were drowned in the aea. 99-102.5-M. On tho firs' pa••age Elphorar ha. Bat it wns not unknown to MuQs.5 During his absence the 1 Sllrllll VII.--l4 ".. out. sUra. . -l. would be connected with .!10. )~~4 u:<4l\ &. 90-93. 20-27." It i••aid 'hat in Syriac it moan. by Alwa.~ f - . 05. . .! But a mighty judgment overtook PllarBoOh a. .lil. except the striking of the rock with the staff so that wa... XXVI. VII. IV. XLUI.ter Hawaii. 1611. VII.f) so that "~"Q --". viz:~. J.w I although it is so mentioaed by commentators.81.JrJ' ~~. II. 170.! JU "Ben 'Abb:i••ay. 52-55. X. but were so far surpassed by Mosas and Aaron that they themselves became believers in spite of the threats of Pharaoh.. 79--82. XX. 40-43. ~Q").1} he meana the Tomh. 47-51.l!. 6. Jr.l11 . Thus it is nsed as an oath in SUra XOV." • Surllll VII. Elphcrar 011 VII. XXVIII. LXXIX.60. XL. 135-141. who remained stubborn in their unbelief.s II. Again ib i.4 and prayed to see God's glory. 5'1.nd his people. 36-40.he Qur£n Moant Sinai is never mentioned in connection with tho giving of the In. Among mony diverging explanations one is adduced which appoars to me right. XI. 20 : "And a.120 JUDAISM: AND ISLb:. tree sprinl!ing from the C1~ .

. These are the main events of Moses's life as they are given in the Quran.n D'Herbelot (Biblio. XL.4 and he was wrongly accused... 82-99.!J 0'1 Ben \loid . VII.. i. 76-83. I!.two peaks Horeb aDd Sioa i in this way might perhaps be taken as the genitive of the Arabic word SmUDa i.. Besides all this. aud we have arranged them partly according to the order of their mention in that book. whom the earth swallowed up. 23-29. • SUra. V. 5. or to the dispute with Aaron and Miriam. Moses had a dispute with Korah. nnder SinaJ page 793) saye: The Aru. 2. abont which we shall speak further on... iii. VII. but they all exoept two were godless. . Orient.bs i1~t? Jli. a wonderful journey whioh Moses is said to have taken with his servant 5 is given. 25. who in his comment on Exodus. • Sura XVIII. 88.DISPUTE Wr1'E! KORAH. This last statement may be either a reff\rence to the matter of Korah. admits a connection between "l~"O and n:lo· It is to be noted that those mentioned above who take Sinai a~ an ap...~. .s.a identical with the II1onotain on which Moses received the LawJ whioh identification is merely oite. To pass on now to details.. 121 Israelites made the golden calf. I and after that he appointed seventy men: 2 Later on ho sent spies to Canaan.. XXIX. . 1 SUr. 148-155. .l\ fb -'..ll\ J.q. J Sinani) with reference to ita. 87. • Sura XXVIII.. 154.oy. 3 SUra. 59-81. thot thi.d as a possible view: . 48-52. 0_ sometimes call this monntain Sinaini ~1 (whioh however should be (:)U- Sinks.sJj ... The people let themselves be deceived by them and in consequence were obliged to wander for forty years in the wilderness. 3 Further. bnt more with reference to our better sonrce. XX. Haman 6 Compare Ben Ezra.. a. which Moses on his return dashed into pieoes and gave to the Israelites to drink.. the mountain from whioh Moses was addreased. XXVIII. 88. 7.~llation do not rega:rd it. • ~~Go Sura..

" As to the former.re Makarizi in De Sa.U Sf"". magicians 7 that a boy would be born who would lead the Israelites ont of Egypt. w but (:.AM... .c-y's Chrest.3 and therefore have put him in here... Job and Jethro. Rabb. 1ol':?" 1ol~i11 "I':niJ? "'11~ "I'(1¥ i117"1!.~. lioe 9 of the first edition).17 t:l'~~. s The finding I cl.1-.~~ t:l'!l"~tJ 'i' ~:l''<tif1J b'<il "ll. 'rhe two chief magicians. this one would be throwu with them.1-_ .nO ~ 8 and '~n.l1 ::ltPi11 t:l'. 88. ana Korah I are mentioned as counsellors of Pharaoh and persecntors of the Israelites. 'tP in'~...7~ 1ol~i1t "liN'" 'l::! t:l~!~1. tllerefore he had to endure sufferings. an Numbersi par. The Rabbis also say a good deal about Phal'aoh's advisers.l 'l:llW. the second remained silent. and so the happiness of being the father-inlaw of Moses fell to his lot.. the third fled.' Pirke Rabbi Eliezel·. 25. XXIX.j . n17"W 1~i1 '. XL. then he thought.lammacl must at some time have heard him mentioned as the Jew's enemy.. Mu]. compa.. and this is in accord with the statement of the Rabbis that it was foretold to Pharaoh by the. Fear on acconnt of some dream 6· is given as the greatest cause of persecuticn.). although later Arabians do not thus designate the Haman 4 who lived in tbe time of AbasueTUs. if all male children were thl'owll into the river. amongst whom they sometimes mention Balaam.I ' Midr.. Section 48.? oij?'?ir-lj1 n~i1 "'11" 3 l Not (j. are specially namod as abettors.. • Sur.'1~!.S who are also mentioned in a letter of the apostle Panl.. n~ t:'J~\' '.c.. 5.?l.l!. page 143. Of these the first agreed with Pharaoh and faT this reason he was afterwards killed by the Israelites. XXVIII. H. ( • lol.2 who say: "Kol'ah was the chief steward over Pharaoh's house."10iJ ~. The latter is alluded to in this capacity by the Rabbis..J~tf. Al'auo.122 JUDAISM ANI> ISI.

. 2.t!?t! i1.S and in the same way the name 4 given to Pharaoh's wife by the commentators is a corruption of the name 5 by which his daughter was known among the Jews. • 4. on ExodllS. 'Who took not away his soul out of vanity') refers to the soul of the Egyptian. 5..ammad Moses regarded his slaying of the Egyptian as sinful and repented thereof..... 5 J'J.. by whom Moses was found acoording to the Scriptures. 10 Midr.ll and that he betrayed Moses. ":fl":. Rabb.t ~"w '''. 7.li~ 11 iui~~ iii. iv. 11. • S.:tl? ~o/ n". ire'. which Moses did not take away. .li'ili'J M\'1 S{U'a XXVIIl. Ii it~~~ 3 Exodus.THE KILLING OJ!' AN IIGYPTIAN. pnra.. 8. XXVIlI. 6 ExoduSJ ii.2 evidently having been confounded with Pharaoh's daughter. nntil he bad investigated his case judicially and had fonnd that he deserved death.l~ . ii.?'~ ~. 19.. because he would not uphold him. ~jW"i!]Q~ "W 1 ehron.1 j?:l~ ~"1 1~::: ni'''W~i'J 1ol1." That the Hebrew whom he released strove again on the following day with an Egyptian.r:np' i1~")1 1'1"1 ~'7li i~. "The ve'l'se in the 24th Psalm (according to the reading of the Ketblbh.10 expressed as follows.>/? ni'. 14.? 8 There is an allusion to this also in BUra XXVIII. 123 of Moses is attributed to Pharaoh's wife. 17 fr. For God said: "Shall the mouth that is one day to speak with me suck an unclean thing? "8 According to Mul). 18.¥O/ ill '''. 11.. • SUra LXVI. i'D¥~ i1~ N~i1 iT~"=¥ Wi~i'J "~!.> lolfp~ lol. . but on the contrary reproved him 1 Sura XXVIII. ~W~~ lol~o/'.! and she is mentioned as a believer.9 which is contrary to the Jewish view. XXVI.:t1 i':l'~ ''il11 ":1n. The words of the Bible: "Shall I go and call thee a nurse of the Hebrew women? "6 give rise to the following Rabbinical fable: 7 "Why must the nurse be a Hebrew women?" This shows that he refused the breast of all the Egyptian women.~ 7 Sotah 12.

23. 7 Exodus.: 'l !)"1t. ."11 . without its having first been mentioned that :Mosos and Aaron had gone in obedience to God to Egypt. . 29. a Midr. par. Sum XXVI. as is also the very happy invention of :1 man who warned Moses to flee. " and also of the words. withont the preceding events being given. Instead of letting the vision in the bush be the occasion of Moses' leaving Midian. Exodus. for his quarrelsome temper is mere embellishment.5 The appearance of Moses before Pharaoh is connectod in a remarkable way with the divine commission to the former. Sura XXVIll. 16. " for all are died who sought I Sura XXVIII. g Sura XXVIII. iv.4 Mul). 17 If. as it is in the Bible.7 unless we accept the Rabbinical explanation S of the words.mple invention. 19. ii. which however is contrary to the literal sense of the Scriptnres. Rabb. the part elsewhere omitted is of course supplied."mmad speaks of two 2 instead of seven 3 daughters of the Midianite. had done wonders before Pharaoh and had admonished him. So closely are the two circumstances bound together that in many places Pharaoh's answer follows immediately upon God's command.:1 l!:xodul>. Pharaoh is said to have reproached Moses with the murder of the Egyptian. ':J~~ 11'. for Mul). 3 Exodcs.ery s.124 JUDAISM A. . 19.ammad erroneously makes out that Moses had formed the resolutiou to leave the country before this eveut. 23.ND ISLU!. iii.! There is a mistake to be found in the very brief account of Moses' flight to Midian and his residence there. "he bocame leprous and a leper is as one dead.4~tP. 1.l. ii. but as we might expect with Lhanges." 9 that is. ii. l'1~!l :J~wn 11-'2l. O:'!¥'l. 2:\. 6 This is a . But on the other hand in those passages where only the admonitions given by Moses to Pharaoh are related. . " the king of Egypt died. : T T: . on Exodus. and that the vision appeared to him on the way..

iun. viii.5 '. on Exodus. 5 but when they had seen their serpents swallowed by that of Moses. on Exodus. e Exodus.ltu • AOCQl'ding to Midr.~ 1112"1. ptll'a 1. lOS. 83.1 J'2tP.bl\.. 32. 15.>"~~o/. they believed. O. page lOS) and by Elpherar take it. and drew it out as white as snow from leprosy."* Further.2 whioh is not mentioned in Scripture.. 125 thy life" 1 whioh is as follows: "Were they deed? They were Dathan and A..biram. praised God and were not intimidated by Pharaoh's threats. 110. 5. i1~? '~~~ '1. par. . in distinction from God's messengers.><:T . f Pirke Rabbi Eliezer} Sedion 48. ono of whom reproached Moses with tue murder of tho . on Exodus. were tho two disputants.lds into their bosoms and drew them out as white as snow from leprosy.::! 0~'~l:1~ . for their reward.." The magioians who were summoned asked at first. vii.::!) O. 8 II. A. S Midr. in which such a confession is found only after the plague of lioe.l r:I~'¥i. they also put their ha. Moses is supposed to have shewn the sign of his leprous hand before Pharaoh.J~. 1 Burn.7 and the Rabbis say s that "the tribe of 1 Midr. para. The suffix refers to 'Moscs l as aome Arabic commentators cited by BaidhAwi (lienzii Fl·agm.>1 0'tP1~O '?i1 '11"1~ ':l) ~~:.n and Abiram. who were involved in the dispute of Korah.~ ':. Rabb.b.' '0/. X. 40.. . Rabb. This only means that they had become powerless. Ex. ~.~ mi::l~r.mong Moses' own people only his own tribe is said to have believed On him. Ara. Dnt. .MIRACLES OF MOSES.odus..6 and there too only in the form of a mere hint.. lQ1 l'l'?tp ~.I!l~ypt.S but whioh agrees with the following statement in the Rabbinical writings: 4 "He put his hand into his bosom. XXVI.11 ij?'1J7 i. This is qnite contrary to the Bible.3 !Z Siit"as VII.ilt!. i~:.~·ilt'? OJ?i~ ~l-1'¥in1 O~'IJ~ 01. Sums VII.<q~:1t n"J~ O¥ ~'O . XXVI.~ O'~:.~ '~ l-1~(:l il'1i?. .?t¥i~ nil. 6. ~O'P<:T OD 0.. Rabb.

jJ~y . flO. XXVI." that they mean "by my command.7 remarks on the words" beneath me. the words in verse 29: "If he be a liar. chapter 182. 7 ~".'" In another passage 6 Mu!).l~ '~~." bear a resemblance to the words of 1 Suras XX.yl:i by my IJOnlnland.t:l H'!J" '~t:l ':(l C'"1~N C0l:l ." A quite new but charming fiction is that of a pioua Egyptian. In other passages of the Quran.hr..l C1)7 "7. 88..T~lJ0r. but if he speaketh the truth. (i iI . according to my opinion. I created myself and the Nile. par•• 6.lii1 C7il'i. some of those judgments with which he threateneth you will fall upon you.t 3 Sur•• XXVI.t!.. on Exodus. 74..~t# . t Midr. n .ammad puts the following words into Pharaoh's mouth: "Is not the kingdom of Egypt mine and these rivers which flow beneath me?" Elpherar. Yalkut. which assumption no doubt is intended to be nccepted by the people.~ ~rP=\~11t:::l iT~~ "~':.i ~. Ezekiol.. '3 S(u'a XL. Midr.1 ''')N~ '7 . 8 Certain features of this story sound familiar.ipl' JIJ Sura XLIII.. for lord of the world am I. with others. 8. xxix..4 where we read: "Pharaoh said to them: 'From the first have ye spoken an untruth. 48. A IUUWill da.I." Pharaoh himself was also a magician. Levi was exempt from hard labour. Rabb.! :. in his address to the other magicians. ::!9 iI.! This is in accord with the Rabbinical statement 2 that the Pharaoh who lived in the days of Moses was a great magician. This trait is also developed in Jewish legend. 28. For instance. who warned his countrymen not to despise the teaching of Moses and not to persecute him. as it is written: 5 my river is mine own and I have mado it for myself. il+yW .~~~t(? Di"'~ n~n '!:)'!11 '''loll'' '. XXVIII.. aud this he claims.126 JUDAISM AND ISL. l.. on him will the punishment of his falsehood light.3 Pharaoh claims for himself divinity.

we should not be alive. and the next verse begins the expression of God's answer). (or perhaps this is to be read in the first person. 182. B ~ first mentioned in v. Bum X. so that this verse too oxpresses 'Pharaoh's penitence. Sum XXVI.4 to be considered as a strict historian.Jewish tradition. nntil when he was drowning. as foHows. but which has been almost entirely misunderstood. The passage 8 may be translated as follows: " and we caused the children of Israel to pass through the sea. on Exodus. In some passages 2 hll speaks of nine plagues. he said: 'I believe that there is nO God but He on Whom the Children of Israel believe. and I am now one of the resigned. CV.s. This Midr. para. In another passage 3 ho enumerates five. ." Mul). any more than is the Psalmist.THE PLAGUES OF EGYP~'. XXVII. c"n ~J"n 01" F)!. Frogs and Blood. :llv. Although we cannot here find fault with the want of order in the plagues and with the omission of some of them since Mu~mmad here is not. 127 Gamaliel in the New Testament. which is not to be confounded with the overthrow in thE' sea.' on which God said. which is also taken from Jewish legend.. 10 iI. which stand in the foHowing order: Flood. Locusts. The fear of the Israelites 6 at the approach of the Egyptians by the Red sea is also mentioned by Mul. Lice.bbc. g.!. 1 "If Joseph had not been. R. .5 may fairly be considered as a proof of the want of reliable information on the subject. get the mistaken inclusion of a flood.. 61 If. and Pharaoh and his army followed them in a violent and hostile manner. 103. 1 1 • SUrao & xvn. 00 if.ammad is not clear about the plagues. 28 If. from ignorance of its origin.1ammad. :J • E. 130. 12. ExoduB. in Paalm. The allusion to Joseph in verse 36 is found in a very dissimilar .' ~'?"!:I:'l 3 Sura.r Now we come to a circumstance. VlI. 'Thou hast been hitherto one of the rebellions and wicked doers.

whole and unharmad.lrll.-even fl'om the depth of the sea. warning to them...)Jk .nd we will put thee Aud fUl'tber on: * Oil dry land. tha..). ~ Pirke Rabbi Eliezer..~\S ~~ "Wir. 1~<1:)~ in!.e. V... cvi.XOUU8 1 XV'.. that be Bhould be a horror and a.~ n~ ~~w 1. '17 111B l.?~loll '~." But on the other h<1.1iJ 0'.>~v Compo also 1Hdl'a.ucJ. 11. nip¥ l. Yalkut.W~ ini~01~ i"'''ii~ 1'1. "~~7 '1'':1"1l. 0 Lord.lSb 011 Pl:ia.o/~ 'i1 '!? '?o/ "~1!l i1~"V:.. whioh has been tU'l'ned aud twisted about by others. sl1spiciun or the explanatioll given above.. .' "I This is the quite simple meaning of the words. a. chupter 3 b:X. 2.l.lii. 1'.)¥no/. which is BO wen Baited to the words.l?o/ J'~I "~:J.OdU8.W~~ i:ll ~1f'~~ C'8l. day.10 1\11!? 'n 'il 'ijiJ i"7.gll."\..) '~. among the Gods? '4 God delivered him £rom the dead. &.. because they were ignorant of the following Jewish legend: 2 "Recognize the power of repentallc~ I Pharaoh King of Egypt rebelled excessively against the Most High saying: 'Who is God that I should hearken to His voice? '3 but with the same tongue he repented saying: ~ Who is like Thee. and MidI'..=lIT' 0" .t thou mayest Le a sign to those who shull be ufter thee.".h thy bodYI i.b.l. Section 43.." are explained by him only in the ordinary way.I 1.~~ in'..i'o/tl ." Ii".iJl '1J. 23~L . .j\k ~..... page 201) the following: .-'1!? '!J~~ nil"']. Alollg with other explanations he gives tHOllZii Fr<.. '.t!? i"I.)!? n~~wf..i>l '!Jtl~ '~-nti '0i.. \. still it is not quite unknowll to BaidhAw'i. "~:S:jl '''J~o/ C:.'1 .?~ t:.~t?~ 'I..Iu C. the words: "That thou mayest be a sign to those who Bhan come after thee..AM. for it is written: 'For now I had put forth my hand and 1 No~ Que Al'abio commentator among those quoted ia Elpherar appears to have hud a.. viz.128 JUDAISM AND ISI.'":?~ 'n C''?l:l~ i1?b~ i1~V '1:@ '~.. And to-day we save thee i. however will we s"ve thee with thy body. we will bring thee back from where thy people are Bunk.e. At'<l..t!? n:t~wJi1 O'lDI@t' 1'1+'~ 'n I~ 'R7J i?'1~iJ1.

where the rock was struck.." When it came at last to the giving of the Law.27. The Jews also say that God threatened to cover them with the mountain as with .d.l not h.j?-n\:l J'Y~llil i. they died at the sight of Him. are used side by side in a.'7 ~)If'!1. but God threatened them that He would overturn the mountain 6 upon them if they would not accept the Law.a II.87.. 60.l "~lip~ ~"t1tP 1:I'.ammad makes twelve streams gush out.::11 ~l\l~o/ 'n'~'i'iiJ '"9~r.Ty-~ 1:I.~ n~...THE STRIKING OF TilE ROCK.u entirely Bimilar senBe.... 6.170.. so tha. xvii. IV. ~)l$"1ry • . 5 1:11. the Israelites are said to "have rebelled. and therefore one ma. "ExoduBJ xv. :il Exodus. 152. also thetwo reoeasioDsof Jerusalem '!'argum. VII. ix. but were afterwards raised again.4 On these wells the commentator Rashi.. ix. n'. 16.7 But now the Israelites demanded that they themselves should see God. 1:I'!(l~tp "1o/¥ I:IW\7 '~?:p "1i." 3 Exodus. • -t ~o c. 16.~ '." ~'Yl . 129 smitten thee.S with those at Elim where the Israelites found twelve wells.s The corresponding :Rabbinical statement may be translated as follows: 9 "The Israelites desired two things of 1 t~~r ~y MDQ~~:Ua. • S6ra." On the occasion of the striking of the Rock Mu:[J.". basin turned upside down.:?'7.t onB recognizes the identical meaning of the two. 2.i::l:p-n~ 7'~.'~~ • SUra II. so that eMh individJ1al tribe 2 had its own particular stream. 62 If.- although the twelve Bona of Jacob are also called Still in SUra. in number as the twelve Tribes.". probably following earlier expositors s\"ys: 5 "They found them ready for them.Apparently this is a connrsion of the events at Raphidim. 1 Abodah Zarah II. Vll. Camp.ns1ateI:\ as ~'tribe.:t'! '?tIi m '~o/ . 160 t~. even as it is written in Exodus.j? ~Y!?tr. and':':.y with pel'fect right tra.' 1 but God let him live to proclaim His power and might.1 . .

l w~~ n::. 87.J'~~~ t:l'J:1l. 21). . CiJ~:V ..li.1 'n min '~o/. SUra. therefore it is written. and both were granted them. God.ake. 24 (neb. their soul departed at His speech. and shall thy children (the Israelites) die? At once . as it is written: 2 (My soul went forth when he spake. that they might see His glory and hear His voice.l'W. 90." "l. VII.I t:l'I.l1 1"~ . xix.:itl~ n~~~ 'r... SaDhedrin 5 ~'7 C~ "~l$ "~?'? lJ~:l\~ . 3 'The Law of the Lord is perfect.!!?J '~o/.'''1jf '7 '"'!=tv NJ..~ c'fillO"f in'" 'rP.ltI "I~!. v.l~ ~J~~o/ i'ii'-~? :l'l:1::r' i""1.r"!:l 'M t:l\."'-~1 'hb¥-~ ~J'r.ammad. restoring the souL'" The atory of the caJ! is alao one of those which Mul). VI 6.YJ v.? M'il'!. has found it easy to embellish. 8.tl:1 ~'2hl iJ:l::. lQ~~~ n'WJ 1 DeuterouOlll. if he had not made them a calf. 150.1'~~ no/ir~ l11if. for when they came to Sinai and He appeared to them. as it is written: 1 (Behold the Lord our God hath shewed us His glory and His greatness.! . then he thought: if I do not listen to them they will do with me as with Hul'.l!f il. and we have heard His voice ont of the midst of the fire.s the samo rCJnw:k on fi Sw-.130 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.~ 'n':if'~O '~!?~!. .x."no/ '11 ~~ "lT1¥J l'l'WQ 'T~!1 !!i.l~ M'm1 'J'1?7 ~lol~~ l~~ .QdUl~. ~l1~o/ Raahi m.. 4. S Psalm.it:ll1'? lJ3 t:lO~ ". following the Rabbis.lf.' Then they had no power to bear it.xii.l '. E. XX. He says that the people would have killed Aaron. Canticlcs. 4 and the Rabbis Bay: 5 "Aaron saw' Hur (who had wished to oppose them) killed..' The Law (the Torah) however interceded with God for them saying' I Would a king marry his daughtor and slay all his household?' The whole world rejoices (on account of my appearance).. 96..lI:p t:l1..n~ ~"I:." According to another statement of the Quran 6 one of 'Tif.~ i.Q 1l'1 Wr.l C'I:1l. 51 4..1WO lin? x:lC.their sonls returned to them.

wi'B COlUment. 118 in the second edition 189 in the first edition): V''-. 6 Rashi aD Sanhedrin 101. touch me not. In short the Samaritans were oertainly known to later Arabians by this name.. It is not foreign to Jewish tradition that another Israelits.miri and Micah are one and the same person. Compare the wandering Jew in the Christian legeud.ill ~I /~ J and fnrth. but at any rate the tale has been differently developed by Mul).rabians the Samaritans said. 6 whence it comes that many Arabians assert that S8. 2.7 Perhaps Mu1. Micah..! led them astray and also made the call'.ammad.. • "'~l/t-lof. &".Jyu "I. perhaps only from confusion with a seot of the Pharisees desoribed as bad in the Talmud." 8 With how much reason the Arabians hold this is indeed unknown..".l W~"\l .. and according to one legend. named Samiri. " Tonch not. Samiri was the name for Samaritan...2 the name of one who is supposed by the Jews to have been helpful at the making of the calf.THE WOBBHIP OF THE OALF. and whom Moses condemned to everlasting wandering. Arabe.l . . made the calf. Al}mad Ben Idris in Hottiuger's Rist. 7 Of.~ I:)}fi.cy quotes the SUl'al ll. xvii.. Orient. i..I (:)'l .5 who is mentioned in Judges.lammad formed the word Samiri from a confusion with the name Samael. 97.long with Bu. "Touch us not.idb6.'-. where it is named "The set-apart. This arose perhaps from Samael.3 so thai. 8 Cf. and according to the A. page 84. Yakarizi (in De So..l 8~ra XX.".1Il1j b)"WI 1:)1 ~~I. he was compelled to say perpetually. ~~S 5 Judges.s. Chrest. I:)~) )/1 JU on whicb passage De Su. and III ~_ I 3 4 . 181 the Israelites. helped in the making." 9 but I have only a dim reoollection of the passage. not Aaron.s)"WI • "~I. According to him this was one of the Israelites who was present.".." 4 One recognises that this legend is composed of different elements.oy.

. x::a:ii.Y Hi!~ bin.? o~=1~ "l:l7fo. and since hi. Mu1).'2 '~. .. 2 With this is to be compared the Rabbinical statement: "There came forth this cal~ 3 lowing.?!. which as a punishment was 'known to MuQ.1 n. In the biblioal account a statement is made." The Arabian oommentators produce the mcst unedifying fables about this passage. 26. 147." 4 In the Quran it is said 5 that among the people of Moses there was a tribe which kept to the truth.6 which is explained by the Rabbis as follows: 7 "From Exodus.ammad doubtless knew them by it too. seeHon 45.l1.111y nW.l. xxxii. says that Samael entered into it and lowed in order to mislead Israel. In the events which follow abbreviations are to be found.ammad from the similar story Qf the wandering Jew.jW ~~9~~.' : ~: i1Ju "~.t~ n1~n~ ':<l"l "l:l1o/~ iniH ~H11 i1¥lt "H<W'-nH ni~mn" n¥3 i1~yl . 24. 26. section 46. XX. T:' ". This seems to refer to the tribe of Levi and especially to their behaviour about the calf. Sma VII.n I to the maker of the calf. althongh possibly it may refer also to their belief in Moses's mission to Pharaoh of which we have spoken before.132 JUDAISM AND ISW.. 7 Pirke Rabbi Eliezer.?~l '~w ". nwo iO. except in the story of the dispute with Korah. whio:" gives rise to some.1il iojt>' ~r:ltP ". and the "Touch me not" must have originated with him. 169.f-"f "?l:l toI" '1'2 tl:.. -- . and the Israelites saw it. MuQ.ammad says that the calf lowed as it come forth. Suras VII. xxxii. . but neither ohanges nor embellishments. this man must have seemed to him to be the founder of the sect. Rabbi Jehuda. " Pirke Rabbi Eliezer.1~iJ "~lP:!i . Korah is said to have had suoh riches that a number of 1 • loS)'"W\ • S Exodus. 90. gave the name of Samarita. it is olear that the tribe of Levi was not implicated in tbe matter of the golden calf. 6 Exodus.

. Riches kept by the owner to his hnrt 8 may be applied to the riches of Korah.. Hist.4 Some of the commen.. who accused Moses before all the people of bad conduct with herself..?o/~l Numbers xvi. for it says there that some persous had accUBed Moses..1. Abnlfeda. .. w':np """\1 "'iH~ • J" \e-A. m~ '1# '~W1. while they bring forward the following story.' .1~ f11'J~ t:I~"1¥~¥ ~Qi' 7'!it.~ Sura XXX!lI... Anteisla. page 32. ".JP 3 Ecclesiastes. 7 ~e * j .! and the Rabbis tell ns." This is actnally supposed tohave happened after Moses haa made known the law about adllitery.llJ (:Y' 6 Cf.2 "Joseph buried three treasures in Egypt.KOBAK.?o/ n~~t:ltp-n1.? m. which we give in Elpherar'1l words: 5 "Abn'I-'Aliah says that it refers to the fact that Korah had hired a bad woman.-i lW\ U"I. one of which became known to Korsh. The keys of Korah's treasurechamber were a burden for three hundred white mules. 76.lai ~ fr~' "....-n. 69.. cleared Moses of the accusation. tators also refer the passage to this event.ll.. but that God Cleared him from the charge which they had brought against him...~t:lo/ .. and Mul:tammad embellishes this ide.:I ... God made her dumb. f1'<f "'i"f. 133 sbrong men were required to carry the keys of his trellllurechamber.I '>'1.6 The Rabbis also allude to this in the following words: 7 "And whe!l Moses 1 sUra XXVIII... • n":!f7'? w. 12.t:l '>'7. ~.mica. J "..~~? of ""~17 "~r?7 . v.? "~? ..I:i .1~~ ~'7J n.u. aud destroyed Korah.'l n~~i.1:.a in a fine manner...r ""'~'1191.1' J olll\ \e.. 460\ JI' JI:..? "m "1# "tp¥ "t. and afte~ the enqniry as to whether it applied to him also had been answered by him in the affirmative..." It is implied in the same Talmudic passage that he became overbearing and quarrelsome from the possession of sllch riches.~ "b~l . 4... One passage in the Qumu may refer to this dispute.\ J .mo/q~ '12'?t. ....

.. ol::.d .llr-I . ""l.l~ lio/.1 1'\1.)\:l t:Jt.oW <Ill I\!I .. If yon produce him. xx. Autel..~~ 1'F! 1"'ql:l :11'l4 . who produced Aaron's corpse. we will stone you.1J.134 JUDAISM All]} ISLAM. if not.1J.>"! i"¥'?l n11¥tT '.l 'o/l)iJ )!. 32 and 34.)1 Compo Abulfeda..) t:Jr? >il~llJ1 .)~o/ Q1~ ~1 ::l~iQ il'\i~ 1'~':.' They replied:' How can the death angel come to a man who has once resisted him and held him back? for it is written: 5 He (Aaron) stood between the dead and the living and the plague was stayed. heard it.'1 l"'q~ :I1l~ ..>31 d (:)!J)IJ>.'1 3 "~1 n~!. xvi.)1 I.'1~ "ilt?: l'oI' lillllilTl1\:! 'i'T 'i1 '110 n.." Other commentators understand that the accusation was that Moses had killed Aaron.) '1'3'0 Ci}7 ~"11l.J-'f ~l'11~1 '. n11?.r. .) Cv'f ~"I1l$ C'J:1!fltT 1'...I. " and in another passage we read: 1 "Each man suspected his wife on account of Moses. because the two we're alone together when Aaron died on Mount Hor.1'0 Q.. What did he hellr? That he was blamed for being intimate with the wife of another. li~!. 48.l il'l!?~7 l'1~i? 'Ql:l'''~ • Elpherar h'B' &.l '~l?ii'T ':I1'W':.ill rj JU...Je <$'.."4l1 olJI )"'U oW <Ill 1f'.). (Uebrew.Iamlca.l11 t:J...~ " Numbers.::!7 ~"11l$ tlV'~ 'O!iij"'f ~~~ilr..l7 lillo/ i'lQiN=¥ t:J.lllm t:J'~lJij 1':.~ &s:. well.0/..~ li1~Y-"il ~l4"1~1 1"'ql:l 1=. pp.. the whole congregation came together against them asking them: 'Where is Aaron ?' They said: 'He is dead.. but Moses was cleared from this by the angels.l lli)~..' Then God immediately opened 1 Sauhedriu 110.t:l 'l.Je * Ii" ' . clear me from this suspicion.l linlo1iJ "!. ~ Numbers. xvii.'J\i' '~!. Rabbinical idea.. 13. for we 'read in the Midrash Tanchuma: 3 " All the congregation saw that Aaron was dead..J~7~=¥ 'I.-'l &j I. he fell on his faca.q .4 When Moses aud Eleazar came down from the mountain.Ir-' "P?7~1 li~ ~... 29..O~ 1!. Riat..i\l ~ (.? "i::l~ I'\~~O '1l:l71.l 'bJl~l :l'J:l:.2 This is also a.<IIlI .' Moses then prayed: 'Lord of the world.

* Moses is said to llave gone with his servant to see the place where two seas meet.ACCUSATION AGAINST !lOSES.loa. they repeat only the most universally accepted view.uthor adds tho following note in the Appendix: Zunz (die gotteBdicllstlichcn VOl'tri.mmmad 2 I could not find a trace in Jewish wriGings. XVIII. The story following this about Dhu-'I- 1 :j.n it does: Moses. pl:11lo. etc. Of the journey described by Mul. which has been embellished qUlte . . 59-81. under Elias). just because here. Here the commentators give only the fable not quoted by us. a servant of God met them and made the journey with them. Aum. He sank a ship. . But this cannot prevent us frcm holding to our opinion. as in the second passage. as Wahl has already remarked. Siir. The most correct view is. and to have forgctten a fish.ding pa. Tho 3. Joshua. 135 the grave and shewed Aaron to them.i. but I cannot trace it to any Jewish souroe. killed a youth and propped up a wall.s pointod out the Jewish source of this story. a man who plays a. although the colouring is Jewish. in which tho servant of God according to the Arabians is said to be Elias (of. 130 u. and to this refers the passage: 'The whole congregation saw. We may oasily recog-nize therefore tho Jewish origin of this legend.).les of Ii1arvel and 3. l In short the fifth verse of Sura LXI is about the answer of Moses to the disputants. which they were taking with them for food and which sprang into the sea.' JJ Here I omit entirely a third very insipid :fable which the commentators mention.rt in to. only that. that the verse refers to the reproaches of Aaron and Miriam.fto!" tLLo manner of the Qumn. the traveller is R. historisch entwickoltJ S.uventuro (cf. telling them before hand that his actions would ronse their impatience. and ouly whon they parted did he give suffioient reasons for these actions. Zun~ pp. and which seems to them to be the most probable occasion of the verse.go dar Juden. 1 IT. When they went back to seek it. according to the Jewish source. do) ha. Numbers) xii. hen Levi. who atands on too high n. 140-141) nnd whom this adventure Buits much bOLter tha.

82 Ii. nl$~1:l ~?1 nJ.4 affords material for a narrative.J. Miriam 12 is praised in the scripture and called a prophetess. 2 9 if. II. sUra.136 JUDAlSIl AND ISLAM. Rs. nxiv. S Exodus.u. but she died from the divine afIIation. XVIII. • sUr.2 if anything of the sort were known about him.. Qaruain I wight well refer to MOBes. 67. Vid. xix.9 in contrailiction to the rabbinical statement that she had to be a two-year old)O As to those persons who come into the history of Moses. 63.1 and he also makes the dead man live again 8 on being struck with a piece of the animal. he says that the cow must be of one year. para. In the first place MuJ. " Numbers... 19. In view of such great distortions we must not deal hardly with him for the following small one. S See Ap:osndix. II. 68. 8 • SUra II. Bathra." According to 1 ~. x:ri. and therefore worms could not touch her.IS but the Rabbis value her still more highly and say of her: 14 " The angel of death had no power over Miriam.:Di. the shining one. viz..i?~ lol~t:l rW~lJ 'Tl-37l:i i"I~'?in1 "If"! mil J:T¥ l1J'<~ ~? 1:l\"1~ lIJ'<o/ . that relating to the red hei£er.s only one. 29 if. Of the individual laws which are mentioned historically in the Quran.. 7 Deuteronomy. >-G. 11. Aaron and Korah. we have already disposed of Pharaoh. sUra II. Midr._ ~ 10 " f"-J'" 1" Baba.l1. arid that is given 5 in very unnecessary fullness !lJld with manifold errors. on Numbers. 13 flo . 2 if. (:llf' Sura.mmad confounds the red heifer 6 with the calf which is slain for one murdered by an unknown hand.1 "i1't.ll while we have only mentioned others and therefore must add more aboutithem. 68 Ii.bb.

."i.:.. and so they came to be considered as one aud the same.1.» JIi..o LXIV. Su.. who treats chronology pretty much according to his own pleasure_ The other person who appears in the history of Moses is his father-in-law Jethro..4 hence the Mu].muBO. that Miriam did not die through the angel of death.. viz... 188...-l\o..3 yet there is not the slightest doubt that Mul. Thus Elpherar says: 5 "Opinions are divided as to the nllme of Moses' wife's father..-' .) J. . and Sunna... like that of Miriam.11 .. for the Talmudic ntterance already cited.u. 10..2 Although Miriam's name is not mentioned in the passage where she is alluded to in the history of Moses...1ammad. .QlI. conld easily be turned into a statement of a long.. ..0 .. • Elpherar on sUra XXVIII. not however without more or less opposition.. f' ~I..i . Sura XIX....~. is not mentioned in the story of 1>1oses. title and verse SO if.". 2 Cf..i. life for her. Now it is true that his name. 12. if not endless.1ammad took both Marys for one and the same person. . .... especially by Mul. ~~ ~:..s..'.i'. ~ . Many say he was the prophet Shu'aib i others that he was Jethro the nephew of Shu'aib who died before him i others llgain that he WIIS a man who believed on Shu'aib. sUm 111.. ~ 1:1"" 1:1'" j..1 I:)..rl\ s . . ".aL... . when mentioning him in connection with these events and 1 .l! .. ..mmmadan tradition connects this Midianit~ (as the Quran simply designates the father-inlaw of :Moses) with Shu'aib.n.. 28• • SUra XXVIII.>-ll.. Thus Elpherar always calls him by this name.. the Arabio name for Jethro. * <:ll' ... VII... 12... ...l J.. :M~mmad 1 187 Miriam is the mother of Jesus.JIA> 1&. (:)\S.. particalarly verse 29 j Sura LXVI. lIS If..~ r-* (.. .." But the most widespread tradition is that it was Shu'aib himself.4-0.... ~5. I Sura XXVIII..

~~W '1i'=¥'~r:r ~'q1 f1i~~ l'::Jrf 1~1~ 1iJ~. • Suras VII. XXXVIII.l1.> n~y "!. whioh is said by the Rabbis to have been the oause of the' hatred of that people towards him..tl>=f~ WWl. L..5 God hates idolatry and did He give Moses a refuge with an idolater? Conoerning this our teachers tell us: Jethro was pries/. 85-98. 85-6... on Exodns.li~f- S Exodus. despised 1 Hille. of the idols. Aooording to M~ammad an immediate pnnishment fell on the Midianites.8 The Rabbis have the following on the subjeot: 4 "The priest of Midian had seven danghters. .1 niw'1' h0~ ~~'lJ':llj ~"~l$ Iol~~ . XXIX. 1.) t:J1.188 JUDAISM AND mL. XXVI. the drivin/l o. Thongh his name is not mentioned in this oonneotion in the Quran. 16.l t:J~l?\:l lli~!!i9 't:l'~l:.. XI. 12. Mid):.!f5 ~m'T_l ~"f-i? t61 i~Nll n\:l i" t'1ill'17 c'~'1i7 1!. other events independent of Moses' life are related of him.l~wJ. XXV. without giving any other opinion. Rabb.=t~ iJNll"~ C'tPl~lf C'l.l i'i2'Ii: Kl. 88-92.!~:.way of his daughters. whioh was just the oiroumstance which led to Jethrc's oonneotion with the life of Moses. T1~ n11::l11.. 176-92.~ MuQ. viz.!7 "1.. i Exodos.T NP:rl1 'lZ ~'9il 1:>~" cry? VJ~1 ~ '.¥t:l nWl:l7 'Oi~l1 m~1 t:JC?? ~"':. lli'~o/C '?f 1ol'!iin1 "'1:11-3 "'~~::l n:w'1: ""1 M~N'.1.. para.'1 Y m~ 1lJ::' ~~n "'W~l.l1 '~:. A.~lli'1~1 ~m'T_rf 'l'l1~'<? Iol~~ W.!? " Mffw~ N"1 C1l.nteis1&micBr. particnlarly his admonition of the Midianites. that he was the father-in-law of Moses.:'? NlGi Ml!?1:l N=¥ N\:>rf 111 n:. 48. ii. 12-8• .. Abulfeda 1 relates just this one t1 ing about Shu'aib.> l'!¥ 1't:lo/ M~11 '~ ' 1':.t:.1 Y'~il . but knew their worthlessness. 40.<l '~~ 1i?~ n~l1l.l c-'lli'14'~ C'l!"i7 ~lo6~i 1 ''''l! i" "Qi~f.?~ "0-. XXII.l\mmad took up the admonition without mentioning thf oonsequence whioh it entailed on Jethro. ii. page So. ~ '~ '~il . viz.!?'.l llii'!.

. and when he asked this service from the shepherds. they would not give it. 6 I have presented the facts and quotations here as though there were no doubt that all these passages refer to Jethro.. but now I 10m old. XI. ISS. no one worked for him. or rather the poiut of the exhortation.y. 1 Was it possible f Jethro was the priest of Midisn and the shepherds drove away his daughtel's? But this shews that they hd put him under a bah.. The shepherds came and drove them away. Then he called his fellow-townsmen and said to them: 'Till now I hve served you. ..' 'l'hen they put him under a ban. He preaches about the Last Day 4 and asserts that he desires no reward.S Jethro shows himself as a preacher quite according to Mu!). . or mora probably from Mu]. reproach which is specially brought against them.. . 85. 1S9 idolatry and ha.. 5 on the other hand his townspeople reproach him with working no miracles.d thought of being oonverted even before Moses Cl>me.1ammad himself. • sUra XXIX. and that they were punished on account of their unbelief. choose you another priest: and he gave them back the vessels of service.. and for this reason they drove his daughters awa... 3 It seems as though MulJammad had oonfoundod the Midianites with the inhabit. viz.ants of Sodom." In the mouth of the people. 7 . An altogether different name 7 is found in the Quran. and it is not easy to 1 Exodus) ii. 187. to give just weight and measure..~ . • S6ra XXVI. no one tended his flocks. A.s VIi. although I have not yet ccme aoross it in Jewish writings. so that no oue conversed with him.JUlIllO. 86. 88. ISO. to whom such things are imputed by the Rabbis.. the legend received the embellishment that Jethro wanted to ccnvert his fellow-countrymen to the faith. n.2 must be founded on some lagend or other..ammad's ideas. 2 Sura. but exception might be taken to this.. • sUr> XXVI.

we must first try to shew that Shu'aib and Jethro fa" idontical. VII. 8 to .. However. however.. .. ~_c.i~ ~~i. then nothing important will remain to oppose its adoption S as a probable hypothesis." 1 in the . others... VII. as the father of Shufaib..IlJ. Now if we can find among the Rabbis any intimation favourable to this snpposition. . the two first passages 2 give the events concerning him between the story of Lot and that of Moses.mmadanview. all vary well for Ahme.. (as Elpherar on 8uro VI l. Very little. 85-98.. as often... 88-92. according to the Mu~a. and also their ignora...) tORBsert that this is the opinion of J~' ~ ~u" "a. nephew (cf.i.. 83. B"r. 1 !O..I.. The identity is first shewn by the fact that those to whom he was sent are called " Mid~nites. 88. XXIX.. 772... 1 Su.Inmad drew. XI... XXII. aa hi. 48 «(. under the word Shu1aib. 83: (:)~ (:!'l . Tho differ~ ence in the Dames CDnflJsos the commentatOl"S. on SUra. can be adduced to shew how Shu'aib and Jethro came to be one and the same person. VII. town). ). the pn." Some regard Jethro. 86. Shu'aib.... . XI. . (~1.. 23. for the Rabbis assert that the staff used later by Moses and called the divine staff 5 grew in Jethro's garden. It i...140 JODAlSI! ANP lSLAI!.ff from Jethro is asserted also by D'Herb. fools. explain how Jethro came by it.saage quoted above itom Elpherar on Sura. Mu!}..nce of the source from which here. ~._ where is regarded as the name of a.(.).and then put forward our conjectill'es as to how the many-named Jethro added this name to his others.".. ..)..:r?~y n'\1l~ That Mosea obtained tho sha.second place.ammad may have confused the name Hobab 4-often used for Jethro and probably pronounced Ohobab-witb. MU. B. 86.d hen All Sal(m (quoted by 11""""'0. I' J.6 Now Sha'ba 7 means staff and Shu'aib S may be taken as the posse&sor of the staff. If Shu'aib is the same as Jethro. • ::l~in & ' t:l'... XXVIII.. heap of. O. p... Perhaps an etymological explanation may be thought of here.

But further these" men of the well" 6 are mentioned in one passage along with the" men of the wood. 17'1. &9 we have already remarked. The story of Jacob at the well (setting aside the fact that not the slightest allusion 1 E." 3 which name is evidently derived from the thorn bushes (.d the Midianites by this name i." 5 without any other partioulars being given about them. which is not the case with the ~lf '". 176 iI.e. although the fact itself is not mentioned in that book. The real reMon for bringing Jethro into the Quran is. because in order to prove our point we must accuse MuJ.9) which were in the vicinity. because in connection with Midian Shu'aib is mentioned as ~~.lS:a~y~ 3 Elpheror on 8u." aud so it seeme oerbaiu that Mu~ammad regarded them as two different peoples.~':" If people of the wood. (:)!"" .~. their brother. VII.." • BUras XXV.. "men of the wood.iammad himself of a misunderstanding..141 there are passages I in which the former is mentioned. 4<>. • . the quarrel of the shepherds with his daughters. "men of the well. • 8Ura L.. ' -t)i '.llow this with regard to SUra XXVI." No other circumstances related abont these persons mentioned in the Quran would authorize this appellation. 12. It remains for us to justify the bringing forward of two more passages.2 viz. but nevertheless we allow onrselves to believe them to be really identical. SUra XXVI. In these passages Shu'aib is not mentioned. 4 and it is all the more difficult for us to do so..'~f .. 83 bas: ~~. and it is thus easy to understand that the Jews may have sometimes calle. while those to whom he is sent are not called Midianites. y~\ r-J". but the people who are held up as a warning are oaJled "men of the well..g. bnt this same Elpherat wiU not a. L. and so we nnd a new name for these peopJe. 12.

i" ol1l1 ~~ r\:. XXV. so that they were all ruined. 4. T~e first opinion is that it refers to Balaam.. Maracc. I~ f"")\a"l.. Another person of some importance in the Mosaic age is said by SOme Arabic commentators to be alluded to in the Quran.lI o.. as a matter of fact. are the same. who was to exhort them to Islam.." In like mauner Jalalu'd-din says: 3 "Their prophet is oslled by some 8hu'aib." VIl.l"." This admission of the Arabic commentators strengthens our opiuion considerably.. Still this tradition seems to have been received even among the Arabs. and the shepherds served idols... for we find in Elpherar 2 among othor explanations the following: "Wahb says that the people of the well Bat beside it (the well). • On Sur. .AM...~\. for which he quotes many authcrities..i -~}i . but that Mul}. all these three. but they remained in their error. Elpherar quotes four different opinions on this passage.) has in it no trace of hostility. to it is to be found in the Quran...~ u-"I.~t .". 40. ~ J"J ...) ~~ Jol.142 JUDAISM AND ISI.JI =)1> l:JI 3 On Sura XXV. f""~ f"" ~ <. and so the conjecture is not too daring that...'>I Ijlf .l viz. While they sat round the well in their dwellings the spring bubbled up and gushed over them and their houses. JIi . ~r ~ J..ammad regarded the first two only as identical and looked on. by others differently..... and continued their efforts to harm 8hu'aib.o~1 (:).eJ\.:'~i _ ~i ~c..J.eW • SU.. .. and the peoplo of the well..a rll-~I * 10. ~ ~ r.. .:. and relates the history cf Balaam in almost complete accord with the I ~~ "..4 but many others dispute the allusion.ob d I.. Then God sent Shu'aib..". 40 (vid.c ~ J>. 174-5. the people of the wood.lo....JI f""i"00l rL... the last as different.. the Midianites. ~ju..I..41 J.Soil d...

Third Part. and on the other hand the Prophet had suoh an undefined notion of Saul's personality that he attribuhes to him the aotions of others.. which is improbable. The three kings who ruled ouer undiuided Israel. . Saul's history is related in the Qnran 5 in the following manner: ". are mentioned. on the pasaage.! Jalalll'd-dln and ZamakhsMri 2 refer this to Balaam.ammad only in a very abbreviated form. 6 to which however only a few of them 1 Elpberar calla bim.lammad nnedifying.. " <. or else it must have been wholly unknown to him.11 \:)l ~. • 6 sUra II. 20. and thus our second parh comes to an end. Ohapter II.. or who were imporoant in his time. must eihher have seemed to Mu). as the story of that heroic age Was quite in accord with his feelings and aims. and call him Balaam the son of Ba'ura. )P~ ~ ~ following othera. 247-68. 143 Bible narrative. 247. for on the one hand his history was known to Mul}.. Saul stands very muoh in the back ground.4 in terms which can only mean immediately or very soon after Moses. and this appears to have been the case· from the fact that he speaks of the choosing of a king as an event happening aIter Moses. including the time of the Judges.S"'r ~ ~ ~ ' ~"'~ \:)l ~ !» SUra II. SECOND SECTION. 1 Bam nefl viii.SAUL. following some authorities. • c. The history following immediately on the time of Moses. in order that they might go out under him to the Holy War.AHel' Moses the Israolites desired a king. . j and • Maraca.S Beyond these nc other persons who come into the life of Moses.

". 27. 24a. 15 ". x.I {f>j.\! here." to be tall.. Saul then proved his troops.S and has doubtless risen from the similar story of Sanl's forbidding food to the army.:. David's victory over Goliath is mentioned 1 11 1 Sa... rive 24 if. afberwards went.I (? 0"'-""-") 0.-00 .. The name of the prophet is not given. 10 ~. The prophet (Samuel) gave out that Saul was sent of God.144 JUDAISM AND ISLAM.s Sanl is called Talnt...7 MuJ.l[.'.6 a name probably given on account of his height. and later Arabians also are in ignorance about it.. • 1 Samuel. Baidhawi Baye: . b .. .}. probably derided from 7 1 SamQsl. 8 Sum II. 6 ft. The stcry of Saul's proving his troops is evidently a confusion with that of Gideon. the prophet of Israel announced the return of the Ark of the Covenant.s:. according to which the Ark came back earlier.9 The personality of David 10 is ·certainly more clearly grasped in the Quran.I . SUra.4 This confusion with Gideon accounts too for the saying that only a few mighty men followed Saul. Goliath is called J§Jnt. • J'U." The circumstance that through Saul the . and even these were afraid of Goliath and his armies. David at length overcame the Philistine and his hosts and gained the dominion.. still he seemeJ despicable in the eyes of the people) As a sign that the rule pertained to Saul. 249 must be thus understoodJ and perhaps it would also be better to read . 2.. concerning whom this is related in the Bible. ~. x.Ark of the Covenant came back 2 is contrary to Scriptnre.> .... and allowed only those to belong to his army who drank water lapping it with the hand.. but the actnal historical events of his life are scarcely touched upon. n.tammad notices in the Qnran that Sanl was of great height. ix."W\ a Jodges J vii. this was done by very few.muel. 23..S and Baidhawi gives this derivation for his name..

alluded to. as Wahl rightly romarks. In one of the Sunnas 9 it is mentioned that David did with very little sleep j and Elpherar 10 in a long chain of tradition beginning with Ibn (Abbas and ending 1 Sur. 3 SUra XXXVIII. 10 1 Sura XXI. Again.isputants themselves corne before David. 20-S. 16-20. 15.6 where it is stated that David compolled the mountains and the birds to praise God with him. XXXI'IlI. in that (setting aside the passage I in which he is called " Penitent" probably with reference to her) the parable of tho case in law devised by the Prophet Nathan 2 is narrated. In another passage 8 we find a general mention of David. 10.1 J} . According to th" Quran 7 mankind is indebted to David for the invention of armour. 78.tnres. -. and calls on them to join with him in extolling the Almighty. Suras XX£. This legend probably arose from David's warlike fame. According to the Quran the oase in dispute is not related. XXXIV.DAVIlJ. '1' 8 Sur.:~ ~ Baumel. Ou SIll'O XXXVIfI. XXVI!. A remarkable circumstance is given in several passages. but the twO} d. J4S. Sura XXXVIII. SUra XXI. 16. In another passage 5 mention is made of David's and Solomon's excellent judgment on the occasion of some quarrel nnknown to us about shepherds tenmng flocks on strange fields at night. although there is much said in the Bible about Goliath's armOur. . 1 ff. he was received back into favour by God. 79. that David perceived that this was a sign j and after he had repented. xii. the story of David and Bathsheba is only distantly. la. in which address he imagines them endowed with life and reason. 80. XXXVIII. which. by the prophet.3 and to it is added. 5 6 . 28-6. 9 Sunn. 145 incidentally in the history of Saul. owes its origin to David's poetical addross to all crel.-1.

61..w 3 ~~ ~.!. 67.. 82. II.. • (.:lIS' . The life of Solomon & is in itseJi unimportant." and they assert that David used to sleep only during sixty respirations. like J""." The winds 9 also performed hia will. sixth.e language of the birds. 60. 12. • SUrs.in~.)'1i1 g d~ 10 • here proba. with 'Arom. 3 David is also known to Mul.g. This is also asserted by the Rabbis... oxix. on the strength of the 2 verse.). e. and birds. and is founded on the Biblical statement: 8 "He spake of trees .:l4. 36-9. Among the Jews there is no trace of this legend. IV.. tl'¥!. XVII.. 18. 1 King.. except in verse 82. 62. 166. tc At midnight I will rise to give thanks nnto Thee. rose for a thil'd.. 10 this is also related.bbis also speak of this.l.ND ISLAM. but not the fact. where the time is given. and it is only the wisdom for which he is famed in the Bible which makes him the hero of the whole East. S6>ss XXI. and the Genii were fonnd in his following.. 16. Jli • Palms. 7 Sura XXVII. 4 The affair of the Sabbath-breakers. IV. who were punished by being changed into apes. 11..1~ (.146 JUDaiSM .-Lo All' Jr. Mul. says: 1 " '1'ho Apost1q of God said: '(David) slept half the night.. SUra. V.l\Oi 1'0!!i (Berachoth). 9i17y "<. 161. . but the circumstance is mentioned 5 only in general terms.•. XXXVIII.''' The Ra...~~.1aromad as the author of the Psalms. and nothing definite is given about time or details. 6" VII.1ammad speaks of his wisdom.. XXXIV. JJl' 1) .. and then slept again for a. 16. .. in the second I "'0... one might therefore expect to find much more about him in the Quran than really exists there.. • )"j '!.bly means the spirits of the air. v.7 and especially brings forward the fact that Solomon understood tr. is also supposed to belong to the time of David. ~ ~fi..'y "11 "1:.. 81. .•.

. :1. e. which was not subject to him.l'Jl l'l1~!)~ C'1W 1~J." This legend. T1~W T • • SlLl'. ii. together with some other circumstances which I shall omit here. where there are many 1 On Estbel". for three months I considered and flew about the whole world to find the town where thou wast not obeyed. The Queen had been already cOllverted.. i. he had her brought before him into a hall. JJbJJb I SecOlld rl'nl'gum 011 the Buok of Eslhel'.":'(tth '. and had the Queen's throne brought to him by a ministering angel..ll!iJ:)~ • Ecclesiastes. Then I saw a town in tho Enst cnlled Kitor. derived primarily from a mistaken interpretation of a passage in Ecclesiastes. of which the flooring was glass. .SOLOMON.1J. and she oame into Solomon's camp.. exposed her legs. 2. • r-r. 8.2 Mul. Solomon sent the bird back with a letter summoning these people to adopt the belief in the Unity of God. Then the partridge answered the King: ':My lord and King. and the King regarding him as a trnant threatened to kill him. l1. and she imagining it to be water.l thus: "To him were obedient demons of the most diverse sorts. XXVII.ll:l l'lth:[l 1'r:t~"1 l'. and he wanted to kill it. He himself went thither at once with his troops.. and the King commanded angrily that it should be fetched. ance on Solomon. The story runs ns follows: "Thereupon the partridge was sought and not found among the birds. the land of Sheba.he evil spirits were given into his hand. i"~1. Then the lapwing came with the news that he had discovered a land as yet unknown to Solomon. i. in which the people together with the Queen worsh5pped the sun.mmmad relates the followiug tale: 3 "On one occasion the lapwing 4 was not found in attend." This same story is to be found in the Targum 5 already referred to. and '. 147 Targum on the Book of Esther. 20-46. attend and hear my words.

the birds of the air. if not. The kiugs are the beasts of the field. greeting to thee and to thy princes I 'I'hou knowest well that God hath appointed me King over the beasts of the field and the birds of the heaven. and bared horsolf to go through it. spirits and spectres of the night. viz. and over the demons.. he soated himself in a glass room. she opened it. £olomon the King.148 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. When tho king heard that she had come...ed iu thoo..' And it pleased the King. the armies. 9.tammad tho two slight changes he makes in the story. When sho saw his magnificoucH. sho said: 1 'Blossed bo tho Lord thy God. which delight. people. she is called the Queen of Sheba. . which will strangle you in your beds. x. that ho turns tho matter from one of government into ono of 1 1 Kings.. demons and spirits. and after three years she went herself. and that the kings of ~ll the countries under heaven approach me in submission. my lord King. she rent her clothes and sent for the eldel"8 and lords and said: 'Do you know what King Solomon has sent me?' They said: 'We neither know him. to sot th"o on tho throne . and Scribes were called who wrote letters and bound them to the wings of the partridge. nor heed him.. great honour will be shewn thee.' But the Queen did not trust them. If it please thee now. then I will send against thee kings and legions and horsemen. If thou also wilt do this. to do judgment and justice. the horsemen. Sho thought tho king was sitting in tho water. and these were the contents: 'From me. I will go to that town and bind the Queen with chains and its nobles with iron fetters and bring them all here.''' We must forgive MuJ. but a woman rules over them. while the legions are nightmares. but called for ships and sent presents to the king. When the bird came to the Qneen she saw the letter tied on to its wing.' When the Queen had read this.

l Ww.:l O't.SOLOMON. as it is written: 5 Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord.:p."J¥l!l~ i'1"'~l9 '?31m :l'. they were given in two ~\ 1 .7 this was my portion from all my labour.>l?"?~~ 'il71J i'1.}\ .l '~~t.tp . also Midi'. Sanhedrin. and had his horses disabled. XXXIV. 20.'0/ i'11in '1.r. he gave up his useless extravagances. n~lli.::. 7 Ecclesiastes.. 23.1~ nil-lli?7. ii.. Rnbbn.rl')~ tlli$7 li"J'ri'1~ '~. 10 Sanhcddn.. :J'J:11~ i?'i!)?-?..\1 ~? '~W o'filliJ 'ii1~ lV¥ 'iW:m 1~1I.l(! tl.:\1~ :l'tPl$ ~'i1 i'1ij"1l. 11 .. 9 Sih'a XXXVIII.?l\~ ~1.W i?i?~ ?1I l-l~~ !J?11 l'l'i ~i0171 'i'1 l-l~:) '7r.l '']1:. 20-32. Cf. but afterwards only over his own stick.7 i'1).l~O i? i'1~". 33-5. 6 Ecclesiastes.j'2~ i'1~r.. '11 i'1b'?t¥ :Jo/~l '~.>'i. 3. all NumborsJ par. on Canticles. :I: SurD.2 Once when Solomon became arrogant he was driven from the kingdom. 3 The Sanhedrin 4 gives the fallowing brief account: "At first Solomon reigned even over the exalted ones. x:d:s:. on this point Gittin. 1·1. 68.. while he remained sitting on his throne till a worm gnawed him. 8 Of..~~ nil-ll. 4 S Sura XXXVIII. lind a spirit reIgned in his stead until he repon'od.- om. ii." Solomon built the Temple also by the help of the spirits.Y ?1I i'1b'?o/ '. i.21. SO. 149 roligion.- StU"' XXVII. 10.. '-. as it is written: 6 What profit· hath man of all his labour? and further.9 to which the following passage alludes: 10 "It is wisely ordained that the reasons for the commandments are not given..~ tl. who even went on building after his death. 4 j and on Huth. iii.~"'?7.. and that he begins the letter I with the words: "In tho name of the Merciful God.1~ ~?-i'1l. 13.l i'1b''itp ..1:lt 5 1 Chronicles." 3 Wben he repented..

cases. is related in the Quran. 3 SUra II.3 has already -been mentioned in connection with Noah. 96.. and a pretty myth about the bird is found in Fakihat Elcholafa. 6 Cbnllin.• and be wise j " and based on this same foundation we have a beautiful fable in the Talmud. f/1. comparatively speaking. vi.4 and remains to be noticed.ammad there were no very important personages between Moses and Jesus j and such as he does mention he merely allndes to. Then Solomon thought. I will get me many horses and nol. is written: 2 And a chariot Came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver. Pl'overbs. lIKings. which is said to have happened in Solomon's time.150 JUDAISM AND ISLAM. rage 91. 2. The story of the lapwing 7 has gained a firm foot hold in Arabic legend. 16. the wise man of the East. . to the end that he should multiply horses.•. 29. A story about the ants. This is not to be wondered at when Solomon. 8 s. For it is written: I The king shall not multiply horses to himself. and one of the groatest of men sinned. so little before us in the Quran. x. whiQh fled befOl'e Solomon's army. send to Egypt j but il.8 For Mu1). nor oause the people to return to Egypt. 1 Deu~erODomYI xvii. who is endowed with all manner of legendary adornment comes. • SUI'" XXVII.6 but I could find there no trace of the story given in the Quran." A story about spirits. It is evidently founded on the verse. 6 II.5 <r Go to the ant thou sluggard . 18-n.

and. and we will mention them here first.I J!"" U"l. He is therefore the same as Phinehas..~'J "." These examples are certainly to <:) .aron 4 instead of his grandson. for in them the change is only from J oomplete addition of the syllable ~!. so as then to put the others together briefly. 80) on account of the rhyme. XXXVII.~'i~ cP~ . 151 SECOND CHAPTER. 123.l1 J.l\.il for Mtkhayin. and about those whom he does name he gives for the most part nothing special. but mentions them only with other pious persons... • .takes place. Many important men might be mentioned here. • ~~ J J!~ J ~I. he is the mediator between heaven and earth.. but Mul).ammad knew but few of them. This the Arabs.ill "It is said that.. In the legends of Islam as well as in those of later Judaism Elijah plays a very important part.. It is he who appears '.HOLY MEN AFTER THE TIME OF SOLOMON.moug other opinions in Elpherar the following: - ."~I Sur. VI. in spite oE the similar ~ mentioned before. Some only are treated with a little more detail. seem to shrink from explainiog as a change deliberately made on account of the rhyme. J--. He is that mystical 2 person known under the name of Khizr. while here the unsuitable. like Elijah the prophet 5 in lftter Jewish traditions. 85..r": • (:)Jr" • ifl (:)'1\ '~':.3 erroneously called by some the nephew of A. Of Elijah I his dispute with the people about the worship of Baal is related briefly. Ml 0'O"'l. Fourth Part. Ilyasfn is a dialeotic change for EIYM I as Ismcall for IsmlalD and Mlkhay. We find . Holy Men after the time oj Solomon. In nne place he is called 1 ~lJ\ (Sura XXXVII.i .

XXXVII. who visits the schools.S Job's 4 sufferings and healing are mentioned in two passages. XXXVIII.. hi~ being swallowed by the fish. 86.. LXVIII. X.. 87 C.l '. 8Ul'a. • Suras XXI.We know of no parallel passage to this in the Rabbinical writings. 83-4.c. 2 His mission to Nineveh. . XXI. X.J.' 48 . When they Bat around the same. and they wished to punish them only because they believed in the mighty and Glorious God. . .:.l and in these actions they have the prototype of his ministry as one who appears in a miraculous manner. The Muslims too know him in this capacity. XXXVII. and imparts to famons teachers that which Gcd communicates about this or that opinion expressed by them. 4 ft.. - . and the story of the gourd whioh shaded him.ND ISLAM. LXVIII. his resoue from it. and they recognize him in the servant of God' who proposed himself as a travelling companion to Moses. 138-148. 87-8.. has intercourse with men in human fashion. LXXXV. XXI. '" • YJ'I Ci Sura. VV0 como now to a passage 6 hitherto wrongly referred which translated runs thus: U Slain were the men of the pit of the burning fire. 40-0. to the pions nnder tho most varied forms.9-82. And were witnesses cf what was done to the true believers. Jonah is mentioned in several passages of the Quran. are all given very briefly.Sl . 88. 48-51• =. ." &0...152 JUDAISM A. 139. Suras VI.1~1 . 1 Sura XVIII. and performs incon:'prehensible actions which only receive true significanoe through knowledge which is hidden from man.ammad adds that Job produced a cooling and refreshing fountain for himself by stamping on the oarth... 88.5 and in the latter passage Mnl).

' sUra.~. 8 fi.e. but only :revealed about the one nnder Dhu-nawus. God l'eveo.. no detail bearing on this event is mentioned. for Ismail Ben '. _ <1 indeed undo.. 6 Another biblical reforence may perhaps be found in Daniel. i~ this offioe.TIIE THREE WITNESSES. II.'. Pel's. iii.. and of the pits one was ill U"}' . but the appellation "believers" as applied to Christians has no parallel elsewhere in the Quran. 5 'Ihe Arabian commentatol"S know of this but dimly. but he adds: ~ cJ. but were afterwards restored to life. Ezekiel.'.l\ J. i. But this intimation is enough for the strengthening of our opinion. i.. e.' yo» Nebuohadnezzax. (Maraco. 2 It is possible that there is an allusion to the story of the revival of the dry bones s in a passage of the Quran. and were thrown into the fiery furnace j those whb threw them in were slain by the heat and the believers were saved.led nothing in tho Sura.JJ \'.5 The Talmud troats the narrative given in Ezekiel more in detai1. IV. and ~ . U .ammad here alludes to this.i.Ali gives ont in the name of Ibn Talib that this event took place in the time of the Judge (?) J::-ij=>-. and just this one form of porsecution (burning) is not given by the martyrologists. If we compare the passage with the story of the three children I all fits in perfectly.o"'~ .). who came aftel" U"'~Jl the Elon of Caleb. 153 Commentators make this refer to the punishment of a Jewish IIimyarite Kiug who persecuted the Christians.tor Muqatil (cited by Elphel'ar). in that he asserts that there were in fact thl'80 II people of the bUl'ni cg fiery pit :It 1 :I (?"""~\ . 83.) 15 Sanhedrin 92. 244. Evidentlj Mul). :l Ezekiel J xxxvii.. about tbis or about the other event which took place in Syria. Tho three believers would not bow themsolves beforo an idol.4 which tells us that many who left their habitations for fear of death were slain by God..P. An intimation that this passage refers to this circumstance is given by tho Arabian commento. P"odr.

" This I think is perhaps an allusion to the sign given to Hezekiah. U:. Sanna. This uttorance as an expression of tho Jewish opinion of that time loses much in value when we consider the personality of that Phinells the son of A. ~ . 2. makes it qniescent. 5 Sanhedrin 21. Severa. Sura.nunnation or not.zariah.tOl'S and historin. 30.na to explain this passage. 462. the words: I "Dost thou not see how thy Lord stretches (lengthens) out the shadow when he will.l . 2 We find more in the Quran abont Ezra. In this ch:m.sserts Ezrata renewing of the Law.l'Tj? rl? ~711?tl i.. XXV.J.lmudl only o. then sets the sun over it as an indicator.y '~~1 n¢r.. 1 !i 2 Kings .. This esteem is expressed in the following passage: 5 "Ezra would have been wortlly to have made known the law if :M:oses had not come before him. IX. to whom it is attributed. '~-8. .154 JUDAISII AND ISr1ll. According to the assertion of Mul).. 9--12. yet about the way in which the Jews regarded him. and thought he had here found a good opportunity of so doing.he form of the wOl'd which is like a diDlinntive. but it seems to me that the omission of it is mora suita11e to t.l'l lIJ¥f:1o/ ~'lI¥ n.ammad the Jews held Ezra to be the Son of God." Truly Mu1.l of the Arabians regard this as correct. which hOWl}ver.ammad sought to cast suspicion on the Jews' faith in the unity of God. In the traditions of Islam there iq a great deal about Ezra as the compiler of the Law.~ ?11 111.4 This is certainly a mere misunderstanding which arose from the great esteem in which Ezra was undoubtedly held. ir. (rho Arabian gratnmarians dispnte as to whether tho word should l'eccive a.3 if not about his history. In D'Herbclot (under the word tl Ozair" page 691) much is adduced from Muslim commcnta. in harmony with the To.ctor nlso Sllra.

then revived him and imparted to him the assurance that one hundred yenrs had gone by. .5 and eaoh time strangely enough immedmtely after Ishmael. 9 Acoording to Khondemir (D'Herbelot Bibl. 85. and from the fact related of him that he nourished a hundred Israelites in a cave. so the probability becomes great that Mul.6 who aooording to his name which means the nourisher. on tho other hand. Orient.. Two other Biblioal charaoters are merely mentioned: Elisha 4 in two passages. intentionally exaggerated. 9 1 3 Pl'od. 260. The Arabian commentators according to Maraccius 1 refer another passage in the Quran 2 to Ezra. while he believed that but one day had passed. who according to Niebuhr 8 is called Kephil by the Arabs. 1)o1'o. Nehemiah. Then behold! God put together the bones of the animal and clothed them with flesh. as Maraccius rightly observes. ben Akhthob) Dhii'l-KiIl 'was a foUon'or of Elishn1 but Obadii::th was coutem. a.3 who is often confused with Ezra. 261. must be Obadjahl Perhaps however he may be Ezekiel. ~-t>_ ~\ II. from the ride round the ruined city of Jerusalem mado by Nehemiah. ruined oity and doubted if it oould ever be restored. 1 Kings. 8 Reisebeschreibnng II." The fable is derived. 48.sty and mocking utterance. xviii. 155 he oomes before us in Soripture. and DhU'1-Kifl. " . 48. 86. so that the man acknowledged: (( God is mighty over all. The proof was that his food and drink had perished and his ass was monldering away. 85. God let him die for one hundred years. 4. on the one hand. namely. eagerly oaught up the ha.1'y with Elijah. 12 II. 2 S(U'll. XXXVIII. and the Jews believed this of him. 7 • Suras XXI. of some individual to prove this point against the Jews. ii. iv.nd. the one where it is related of some person that he passed by"..EZRA.1ammad. nndel" 'Elisha. 5 Suras VI. XXXVIII.

.ammad really did borrow from Judaism. then the questions as to whether Mul].ammad's attribute towards Judaism seems to be negative and even hostile. matters of creed. as now fully answered. we therefore do not give these results as a part of this work its"lf. aud when we examiue them we see unmistakably in them the verification of the hypothesis whioh we laid down at the Leginning-namely. have actually passed over from Judaism into the Quran. If a thorough demonstration has been made of all these points. that ho had the means thereto within his reach.ammad did borrow from Judaism. Now. and that he sometimes altered it to suit his purpose. Iu the second part. But since we consider the question. offered no obstacle to. have been sufficiently answered. particularly his own main aim. and more especially matters of history and of traditions. the answer to which forms tho subject of our theme. as a supplementary note we add a summary of the passages iu which 1I:ul]. but add thorn as an appendix. that he learned that which he did Lorrow from oral tradition. Some of these passages oppose Judaism. we have attempted to show that J\lul]. . and that conceptions. and of lifo in general. without giving the results of further investigation.ammad borrowed a great deul from Judaism. and that other circumstances.And now our task is practically ended. We have tried to shew in the first part that external circumstances must have raised in JlIu~1I1mmad the desire to borrow much from Judaism. views of morality. somo abrogato laws binding on the Jews.156 JUDAIS)1 AND ISW. but rather fitted in with such a borrowing. Now all the historical allusions havo been put together. and some allude to Jewish customs without imposing them upon the Arabs. that Mul]. and what and how he so borrowed.

..v.:-. the Jsws pressed :r. moreover. ~1 I.. he loved the old Arabian customs and kept to them. except in so far as such laws resulted immediately from those special dootrines. and no religions oommnnity stood more in the way of ilie attainment of this end than the Jews with their many oumbersome laws. another may be addcd which arose more from an external differenoe.. M 11!.157 .. The observance of indio vidual lnws did not seem to him of great importance. The Jews on the contrary laid the greatest stress upon ths punctilious fulfilment of the revealed law. and shewed net the slightest desire to depart from it. putting false constructions upon them. MnJ. thns rousing in him an inextinguishable hatred. and often annoyed him with repartee and evasions.+. and so justifying his own deviation from them. aud to this end he established entirely different cnstoms. Just as we tried before to shew from the personality of and from tho spirit of his time that borrowing from Judaism had taken place..1 • ""If .APPENDIX.wl . As we have already rsmarked.I .fn~ammad very hard. He wished therefore to make a final separation from these hateful Jews. even so we wish here to shew that statemonts hostile to Judaism are to be found in the Quran.•• Il> ..i . Further. While these two oauses of mutnal separation were founded upon the differenoe in the fundamental opinions of Mu~ammad and the Jews.annuad's aim was to bring about a union of all oreeds. unknown to other religions. Governed by this he misunderstood their religions doctrines. STATEMENTS IN TilE QUEAN IlOSTILE TO JUDAISM.1ammad's aim was to establish in and through this union such religious doctrines only as were in his opinion purified... Later Arabians confess that he made ohanges 1 "from tho M11~ammad I ~ . .

7>~. page 3LiO.' tbat thcy held Ezra to be the so" of God. l. Jl 1 Pocock uotm Misc. that they in common with Christians thonght thcmselves specially favonl'ed by God. lR3.bitatiouon the.( II. Mnl. II. 21.158 APPENDIX. LXII.h laws.-Supper precedes prayer. Thc laws o£.' a probable reference to Jesus. neccssity of abolishing resemblanoes to Ihe Jews.{u'a Y.. Sunna .. 3 Suras II. 135. which laY8 down exactly how 10lig before prayer one may cat that the hour of prayer may not he let slip. chap. :!3J.' Such accusations alld the reasons given earlier supplied Muhammad with grouuds on which to jnstify his departure from Jcwi. further. night before. 12 SUl'o. 97 ft. 10 This is in direct opposition to the Talmnd. ~31 and other passugca.' uf thc Dible.10:? II g Seuna 70 n'. Ii Deuteronomy.' that they believed that they alone should possess Paradise. ~ Stlr. .7 that they had perverted the Dible 8 becauso in its existing form that Dook contained no aIlnsions to him. 88. u.l. that bcing connted as part of thc fast day itself. 10 Sunna. 6.·omen.i\'. . 128. 7 Sura II.w prohibiting cohc. Slira I I. B. 229 if.-Mohammad says.lI..' that they !J'nsted i" the intercession of theit· self pious predecessors. V. Prayer. 3l).ammad asserls that the Jcws are the enemies of the Muslims. tho fast day in Abh. and been divorced by him too. 8 SUra II. and that the Jews built temples on the graves of the pl'Ophet8. There is a remarkable pa.) 8(11'. Arabs. Laws about . This is dircctly contrary to the tcachilli. 0. 8:i." that they slew prophels." This is elearly prascl'ibed in opposition to the dircctly contraI'] ruling in the Talmudic la. 11 "It is lawful for yon on the night of tbe fast to go in unto your wives.ssage in th~ QUl'an)1J which says that thc man a£ter he has pnt away his wife for tho second time cannot marry her again until sho has married another man. A. V. 58. Truly in this :>luJ.. 1 fr." 1 Thns.\' IX.ammacj wished to livo so as to pleass his Arabs.ilivorce J' are probably identical with those of the ancient. 51 ::. Sura. 6 SlLl'.

that slain by strangling. xi." following i~ wonld seem the precedent of the apostles.' (It is interesting tbat Jesus states jus. xix. 7.ammad is decidedly combativo: "We have theroin commanded them that they shonld givo lifo for lifo.' Thus he forbids carrion. 223. II. H6. B ? . but whoover should remit it as alms it shonld he accepted as an "tonement for him.tion.') Mn~lLmmad abolishes the Jaw about meat in sovcral passages. 5 Stll·n. concerning which :Thru~ammad asserts that it was imposed upon the Jews ouly on account of their iniquity. that which is not properly killed. tbe converao when he speaks of the lLbolition of divorce. 87. 4" VI. 9 11 'Cr'- Sura VI. considering thc tot". S9. xv." etc. and cal' for car. Theso last rules. to which he adds in. aml eyo for eye. The most important aud prominent change to be cousidered in this connection is the removal of the prohibition about food. 147. St. 10 Lc\·iticu3 .' bnt holds to part of it in others. 7 Acts. ·H. HiS. go in therefore nnto yonr tillage in what manner soever ye will.16.. 158. 27. Stirn Y. tbat killed by a fall from a mounta. or by a blow from all axe.S'rATEMEN1'S 1l0STILE TO JUDAISM. tba~ which is gored." B In another pass"'go 9 :1ltul)amm"d mentions particular meats which were forbiddon to the Jews." D.l silenoe about them in other luter passages J may bo regarded as "abolished. Matthew.s III. rf. 8. 3 S{U"ll IV. O. tho first passage. to whom almost the sarno utterance is attributed in the New Testament.1GO.. .. IV. 1 2 S(trn. and that which has been slain for an idol. 90. blood. -19. V. Lastly. and 3D iI. and that wounds should also be pnnished by retali". . 19-28. On this Mnhammad to please himself and his Arabs says:' "Yonr wives are yonr tiIlage. XVLl. 150 The Muslims assert 1 that the Jews of that period laid down that cohabitation was to take place iu the usual way. and that torn by wild beasts. lS S(Ll'D. c. viz._ (. 3. swine's tlesh.S V. and nose for nose.'1. aud tooth for tooth. the following ntterance It of MnlJ. And whoso S tUlUO.

Then in collecting the passages which serve as proofa we are compelled to dismiss at once the iII. which is given only when the iDjnred parby agrees to it. j ndgcth not according to what God hath revealed they are unjost. Fnrthermore. The Mishna 0 runs as follows: "If a man has blinded another. we come to a clear understanding of the Quran in general as well as of individual passages in it." These are ahout all the chief points showiug a consideration of Judaism. etc. and put a price npon him and reckon how much he was worth before the injury and how much now..!.! -.lW APPENDJX..! l'l. 28 iI. or broken his foot. If we now once more consider this treatise as a whole.-n\.~. xxi. in that theyexteud to all cases the permission to make atonement with money.. for although the anthor neither can nor will maintain that no passage bearing on his thesis has escaped him in the Rahbinical Iiteratnre. and light is thrown upon the plan of Mul)ammad and npon his intellcctual power alld knowledge by many authentic dccuments.lammad bad a personal knowledge of J ndaism througb acquaintance with the Jewish manner cf life and throngh interconrse with the Jews..lo/1 piw:. namma viii..? n~:p i1?i 1ol~i1 i11f:<1 n?i niT. and especia. "l." Thu passage of Scripture which Mul)ammad here haE> iu miud is in Exodus. tho stato of culture of the Arabians of that day. one must regard the injured persall as though he were a slavo sold in the market. that J1iu~ammad harrowed from Judaism. we ehall find that by the establishment of the fact which was to be demonstrated. and the eolIecting of them gives ns another proof that Mn}. or ent'oJ'f his hand.:.!1i i"i-n~ lll.' loW' . still this mnst be accepted as a fact nntil it can bs proved that tbis 1 Exodus.cousidered confidence with which people are apt to speak of each legend as a drcam of the rabbinical Talmudists. is to some extent made clear.? inilol l'~i-' i?:p. ~ Mishua Babn.lly of the Arabian Jews. 1 and those who do not observe it are the Jews.li? .I "f'?~ . viz.~':J1-n\l loll!:.~.

We mnst distiDgnish betwe8'n Jndaism and views derived from the Jews. on the other hand. . however. hononred readers. for. may be laid npon Judaism. and. tbe opinion or legend may originally have had " different signification and it may have reached its present extravagant development in the mouth of the people. By this. and therefore does not hold the same place with regard td Judaism as the Quran holds with regard to Islam. 161 or that has been omitted. however. and yonr judgment will convince me of the correctDc8S or £aloity of my opinions. according to our ideas. is nnfortnnately either from ill·will Or ignorance often not made. the sonree itself may have had no obligatory importance.STATEMENTS HOSTILE TO JUDAISM. And now I snbmit tbis treatise fa yon. and as to whether my wOl'k fnlfils its end or bas failed in its pnrposo. '1 do not intend to say that everything wbieh. is mJthical and for whieh a Jewish sonrce appsars to be forthcoming. and thus for the presnnt we mnst attribute to some other source every thing of which the Jewish origin has not been proved. on the one hand. this distinction.

'.r tl~ w":!''. '(6 41 35 80 o .. .e\.1\. "J'> tl:r:)!i .RABIO WORDS EXPLAINED.1 ti~'"1~ ""'~ o J.~ "".J ""'~ U")~... INDICES.. ""...li 1~ 44 26 35 34 "'" o~ f·-_<:: i'l~'. u -. ~- ~~ n~rp~ 36 38 39 39 31 32 ~d: ~ .! o ..- 37 37 ~t.-LIST OF HEBREW AND !. U")~ ~.~xj ...~ o • ..--.> '"1..ii 0. n:l'11 .1... ~ s>~~ . 35 35 40 43 31 42 42 42 0_0. .~W T • . A.ii::.--..0. 36 .'II.1 • .~ V':)~.t! tlbr:r':! (. Page Page Page )~ 77 82 ~\ • 0 -. v-t)~\ 20 34 34 32 33 33 32 36 36 88 ~\ ~ ••• - .j 1#"1 (.)1.. n~o/ .102 INDICES-A.' ""'<- 0"_ n..o .w (..0 ~l\ .

.'6 67-8 68 69 60 61 63-8 67·8 71 73 82 87 88 91 96 98 118 119 120-'1 .SSA.42 .. " " l27 128 129 130 134 135 136 H9 l81 183 99.38 106 82 .168 . . 158 ... 1a9 49 20 58 a7 11 " 117 188 . 120. .. 10 30 ff 43 44 . " " " ..-LIST OF PA. 129 ..9 84 13 102 96....GES Page errED FROM: nm QURAN. 144 41 41 96.100 155 100 32. . 6G .158 9... 8a 169 69 108 168 69." " " " " " " . " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " .. Pag6 sUra II... " " " .. 129 Sura. II. . " " " " 99 158 H 63 41 G9.... .... 39 136 13G 16 1a8 8 .... . 68 69 78 77 86 87 l27 148 163 172 85 137 32 159 82 9a 28 20 36.. 106 05 " " " " " " " 58 60 " ... 257 269 260 261 262 2 III." 6. 201 223 228 229 ff 2-30 283 240 244 247-a3 24S 2~9 .. StU-a.. 109..." " . .. . .. 1. . " " " 27 28-82 46-7 48-52 50 52-a 5:. 106 110 107~8 " ".6 66 !li8 143 144 32.INDICES-JJ.. . 163 B. ...... " . IO' 47 75 120 121 42 120 13 120 IG8 16 120.

" 70 86 66-8 18 146 Bura .." 81 77 73 79 52 61 85 87 89 93 .41 71 . ...... " . .... .. . . ." " " VI..... ..... '" . 101 " EtU. " 15 15 36 96 120. .. on 85 12 82. ....3 16 158 168 1(>9 7 n6 100 44 % . 4 8 9 .. 85 89-90 V!... " " " " " " .. ... J27 127 120 120 121 132 130 121 20.." 86 85 66 " Sura. .. .IIH INDICES-Jl'.. ." 19 151 '" 106." " " . Page Sura Paffs Ill. ... . 13S..1<16 19 ' 169 08 66 .. . " " . 10-18 18·25 19 38 41 l! 57-63 61 63-71 71·8 78-83 83-92 83 10J-26 108 110 127-39 180 J32 135·47 142 ...." " .. .. " " " ... 196 IV.." 13n.. .. 101 J 104 . " " " " 21 23-9 80-6 35 48 49 65 68 69 70 73 N 158 121 SO 81 35 169 146 8m'a " . . 46 48-9 50 58 63 87 96 99 . ... 32 132 J56-58 169 160 161-62 1133 " lOS 166 /68 170 174-76 18_ ." " . " S{U'o. " .9 159 19. 107-56 147 160 15·-' . . 55 15. " " " . .. 140 .. " " " 116 120 12_ 162 158 161 162 V. .." . 67 74·82 74 75 79 tl1-6 . 84 86 86 95 106 146 147 167 VII.. " " ... 155 60 37 169 159 .. 120 13 8n 146 86 J2o·n 142 H ..." ..." ... 140 120 126 125 120 ... " " " 102 to6 " ...

.. ...118 . 85 87 87 8S 86 86 86 86 86 89 $0 89 90 93 101 102-5 " " " sUra " sUra " Sura 40 41 XV. 9 27-50 31 33 37 40 " sUra ... " " " " " ... " VIII..INDICES-D.... ... l~ " " " " " " 27 28-44 84 44< 61-61 54 " " ro.. 85-6 85-6 52 40 . 117 116 .. .117 115 62 ~7 50 1M 94 43 . .. .... .. " . " sUra .. " .. 118 111 .. " " 25 26 f! 81 ff 88 42 47-50 67 69 77 " 84 86 93-6 97 100-1 111 XIII... 117.. . 116 .......... 120. 63 96 . " SU"" " " " 10·j 60 61-78 80 if 87 XVI. lOS ..." . . U6 117 ... 85-99 85 86 99-102 XII.. 24 83 . 108 . 63 . 112 6S.. 8 9 13 72·5 76-90 88 00·3 94 98 XI... ... ..... 113 '" .. 26 80 81 84 38 40 .. 116 .. 29 31 42 IX.. ~7 92 33 . . 26 28 33 . 41 27 41 40 11. 117 .. 101 .... 4-108 4 6 Uff Il4 140 ISS " " " " sUra " 58 88 68 82 95-98 46 83 66 85 120 126 ..127 28 152 46-8 42 44 " " " 45 48 52·64< 53 n2 6S 6~-72 72-9 H 70·85 " " 83 ... " " " " " " " 56 78 86 112 116 X. .164 sUra " ... .. lOG ..... .." . " ..... 165 Pags Page sUra " SU. " " .... " " " " " " ..." .114.. 189 120 111 109..... 23 26 XIV'. .... XI. 104 lG2 116 63 .

.. 10il ..166 INDICES-B. . . . 55 16. .. 131 77 78 79 28 42 95 96 99. 4-8 46 " 57 " 60 " 63-8 " 78 " 87 " 103 " 110 " SUra XVlIl.. XVI... " " " " " 11 17 23·32 27 33·44 37 47-51 85 88 .... . XXIII.127 " " " Sura " " " " " " .. Sura 50 55-6 57 58 62 8-37 . . " " " " " " 37-•• 39 4-!-·51 00-79 N 34 137 139 96 108 82.48 85) 93..27 118 133 XXI.. 29 " " " " " sUra...155 j52 55 55 5.. . . XIX. Page SUra Palle SUra 125 XVII... 3 " 108 145 '" 145 145 146 152 82 106. 41 27 159 95 95 39 75 47 146 55 77 8 62 28.lO1 72 78 79 80 81-2 83-~ .. 2 SUra 11 " 43 " 43 46 " 55 " Sura... " " 120 27 47... . ~.. ....... " " XX... .105 82 82 33 119 119 31 119 120 ]26 85-6 " 85 " 87 " 96 " 98 " 10. 38 105 115 121 12~ .. . " . . 6S 71 93 77 121 136 55 .. '" '" " " 140 58 33 66 34 48 85 86 89 9t " " Suru.48 4~ " " " " " 78 79-82 82-99 87 ~o 33 120 121 " " 130 130 130 % 90 117 XXIV. 24 31 49 '" 48 05 G~ 10 .... 91 115 116. " XXII. 23 30 " 48 " 59-82 " 82-99 " 93 " 107 " sUr. " " " 8S 42·61 " " XX. 49 52-69 69-74 71 .

.. 7 13-4 13 15-23 17·23 23. . . .. .. . ... " 138 139 139 28 28 127 120 145 146 150 " " " " " " " " " '76-88 76 XXIX..104 99 " 105-21 85 " 109 87 " 123.. . " .... .. . 9·17 119 15.. .60 93 " 160-76 104 Burn XXV..... ....188 42 104 47-48 164 Su...... .. ... .'7 25 26 27.INDICES-D.. .60 . 40-8 " sUra " " " " " " 176-92 180 " 186-7 " 196 " 197 " sUra XXVII. ... .. .......5 15 " 16·6 " 18·20 " " 16~ 1(>4 . 121 121 128 187 128 128 145 . on 0" 123 124 187 124 119 124 120 121 120 121 188 65 85 86 96 99 96 99 108 104 101 104 188 140 89.41 on 89 " 127 91 " 128 90 " 129 89 141. SUra XXVU. ....... 167 Page Paga 42 27 " 27 " 85 0" 40 89. . XXVI. .2 31 35·6 86 87 .... 20-46 26 ........98... . .. 12 12. 1 6 6 89 ... . 70 89ll' " 112 " XXVIII. ........ 0 124 " 19 128 " 28 126 " 82 126 " 40 125 " 48 126 " 62-69 120 " 61ll' 12'7 " 69-106 on 96 " 81 100 " 85 38 " 87.8 54 " 86.. 2-29 Sura 6 1 " 8 " 10 " 11 " 14 " 16 " 11ll' " 19 " 23 " 23 ll' " 29-86 " 29 " 86-40 88 " " " " " " SO 46-56 49 65.. . . 0" 147 48 149 93 94 104 27 65 106·6 119 .... . ....104 96 " 88..93 . .52 120 " 17ll' .85 80. ... .. . ..

. I " 69 " Sura XXXVI.. 19 24 22. .... 7 lltl' " 18 " 2S " 4 Sw:a XXXII.93 36 111 . 90 16 19 05 60 30 82 92 22 XLII. 7f! 83 8 120 24--49 II' 25 121 2911' 126 32 89......105 104 108 151 104 162 152 89 93. XXXVIII.. . INDICES-B. Page rage S{i.. 133-37 " 189 " 139.. ... 29-33 . 10 11... .. . ... .12 " 18 " 33·6 " 43 " SUra XXXV. 121 XXXVIII. " . If! 7 " 42 " 80 5Of! " 78-81 " 81-95 96-9 " 99-114 101 " 112. II 12 " 16-20 " 23-6 SO . .138 145 H~:.IGS Sura XXIX. . . . 78 19 XLI.. ... ·13 tl' 00 28 9 XLVI.19 " sUr.... S5-40 . 15 4.... " . . 11 7 40 " Sura XXXIV.1 H ..101 69 58 58 62 22 23 183 145 146 149 149 86 62 83 60 56 44 62 63 33 151 60 86 " " " " " " SUra " " " " " " SUra " " " Sum " " " " " " " " sUra.. " " " Sura " Sura .. Sura 96 96 108.. . B·11 46 11 47 12·18 38. .. II 61 50 18 52 (10 XLIII. . .. 49 Sura SUra XXXI. " Sura XXXIII. .... " " 149 146 152 49-5 48 106. 120 55 55 9tl' XLIV. .93 89 12-16 ...43 67 5·1 G8f! 65 62 XL.. .l'R SS 45 " 4·7 " XXX.. . . 77 63 78 41 XXXIX. 27 10 22 II 137 12 69/. ... SS 65 " 8S " SUra XXXVII...3 128 .18 GO S3 87. 10 96 25-8 45-5-:L ••• 120 126 50 . 155 33 00 71-86 .... " .

...... " " Sura. . 1 Sur~ S6m . ... 41 68 21 33 ... 4 SUioa C.. 89 00 91 9~ . 21 40 40 1&2 93. 16 20-5 28 ff XLVIII. . 6 " 8 " 27 ll' " 11-16 Sura XCI.. 12 13 29 87 LI. ... 4-6 13 LXI. 88 LVII. 4 LX.INDICEs-n. 50 61 LIV... 14 " Sura 1-29 Sura LXXII..• . 5 6 r. Sura... Page 169 Page Sura " SUra " . . Ill' Sura LXXVIII.0 ...138 4~-7 . 12 LXVI... 88 86m LXXI. SUra LXVIII. . . 23 Sura.. ." 86 152 89 98 90 55 38 47 85 64 58 62 48 61 62 119 120 63 27 6.. 12 38 " Sura LXXIX. .92 88 58 83 9~ 61 69 42 . 19 SUr~ LXXXIX. 104 33 46 96 7 186 32 82. . 4-6 " 6ff 13 ff " LXX. 24-38 41-42 41 43-016 LIII.. 19 LXXV. 9-18 18-22 19 23·33 28 83·9 LVI.. " " SU1'a " Sum. JO 11 12 .. Sura " " .... 9 CVIl.... . ••• 101 89 90 93 89 93 8:>-9 . S 5 . .. LXII. 4-9 86m . .71 1&8 47 86.. y . 6 LXV. ... . 15 84 " 81 " 48 LXIX..... 18 Sura LXXXV. . 27 89 90 40 ..104 128 181 LXVII. . " 20-7 " Sura LXXXI.141 89.. . U Sur~ LXXXIII. " " " " " Sta-a Sura Sura " Bura " Sum sUra.. 12 " 86m XCVII. 6-9 . 4 15 18 26 48 L...152 48 98 96 89 89. 4ff 15 " 18 " SUr~ LXXXVlI. . .. .... Ill' J&·20 .. . Sur~ " " " XLVI.. LXXVII.

BibHotheca Orientalis...-THE CHIEF AUTDORS CITED.. .. 11 Vit. " " " " " " " 41 52 70 If 86.. AbulfedaJ Annales :Moalemitici. Historia. II Specimen lIist. Hottinger. 108 108 137 8 159 1M 12 72 D..D'Herbelot. Snnna.-LIST INDICEs-n. OF PASSAGES CITED FROM THE SUNNA.mica.. . Bibliothcqne Orientale. Faldba~ Elcholafa.. Arabum. . Orientalis. Page Page Suons. .. Pococke.89 97 l! 141 148 395 . 54 62 158 68 158 M 145 96 " " " " " " " 398 400 405 445 460 462 608 689 . Asscmanni.. AND C. 7J Historia Anteisla. Notac J)Hscellanero. HaidbawiJ Commentary on Quran.170 C. lbu Arabscba..a Mohammedis. Ramaaa.

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