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SIMPLE THERMAL ANALYSE

Transilvania University of Brasov, Material Science Department, 29 Eroilor Blvd., 500036, Brasov, Romania

mireladragoiu1@yahoo.com, bedo.tibor@unitbv.ro, varga.b@unitbv.ro

Abstract. To know more precise the value of overall heat transfer coefficient is on a special importance to programs (software)

that models the solidification process for project casting technology in order to optimize them by dimensioning and appropriate

placement both the gating system and the risers for eliminate casting defects, shrinkages. The paper aims to determin the value of

overall heat transfer coefficient on the cooling curve recorded in casting-solidification real conditions. The values obtained for the

overall heat transfer coefficient (2.34 to 25.41) 10-4 [cal/s.grad.cm2]) for different casting conditions prove that this parameter can

not be considered as a constant of the casting mould material.

Keywords: overall heat transfer coefficient, thermal analyze, cooling curve, mould vibration, aluminium alloy

w= (kA)/(mc)

1. INTRODUCTION

(2)

where: m- is alloy weight, casting sample; c-

The properties of part castings are determined by

specific heat for alloy; A- the surface where is performed

solidification structure. The solidification structure is

the sample cooling, while k- is the overall heat transfer

considered both the granulation and distribution and

coefficient between casting sample and mould. It must

fineness of eutectic phases and the dimension and the

be mentioned that this equation is valid only on

shapes of intermetallic compounds formed in acceptable

temperature ranges where there are not phase

limits of metal impurities. The casting structure is caused

transformations produced. In experimental

by cooling rate applied of alloy both in liquid state and

determinations it is considered as 30oC the initial mould

in solidification range. Cooling rate value is determined

temperature, while the initial melt temperature

by the intensity of heat exchange between the liquid

corresponds to maximum value on cooling curve.

alloy and the mould. The intensity of heat exchange can

be appreciate by the overall heat transfer coefficient

2 EXPERIMETAL DETERMINATIONS. RESULTS

value.

In context of experimental determinations there were

At the same time, as accurate as possible knowing

cast cylindrical and tubular samples in graphite mould

of overall heat transfer coefficient value is on special

(G), refractory brick (C) and sodium silicate made

importance in forming operation of solidification process

moulds (S), from various nonferrous alloys: lead alloy

softwares for design casting technology in order to

PbSn37 (solder), hypoeutectic silumin - AlSi7Mg0.3 and

optimize them by dimensioning and appropriate

eutectic silumin - AlSi12. In all cases, it was used tight

placement both the gating system and the risers for

moulds and the supplying of mould cavity with liquid

eliminate casting defects, shrinkages [1-2]. These

alloy it was accomplished by direct casting, through the

desiderates have determined the resumption and

pouring cup racticed in the top of the wall mould (in the

intensification of researches in this field [3-7]. A series

cover), Figure 1.

of works [8-14] analyzes the overall heat transfer

coefficient for concrete cases of casting alloys

processing.

This paper aims to determin the value of overall

heat transfer coefficient on the cooling curve recorded in

casting-solidification real conditions.

As it is known, the cooling curves are described by

an exponential function (1):

(1)

t0- initial temperature of mould and -time. Fig.1. Casting mould with thermocouple assembled

The w coefficient includes both the geometrical

characteristics of casting sample and thermo-physical

properties of cast alloy as well as the overall heat To measure temperature there were used type K

transfer coefficient that characterizes the heat exchange thermocouples. In order to register more accurate

between melt and mould, Eq. (2): temperature, the tops of thermocouples were left open

11

The Scientific Bulletin of VALAHIA University MATERIALS and MECHANICS Nr. 11 (year 14) 2016

paint layer. Thermocouplespeaks in all experimental

determinations were placed at half height of the sample

and in the middle of cross-section. To register

temperature was used an ADAM type with 11 channels

interface. At mathematical processing of experimental

data to determine the proper equations of cooling curves

above the liquidus temperature was used ORIGIN

program. In Table 1 there are presented the sizes of Fig.2 Cooling curve Fig 3. Experimental

castings samples and geometric and thermo-physical recorded for 1-C and calculated cooling

characteristics of them, necessary to calculate sample curve for temperature

wcoefficient, in Eq. (1). above the solidification one

Sam Alloy Moul Samp Sample All A m c t=247.6+182.exp(-0,0093.),

ple d le dimensio oy [c [g] [ca

code mate moul n [mm] den m2 l/

(1.a)

rial d sity ] g.o Because the coefficients values t0and (tk t0)

[g/c C] obtained in Eq. (1.a) differ from those imposed by initial

m3] conditions of the experiment and that they were the basis

1- Refrac

in relation (1) deduction, it is proceed to replace them,

C Pb tory 11.3

61. 39 0.0 resulting:

brick 30

23 9 3

2- Grap cylin 50 t=30+397.86.exp(-0.0093.),

G hite drical (1.b)

3-

C PbSn3

4- 7 9.92

61. 35 0.0 that is no longer overlaps with the experimental curve,

23 0 41 Figure 3. Curve superposition corresponding to Eq. (1.b)

C

Refrac

-p

tory

with the experimental curve is performed by replacing

5- exponent w with wadjusted, in such a way to ensure the

brick

C AlSi7

Mg0.3

40 50

2.7 88

18

0.3

best possible approximation of experimental cooling

6-

5 curve corresponding to the cooling of alloy in liquid

C

-v phase. By repeated tests, from Eq. (1.b) result Eq. (1.c),

7- Sodi bar 60 34 11

S- AlSi12 um 150 2.7 0 45 0.2 t=30+397.86.exp(-0.0033.).

8- silica 100/40 79 26 9

S te 150 1 70 (1.c)

tube

9- proc 160/10 10 33

S ess 0100 61 07 The Eq. (1.c) by t0and (tk t0) coefficients

respects the initial conditions and, at the same time, by

choosing appropriate wadjusted overlaps, with good

Index p for 5-C-p sample means that the mould has approximation, with the experimental cooling curve for

been preheated, while the index v for 6-C-v specimen higher than liquidus temperatures, in presented case,

means that, during solidification, the mould was than the solidification temperature, Figure 4.

subjected to mechanical vibrations. Concerning to alloys,

density and specific heat have been calculated by

additivity rules.

Further it is shown the working methodology for

determining the value of overall heat transfer coefficient

by a detailed description of work stages in case of 1-C

sample.

Figure 2 shows the cooling curve recorded for 1-C

sample. For establishing Eq. (1), it is significant just the

portion corresponding to alloy cooling in liquid, Figure

3. By mathematical processing of experimental datas

(ORIGIN program) results the Eq. (1.a), which perfectly

overlaps with the experimental curve.

Fig.4. Recorded cooling curve and corresponding

curves of Eq. (1.a), (1.b), (1.c) for 1-C sample

in Eq. (1.c) is calculated the overall heat transfer

coefficient, resulting k = 0.00065 cal / s.grad.cm2. The

12

The Scientific Bulletin of VALAHIA University MATERIALS and MECHANICS Nr. 11 (year 14) 2016

wadjusted and overall heat transfer coefficient are listed

in Table 2.

Tabel 2. Coefficients value in (1.a) equation,

wadjusted and overall heat transfer coefficient

Sample code 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9-

C G C C- C C- S S S

p v

t0 [oC] 24 30 18 23 47 54 50 53 53 Fig.6. Cooling curves recorded for the samples 5-C

7. 2. 2 6 9 1 8. 0. 7. and 5-C-v (a) and

6 9 5 6 7

(tk t0) [oC] 18 34 28 26 23 19 17 13 13 corresponding sections of the liquid phase (b)

2 .9 0 0 9 6 8. 8. 7.

7 2 1

w10-4 [1/s] 93 23 52 18 20 78 47 13 93 By processing the corresponding curve of alloy

00 .6 .3 4. .6

2

cooling in liquid state resulted the regression equations

wadjusted10-4 33 13 24 10 6 15 9 20 12 like relation (1) whose coefficients are shown in Table 2.

[1/s] 0 Through tests, for wadjusted coefficient, the values are:

k [cal/s.grad. 6. 25 5. 2. 3. 9. 8. 19 10 0.0006 and 0.0015 s-1, respectively. Therefore, the value

cm2]10-4 45 .4 62 34 78 46 8 .6 .8 of overall heat transfer coefficient obtained is 0.000378

1

27 10 24 10 16 40 37 82 45

for nonvibrate mould and 0.000946 cal/s.grad.cm2 for

[W/grad.m 7 vibrated mould.

2

] In the next series of determinations, three samples

were cast in sodium silicate as binder moulds (samples

For 2-G sample calculations results are presented codes - 7S, 8S and 9S, respectively):

in Table 2. - bar type casting: 60x150, volume of 424 cm3.

In case of PbSn37 solder casting was done in - cylindrical casting with a high H/ ratio:

non-preheated and at 100oC preheated refractory brick dimensions 100/40x150, volume of 989 cm3 and wall

moulds. In Figure 5a there are presented the cooling thickness of 30 mm,

curves recorded, while in Figure. 5b there are the - cylindrical casting with a small H/ ratio:

sections of cooling curves corresponding for cooling in a dimensions 160/100x100, volume of 1,225 cm3 and

liquid state and the appropriate deduced regression wall thickness of 30 mm.

equations curves. It should be mentioned that the outside diameter for

these three moulds was 180, 200 and 240 mm,

respectively, and the thickness of the front parts (up /

down) was 50 mm. Further, it is also specified the ratio

between the volume of metallic castings and volume of

the mould (moulding sand) in order to obtain a more

evident image on the heat exchange between the liquid

alloy and mould: at sample S-7 is 0.125, at S-8 one is

0.266 and at S-9, the last sample, is 0.371.

For these determinations it has been used a silumin

Fig.5. Cooling curves recorded for samples 3-C and with easy hypoeutectic composition. The alloy

4-C-p (a) and composition is shown in Table 3.

corresponding sections of the liquid phase (b)

Table 3. Chemical composition of the alloy AlSi 12

The values of the regression equations coefficients

El A S F C Mn Mg C Zn Pb Sn Ni V Ti

are presented in Table 2. e l i e u r

Through experiments, for wadjusted coefficient m

results values: 0.0024 and 0.001 s-1, respectively. en

Finally, the values for overall heat transfer t

coefficient results are: 0.000562 for non-preheated

mould and 0.000234 cal/s.grad.cm2 in case of preheated

mould. Con 8 9 0. 0. 0.1 0.3 0. 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

tent 7 . 8 8 4 0 4 7 6 2 1 3

For 5-C and 6-C-v samples cooling curves are shown [wt . 7 3

in Figure. 6. As there is noted in Table 1, the %] 3

solidification of 6-Cv sample has been achieved with

mechanical vibration on mould, the parameters were:

frequency 50 Hz, amplitude 0.07 [mm], speed 14 [mm /

s] and acceleration 15 [m/s2], [15].

13

The Scientific Bulletin of VALAHIA University MATERIALS and MECHANICS Nr. 11 (year 14) 2016

Considering the complex composition of the alloy, the to primary crystallization and to eutectic transformation.

eutectic temperature was calculated with Mondolfos The eutectic temperatures indicated by cooling curves

relation: are 0.6 to 2 degrees higher than the corresponding value,

tEcalc= tE0 (12.5/[Si]) {(4.43[Mg]+1.43[Fe]+ calculated by Mondolfos equation.

+1.93[Cu]+1.7[Zn]+3[Mn]+4[Ni])} 570 C The regression equations (ratio (1)) were

obtained after the processing upon corresponding curves

where: of cooling alloy in the liquid state, Fig. 8b. In Table 2 are

tE0- eutectic temperature: 577 C in Al- shown these coefficients. By tests, the resulting values

Si Thermal Equilibrium Diagram for wadjusted coefficient are 0.0009; 0.002 and 0.0012 s-

1

tEcalc- eutectic temperature for complex , respectively. Therefore, for the overall heat transfer

allied alloy coefficient have been obtained 0.00088 (sample S7),

[Mg]-concentration of allied element 0.00196 (S8) and 0.00108 [cal/s.grad.cm2] for sample

(metallic impurities). S9. These values are much lower than those reported in

work [3], which refers to Al-Cu4.5% alloy cast in

In Fig. 7a it is presented a draft of the casting cylindrical moulds made with sodium silicate as binder

mould and the placement of the thermocouples: in the and hardened with carbon dioxid.

middle of the wall thickness for first one, on 10 mm It should be mentioned that for all casting

from casting surface for the second and just on melt- samples, the Biot criterion is much smaller than one

mould interphasic surface for the third. Fig. 7b shows the (varies in the range 0.005 to 0.006), which means that

mould completely ready, and in Fig. 7c there is the used during the cooling of liquid alloy, the heat transported

assembly to record cooling curves. from inside the melt to melt-mould interphase surface is

much higher than that what can be absorbed by the

mould material, which induced a volume solidification.

3 CONCLUSION

coefficient (Table 2) it can be said that it depends very

much on casting conditions (melt temperature, casting

dimensions, mould material and inner cores presence).

Casting in graphite moulds determines of about 4

Fig. 7. Casting mould and the used assembly times increase on overall heat transfer coefficient

compared with that cast in refractory brick moulds.

To calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient Preheating the melt determines the decrease of

were used recorded curves by thermocouples placed in approximately 2.4 times of overall heat transfer

the middle of the section, Fig. 8a. coefficient.

The mould vibration cause the increase about 2.5

times of the overall heat transfer coefficient. This

increase is the result of penetration liquid alloy in mould

surface depressions which causes a better contact

between the melt and mould material but also leads to

grow roughness castings surface.

Similar effects can have both melt overheating by

increasing fluidity and decreasing the surface tension

and casting high pieces, to which the metallostatic

pressure can cause a better contact between the melt and

the mould material. This conclusion is in agreement with

results reported in [6, 9, 10],concerning the pressure

effect on the value of global heat transfer coefficient.

In case of casting in sodium silicate moulds to 8-S

sample, the overall heat transfer coefficient is about 2

times greater than for those other two samples (7-S and

9-S). The significant difference can only be attributed to

differences between the geometrical characteristics of

Fig.8. The cooling curves recorded for samples 7-S, 8-

those three moulds made by sodium silicate process.

S and 9-S (a) and

The obtained values of overall heat transfer

corresponding sections of liquid phase (b)

coefficient (2.34 to 25.41) 10-4 [cal/s.grad.cm2]), for

different casting conditions demonstrates that this

parameter can not be considered as a mould material

It is worth mentioning that for all three cooling

constant.

curves it is observed the undercooling phenomenon both

14

The Scientific Bulletin of VALAHIA University MATERIALS and MECHANICS Nr. 11 (year 14) 2016

It is mention that the method described for [9] Fardi Ilkhchy A., Varahraam N., Davami P., Evaluation of

determining the overall coefficient of heat transfer from Pressure Effect on Heat Transfer Coefficient at The Metal-

the melt-mould interface is an average value and takes Mold Interface For Casting of A356 Al Alloy, Iranian Journal

of Materials Science & Engineering Vol. 9, Number 1, March

account, incorporates, the so controversial phenomenas

2012

effect from melt-mould area contact. [10] Fardi Ilkhchy A., Jabbari M., Davami P., Effect of

pressure on heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface

Conflict of Interests of A356 aluminum alloy, International Communications in

Heat and Mass Transfer 39 (2012) 705712

The authors declare that there is no conflict of [11] Jer-Haur Kuo, Ruey-Jer Weng, Weng-Sing Hwang

interest regarding the publication of this article. Effects of Solid Fraction on the Heat Transfer Coefficient at

the Casting/Mold Interface for Permanent Mold Casting of

Aknowlegment AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Materials Transactions, Vol. 47,

No. 10 (2006) pp. 2547 to 2554 #2006 The Japan Institute of

Metals

We hereby acknowledge the structural founds [12] Alloy Kuo J H, Hsu F L, Hwang W S, Yeh J L, Chen S J

project, (SOP HRD), ID137516 financed from the Effects of Mold Coating and Mold Material on the Heat

European Social Fund and by the Romanian Transfer Coefficient at the Casting / Mold Interface for

Governmentand the structural founds project Permanent Mold Casting of A356 Aluminum Transactions of

POSDRU/159/1.5/S/137516 for providing the American Foundry Society, Volume 109, Pages 1-17, 2001

infrastructure used in this work. [13] Pedram Mehraram, Measuring Heat Transfer during Twin

Roll Casting of Metals, A thesis presented to the University of

4. REFERENCES Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesis requirement for the degree

of Master of Applied Science in Mechanical Engineering

Journals: Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2010, 115 pag

[1] Varga Bela, Mustea Florin, Ciobanu Ioan, Bedo Tibor, [14] Pehlke R.D., John M. Cookson, Shouwei Hao , Prasad

Munteanu Ion Sorin, Crian Aurel: Study on Shrinkage Krishna, Kevin T. Bilkey: Heat Transfer at the Mold - Metal

Development Inside an Al-Si Alloy Casting by Computer Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys

Solidification Simulation, , RECENT Vol. 17, no. 1(47), Project Final Report Department of Materials Science and

March, 2016, pp. 55-68. Engineering The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI

[2] Bedo Tibor, Dian Marcel, Varga Bela, Stoicnescu Maria, 48109-2136 December 14,200 1 Prepared for THE U.S.

Crian Aurel, Ciobanu Ioan: A Simulation and Experiment DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AWARD NO. DE-FC07-

Concerning the Solidification of an Al-Zn Alloy Casting, 97ID13559

RECENT, Vol. 17, no. 2(48), July, 2016, pag. 83. [15] Mirela Popescu, Bela Varga: Structures of Aluminium

[3] Bencomo A., Bisbal R., Morales, R.: Simulation of the Base Alloys Solidified by Vibrations, in Advanced Materials

aluminum alloy A356 solidification cast in cylindrical Research, vol. 1128, Advanced Technologies of Materials

permanent molds, Revista Matria, v. 13, n. 2, pp. 294 303, Processing, 2015, pp. 88-97.

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[4] Konopka Z., giewka M., Zyska A.: Evaluation of the

heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mould interface during

flow, Archives of Foundry Engineering, Volume 7, Issue

4/2007, 101-104

[5] Ulkarni S.N. K., Adhakrishna D.K. R: Effect of

casting/mould interfacial heat transfer during solidification of

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Poland, 29(2), 2011, pp. 135-142

[6] Jabbari M., Fardi Ilkhchy A., Davami P.: Effect of pressure

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Technology, Volume 4, Number 1, 2011, Pages 1-20

[7] Sahin H. M., Kocatepe K., Kaykc R., Akar N.:

Determination of unidirectional heat transfer coefficient during

unsteady-state solidification at metal castingchill interface,

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[8] Felczak, G. De Mey and B. Wicek, Determination of the

heat transfer coefficient distribution, Quantitative InfraRed

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