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Design of a Two Story Reinforced Concrete Public Market


with Constructed Wetlands, Rainwater Harvesting System,
and Green Roofing

Project By

Dela Cruz, Ralph Joed A.

Malolos, Harvey A.

Tamayo, Erika Mae S.

Submitted to the School of Civil, Environmental and Geological


Engineering (SCEGE)

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

Mapua Institute of Technology

Manila City

July 2013
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Last December 29, 2009, the Public Market of Iba, Zambales was set on fire
leaving Iba the only town in Zambales that does not have an organized public market
until now. This project proposes a design of a two-story reinforced concrete public with
constructed wetlands, rainwater harvesting system, and green roofing; located in Brgy.
Palanginan, Iba, Zambales. The design will include a rainwater harvesting system to
ensure optimum utilization of water coming from the rain. Rainwater will undergo a
simple filtration system to remove some of the particles that may clog the piping system
and affect the quality of water. Majority of the harvested rainwater will be used for
flushing toilets and the rest will be for irrigation. Wastewater from the market and toilet
will go to the Constructed Wetlands for treatment process for it to be suitable enough for
irrigating the vegetation inside and outside the market area. The proposed design will
employ various strategies to make it a green market. Strategies include using water
saving fixtures; increasing vegetation; reducing stormwater runoff; and stormwater
harvesting. The proposed new market with its sustainable features will benefit most Iba
residents especially the former stall vendors and small businessmen who lost their
livelihood from the fire.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Executive Summary iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vii
List of Tables viii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

Chapter 2: Presenting the Challenges 2


2.1 Problem Statement 2
2.2 Project Objective 3
2.3 Design Norms Considered 3
2.4 Major and Minor Areas of Civil Engineering 3
2.5 The Project Beneficiary 3
2.6 The Innovative Approach 4
2.7 The Research Component 4
2.8 The Design Component 4
2.9 Sustainable Development Concept 5

Chapter 3: Environmental Examination Report 6


3.1 Project Description 6
3.1.1 Project Rationale 6
3.1.2 Project Location 6
3.1.3 Project Information 7
3.1.4 Description of Project Phases 7
3.1.5 Pre-construction phase 8
3.1.6 Construction phase 8
3.1.7 Operational phase 8
3.1.8 Abandonment phase 8
3.2 Description of Environmental Setting and Receiving Environment 9
3.2.1 Physical Environment 9
3.2.2 Biological Environment 9
3.2.3 Socio-Cultural, Economic and Political Environment 9
3.2.4 Future Environmental Conditions without the Project 9
3.3 Impact Assessment and Mitigation 10
3.3.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental Issues 11
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3.3.2 Brief Discussion of Specific Significant Impacts


on the Physical and Biological Resources 12
3.3.3 Brief Discussion of Significant Socio-economic
Effects/Impacts of the Project 12
3.4 Environmental Management Plan 12
3.4.1 Summary Matrix of Proposed Mitigation
and Enhancement Measures, Estimated
Cost and Responsibilities 12
3.4.2 Brief Discussion of Mitigation
and Enhancement Measures 13
3.4.3 Monitoring Plan 14
3.4.4 Contingency Plan 14
3.4.5 Institutional Responsibilities and Agreements 18

Chapter 4: The Research Component 19


4.1 Abstract 19
4.2 Introduction 19
4.3 Review of Literature 19
4.4 Methodology 28
4.5 Results and Discussion 29
4.6 Conclusion and Recommendations 50
4.6.1 Conclusion 50
4.6.2 Recommendations 50

Chapter 5: Detailed Engineering Design 51


5.1 Loads and Codes 51
5.1.1 Introduction 51
5.1.2 Dead Load 51
5.1.3 Live Load 52
5.1.4 Earthquake Load Parameters 53
5.1.5 Load Combinations 53
5.2 Structural Design 54
5.2.1 Design of Beams 54
5.2.2 Design of Columns 61
5.2.3 Design of Slabs 63
5.3 Design of Foundation 79
5.3.1 Introduction 79
5.3.2 Footing Design 81
5.4 Rainwater Cistern Design 87
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Chapter 6: Promotional Material 90

Chapter 7: Budget Estimation 91

Chapter 8: Projects Schedule 96

Chapter 9: Conclusion and Summary 122

Chapter 10: Recommendations 127

Acknowledgement 128
References 129

APPENDICES

A. Beam Design
B. Column Design
C. Design of Isolated Square Footing
D. Article Type Paper
E. Original Project Report Assessment Sheet by Panel Members
F. English Editor Assessment and Evaluation Rubrics
G. Accomplished Consultation Forms
H. Compilation of Assessment Forms
I. Copy of Engineering Drawings and Plans
J. Copy of Project Poster
K. Photocopy of Receipts
L. Relevant Pictures
M. Other Required Forms
N. Student Reflections
O. Resume of Each Member
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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Location Site 7

Figure 2 PAGASA Color Coded Warning Signals 15

Figure 3 Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands 21

Figure 4 Basic Layout of Constructed Subsurface Flow Constructed 23

Figure 5 Green Roof Installation Costs 45

Figure 6 B159 Story 2 54

Figure 7 Shear and Moment Diagram for Beam B159 57

Figure 8 Typical Column 62

Figure 9 Corner Slabs 63

Figure 10 Edge Slabs 69

Figure 11 Interior Slabs 74

Figure 12 One-Way Shear Failure 83

Figure 13 Two-Way Shear Failure 84

Figure 14 Typical Footing 85

Figure 15 Perspective View 90

Figure 16 Front Elevation View 90


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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Summary Matrix of Environmental Issues


and their Level of Significance 11

Table 2 Summary Matrix of Proposed Mitigation Measures,


Cost and Responsibilities 12

Table 3 Monitoring Plan 14

Table 4 Main Removal Mechanisms in Subsurface Flow


Constructed Wetlands and Average Removal Efficiencies 23

Table 5 Sizing of rainwater pipe for roof drainage 24

Table 6 LEED Credits 29

Table 7 Average Rainfall Data of Iba, Zambales 32

Table 8 Water used of Fixtures (Design Case) 37

Table 9 Water used of Fixtures (Baseline Case) 38

Table 10 Market Stalls 39

Table 11 Market Officials 40

Table 12 Market Buyers 40

Table 13 Adhesives and Sealants and their VOC Limit 43

Table 14 Coatings and their VOC Limit 43

Table 15 Cost-Benefit Analysis Results of Green Roof 46

Table 16 Volume of Water Collected Monthly from Rainwater


Harvesting System 47

Table 17 Cost-Benefit Analysis Results of Rainwater Harvesting


System and Constructed Wetlands 48

Table 18 Cost-Benefit Analysis Results of Porous Pavement 49

Table 19 Roof Deck Dead Load 51

Table 20 Second Floor Dead Load 52


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Table 21 Ground Floor Dead Load 52

Table 22 Live Load 53

Table 23 Summary of Shear Reinforcements 61

Table 24 Reinforcements for Corner Slabs on Roof Deck 67

Table 25 Reinforcements for Corner Slabs on Second Floor 68

Table 26 Reinforcements for Edge Slabs on Roof Deck 72

Table 27 Reinforcements for Edge Slabs on Second Floor 74

Table 28 Reinforcements for Interior Slabs on Roof Deck 76

Table 29 Reinforcements for Interior Slabs on Second Floor 78

Table 30 Summary of Project Duration 96

Table 31 Manpower Utilization Schedule 96

Table 32 Equipment Utilization Schedule 97


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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Iba as the capital of Zambales in Region III is a fast-developing town. According


to the 2011 census, the town has a population of 51,033 with an income classification of
1st class. The municipality of Iba is bounded by the municipalities of Botolan to the
south, Palauig to the north, the province of Tarlac to the east, and the South China Sea to
the west. Iba, Zambales has two seasons rainy season from June to September and dry
season from October to May. The rainy season has an average annual rainfall of 43.15
centimeters (16.99 in).
One of the sources of income of Iba, Zambales comes from the market collection.
Last December 29, 2009, the market was set on fire where almost 260 million pesos
worth of goods were burned down. At present, the town does not have an organized place
where the previous market stall vendors can sell their products. Problem in sanitation is
also present because of the improper discharge of wastewater coming from cleaning of
perishable goods such as fish, poultry and vegetables, which may contaminate the
environment resulting in diseases.
This project is about the design of a new public market in Iba, Zambales, which
includes additional features. The new market will be installed with a rainwater harvesting
system, a wastewater treatment system thru constructed wetlands.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse
before it reaches the aquifer. Water being collected from the rain will be treated through a
simple filtration system and will be distributed to the toilets for flushing purposes and the
rest together with the processed water from the constructed wetlands will be used for
irrigation. However, the treated water from the rain will serve as secondary water only
and not suitable for cleaning goods and drinking purposes as the treatment process will
not be designed to meet the requirements of Clean Water Act for drinking water.
In addition to the water coming from the rain, the project will also address the
wastewater from the market. A Subsurface Horizontal Flow constructed wetlands
treatment facility will be included in the project. The treated water will be used to irrigate
the site vegetation. With these additional features, the new public market in Iba,
Zambales will be a sustainable structure, able to supply the markets water demand and
secondary water requirement.
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CHAPTER 2
PRESENTING THE CHALLENGES

2.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT


This proposal addresses four problems. First is the absence of an organized and
decent public market in Iba, Zambales for three years already, making the residents
demand for a new and better one. There were more than 200 stalls burned down by the
fire, destroying million worth of properties and merchandise and affecting most of the
residents in Iba, who earn their living from the public market as a seller, trader, supplier
or worker. Many vendors resorted to temporary stalls but still quite a number closed
down after, thus many jobs were lost. Until now, selling is still in disorder because the
vendors are scattered all over the place selling their goods.
The next problem that this proposal seeks to address is the wastewater from the
market that is highly polluted by toxic materials. These materials are harmful to the
environment when they are being discharged to bodies of water without undergoing full
treatment. Aside from polluting the water, this can also cause waterborne diseases which
can endanger the health of the people in the vicinity.
The third problem is stormwater runoff. According to the Philippine Atmospheric,
Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) Iba, Zambales
Station, a total of 2759.4 mm rain annually is being experienced in Iba, Zambales. Due to
the development of the site and soil compaction, the site will have an increased
magnitude of storm water runoff. Increased storm water runoff can overload pipes and
sewers and damage water quality. In addition to that, storm water is one of the major
sources of pollution for all receiving waterways as it may contain sediments and other
contaminants. Moreover, there is a high demand for water in a public market. With high
demand, the consumption is also higher. Thus, alternative sources of water should be
considered.
Lastly, as development in the site occurs, changes in the landscape happen. The
market replaces the open land and vegetation which can possibly form an island of higher
temperatures in the landscape. Hence, solving the problem of heat island effect on the site
can prevent the communitys environment and quality of life to be affected.
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2.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVE


The proposal will mainly focus on the structural aspect of the project and on the
solutions for the problems previously stated. The objectives are as follows:

1. To design a two story reinforced concrete public market, consisting at least 250
stalls;
2. To include a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment that is connected in the
market;
3. To plan a rainwater harvesting system that will be located on the roof deck of the
structure; and
4. To employ strategies to minimize the heat island effect in the market.

2.3 DESIGN NORMS CONSIDERED


Design norms that will be considered are safety, economy, and technology. For
this project, safety will ensure the well-being of the people who use the market, both the
vendors and consumers. Economy will guarantee a cost-effective structure in terms of the
materials that will be used during construction and the water-saving features of the
market that will minimize the overall dues.

2.4 MAJOR AND MINOR AREAS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


The major area of civil engineering for this project is Structural Engineering
because the focus of this project is to design a two-story reinforced concrete public
market.
The design of the foundation or the substructure will involve Geotechnical
Engineering, and the design of rainwater cistern, constructed wetlands, and green roofing
will require Environmental Engineering.

2.5 THE PROJECT BENEFICIARY


The project will be a complete structural design of a public market in Brgy.
Palanginan, Iba, Zambales. The main beneficiary of this project will be the municipality
of Iba, Zambales. The design will be submitted to the District Engineering Office of Iba,
Zambales.

The indirect beneficiary of this project will be the previous stall vendors of the
burned market. This project will enable them to re-organize in a place where they can sell
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their goods in a better, cleaner and safer environment. The design will also benefit the
residents of Iba, Zambales and its nearby municipalities because a new public market that
is convenient and spacious will be operating.

2.6 THE INNOVATIVE APPROACH


The structural design computations will be done using ETABS and MS Excel. MS
Excel will also be used for the design of foundation. For the plan layout and detailing,
AutoCAD will be used. Finally, for the conceptual design, Google Sketch Up software
will be utilized.

2.7 THE RESEARCH COMPONENT


This project will involve four research components: (1) the data from the soil
investigation report for the design of foundation; (2) the annual rainfall intensity data
from PAGASA for the design of rainwater cistern; (3) green roof loading prescribed by
ASTM; and (4) constructed wetland processes.

2.8 THE DESIGN COMPONENT


This project aims to design the following:

STRUCTURAL:
design of beams
design of columns
design of slabs

GEOTECHNICAL:
design of foundation

ENVIRONMENTAL:
design of rainwater cistern
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2.9 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT


The proposed public market in Iba, Zambales will be a sustainable and
environment-friendly structure. The constructed wetlands systems costs of construction,
monthly operation and maintenance will be considerably less than that of a conventional
wastewater treatment plant that requires many chemicals and extensive energy inputs. In
support, according to Cueto (1993), When net present worth of costs of wetland
wastewater treatment systems are compared to conventional wastewater treatment plants,
the cost of wetland systems are lower than that of equivalent conventional systems at
flows less than 5 million gallons per day (MGD), which is comparable to a system
serving a community of about 50,000 people. Having a wastewater treatment system,
the water will be free from toxic materials and pollutants. Besides not causing harm to the
environment, it also prevents the occurrence of waterborne diseases that endanger the
health of the people. The treated wastewater will be impounded in a pond which will be
used to irrigate the vegetation inside the area.
The project will also utilize rainwater. Collection of rainwater will occur at the
roof deck of the market structure. An estimated collection of 5904.63 cu. m of rainwater
per year is expected, which will be used in flushing toilets and aid in the irrigating
vegetation. Collection of rainwater will also decrease the problem of site storm water
runoff which may cause contamination of receiving waterways as it may carry
contaminants and sediments. In addition to that, reducing the magnitude of storm water
runoff helps maintain the natural aquifer recharge cycle and restore depleted stream base
flows.
With the use of rainwater and treated wastewater, water consumption will also be
lessened though rainwater harvesting and constructed wetlands initial costs for the
installation and operations will be expensive, but it will provide a non-potable water
source that is free of charges.

Moreover, the project will solve the problem of heat island effect on the site. Heat
island effect is a phenomenon wherein there is a thermal gradient difference between the
developed and undeveloped areas. To solve the problem of heat island effect, a minimum
of 50% parking spaces will be placed undercover, paving materials in the parking area
will have a minimum Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of 29, majority of the market
structure will be painted white; and maximum possible vegetation will be installed on the
roof deck and the surrounding area.
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CHAPTER 3
ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMINATION REPORT

3.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1.1 Project Rationale


This project intends to design a two-story reinforced concrete public
market with constructed wetlands, rainwater harvesting system, and green
roofing. It is designed purely with reinforced concrete using Ultimate Strength
Design (USD) method in compliance with the National Structural Code of the
Philippines (NSCP) 2010.
Moreover, this project aims to design a structure that will not solely
benefit the residents of Iba and its nearby towns but most importantly the
environment.
Aside from the structural and architectural design of the market that will
provide stable source of income for the residents of Iba, this structure will also
utilize design of rainwater cistern.
In addition, this project will also adapt a wastewater treatment thru
constructed wetlands. The purpose of this treatment plant is not just merely to
recycle the wastewater from the market but also helps to minimize the problem in
wastewater management in the Philippines thereby reducing water pollution. The
proposed structure will not just be a sustainable but also an environmental-
friendly public market.

4.1.2 Project Location


The municipality of Iba is bounded by the municipalities of Botolan to the
south, Palauig to the north, the province of Tarlac to the east, and the South China
Sea to the west. The proposed project is located at Brgy. Palanginan, Iba,
Zambales. Its geographical coordinates are 15 19' 10" North and 119 59' 18"
East. The land has a total area of 46, 361 square meters.
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Figure 1. Location Site (Wikimapia, 2013)

3.1.3 Project Information


The project is a two-story reinforced concrete public market having atleast
250 stalls with rainwater cistern, green roofing, and constructed wetlands. This
structure will be named Iba Public Market under the municipality of Iba. The
design of foundation as well as the rainwater cistern is also part of the project.

3.1.4 Description of Project Phases

The project will have three phases: (1) pre-construction phase including
the planning of the construction; (2) construction phase including the actual
construction of the public market; and (3) operational phase wherein the structure
operates for its initial purpose.
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3.1.5 Pre-construction Phase

In a construction project, the pre-construction phase is important because


it is the planning phase of the construction. It should be detailed and should
always conform to the standards to avoid several failures, mistakes, and even
indictment. In this project, the pre construction phase will include:
survey of the project site
preparation of plans (architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical,
sanitary)
secure permits and clearance from the local government of Iba, Zambales
project estimate (time and cost)

3.1.6 Construction Phase

The construction phase will include:


construction of temporary facilities (barracks, temporary officer, guard
post, etc.)
earthworks
concreting works (rebar, formworks, concrete pouring)
masonry (CHB laying, plain cement plastering)
specialty works (carpentry works, iron works, glass or glazing works, tile
setting, parapet installation, moulding, cornices, waterproofing)
other engineering works (electrical, sanitary, mechanical, etc.)
finishing works

3.1.7 Operational Phase

After the construction, the structure will be turned over to the beneficiary
and it will be known as the Iba Public Market. The public market will be used as
the market of the people of Iba and its nearby towns. The vendors of the previous
public market of Iba will be the other beneficiaries because they will be provided
with at least 250 stalls. The vendors have to buy the right to operate one or more
of the stalls. With at least 250 stalls and additional food services on the roof deck,
the public market will be operating for as long as the structure is operational.

3.1.8 Abandonment Phase

Abandonment is not considered since this is a proposed public market


which is a necessity of a city or town. In the coming years, the population of the
city will increase and therefore will make the public market more valuable.
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3.2 DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING AND


RECEIVING ENVIRONMENT

3.2.1 Physical Environment

The location of the proposed project is an uncultivated rice field


surrounded by a few trees. At its extreme north end, the Cabatuan Creek is
located. There is no structure in the vicinity of the site. One-way leading to the
site is not yet developed.

3.2.2 Biological Environment

The site is generally surrounded with rice plants and a number of trees.
Due to its considerable distance from the town proper and the presence of
vegetation, the site has a low level of air pollution. There are no farm animals
domesticated in the area.

3.2.3 Socio-Cultural, Economic and Political Environment

Socio-Cultural
The nearest resident is about 500m. With this, there will be no
concerns that arise on the creation of the proposed public market which may
affect the residents of Iba, both socially and culturally. The construction of the
market will instead provide jobs as the labor force will be coming mainly
from at the vicinity. When it comes to health concerns, the proposed public
market will follow certain measures so as to discharge wastes that will not be
harmful to the nearby residents.

Economic and Political Environment


With the construction of the public market, the economy of Iba,
Zambales will improve due to the generation of jobs within the area.

3.2.4 Future Environmental Conditions without the Project

Without the construction of the public market, the uncultivated rice field
will remain as it is. The waste being generated by the temporary market also
poses serious environmental and health concerns.
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3.3 IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATION

AIR QUALITY

Construction activities such as demolition, burning, land clearing, operation of


diesel engines, and working with toxic materials can produce significant air quality
problems. Typically, the construction sites generate high levels of dust, usually,
consisting of small particles such as soot and cement and larger particles such as grit,
sand and wood dust.
Sources of air pollutant emissions are normally grouped into two categories:
stationary and mobile sources.

Stationary source of emission that does not move, which includes coating
operations, concrete batching, fuel burning equipment (e.g. diesel engines),
mineral processing operations (e.g. rock crushing and screening operations).

Mobile source of air pollution that is capable of moving using its own
power. It is divided into two categories: On-road and off-road transportation.
On-road transportation are vehicles such as cars and utility vehicles that are
usually used by the people in the construction site, while the off-road
transportation are the construction equipment such as loaders, excavators and
others.
To prevent air pollution, fine water sprays can be used to dampen down the site
which can control dust or screen the whole site to stop the spreading of the dust.
Moreover, non-toxic paints, solvents and other hazardous materials can be utilized as
much as possible. The burning of materials on site should be prohibited. Additionally,
low emission vehicles and equipment should be used.

WATER QUALITY and LAND CONTAMINATION

Some of the sources of water pollution on building sites are diesel and oil,
solvents, paints, and other dangerous chemicals. When these substances get into
waterways, they poison water life. Debris and dirt from the construction can also generate
water pollution. When land is being cleared, it causes soil erosion that leads to sediment
pollution. Sediment is the most common pollutant washed from construction sites, which
clogs the fish gills, blocks the light transmission and increases the water temperature of
the ocean. These can also harm aquatic life. Moreover, pollutants generated from
construction sites can soak into the groundwater, which is usually the source of potable
water.

To avoid water pollution, building materials such as cement, sand and other
powders must be covered, inspected regularly for spillages, and placed far from
waterways or drainage areas so that they will not be washed out. In addition, the toxic
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substances must be segregated and tightly covered to prevent spills and site
contamination. The proper disposal of the wastewater in the construction site should be
strictly followed.

NOISE GENERATION

Construction sites generate noise pollution, mostly from vehicles, heavy


equipment and machinery, and from the people shouting loudly on-site. In addition to
these, rock crushing and screening operation are also sources of noise in a construction
site.
To reduce the generation of noise, proper scheduling of the equipment should be
implemented. Aside from that, careful handling of materials and/or construction of wall
structures as sound shields are highly suggested.

HEALTH ISSUES

Health issues are not always and immediately visible but can have devastating
impact which sometimes results in prolonged and long term health problems. Some of
these are back pain due to manual handling of materials, noise-induced hearing loss,
respiratory and breathing problems, skin diseases from hazardous chemical exposure and
occupational stress due to work pressure and loads. To mitigate injuries and accidents, all
employees should be well-trained in the proper handling of the materials and poisonous
chemicals.

3.3.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental Issues/Impacts and


their Level of Significance at Various Stages of Development

Table 1.Summary Matrix of Environmental Issues and their Level of Significance


STAGES ENVIRONMENTAL LEVEL OF
ISSUE/IMPACT SIGNIFICANCE
Air Quality Low Impact
Water Quality Low Impact
Pre - Land Contamination Low Impact
Construction Noise Generation Low Impact
Health Issues Low Impact
Air Quality Low to Moderate Impact
Water Quality Low to Moderate Impact
Construction Land Contamination Low Impact
Noise Generation Low to Moderate Impact
Health Issues Low Impact
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3.3.2 Brief Discussion of Specific Significant Impacts on the Physical and


Biological Resources

The proposed project location is an undisturbed land. Its neighboring lots


are either vacant or cultivated as rice fields. During construction, trees and grasses
in the site and surrounding it will most likely be cleared out.
There will also be a significant impact on the soil since excavation will be
needed for the foundation of the building as well as for the underground location
of the wastewater treatment plant. There is low to moderate impact on air and
water quality and low significance of land contamination during the construction
phase.

3.3.3 Brief Discussion of Significant Socio-economic Effects/Impacts of the


Project

The project has a significant positive impact on the socio-economic status


of Iba, Zambales. Upon the completion and start of the operation, the market will
provide jobs for the residents of Iba and nearby towns, hence stable income.
Stable income will also be provided for small businessmen who sell their products
in the market stalls. With these and the fact that public markets are the major trade
centers since ancient civilizations, the construction of New Iba Public Market will
surely boost the towns socio-economic status.

3.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

3.4.1 Summary Matrix of Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement


Measures, Estimated Cost and Responsibilities

Table 2.Summary Matrix of Proposed Mitigation Measures, Cost and Responsibilities


Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measure Cost Responsibilities
Problem Issue
Noise Levels Construction Phase N/A Contractor
Construction will be done at daytime
to avoid any noise problems at night.
If circumstances occur and require
the operation at night, nearby
residents will be informed.
.
Air Quality Before Construction Phase N/A Contractor
The project laborers will be educated
about the different measures to
prevent any air-related problem in
the future
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During Construction Phase


Dust Control will be provided such
as use of water sprinklers, and fine
nets.

After Construction Phase


Any objects that may affect the air
quality will be removed or if the
object is necessary, certain measures
to control the air contamination will
be applied.
Flora and Fauna Additional trees will be planted after
the construction phase to compensate
for the damaged vegetation.
Traffic Temporary roadways connecting the N/A Contractor
Govic Highway, the nearest road to
the site, and the construction will be
created

3.4.2 Brief Discussion of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures

Noise
Construction works will be done during the day to prevent any noise-
related problems with the nearby residents. If circumstances require that
construction will be held at night, noise reduction measures will be
implemented such as blocking the transmission of vibration along a noise
radiating structure by the placement of a heavy mass on the structure close to
the original source of the noise. Nearby residents will be informed beforehand
if construction works will be done at night.

Air Quality
This is mainly focused on the dust being generated during the
construction phase. To prevent any damages induced by the dust, some
preventive measures will be applied such as the use of water. Water should be
applied at least three times a day, or more, depending on the atmospheric
conditions. Use of water will not increase cost of implementation and will
yield excellent results. In addition to this, use of fences will also be used for
controlling air currents and blowing soil.

Flora and Fauna


Additional plants will be planted during the construction phase as it
will help in preventing the propagation of dust in the area by serving as wind
barriers.
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Traffic
Roads leading to the location site will be developed such that the one-
way road will be widened so that the supplies can be delivered to the
construction site. Traffic signs and traffic directions leading to the
construction site will also be provided.

3.4.3 Monitoring Plan

Table 3. Monitoring Plan


ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION MONITORING
PROBLEMS
HEALTH ISSUES First Aid kits will be Weekly
available. Medical and
Safety Inspectors will also
ensure and check the health
and safety of the workers.
NOISE Construction will be done Daily
only during work hours and
noise reduction protocols
will be implemented.
AIR QUALITY Watering the area will be Daily
done to prevent spreading
of dust.
TRAFFIC Development and widening Once
of roads leading to the
construction site will be
performed.
Traffic will also be Daily
managed.

3.4.4 Contingency Plan

Flooding Contingency Plan

The workers should be made aware that when PAGASA issued a Warning
Signal, it implies that there will be a possibility of flooding in some low-lying and
poorly drained areas. The Level of Rainstorm Warning Signals indicates the
seriousness of flooding.
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The PAGASA set three warnings to indicate the seriousness of the flooding.

Figure 2. PAGASA Color Coded Warning Signals (PAGASA, 2013)

Red Warning: More than 30 millimeters (mm) rain is observed in


one hour and expected to continue in the next two hours. Serious flooding is
expected in low-lying areas. People in the area should evacuate.

Green Warning: Intense (15-30mm) rain is observed in one hour


and expected to continue in the next two hours. Flooding is threatening. People in
the area should be alerted for possible evacuation.

Yellow Warning: Heavy (7.5-15mm) rain is observed in one hour


and expected to continue in the next two hours. Flooding is possible. People in the
area should monitor the weather condition.

Fire Contingency Plan

1.) Preparedness

One should know the location of the fire exits, fire alarms, and fire
extinguishers in the workplace. Familiarize oneself with the procedures
below and participate in fire extinguisher training so that one is prepared in
case of a fire. A task force composed of a few employees should be
established.

2.) If you discover a fire

Leave the fire area and close the door to the area
Actuate the fire alarm
Immediately evacuate the building via the shortest and safest route
Trained individuals may use fire extinguishers on very small fires AFTER
the fire alarm is actuated and people are evacuating
If you notice smoke, use an alternate escape route
Check route for safety before proceeding and close (do not lock) doors
behind you.
16

Stay low to the ground through smoke filled areas.


Go to a safe area
From nearest phone in safe area, call the Zambales Fire Department
located at Iba Zambales(047) 511-1344. When the fire department
operator answers, give the ff. info;
1. name
2. phone number
3. location where the caller is calling from
4. the precise nature of the fire
5. where the fire truck should enter
6. describe the location
7. whether there are any injuries, and such, number of injured &
extent of injuries

DO NOT HANG UP until given permission to do so. Dispatch an


employee to the entrance to guide the fire truck to the fire area.

Await emergency personnel at safe location and direct them to the scene.
Do not re-enter the building until directed to do so by a supervisor or the
Fire Marshal

3.) Use of existing equipment

Try to put out the fire, if it is small enough, using existing


equipment use best judgment if trained and confident. In the event that
the fire is small enough to be extinguished by a fire extinguisher, fire
extinguishers have been placed around the building and are identified.
Become aware of the fire extinguisher locations and familiar with
accessibility.

If the fire does not go out or spreads after attempting to extinguish


flames, leave the area immediately and close all doors on the way.

4.) Evacuation

If the fire is clearly out of control, notify all others in danger,


YELL FIRE and evacuate all personnel from the market to the designated
muster station outside the building. Assist people with disabilities, and
children, as required. Fire wardens are to ensure that all employees and
customers are out of the building and proceed out behind them, closing but
not locking doors as they leave. Leave buildings by the nearest safe exit. All
are to proceed to the designated muster station. Material Safety Data Sheets
are to be taken by the fire warden and made available to the fire department,
as required. All are to wait outside the building as directed by the Fire
17

Department. People are to re-enter the building only after the fire department
has given permission to do so.

5.) If trapped

Place towels or clothes (wet if possible) at the bottom of the door.


Open windows, if possible.
Stay close to the floor if there is a lot of smoke.

6.) If clothes catch fire

Stop whatever is being done.


Drop to the ground.
Roll to smother the flames.
If someone elses clothes catch fire, have them stop, drop and roll. Try to
smother the flames with a piece of clothing.

7.) Using an extinguisher

Think PASS:
Pull the safety pin at the top of the extinguisher.
Aim the nozzle/hose at the base of the flames.
Squeeze or press the handle.
Sweep from side to side at the base of the fire until it is out.

8.) Know the extinguisher

Type A (green triangle) use for paper and wood.


Type B (red square) use for flammable liquids such as gas, oil, and paint
Type C (blue circle) use for electrical fires involving wires or appliances.

9.) Notify Management

The facilitator, if not on-site, is to be notified immediately.


Emergency numbers are posted on an emergency contact list.
18

Hospital
Name: President Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Hospital
Address: National Road, Iba Zambales
Contact Number: (047) 811-7212

Name: San Marcelino District Hospital (SMDH)


Address: San Marcelino, Zambales
Contact Number: (047) 623-2301/2302

Fire Department
Name: Zambales Fire Department
Address: Iba, Zambales
Contact Number: (047) 511-1344

Police Department
Name: Zambales Police Provincial Office
Contact Number: (047) 811-1602/2885

3.4.5 Institutional Responsibilities and Agreements

The municipality of Iba, Zambales will be responsible for the monitoring


of the project to assure that no damages will be included during and after the
construction. The DPWH will also be responsible for the monitoring of the
project to make sure that the structure is following all the specifications needed
for the procurement of the roads leading to the public market and the road
development. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
will also play a major role in monitoring of the safety of the natural resources that
may be affected by the project.
19

CHAPTER 4
THE RESEARCH COMPONENT

4.1 ABSTRACT
The demand from the former vendors or sellers of the public market has become
the precipitating factor for the municipality of Iba to agree with the idea of a new public
market. Iba is the only town in Zambales that has no public market until now. This is the
objective of the group. By designing a two-story reinforced concrete public market, a
green public market which consists of rainwater cistern, and wastewater treatment thru
constructed wetlands, this proposal sought to respond to the problem in Brgy. Palanginan,
Iba, Zambales.

The study aims to design the most economical and environment-friendly, safe and
clean public market in the capital of Zambales.

4.2 INTRODUCTION
The research part of this study assesses the importance of public market in a
particular area. It also aims to discuss the possible strategies that can be employed to
make it a sustainable market structure.

4.3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE


THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC MARKET

Urban revitalization in America and perhaps in other developing countries as well


is defined as construction of a highway, an office complex, a convention center or any
public and private projects costing billions of dollars in investment that claims to provide
jobs for the citizens. However, for the past years, the financial remuneration of these
investments has produced unproductive jobs instead and serious damage to the urban
structure, which, in turn, directs to economic stagnation or worse, collapse of the
economy.

Urban revitalization practitioners from all sectors and organizations are beginning
to recognize that public gathering places and public spaces that connect everything create
limitless potential for urban revitalization and economic development. One such place is
public market where people of different ethnic groups and income are gathered, inviting
20

and safe public spaces are created, low- and moderate-income neighborhoods and small-
scale economic activity are strengthened, fresh and high-quality products are provided for
the town residents and open spaces and farms are preserved, addressing most of the
difficult problems of the cities.

A public market is traditionally owned by the town or citys municipality where


vendors market fresh food from open stalls. Some public markets today are owned and
operated by different types of organizations and sell a wide range of different products,
including but not limited to farmers produce, crafts and antiques. Public markets have
three distinguished characteristics: (1) possess public goals including among many others
affordable retailing opportunities to small-scale businesses and farmland preservation in
the region; (2) encompass an inviting, safe and lively public space in the community; and
(3) acquire locally owned, independent businesses for the local flavor of the market
(Project for Public Spaces, Inc., 2003).

In the Philippines, however, the development of clean, air-conditioned and


efficient supermarkets and hypermarkets threaten the existence of pubic markets, like the
Baguio City Public Market and the vegetable trading center in La Trinidad, Benguet. To
address this problem, a number of solutions have been formulated:

1. The local government units of General Santos, Mati, Calapan, Muntinlupa and
Mandaluyong introduced Public-Private Partnerships into their public markets and
are now compliant with the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board Standards
for Public Markets.
2. The Department of Agriculture (DA) conducts an annual nationwide search since
2006 for the model public market, entitled Huwarang Palengke that thrusts
public markets to improve their products, facilities and services.
3. The DA also launched its current national strategy AgriPinoy to restore the
farmers markets.
4. Senate Bill No. 664 has been approved in the 15th Congress to provide for a five-
year public markets program involving infrastructure involvement, micro
financing support, institutional advancement, and consumer protection.

THE IBA PUBLIC MARKET

The Iba Public Market in Iba, Zambales has been serving the residents of the town
and those nearby for almost 23 years with its two-story steel-and-concrete structure
before a huge fire destroyed it in 2009. The fire has destroyed 260 million pesos in
properties and merchandise and affected more than 200 stalls (Empeo, 2009).

Since most Iba residents earn their living from the public market, they cannot do
without it. Hence, they resorted to flea market in a temporary area allotted by the local
government and sidewalk stalls, resulting in a disorganized public place (Gonzaga, 2011).
21

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
One of the ways to treat wastewater is thru constructed wetlands. Constructed
wetlands are natural way to remove the pathogens and remove the contaminants in a
wastewater. Constructed wetlands can provide effective, economical, and
environmentally-sound treatment of wastewater as well as serve as wildlife habitats. This
Constructed wetland is a secondary treatment process that is the water will undergo pre-
treatments processes that include settling tanks; and oil and grit removal. In a constructed
wetland, a variety of treatment processes then takes place such as filtration,
sedimentation, and biological degradation, which together effectively remove the
contaminants in domestic wastewater. In general, constructed wetlands require little
operation and maintenance when compared with technical treatment systems.

Figure 3. Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands


(Brikk, 2008)

Constructed wetlands system can be classified into three types: Free Water
Surface, Subsurface Flow Systems and Aquatic Plan Systems. In this project, Subsurface
Flow is being used. Constructed Wetlands is a type of constructed wetland that
essentially consists of shallow basins filled with coarse sand or gravel as filter material.
Locally available wetland plants are grown on the surface of the filter bed, and pre-
treated wastewater flows through the bed horizontally below the surface.
22

Advantage of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands:

1. The treatment is all natural. No need for sophisticated equipment and chemicals.
The natural biological treatments are enhanced by high waste water temperatures.
With these, operation and maintenance costs are low.
2. Low energy requirements
3. Characterized by robustness, performance reliability, and resistance to flow
fluctuations.
4. It limits insect breeding and proliferation of vectors
5. Reduced levels of pathogens in effluent and remaining nutrients render the
effluent suitable for irrigation provided that appropriate health measure are taken
6. It has low odor emissions.
7. It creates a habitat for wildlife
8. It will enhance the market structure aesthetics.

Disadvantage of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands:


1. It requires a large area.
2. It needs a larger amount of filter and sealing media.
3. The deposition of inert solids and biomass can lead to the clogging of certain parts
of the filter material.

Components of Subsurface horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands

1. Waterproof Basin- it is being used to avoid water infiltration that may cause soil
and groundwater contamination or to avoid seepage. Layers of compacted clays or
plastic linings can be used for waterproofing.

2. Filter Media-it is used to retain solids from the pretreated water wherein organic
fraction is then further degraded. Another, it provides surface for adhesion and
development of the microorganisms that play a crucial role in the degradation of
organic pollutants and transformation of nitrogen compounds. Lastly, wetland
plants will develop their root system in the filter media.

3. Wetland Plants - their root systems provide surfaces for the attachment of
microorganisms, filtration effects, and stabilize the bed surface. The roots
contribute to the development of enhance microorganisms by the release of
oxygen and nutrients. Moreover, the plants give the treatment site an attractive
appearance, and some plant species can be used for several purposes after
harvesting.

4. Inlet and Outlet Structures- are required for wastewater distribution and
collection.
23

Removal mechanisms for pollutants and Efficiency

A variety of complex biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms improve the


water quality in constructed wetlands. These mechanisms are based on the interaction
between the wastewater, microorganisms, plants, and filter material. The major
mechanisms, which cater to the removal of several constituents from domestic
wastewater, are described in Table 4.

Table 4. Main Removal Mechanisms in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands and


Average Removal Efficiencies
Wastewater Constitutent Main Removal Removal Efficiency
Mechanism in constructed
wetland bed
Organic Matter Biological Degradation High (80-90%)
Suspended Solids Physical Sedimentation, High (80-90%)
filtration Biological
Degradation
Nitrogen Biological ammonification, Low (approx. 20-
nitrification-denitrification 40%)
Phosphorous Chemical and physical Low (approx. 20)
absorption processes in the
filter material
Pathogens
Thermatolirant Biological predation, Medium (1-3log
coliforms natural die-off units)
Helminth Eggs Physical Sedimentation, High (up to 3 log
filtration units)

Basic Layout of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands

Figure 4. Basic Layout of Constructed Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland.


(Brikk, 2008)
24

RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM

The rainwater harvesting system is composed of eight components. These are the
following:

1. Catchments these directly receives the rainwater to be provided for the system.
Catchments can be a paved area, such as a terrace or a courtyard of a building, an
unpaved area like a lawn or an open ground or a roof made of reinforced cement
concrete (RCC), galvanized iron or corrugated sheets.

2. Coarse mesh located at the roof, this functions as a filter of debris.

3. Gutters these semi-circular or rectangular channels around the edge of a sloping


roof collects and transport rainwater to the storage tank. Gutters can be made
using plain galvanized iron sheet gauge 20 to 22, PVC material or bamboo or
betel trunks. The size of the gutter depends on the flow during rain of highest
intensity, oversized by 10-15 percent. These should be supported to prevent
sagging or falling off during loading with water.

4. Conduits these are pipelines or drains, made of PVC or galvanized iron, which
carry rainwater from the catchment to the harvesting system. The diameter of the
pipe required for draining out rainwater depends on rainfall intensity and roof
area:

Table 5. Sizing of rainwater pipe for roof drainage


("Components of a rainwater harvesting system," 2013)
Diameter
Of pipe Average rate of rainfall in mm/h
(mm)
50 75 100 125 150 200
50 13.4 8.9 6.6 5.3 4.4 3.3
65 24.1 16.0 12.0 9.6 8.0 6.0
75 40.8 27.0 20.4 16.3 13.6 10.2
100 85.4 57.0 42.7 34.2 28.5 21.3
125 - - 80.5 64.3 53.5 40.0
150 - - - - 83.6 62.7

5. First-flush device this is a valve ensuring that the runoff from the first fall of
rain, which contains a relatively large amount of pollutants from air or from
catchments, is flushed out and prevented from entering the system.
25

6. Filter unit this is a chamber filled with fiber, coarse sand, gravel layers or
charcoal that screens the rainwater removing suspended pollutants.
a. Charcoal water filter it is made up of gravel, sand and charcoal placed in
a drum or an earthen pot. All materials are readily available.

b. Sand filter it is the most commonly used filter media because it is readily
available and inexpensive. Sand filter effectively removes turbidity, color
and microorganisms from the rainwater. The top layer of the sand filter is
composed of coarse sand and a 5-10 mm layer of gravel underneath. The
bottommost is made up of 5-25 cm layer of gravel and boulders.

b.1 Dewas filter it is comprised of a PVC pipe 140 mm in diameter and 1.2
meter long, divided into three chambers. The first chamber has pebbles 2-6
mm in diameter, the second has slightly larger pebbles 6-12 mm in diameter
and the last chamber has the largest pebbles 12-20 mm in diameter. A mesh is
placed on the outflow side through which clean water flows out after passing
through the three chambers. This filter system is used by most residents in
Dewas, Madhya Pradesh.

b.2 Filter for large rooftops a filter system with three concentric circular
chambers is designed to accommodate excess flow of rainwater. The outer
chamber is filled with sand such that the area of filtration is increased for
sand. The middle chamber is filled with coarse aggregate and the innermost
layer is filled with pebbles. Rainwater will then be treated with chlorine
tablets in the sump located at the center core of the filter system.

b.3Varun - this filter system is made from 90 liter high density polyethylene
(HDPE) drum that can handle a 50mm per hour intensity rainfall from a 50
square meter roof area. The lid of the drum is turned over and holes are
punched in it. These holes will filter out large leaves, twigs, etc. Filtered
rainwater will then pass through three layers of sponge and 150 mm thick
layer of coarse sand. The sponge facilitates easier cleaning process.

b.4 Horizontal roughing filter and slow sand filter (HRF/SSF) surface water
treated through this filter system has provided safe drinking water for
residents in Orissa. It has two major components:

Filter channel this one square meter in cross section and eight meter
long filter channel consists of three uniform compartments. The first
compartment is packed with broken bricks, the second with coarse
sand and the last compartment with fine sand. It filters the bulk of
solids in the incoming water. At every outlet and inlet point of the
channel, fine graded mesh is placed to prevent entry of finer materials
into the sump.
26

Sump this is where the filtered water from the tank is collected and
stored for use. SSF is primarily a biological filter, aims to kill
microbes in the water.

c. Rainwater Purification Center this filter system is developed by


combining the scaled-down multi-staged water treatment method (MST)
with existing technologies like upward flow fine filtration, absorption and
ion exchange. MST involves screening, flocculation sedimentation and
filtration.

d. Rainwater Harvester this filter system primarily filters runoff water from
roads that generally contains oil and grease.

7. Storage facility it can be any of the following:


a. Shape: cylindrical, rectangular or square
b. Material of construction RCC, ferrocement, masonry, polyethylene or
galvanized iron sheets
c. Position of tank depending on the space available, it can be constructed
above the ground, partly underground or fully underground

8. Recharge structures through any suitable structures like dug wells, bore wells,
recharge trenches or pits, rainwater may be charged into the groundwater aquifers.

a. Recharging of dug wells and abandoned tube wells dry wells or those whose
water levels declined considerably can be recharged directly with rooftop
runoff. Collected rainwater is diverted by drainpipes to a settlement or
filtration tank then flows into the recharge wells. The outer pipe or casing is
preferred to be slotted or perforated if a tube well is used for recharging. The
slots or perforations will increase the surface area available for water
percolation. If a dug well is used, the well lining should have openings at
regular intervals to allow seepage of water through the sides.

b. Settlement tank this is like an ordinary storage container but with provisions
for inflow, outflow and overflow and are used to remove silt and other
floating impurities from rainwater.

c. Recharging of service tube wells rooftop runoff is not directly led into the
service tube wells, instead rainwater is first collected in a recharge well that
serves as a temporary storage tank. This is done to avoid chances of
contamination of groundwater. The recharge well is provided with a borehole
shallower than the water table and provided with a casing pipe to prevent the
caving in of soil. A filter chamber packed with sand, gravel and boulders is
also available to filter the impurities.

d. Recharge pits this excavated pit 1.5 to 3 meter wide and 2 to 3 meter deep is
lined with a stone wall with opening at regular intervals. The top of the pit can
27

be covered with a perforated cover. The design procedure is similar with that
of a settlement tank.

e. Soak aways or percolation pit this is one of the easiest and most effective
way of rainwater harvesting. The 60 x 60 x 60 cm pit is filled with pebbles or
brick jelly and river sand and covered with percolated concrete slabs if
necessary.

f. Recharge trenches this is a 0.5 to 1 meter wide and 1 to 1.5 meter deep
continuous trench excavated in the ground and refilled with pebbles, boulders
or broken bricks. Recharge trenches are relatively less effective.
g. Recharge troughs these troughs are commonly located at the entrance of a
residential or institutional complex and are similar to recharge trenches.
However, the excavated part is unfilled with filter materials. Boreholes are
provided at regular intervals to facilitate fast recharge. Due to the limitation of
size, recharge troughs are only capable of harvesting limited amount of
rainwater.

h. Modified injection well instead of water being pumped into the aquifer, the
runoff is allowed to percolate through a sand-and-gravel filter bed. It is
generally a borehole, 500 mm in diameter. Its depth depends on the geological
condition in the area. A slotted casing pipe of 200 mm diameter is inserted
into the borehole and the space between the two is filled with gravel. It is
developed with a compressor until it yields clear water. A filter mechanism is
also included to prevent entrance of suspended solids into the recharge tube
well.
("Components of a rainwater harvesting system," 2013)
28

4.4 METHODOLOGY
START

ON SITE VISIT

DATA GATHERING
(TECHNICAL, DESIGN)

PRELIMINARY
DESIGN
DE
DESIGN
COST
ESTIMATION

EVALUATION FOR
EVALUATION
FOR ECONOMY
ECONOMY

DESIGN
DESIGN
EVALUATION
EVALUATION

IS DESIGN NO
RE-DESIGN
ADEQUATE?

YES
PROJECT
CONSTRUCTION

END
29

4.5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


This research produced a full structural design of a two-story reinforced concrete
public market with sustainable features. Through research, the plans and designs of the
project were determined.

The group employed strategies to make the structure a green public market. For
the purpose of making the structure sustainable, the group use Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED) Building Design and Construction 2009 Edition. With
the strategies being employed, the market structure has credit 16 points, seen in table 6.

Table 6. LEED Credits


Name of Credit Credit/s
SS Credit 5.2 Site Development- Maximize Open Space 1
SS Credit 6.1 Stormwater Design- Quantity Control 1
SS Credit 6.2 Stormwater Design- Quality Control 1
SS Credit 7.1 Heat Island Effect- Non Roof 1
SS Credit 7.2 Heat Island Effect-Roof 1
WE Credit 1 Water Efficient Landscaping 2
WE Credit 2 Innovative Wastewater Technologies 2
WE Credit 3 Water Use Reduction 4
IEQ Credit 4.1 Low Emitting Materials- Adhesives and Sealants 1

IEQ Credit 4.2 Low Emitting Materials- Paints and Coatings 1


IEQ Credit 6.1 Controllability of Systems- Lighting 1
TOTAL 16

Green Engineering Applications

Site Development- Maximize Open Space


Sustainable Sites (SS) Credit 5.2 of green building design and
construction corresponds to Site Development-Maximize Open Space. The
purpose of Maximizing Open Space is to promote biodiversity by providing a
high ratio of open space to the area affected by the development of the site or
the development footprint.
The benefits of having Open Spaces to the Project site includes
providing habitat for vegetation and wildlife, reduces the urban heat island
effect, increases stormwater infiltration, and provides human population a
connection to the surroundings.
Iba, Zambales imposed no Local Zoning Requirements for New
Constructions. The project location has a total area of 46, 361 sq. m with a
30

building footprint of 4 547.25 sq. m, thus the open space area is 41,813.75
with a minimum vegetation area of 4547.25 sq. m.
Stormwater Design

Stormwater, when in contact with the ground, may contain


contaminants such as atmospheric deposition, pesticides, fertilizers vehicle
fluid leaks or mechanical equipment waste which will pollute adjacent bodies
of water. Soil Compaction caused by site development and construction of the
Market Structure and the parking area produce a larger quantity of stormwater
runoff which can overload pipes and sewers and damage water quality,
affecting navigation and recreation. It can also increase bank full events and
erosion, widen channels and cause down cutting of streams. Stormwater
Design is further divided into two:

1. Quantity Control

Sustainable Sites (SS) Credit 6.1 of Green building design and


construction corresponds to Stormwater Design-Quantity Control which aims
to limit disruption of natural hydrology by reducing impervious cover,
increasing on-site infiltration, reducing or eliminating pollution from
stormwater runoff and eliminating contaminants.

To address the problem of increased magnitude of stormwater runoff


on the market area, the parking space paving material is pervious so as the
water will infiltrate to the ground which helps maintain the natural aquifer
recharge cycle and restore stream base flows. An average of 446.155 cu.m of
stormwater will also be collected from the roof deck of the structure for non-
potable purposes such as flushing toilets and for irrigation. Installation of
vegetated roofs also helps in the reduction in the magnitude of stormwater
runoff.

2. Quality Control
Sustainable Sites (SS) Credit 6.2 of Green building design and
construction corresponds to Stormwater Design- Quality Control which aims
to limit disruption and pollution of natural waterflows by managing
stormwater runoff.
Porous Pavements and Constructed Wetlands will be employed to
remove up to 90% of Total Suspended solids from the Stormwater runoff
which is above the required 80% of the average annual post development load
of total suspended solids.
31

Heat Island Effect

1. Nonroof

Sustainable Sites Credit 7.1 of Green building design and construction


(GBDC) corresponds to Heat Island Nonroof which aims to reduce the
thermal gradient difference between developed and undeveloped areas and its
impacts on microclimates and human and wildlife habitats.

The methodologies employed to reduce Heat Island Effect of the


nonbuilding structures are using materials with high Solar Reflectance index
(SRI) on the paving materials of the parking area and using shading materials
such as using vegetation.

The pervious paving material that will be used in parking area is light
in color preferably white with Solar Reflectance Index of at least 29.

Meanwhile, the parking area will have vegetation to reduce the heat
island effect and cool the air through evapotranspiration. Native trees to Iba,
Zambales such as Mango, Pines, Narra and other deciduous trees will be
planted in the area to serve as shades.

2. Roof

To reduce heat islands and minimize the impacts on microclimates and


human and wildlife habitats are the goals of SS Credit 7.2 of GBDC also
known as Heat Island Effect Roof.

The methodologies employed on the structure include vegetation in the


roofdeck of the market structure and using white paints on the outer building
parts. Half of the building roofdeck area or 2137.5 sq. m will be vegetated.
Incorporating plants in the roof deck can be very beneficial because they can
reduce the heat island effect by replacing heat absorbing surfaces with plants
to cool the air through evapotranspiration. Vegetated roofs can also retain
stormwater, provide insulating benefits, aesthetically appealing, have longer
lifetimes than conventional roofs and often require less maintenance that
conventional roof. The plants that will be used on the roof are all native plants
in Iba, Zambales to lessen the need for irrigations. Meanwhile, white coated
building exterior have a solar reflectance of 0.8 and SRI of 100 and proven to
cause a temperature rise on the structure of only 10 degrees Celsius.
32

Water Efficiency (WE)

1. Water Efficient Landscaping

The intent of Water Efficient Landscaping is to limit or eliminate the


use of potable water or other natural surface or subsurface water resources
available on or near the project site for landscape irrigation. Water Efficient
Landscaping corresponds to WE Credit 2 of BDC.

The amount of potable water consumption for irrigation based on


baseline computation is 310.2381 cu. m. The designed potable water
consumption for irrigation is 143.7549 cu. m or 166.4832 cu. m (53. 663%)
potable water reduction. Reduction in potable water used is due to the
utilization of rainwater and treated wastewater. Rainwater during January,
where there is the least rainwater (3mm/month) lessen the consumption by
6.4125 cu. m. Meanwhile, the harvested treated wastewater from constructed
wetland pond contributed 100 cu. m for irrigation (See Water Efficient
Landscaping for Computation).

Calculation of Water Collected from Rainfall


Table 7.Average Rainfall Data of Iba, Zambales
(PAGASA, 2013)
Month Precipitation (mm)
January 3
February 3
March 3
April 4
May 232.9
June 350.8
July 679.8
August 733.1
September 505
October 176.6
November 67.2
December 4

Calculations are based on Irrigation during January where


precipitation is minimum.
January Rainwater Harvest
Water Collected = January Rainfall X Half of Roof Area
1m
Water Collected = (3mm x x 2137.5 m2 )
1000mm
Water Collected = 6.4125 cu. m
33

Design Case Calculation

Vegetation:
1. Trees
2. Shrubs
3. Groundcover

Trees
Area Covered: 36,017.28 sq. ft
Irrigation Type: Drip, Efficiency = 0.9
Evapotranspiration Rate of Region III, ETO = 6.8 in
Species Factor, kS = 0 (Native Plant)
Density Factor, kD = 1
Microclimate Factor, kMC = 1

Landscape Coefficient, KL
KL = kL x kS x kD
KL = 0 x 1 x 1
KL = 0

Project Evapotranspiration Rate, ETL


ETL = ETO x KL
ETL = 6.8 x 0
ETL = 0 in

Total Water Applied (TWA), gal


ETL
TWA = ( Area x Efficiency) x 0.6233 gal/sf/in
TWA = 0 gal

Shrubs
Area Covered: 18,592.704 sq. ft.
Irrigation Type: Drip, Efficiency = 0.9
Evapotranspiration Rate of Region III, ETO = 6.8 in
Species Factor, kS = 0.2
Density Factor, kD = 1
Microclimate Factor, kMC = 1.3

Landscape Coefficient, KL
KL = kL x kS x kD
KL = 0.2 x 1 x 1.3
KL = 0.26
34

Project Evapotranspiration Rate, ETL


ETL = ETO x KL
ETL = 6.8 x 0.26
ETL = 1.768 in

Total Water Applied (gal)


ETL
TWA = ( Area x Efficiency) x 0.6233 gal/sf/in
TWA = 22765.6 gal

Groundcover
Area Covered: 15,331.6 sq.m
Irrigation Type: Drip, Efficiency = 0.9
Evapotranspiration Rate of Region III, ETO = 6.8 in
Species Factor, kS = 0.5
Density Factor, kD = 1
Microclimate Factor, kMC = 1.2

Landscape Coefficient, KL
KL = kL x kS x kD
KL = 0.5 x 1 x 1.2
KL = 0.6

Project Evapotranspiration Rate, ETL


ETL = ETO x KL
ETL = 6.8 x 0.6
ETL = 4.08 in

Total Water Applied (gal)


ETL
TWA = ( Area x Efficiency) x 0.6233 gal/sf/in
TWA = 43,321.6gal

Subtotal TWA = 0 + 22,765.6 + 43,321.6


Subtotal TWA = 66,087.2 gal or 250,167 L or 250.167 cu.m

Total Potable Water Applied (TPWA)


TPWA = Subtotal TWA- (January Water Harvest + Water
Harvested from Wetlands)
TPWA = 250.167 cu.m (6.4125 cu.m + 20 cu. m )
TPWA = 223.755 cu. m
35

Baseline Case Calculation

Vegetation:
1. Shrubs
2. Trees

Shrubs
Area Covered: 34,970.832 sq. ft.
Irrigation Type: Sprinkler, Efficiency = 0.625
Evapotranspiration Rate of Region III, ETO = 6.8 in
Species Factor, kS = 0.5
Density Factor, kD = 1
Microclimate Factor, kMC = 1.3

Landscape Coefficient, KL
KL= kL x kS x kD
KL = 0.5 x 1 x 1.3
KL = 0.65 in

Project Evapotranspiration Rate, ETL


ETL = ETO x KL
ETL = 6.8 x 0.65
ETL = 4.42 in

Total Water Applied (gal)


ETL
TWA = ( Area x Efficiency) x 0.6233 gal/sf/in
TWA = 154,151 gal

Trees
Area Covered: 34970.832 sq. ft.
Irrigation Type: Sprinkler, Efficiency = 0.625
Evapotranspiration Rate of Region III, ETO = 6.8 in
Species Factor, kS = 0.5
Density Factor, kD = 1
Microclimate Factor, kMC = 1

Landscape Coefficient, KL
KL= kL x kS x kD
KL = 0.5 x 1 x 1
KL = 0.5

Project Evapotranspiration Rate, ETL


ETL = ETO x KL
ETL = 6.8 x 0.5
ETL = 3.4 in
36

Total Water Applied (gal)


ETL
TWA = ( Area x Efficiency) x 0.6233 gal/sf/in
TWA = 118,577 gal

TWA = 154,151 gal + 118, 577 gal


TWA = 272728 gal or 1032388 L or 1032.39 cu. m

Percentage Reduction of Total Water for Irrigation, %RTW


Design TWA
%RTW = (1- Baseline TWA ) x 100

223.755 cu.m
%RTW = (1- 1032.39 cu.m ) x 100

%RTW = 78.32 % > 50%

The Design Case has an irrigation water demand of 250.167 cu. m.


Harvested water from Constructed Wetlands provides 20 cu. m while
January Rainwater harvest provides 6.4125 cu. m. Thus, the potable water
use in January is 223.755 cu. m. The baseline case has an irrigation
demand of 1032.39 cu. m and uses only potable water. The design case
thus achieves a potable water savings of 78.32% and earns 2 points under
WE Credit 1.

2. Water Use Reduction

The main purpose is to increase water efficiency within buildings to


reduce the burden on municipal water supply and wastewater systems. Water
Use Reduction corresponds to Water Efficiency Credit 1 of GBDC.

This project has employed strategies that in aggregate use at least 20%
less water than the water use baseline calculated for the public market. Using
water conserving fixtures such as water-less urinals, low flow water closet and
low-flow faucets, the project has 44.26608 reduction in water consumption.
37

Design Case Calculation

Table 8. Water used of Fixtures (Design Case)


Fixture Type Daily Flowrate Flowrate Users Water Used
Uses (gpf) (lpf)
1. Low-Flow 1 1.1 4.163953 1082 4505.397362
Water Closet
(Male)
2. Low-Flow 2 1.1 4.163953 1612 13424.58512
Water Closet
(Female)
3. Waterless 1 0 0 1082 0
Urinal (Male)
*values from Design Case Calculation of WE Credit 2

4. Restroom Low-Flow Lavatory Faucet


Daily Use: 4
Flow rate: 1 Liter
Daily Users: 3776

Water Used = Daily Use x Volume x Daily Users


Water Used = 4 x 1L x 3776
Water Used = 15,104 liters

5. Wet Section Faucet


Daily Use: 30
Flow rate: 1.5 Liter
Daily Users: 200

Water Used = Daily Use x Volume x Daily Users


Water Used = 30 x 1.5 L x 200
Water Used = 9,000 liters

Total Daily Volume, L = 4,505.39736 liters + 13,424.5851 liters +


15,104 liters + 9,000 liters
Total Daily Volume, L = 42,033.9825 liters

Monthly Volume = Total Daily Volume x 30 days


Monthly Volume = 42,033.9825 liters x 30 days
Monthly Volume =1,303,053.46 liters or 1,303.053 cu. m
38

Baseline Case Calculation

Table 9. Water used of Fixtures (Baseline Case)


Fixture Type Daily Flowrate Flowrate Users Water Used
Uses (gpf) (lpf) (liters)
1. Water 1 1.6 6.056659 1082 6553.305254
Closet
(Male)
2. Water 2 1.6 6.056659 1612 19526.66926
Closet
(Female)
3. Urinal 1 1 3.785412 1082 4095.815784
(Male)
*values from Baseline Case Calculation of WE Credit 2

4. Restroom Lavatory Faucet


Daily Use: 4
Flow rate: 1.892706 L
Daily Users: 3776

Water Used = Daily Use x Volume x Daily Users


Water Used = 4 x 1.892706 L x 3776
Water Used = 28587.43 liters

5. Wet Section Faucet


Daily Use: 30
Flow rate: 2.775969 Liter (20secs of 8.3279 liters per min)
Daily Users: 200

Water Used = Daily Use x Volume x Daily Users


Water Used = 30 x 2.775969 Lx 200
Water Used = 16,655.8128 liters

Total Daily Volume, L = 28,587.43 liters + 16,655.8128 liters


Total Daily Volume, L = 75,419.0345 liters

Monthly Volume = Total Daily Volume x 30 days


Monthly Volume = 75,419.0345 liters x 30 days
Monthly Volume = 2,337,990.07 liters or 2,337.99 cu. m
39

Percentage Reduction of Total Water (PRTW)

Design Monthly Volume


PRTW = (1- ) x 100
Baseline Monthly Volume

1303.053
PRTW = (1- ) x 100
2337.99

PRTW = 44.26608 % >40 %

The strategy of using water conserving fixtures contributed


44.26608% reduction of potable water use. The project earns 4%
because the reduction is above 40%.

3. Innovative Wastewater Technologies

The intent of Innovative Wastewater Technologies is to reduce


wastewater generation and potable water demand while increasing the local
aquifer recharge. Innovative Wastewater Technologies corresponds to WE
Credit 2 of GBDC
The use of low-volume fixtures on the building compared to
conventional fixtures drastically reduced the sewage generation for the market
as lesser volume of water was used. An average of 492.0525 cu. m of
rainwater will be harvested per month which is sufficiently enough to supply
the need of 234.8012 cu. m need for flushing.
Calculations:
Assumptions:
Table 10. Market Stalls
Ground Floor
Fish Section 20
Poultry Section 24
Dried Fish Section 8
Beef Section 24
Hog Section 24
Vegetable Section 48
Fruits Section 52
Concessionaires 36
Second Floor
Concessionaires 108

TOTAL 344
40

Table 11. Market Officials


Ground Floor 3
Second Floor 3
TOTAL 6

Table 12. Market Buyers


TOTAL 2000

Note:
1. It is assumed that there are 2 vendors each stall.
2. All persons going to the restroom are 40% male and 60% female.
3. Males use water closet and waterless urinals once per day.
4. Market Officials are all male.
5. Female use water closet twice per day.

Design Case Calculation

Fixture Type:
1. High Efficiency Toilet Low-Flow Water Closet (Male)
Daily Use: 1
Flow rate: 1.1gal/flush or 4.164lit/flush
Daily Users: 1082

Sewage Generation = Daily Use x Flow rate x Daily Users


Sewage Generation = 1flush x 4.164 lit/flush x 1082
Sewage Generation1 = 4505.397 liters

2. High Efficiency Toilet Low-Flow Water Closet (Female)


Daily Use: 2
Flow rate: 1.1gal/flush or 4.164lit/flush
Daily Users: 1612

Sewage Generation = Daily Use x Flow rate x Daily Users


Sewage Generation = 2flush x 4.164 lit/flush x 1612
Sewage Generation2 = 13424.59 liters

3. Waterless Urinal
Daily Use: 1
Flow rate: 0
Daily Users: 1082

Sewage Generation = Daily Use x Flow Rate x Daily Users


Sewage Generation = 1flush x 0 lit/flush x 1082
Sewage Generation3 = 0 liters
41

Total Daily Volume, L = Sewage Generation1 +Sewage Generation2


+ Sewage Generation3
Total Daily Volume, L = 4505.397 liters + 13424.59 liters + 0 liters
Total Daily Volume, L = 17,929.98 liters

Monthly Volume = Total Daily Volume x 30 days


Monthly Volume = 17929.98 liters x 30 days
Monthly Volume = 537,899.5 liters or 537.8995 cu. m

Average Harvested Rainwater

Based on the Average Rainfall Data of Iba, Zambales, see Table 7:

Total Precipitation = 2762.4 mm


Average Precipitation = 230.2 mm
Average Harvested Rainwater = Average Rainwater x Receiving
Roof Area
1m
Average Harvested Rainwater = 230.2 mm x 1000mm x 2137.7 sqm
Average Harvested Rainwater = 492.05 cu. m

Total Monthly Volume, TMV


TMV = Monthly Volume Average Harvested Rainwater
TMV = 537.8995 cu.m 492.0525 cu. m
TMV = 45.85 cu. m

Baseline Case Calculation

Fixture Type:
1. Conventional Water Closet (Male)
Daily Use: 1
Flow rate: 1.6 gal/flush or 6.0566592 lit/flush
Daily Users: 1082

Sewage Generation = Daily Use x Flow rate x Daily Users


Sewage Generation = 1flush x 6.0566592 lit/flush x 1082
Sewage Generation1 = 6,553.31 liters

2. High Efficiency Toilet Low-Flow Water Closet (Female)


Daily Use: 2
Flow rate: 1.6gal/flush or 6.0566592 lit/flush
Daily Users: 1612
42

Sewage Generation = Daily Use x Flow rate x Daily Users


Sewage Generation = 2flush x 6.0566592 lit/flush x 1612
Sewage Generation2 = 19,526.7 liters

3. Conventional Urinal
Daily Use: 1
Flow rate: 3.785412 liters/flush
Daily Users: 1082

Sewage Generation = Daily Use x Flow rate x Daily Users


Sewage Generation = 1flush x 3.785412 lit/flush x 1082
Sewage Generation3 = 4,095.82 liters

Total Daily Volume, L = Sewage Generation1+Sewage Generation2


+ Sewage Generation3
Total Daily Volume, L = 6553.31liters + 19526.7 liters +
4095.82liters
Total Daily Volume, L = 30,175.8 liters

Monthly Volume = Total Daily Volume x 30 days


Monthly Volume = 30,175.8 liters x 30 days
Monthly Volume = 905,274 liters or 905.274 cu.m

Percentage Reduction of Total Water, PRTW

Design Monthly Volume


PRTW = (1- ) x 100
Baseline Monthly Volume

45.847
PRTW = (1- ) x 100
905.274

PRTW = 94.9356 % > 50 %

The strategy of using water conserving fixtures and rainwater


contributed 94.9356% reduction of potable water use. The project earns
2% because the reduction is above 50%.

Low Emitting Materials


The main purpose is to reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants that
are odorous, irritating and/or harmful to the comfort and well-being of installers
and occupants
43

1. Adhesives and Sealants

All adhesives and sealants used on the interior of the market structure
must not exceed the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) limits.

Table 13. Adhesives and Sealants and their VOC Limit


Applications VOC Limit (g/L less
Water)
Ceramic Tile Adhesives 65
Drywall and Panel Adhesives 50
Multipurpose Construction Adhesives 70
Structural Glazing Adhesives 100
PVC Welding 510
Wood Adhesives 30
Fiberglass 80
Porous Material (except wood) 50
Nonmembrane Roof 300
Roadway 250
Architectural Primers, nonporous 250
Architectural Primers, porous 775

2. Paints and Coatings

Paints and Coatings used on the interior of the market building must not
exceed the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) limits.

Table 14. Coatings and their VOC Limit


VOC Limit (g/L minus exempt
Coating compounds)
Bond Brakers 275
Clear Wood Finishes (Varnish,
Sanding Sealers) 350
Clear Wood Finishes (Lacquer) 680
Clear Brushing Lacquer 680
Concrete-Curing Compounds 100
Fire Proofing Exterior Coatings 350
Clear Fire Retardant Exterior
Coatings 650
Pigmented Fire Retardant
Exterior Coatings 350
Floor Coatings 50
Graphic Arts Coatings 500
Mastic Coatings 300
Metallic Pigmented Coatings 500
Multicolor Coatings 250
44

Nonflat Coatings 50
Primers, sealers, under coaters 100
Quick-dry Enamels 50
Quick-dry Primers, Sealers,
Undercoats 100
Waterproofing Sealers 100
Waterproofing Concrete,
masonry sealers 100
Wood Preservative- Below
Ground 350

Controllability of Systems- Lighting


The purpose is to provide a high level of lighting system control by
individual market users and promote their productivity, comfort and well-being.
Controllability of Systems-Lighting corresponds to Indoor Environment Quality
(IEQ) Credit 6.1 of Green building design and construction.
The design of the public market provided 100% individual lighting
controls to the market vendors to enable them to adjust for individual needs and
preferences

Rainwater Harvesting
The design of the two-story reinforced concrete public market includes
rainwater harvesting. The main purpose of including it in the design is to reduce
the potable water use and to reduce storm water runoff. With the introduction of
Rainwater harvesting system and water saving fixtures, the market water
consumption to restrooms water requirements has a reduction of 94.9356%
compared to baseline cases where the rainwater was not utilized. Rainwater will
also be used for irrigating the vegetation.
The Design of Water Catchment is based on the Average rainfall of Iba,
Zambales gathered by PAGASA Iba, Station; and the receiving area of rainfall
which is half the area of the roof deck. The average rainfall of Iba, Zambales is
230.2mm on a receiving area of 2,137.5 sq. m roofdeck, thus on a monthly basis,
492.053 cu. m of rainwater is being collected. To fully store the 492.053 cu. m
rainwater, the designed water collection system has two units of rainwater cisterns
having a capacity of 250 cu. m each.
45

Cost Benefit Analysis of Green Roof

In analyzing the cost benefit of green roof, the researchers adopted the study
done by U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) Office of Federal High-
Performance Green Buildings entitled GSA Green Roof Benefits and Challenges.
Green roof sizes vary greatly depending to the kind of project either
commercial or institutional. In cash flow presented in the study, the relative costs,
cost-saving benefits and added value of a green roof over a 50-year timeframe was
then accounted for and discounted back to present value. The cost benefit model
includes inflation, growth rates for labor and materials, energy, stormwater,
community benefits, diminishing returns (based on expected increase in supply), a
discount rate evaluation, a 50-year timeline and community (public) benefits of green
roofs.

Figure 5. Green Roof Installation Costs (GSA, 2013)

Based on the graph, as the green roof size area increases, the installation cost
decreases and vice versa. This only proves that green roofs have significant
contributions to the reduction of costs due to stormwater management, energy
consumption and others.
According to the study of GSA (2013), it is defined that Net Present Value
(NPV) is a measure of the potential profitability of an investment. It takes the
expected value of the future costs and benefits associated with this investment, and
accounts for the effect of inflation. A positive net present value means an investment
will produce greater returns over the time frame being considered than an alternate
investment. It is also identified that Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is a measure of the
expected annual financial benefit yielded by an investment over a given time frame.
Moreover, payback is the number of years it takes to recoup an initial investment
through the income from that investment and Return on Investment (ROI) is percent
of money gained or lost on an investment, relative to the initial cost.
46

In the design of a two-story reinforced concrete public market, half of the roof
deck area or 2,137.5 sq. m or 23,007.86 ft2 of space will be planted with vegetation.
This analysis is to present average costs and benefits on utilizing a green roof. Based
on the results of the study, these were generated: (Assuming $1.00 = 44.00)
Table 15. Cost-Benefit Analysis Results of Green Roof
TWO-STOREY REINFORCED ROOF SIZE ROOF SIZE
CONCRETE PUBLIC (ft2) units (m2) units
MARKET 23,007.86 2,137.50
Impact on Owners/Occupants/Investors

Initial Premium
(extra cost of installing a green roof ($10.85) $/ft2 of roof (PHP 477.40) /m2 of roof
instead a black roof)
NPV of Installation, ($17.47) $/ft2 of roof (PHP 768.68) /m2 of roof
Replacement, & Maintenance
NPV of Stormwater
(savings from reduced $13.47 $/ft2 of roof PHP 592.68 /m2 of roof
infrastructure improvements and/or
stormwater fees)
NPV of Energy,
(energy savings from cooling and $7.26 $/ft2 of roof PHP 319.44 /m2 of roof
heating)
Net Present Value
(installation, replacement & $3.25 $/ft2 of roof PHP 143.44 /m2 of roof
maintenance + stormwater +
energy NPV)
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 5.43%
Payback, years 6.00
Return on Investment (ROI) 231.48%

Other Financial Impacts (less realizable)

NPV of CO2e
(emissions, sequestration & $2.10 $/ft2 of roof PHP 92.40 /m2 of roof
absorption)
NPV of Community Benefits
(biodiversity, air quality, heat $30.40 $/ft2 of roof PHP 1,337.60 /m2 of roof
island, etc.)

The results demonstrated that over a 50-year period: the installation,


replacement and maintenance of a green roof has the greatest negative impact on net
present value at a cost of approximately 768.68 per square meter of roof; stormwater
and energy savings make up for this cost by providing a benefit of approximately
592.68 per square meter of roof; and benefits to the community have the greatest
positive impact on net present value at a savings of almost 1,337.60 per square
meter of roof.
47

In regards to the ROI, a one peso invested in a green roof today suggests a
return of 1.31 in todays pesos after 50 years or in other words, the green roof
investment is the same as an average, alternative investment of 4.63%. Moreover, it
takes six years to get back the initial investment through the income.
As discussed in the study of GSA, it is stated that the added cost of installing a
green roof is mostly made up for by its increased longevity; however, the added
maintenance costs are significant. Over a 50-year period, the stormwater, energy,
carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e, which measures the potential global warming effect
of a greenhouse gas) and community earnings of green roofs more than made up for
the increased premium of installing and maintaining them. Also, it is declared that the
fewer floors a building has, the greater the energy savings are for a green roof
compared to a conventional roof. Moreover, the greater the surface area, the greater
the stormwater management savings are for a green roof.

Cost Benefit Analysis of Rainwater Harvesting System and Constructed


Wetlands

Table 16. Volume of Water Collected Monthly from Rainwater Harvesting System

Precipitation Water Collected


Month
(mm) (m3)

January 3 6.4125
February 3 6.4125
March 3 6.4125
April 4 8.55
May 232.9 497.82375
June 350.8 749.835
July 679.8 1453.0725
August 733.1 1567.0013
September 505 1079.4375
October 176.6 377.4825
November 67.2 143.64
December 4 8.55
Total rainwater collected per year 5904.63

Table 16 shows the volume of water collected monthly and its total volume
per annum. For the constructed wetlands, it is assume that 20 cubic meters is the
minimum volume of water collected from it.
48

Table 17. Cost-Benefit Analysis Results of Rainwater Harvesting System and


Constructed Wetlands
TWO-STOREY REINFORCED CONCRETE PUBLIC MARKET units

RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM


Installation Cost PHP 1,500,000.00
Maintenance & Operation Costs PHP 25,000.00 per year
Volume of Harvested Rainwater 5,904.63 m3/year
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
Installation Cost PHP 8,000,000.00
Maintenance & Operation Costs PHP 200,000.00 per year
Volume of Collected Water 240.00 m3/year
Total Installation Cost PHP 9,500,000.00
Total Maintenance and Operation Cost PHP 225,000.00 per year
VOLUME OF WATER NEEDED FOR: (Baseline Case)
Landscape Irrigation 12,388.68 m3/year
Lavatory and faucet 16,830.49 m3/year
Flushing 10,863.24 m3/year
Total 40,082.41 m3/year
Total Cost PHP 1,992,095.88 per year
VOLUME OF WATER NEEDED FOR: (Design Case)
Landscape Irrigation 3,002.00 m3/year
Lavatory and faucet 8,966.69 m3/year
Flushing 6,669.95 m3/year
Total 18,638.65 m3/year
Net Potable Water Needed for Landscape
Irrigation, Lavatory, Faucet and Flushing 12,494.02 m3/year
Total Cost PHP 620,952.60 per year
Volume of Water Saved 27,588.40 m3/year
Savings by applying water conserving
techniques, utilizing rainwater harvesting PHP 1,146,143.28 per year
system and constructed wetlands
Payback, years 8.29
Return on Investment (ROI), % 141.29%

Table 17 presents the cost-benefit analysis of utilizing a rainwater harvesting


system, constructed wetlands and with the application of water conserving
techniques. This help to minimize the usage of potable water in the public market.
The installation cost of rainwater harvesting system and constructed wetlands are
approximately 1,500,000 and 8,000,000, respectively. It is estimated that the
maintenance and operation costs per annum are 25,000 and 200,000,
correspondingly.

Data used in the analysis are based on the results of calculation of water
efficiency in the case of baseline and design. Baseline case is used to determine the
actual volume of water needed for landscape irrigation, lavatory and faucet as well as
49

water used for flushing. Meanwhile, in design case, applications of water conserving
techniques such as low flow fixtures are applied.
For the analysis, the designers considered the savings earned annually from
the investment. Based on the commercial rates set by National Waterworks and
Sewerage Authority (NAWASA) which supply water in Iba, Zambales, 49.70 is the
consumption charge per cubic meter if the water utilized is over 500 m3. As presented
in Table 17, the net potable water needed for landscape irrigation, lavatory, faucet and
flushing is 12,494.02 m3/year. Hence, 1,146,143.28 is the savings gained per annum
by applying water conserving techniques, utilizing rainwater harvesting system and
constructed wetlands. In this savings, the total maintenance and operations cost per
year are already deducted. Furthermore, with the results, it can be seen that it takes
8.29 years to get back the initial investment from the income. And with regards to the
return on investment, a 20-year period is considered which demonstrated an
alternative investment of 7.06%.

Cost Benefit Analysis of Porous Pavement in Parking Lot


Table 18. Cost-Benefit Analysis Results of Porous Pavement
units
6,000.00 m2
Parking Lot Area
7,175.94 yard2
Traditional Concrete
$ 98.10 $/yard2
Construction Cost $ 703,959.71
PHP 30,974,227.42
$ 2.99 $/yard2 per annum
Maintenance Cost $ 21,456.06 $ per annum
PHP 944,066.67 per annum
Porous Pavement
$ 51.27 $/yard2
Construction Cost $ 367,910.44
PHP 16,188,059.53
$ 1.44 $/yard2 per annum
Maintenance Cost $ 10,333.35 $ per annum
PHP 454,667.56 per annum
Savings in Construction Cost PHP 14,786,167.89
Savings in Maintenance Cost per annum PHP 489,399.11
Payback, years 33.08

Table 18 shows a cost-benefit analysis of utilizing porous pavement rather


than a traditional concrete in parking lots of the public market. Data used in the
analysis are adopted from the results presented by Engr. Melissa McFadden in City of
Olympia. From the results, 14,786,167.89 can be saved from the construction cost
while 489,399.11 from the maintenance cost yearly. Hence, based on the data that
are analyzed, it takes 33.08 years to get back the initial investment from the savings
of using porous pavement.
50

4.6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


4.6.1 Conclusion
The structural system of the two-story reinforced concrete public market
was designed to make it safe and economical.
The design has employed various strategies to increase vegetation,
decrease storm water runoff, reduce heat island effect, recycle wastewater, reduce
water consumption for irrigation and flushing toilets, and make the market user-
friendly by using low-emitting materials and make them control the lighting
system.
A total of 7,185 sq. m of vegetation was included in the project as it will
help in the reduction of storm water runoff, aesthetically pleasant and reduce heat
island effect through evapotranspiration.
Due to large magnitude of annual precipitation, a total of 5,904.63 cu. m
of storm water is being collected and stored in two-rainwater cistern, which have
a capacity to hold 250cu.m each. Almost 44.27% of potable water is being saved
by utilizing storm water and using water saving fixtures and techniques just like
using waterless urinals and low-flow water closets.
The project also includes a wastewater treatment system through a 7,020
sq. m Subsurface Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands which will treat market
effluents that will be stored in a pond for irrigating vegetation.
With all the strategies employed, using LEED Green Building Design and
Construction, the two-story reinforced concrete public market garnered a total of
16 credits.

4.6.2 Recommendations
The design of the structure garnered only 16 credits out of 110 possible
credits, the group recommends further studies and deployment of more strategies
for the market to be a LEED Certified Green Market.
In addition to that, the project does not include the design of plumbing,
electrical and detailed designs of the constructed wetlands and rainwater cisterns.
The group recommends further studies to make the project better.
51

CHAPTER 5
DETAILED ENGINEERING DESIGN

5.1 LOADS AND CODES (STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING)


5.1.1 Introduction

The structural codes used in the design of two-story green public market
conform to the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP) 2010 Volume
1 (Buildings and other Vertical Structures) and to the American Concrete Institute
(ACI) Code for Buildings. Minimum design loads are considered based from the
NSCP 2010, as well as the seismic considerations. For the seismic loadings,
ETABS were used and complied with the Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997
requirement.
The roof deck will carry the load prescribed by the ASTM E 2397:
Standard Practice for Determination of Dead Loads and Live Loads associated
with Green Roof Systems. It is assumed that the thickness of the saturated media
that will be used for green roofing is about 4 inches. Drain material and plants
were assumed to be 3 psf (0.144 kPa) and 2 psf (0.096 kPa) respectively.

5.1.2 Dead Load

Dead loads were assumed due to the setting of the public market. Public
market is used to have a simple architectural design so the materials used for
having the dead load are as follows:

Table 19. Roof Deck Dead Load


ROOF DECK
Green Roof:
Drain Material 0.144 kPa
Saturated Media (4 inches thick) 1.46 kPa
Plants 0.096 kPa
TOTAL 1.7 kPa
Ceiling:
Suspended steel channel system 0.1 kPa
Mechanical and electrical duct allowance 0.3 kPa
TOTAL 0.4 kPa
52

Floor Finish:
Cement finish on stone-concrete fill 1.53 kPa
(25mm)
TOTAL 1.53 kPa
TOTAL SDL 3.63 kPa
Perimeter Wall (Parapet 1m high):
150mm thickness, Full grout, 19.6 kN/m3 3.3 kN/m

Table 20. Second Floor Dead Load


SECOND FLOOR
Ceiling:
Suspended steel channel system 0.1 kPa
Mechanical and electrical duct allowance 0.3 kPa
TOTAL 0.4 kPa
Floor Finish:
Cement finish on stone-concrete fill 1.53 kPa
(25mm)
TOTAL 1.53 kPa
Partition:
CHB Wall 1.0 kPa
TOTAL 1.0 kPa
TOTAL SDL 2.93 kPa

Table 21. Ground Floor Dead Load


GROUND FLOOR
Floor Finish:
Cement finish on stone-concrete fill 1.53 kPa
(25mm)
TOTAL 1.53 kPa
Partition:
CHB Wall 1.0 kPa
TOTAL 1.0 kPa
TOTAL SDL 2.53 kPa

5.1.3 Live Load

The ground floor will not carry live loading since slab-on-grade will be
utilized. On the second floor, wholesale stores will be expected which is
equivalent to 6.0 kPa of load. Roof deck will carry live load for exit facilities (4.8
kPa) instead of using the live load prescribed by the ASTM E 2397 which is only
20 psf (1.0 kPa) for green roofing.
53

Table 22. Live Load


ROOF DECK Exit Facilities 4.8 kPa
SECOND FLOOR Wholesale 6.0 kPa

5.1.4 Earthquake Load Parameters

Earthquake parameters were established based from the material to be


used for the design, seismic zone, occupancy, and distance from a fault line, soil
type, and structural system. Seismic load computation was done by the ETABS
software. The structure is located 6 km away from the Iba Fault Line.
Ct = 0.0731 (Concrete)
Seismic Zone 4, z = 0.4
Importance Factor I = 1.0 (Standard Occupancy Structures)
Source Type A (distance from Iba Fault is about 6km)
Na = 1.18
Nv = 1.52
Soil Type, SD
Ca = 0.44Na
Cv = 0.64Nv
Overstrength Factor, R = 3.5 (OMRF Concrete)

5.1.5 Load Combinations

The load factors considered in the design are the following: dead load, live
load, and seismic load. Wind loading as a lateral load was not considered since
the structure is only 9 meters above the ground, and the structure is very near to a
fault line making the earthquake load more critical than the wind load as a lateral
load.

U = 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL
U = 1.2 DL + 1.0 LL + 1.0 E
U = 0.9 DL + 1.0 E
U = 1.4 DL

where:
DL = dead load (self-weight and super-imposed)
LL = live load
E = seismic load
54

5.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN


The structural design of the Green Public Market was done using some design
softwares. For the design of reinforced concrete beams and columns, the designers used
ETABS software. For the design of slabs, the designers created a program using
Microsoft Excel to solve for the required reinforcements. The results of these designs are
shown on Appendix A and B.

5.2.1 Design of Beams

The design of beams will show flexure and shear only. From the ETABS
software, the steel requirement for longitudinal reinforcement is given. The design
for shear reinforcement is manually calculated due to the variations of values of
shears in every beam. Although there are 179 beams to be designed per floor,
sample computation for the most stressed beam is shown to have an idea on the
design of other beams. Also, ETABS can tell whether the section is adequate or
not through an error message in the table output.

Using the most stressed beam B159 from STORY 2 (B400x700):

Design for Longitudinal Reinforcement

b = 400 mm
h = 700 mm
fc = 27 MPa
fy = 415 MPa (longitudinal reinforcement)
fyt= 276 MPa (shear reinforcement)
main = 20 mm (db, first assumption)
stir= 10 mm
CC = 40 mm (concrete cover)
d = h CC - stir (1/2)*main= 700 40 10 - (1/2)*20
d = 640 mm

From ETABS Concrete Design (Steel Area Requirement):

Figure 6. B159 Story 2


55

Using -20 mm reinforcing bars:



Abar = 2 = (20)2 = 314.16 mm2
4 4
@ left support
Astop = 1705mm2
Asbot = 1773 mm2
As
no. ofbars =
Abar
1706
no. ofbars(top) = = 5.43 say
314.16
1773
no. ofbars(bot) = = 5.64 say
314.16

@ midspan
Astop = 925mm2
Asbot = 2407 mm2
As
no. ofbars =
Abar
925
no. ofbars(top) = = 2.94 say
314.16
2407
no. ofbars(bot) = = 7.66 say
314.16

@right support
Astop = 4188 mm2
Asbot = 1918 mm2
As
no. ofbars =
Abar
4188
no. of bars (top) = = 13.33 say
314.16
1918
no. of bars (bot) = = 6.11 say
314.16

Bar Spacing:
b 2CC 2stir main
Soc =
(no. ofbars) 1
Sclear = Soc main > 25 mm or db whichever is smaller

For 3 bars
300 2(40) 2(10) (20)
Soc =
(3) 1
=
Sclear = 90mm 20 mm
Sclear = 70 mm OK!
56

For 6 bars
300 2(40) 2(10) (20)
Soc =
(6) 1
=
Sclear = 56 mm 20 mm
Sclear = 36 mm OK!

For 7 bars
300 2(40) 2(10) (20)
Soc =
(7) 1
= .
Sclear = 46.66mm 20 mm
Sclear = 26.66 mm OK!

For 8 bars
300 2(40) 2(10) (20)
Soc =
(8) 1
=
Sclear = 40mm 20 mm
Sclear = 20 mm NOT OK!

Hence, for 8 bars and 14 bars, bundle is needed. See plan layout for B159
STORY 2 for more details.

Summary:

@ LEFT SUPPORT
Top
Use 6 -20 mm reinforcing bars spacing at 56 mm O.C.
Bottom
Use 6-20 mm reinforcing bars spacing at 56 mm O.C.

@ MIDSPAN
Top
Use 3 -20 mm reinforcing bars spacing at 180 mm O.C.
Bottom
Use 8 -20 mm reinforcing bars. See B159 STORY 2 Plan Layout for
bundle layout.

@ RIGHT SUPPORT
Top
Use 14 -20 mm reinforcing bars. See B159 STORY 2 Plan Layout for
bundle layout.
Bottom
Use 7 -20 mm reinforcing bars spacing at 46.66 mm O.C.
57

Design for Shear Reinforcement


From ETABS Shear Diagram Output:

Figure 7. Shear and Moment Diagram for Beam B159

Using d = 640 mm, bw = 400 mm, = 0.75, fc = 27 MPa

@ distance d from left support


Vu = -294.28 kN

@ distance d from the right support


Vu = 43.73 kN
58

Shear strength provided by concrete:


Vc = 0.17fcbw d
Vc = 0.1727(400)(640)
Vc = 226.14 kN
Vc = 169.60 kN
1
V = 84.80 kN
2 c

At 50 mm from each supports, 1 stirrup will be provided.

Shear reinforcement design from Left Support:

@ distance d from left support


Vu = -294.28 kN

SinceVu > Vc, we need to calculate the shear strength Vs provided by the
stirrup.

Vu
Vn =

Vu
Vs = Vn Vc = Vc

294.28
Vs = 226.14
0.75
Vs = 166.23 kN

Check for shear strength requirement,


Vs 0.66fcbw d
166.23 0.6627(400)(640)
166.23 kN 877.94 kNOK!

Using a box stirrup,


Av = 2 Astir

Av = 2( (10)2 )
4
Av = 157.08 mm2

Spacing,
Av fy d
s=
Vs
(157.08)(275)(640)
s=
157079
s = 176 mmsay 175 mm
59

Checking for maximum spacing,

When Vs 0.33fcbw d, maximum spacing is d/2 or 600 mm (whichever


is smaller) otherwise d/4 or 300 mm (whichever is smaller).

Vs 0.33fcbw d
166.23 0.3327(400)(640)
166.23 438.97 kNOK!
d
s = or 600 mm
2
640
s= or 600 mm
2
s = 320 mmor 600 mm

Therefore, use 175 mm spacing.

@ distance 0.9 m from left support


Vu = -280.15 kN
SinceVu > Vc, we need to calculate the shear strength Vs provided by the
stirrup.

Vu
Vs = Vc

280.15
Vs = 226.14
0.75
Vs = 147.39 kN

Spacing,
Av fy d
s=
Vs
(157.08)(275)(640)
s=
147393.33
s = 187.75 mmsay

Therefore, use 185 mm spacing.

@ distance 1.2 m from left support


Vu = -263.85 kN

SinceVu > Vc, we need to calculate the shear strength Vs provided by the
stirrup.
Vu
Vs = Vc

263.85
Vs = 226.14
0.75
Vs = 125.66 kN
60

Spacing,
Av fy d
s=
Vs
(157.08)(275)(640)
s=
125660
s = 220 mm

Therefore, use 220 mm spacing.

@ distance 1.5 m from left support


Vu = -247.55 kN
SinceVu > Vc, we need to calculate the shear strength Vs provided by the
stirrup.

Vu
Vs = Vc

247.55
Vs = 226.14
0.75
Vs = 103.93 kN

Spacing,
Av fy d
s=
Vs
(157.08)(275)(640)
s=
103926.67
s = 266 mm say 265 mm

Therefore, use 265 mm spacing.

@ distance 1.8 m from left support


Vu = -231.25 kN

SinceVu > Vc, we need to calculate the shear strength Vs provided by the
stirrup.

Vu
Vs = Vc

231.25
Vs = 226.14
0.75
Vs = 82.19 kN
61

Spacing,
Av fy d
s=
Vs
(157.08)(275)(640)
s=
82193.33
s = 336 mmsay 320 mm

Therefore, use 320 mm spacing.

Based from ETABS, the shear value equivalent to Vc = 169.60 kNis at


1
distance 2.90 m from the left support and the shear value equivalent to 2 Vc =
84.80 kN is at distance 4.50 m from the left support. Thus, at the distance
between 1.80 m and 2.90 m, the spacing of stirrups is 320 mm. At the distance
between 2.90 m and 4.50 m, minimum shear reinforcements will be provided; and
at distance between 4.50 m and 6.86 m, no stirrups will be provided because the
1
maximum shear exist at this range is 43.73 kN which is less than 2 Vc .

For the minimum shear reinforcement, s = d/2 or 600 mm (whichever is


smaller). Thus, the spacing at the distance between 1.80 m and 2.90 m is 320 mm.

Summary:
Using 10 mm box stirrups
Table 23. Summary of Shear Reinforcements
Spacing Length Total distance from
support
1 @ 50 mm 50 mm 50 mm
5 @ 175 mm 875 mm 925 mm
2 @ 185 mm 370 mm 1295 mm
1 @ 220 mm 220 mm 1515 mm
2 @ 265 mm 530 mm 2045 mm
8 @ 320 mm 2560 mm 4605 mm
No stirrups 2845 mm 7450 mm
1 @ 50 mm 50 mm 7500 mm

5.2.2 Design of Columns


The design of columns will include longitudinal reinforcement and ties.
From ETABS software output, steel area requirement is given for longitudinal
reinforcement. The ETABS used interaction diagram for the design of the
longitudinal reinforcement. For the design of ties, codes were used for the
maximum spacing allowed.
All columns have the same size (C500x500) and have the same steel area
requirement.
62

Design for Longitudinal Reinforcement

b = 500 mm
h = 500 mm
fc = 27 MPa
fy = 415 MPa (main)
fy = 276 MPa (ties)
main = 20 mm (db, first assumption)
ties= 10 mm
CC = 40 mm (concrete cover)

From ETABS Concrete Design (Steel Area Requirement):

Figure 8. Typical Column

As = 2500 mm2
Abar = 314.16 mm2
As
no. ofbars =
Abar
2500
no. ofbars =
314.16
no. of bars = 7.95 say

Design for Ties

Using the requirement for spacing of ties


16 db = 16 20 = 320 mm
48 tiediameter = 48 10 = 480 mm
least dimension of the column = 500 mm
Therefore, use 320 mm ties spacing.
63

Summary:
Use 8-10 mm for longitudinal reinforcement
Use 10 mm ties spacing at 320 mm o.c.

5.2.3 Design of Slabs


In the design of slabs, two-way behavior will be analyzed. Using ACI
Moment Coefficient Method, the design of some typical slabs will make the
design conservative and economical. The slab-on-grade (first floor/ground floor
slab) will not be shown here since it carries only compressive stresses.
Initial assumption for slab thickness,

slab perimeter
h=
180
7500 4
h=
180
h = 166.66 say 170 mm

Design for Corner Slabs (one-end discontinuous at both spans, CASE 4)

Figure 9. Corner Slabs

Eb Ib
=
Es Is

Since Eb = Es (same material for beam and slab),


64

Ib
=
Is

1.4bh3 1.6bh3
Ib = Ib =
12 12

where:
Ib = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross section of beams
Is = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross section of slab or
h3/12 times width of slab defined in notations and
= ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section of flexural stiffness a width
of slab bounded laterally by centerline of adjacent panel (if any) in each side of
beam

From beams with dimensions 400 mm x 700 mm


b = 400 mm
h =700 mm

From the initial thickness of slab


h = 170 mm

Ib
=
Is

For edge beams with 3.75 m slab width

(400)(700)3
1.4 12
= (3750)(170)3
12
= 10.43
65

For interior beams with 7.5 m slab width

(400)(700)3
1.6 12
= (7500)(170)3
12
= 5.96
10.43 + 5.96
m =
2
m = 8.20 > 2.0

Hence, the minimum thickness for slab is defined by

fy
ln (0.8 + 1400)
h=
36 + 9
but not less than 90 mm.

ln = length of clear span in long direction of two-way construction,


measured face to face of beams or other supports in other cases
= ratio of clear spans in long-to-short direction of two-way slabs
Solving for the minimum thickness of slab

ln = 7500 400
ln = 7100 mm
7500 400
=
7500 400
=1
fy
ln (0.8 + 1400)
h=
36 + 9
415
(7100)(0.8 + 1400)
h=
36 + 9(1)
h = . 180 mm > 90 mm OK!

Therefore, the minimum thickness for corner slabs is 180 mm.

Using the ACI Moment Coefficient Method,


Ma = Ca wla 2
Mb = Cb wlb 2

where,
Ca ,Cb = tabulated moment coefficients
w = uniform load, in kPa
la, lb = length of clear span in short and long direction respectively
66

Design of Corner Slabs on Roof Deck

From ROOF DECK Loads


wself = conc x thickness = 24 x 0.18 = 4.32 kPa
wDL = 3.63 kPa + 4.32 kPa = 7.95 kPa
wLL = 4.8 kPa

Clear span of slab


la = lb = 7.1 m
m=1

From moment coefficient tables (Case 4)


Ca = Cb = 0.05 (Coefficient for negative moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.027 (Coefficient for dead load positive moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.032 (Coefficient for live load positive moment)

Since the condition of the long span is the same as that of the short span,
the design for reinforcement is as follows:

For negative moment at continuous end


wu = 1.2wDL + 1.6wLL
wu = 1.2(7.95) + 1.6(4.8)
wu = 17.42 kPa
Mneg = Cwu l2
Mneg = 0.05(17.42)(7.1)2
Mneg = 43.91 kN m

For positive moment


Mpos = CDL wuDL l2 + CLL wuLL l2
Mpos = (0.027)(1.2)(7.95)(7.1)2 + (0.032)(1.6)(4.8)(7.1)2
Mpos = 25.37 kN m

For negative moment at discontinuous end


1
Mneg = Mpos
3
1
Mneg = (25.37 )
3
Mneg = 8.46 kN m
67

SUMMARY (Corner Slabs on Roof Deck)


Using 12 mm reinforcing bars, with 20 mm concrete cover
Table 24. Reinforcements for Corner Slabs on Roof Deck
Continuous Edge Midspan Discontinuous
Edge
Mu -43.91 25.37 -8.46 kN-m
b 1000 1000 1000 mm
h 180 180 180 mm
d 154 154 154 mm
Ru 2.05721 1.18860 0.39620 MPa
0.00520 0.00294 0.00096
min 0.00337 0.00337 0.00337
use 0.00520 0.00337 0.00337
As 801.08 519.52 519.52 mm2
Abar 113.10 113.10 113.10 mm2
s 140 215 215 mm
smax 140 215 215 mm
s use 140 215 215 mm

Design of Corner Slabs on Second Floor


From 2nd Floor Loads
wself = conc x thickness = 24 x 0.18 = 4.32 kPa
wDL = 2.93 kPa + 4.32 kPa = 7.25 kPa
wLL = 6.0 kPa

Clear span of slab


la = lb = 7.1 m
m=1

From moment coefficient tables (Case 4)


Ca = Cb = 0.05 (Coefficient for negative moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.027 (Coefficient for dead load positive moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.032 (Coefficient for live load positive moment)
Since the condition of the long span is the same as that of the short span,
the design for reinforcement is as follows:

For negative moment at continuous end


wu = 1.2wDL + 1.6wLL
wu = 1.2(7.25) + 1.6(6.0)
wu = 18.3 kPa
Mneg = Cwu l2
Mneg = 0.05(18.3)(7.1)2
Mneg = 46.13 kN m
68

For positive moment


Mpos = CDL wuDL l2 + CLL wuLL l2
Mpos = (0.027)(1.2)(7.25)(7.1)2 + (0.032)(1.6)(6.0)(7.1)2
Mpos = 27.33 kN m

For negative moment at discontinuous end


1
Mneg = Mpos
3
1
Mneg = (25.37 )
3
Mneg = 9.11 kN m

SUMMARY (Design of Corner Slabs on Second Floor)


Using 12 mm reinforcing bars, with 20 mm concrete cover
Table 25. Reinforcements for Corner Slabs on Second Floor
Continuous Edge Midspan Discontinuous
Edge
Mu -46.13 27.33 -9.11 kN-m
b 1000 1000 1000 mm
h 180 180 180 mm
d 154 154 154 mm
Ru 2.16122 1.28043 0.42681 MPa
0.00548 0.00318 0.00104
min 0.00337 0.00337 0.00337
use 0.00548 0.00337 0.00337
As 843.80 519.52 519.52 mm2
Abar 113.10 113.10 113.10 mm2
s 130 215 215 mm
smax 130 215 215 mm
s use 130 215 215 mm
69

Design for Edge Slabs (one-end discontinuous at a span, both ends


continuous at the other span, CASE 8 or CASE 9)

Figure 10. Edge Slabs

From the initial thickness of slab


h = 170 mm

Ib
=
Is

For edge beam with 3.75 m slab width

(400)(700)3
1.4 12
= (3750)(170)3
12
= 10.43

For interior beams with 7.5 m slab width

(400)(700)3
1.6 12
= (7500)(170)3
12
= 5.96
70

10.43 + 3(5.96)
m =
4
m = 7.08 > 2.0
fy
ln (0.8 + 1400)
h= 90 mm
36 + 9

Solving for the minimum thickness of slab

ln = 7500 400
ln = 7100 mm
7500 400
=
7500 400
=1
fy
ln (0.8 + )
1400
h=
36 + 9
415
(7100)(0.8 + 1400)
h=
36 + 9(1)
h = 172.99 say180 mm 90 mm OK!

Therefore, the minimum thickness for slabs on edge is 180 mm.

Design of Edge Slabs on Roof Deck

From ROOF DECK Loads


wself = conc x thickness = 24 x 0.18 = 4.32 kPa
wDL = 3.63 kPa + 4.32 kPa = 7.95 kPa
wLL = 4.8 kPa

Clear span of slab


la = lb = 7.1 m
m=1
From moment coefficient tables (Case 8 or 9)
Ca = Cb = 0.061 (Coefficient for negative moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.023 (Coefficient for dead load positive moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.030 (Coefficient for live load positive moment)

Along span with discontinuous end:


For negative moment at continuous end
wu = 1.2wDL + 1.6wLL
wu = 1.2(7.95) + 1.6(4.8)
wu = 17.42 kPa
Mneg = Cwu l2
Mneg = 0.061(17.42)(7.1)2
Mneg = 53.57 kN m
71

For positive moment

Mpos = CDL wuDL l2 + CLL wuLL l2


Mpos = (0.023)(1.2)(7.95)(7.1)2 + (0.030)(1.6)(4.8)(7.1)2
Mpos = 22.68 kN m

For negative moment at discontinuous end

1
Mneg = Mpos
3
1
Mneg = (22.68 )
3
Mneg = 7.56 kN m

Along span without discontinuous end:


For negative moment at continuous end

wu = 1.2wDL + 1.6wLL
wu = 1.2(7.95) + 1.6(4.8)
wu = 17.42 kPa
Mneg = Cwu l2
Mneg = 0.061(17.42)(7.1)2
Mneg = 53.57 kN m

For positive moment

Mpos = CDL wuDL l2 + CLL wuLL l2


Mpos = (0.023)(1.2)(7.95)(7.1)2 + (0.030)(1.6)(4.8)(7.1)2
Mpos = 22.68 kN m
72

SUMMARY (Edge Slabs on Roof Deck)


Using 12 mm reinforcing bars, with 20 mm concrete cover
Table 26. Reinforcements for Edge Slabs on Roof Deck
Continuous Edge Midspan Discontinuous
Edge
Mu -53.57 22.68 -7.56 kN-m
b 1000 1000 1000 mm
h 180 180 180 mm
d 154 154 154 mm
Ru 2.50979 1.06257 0.35419 MPa
0.00642 0.00262 0.00086
min 0.00337 0.00337 0.00337
use 0.00642 0.00337 0.00337
As 988.74 519.52 519.52 mm2
Abar 113.10 113.10 113.10 mm2
s 110 215 215 mm
smax 110 215 215 mm
s use 110 215 215 mm

NOTE: Use the data of continuous edge and midspan for the design of
the span without discontinuous edge.

Design of Edge Slabs on Second Floor


From SECOND FLOOR Loads
wself = conc x thickness = 24 x 0.18 = 4.32 kPa
wDL = 2.93 kPa + 4.32 kPa = 7.25 kPa
wLL = 6.0 kPa

Clear span of slab


la = lb = 7.1 m
m=1

From moment coefficient tables (Case 8 or 9)


Ca = Cb = 0.061 (Coefficient for negative moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.023 (Coefficient for dead load positive moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.030 (Coefficient for live load positive moment)

Along span with discontinuous end:


For negative moment at continuous end
wu = 1.2wDL + 1.6wLL
wu = 1.2(7.25) + 1.6(6.0)
wu = 18.3 kPa
73

Mneg = Cwu l2
Mneg = 0.061(18.3)(7.1)2
Mneg = 56.27 kN m

For positive moment


Mpos = CDL wuDL l2 + CLL wuLL l2
Mpos = (0.023)(1.2)(7.25)(7.1)2 + (0.030)(1.6)(6.0)(7.1)2
Mpos = 24.61 kN m

For negative moment at discontinuous end


1
Mneg = Mpos
3
1
Mneg = (24.61 )
3
Mneg = 8.20 kN m

Along span without discontinuous end:


For negative moment at continuous end
wu = 1.2wDL + 1.6wLL
wu = 1.2(7.25) + 1.6(6.0)
wu = 18.3 kPa
Mneg = Cwu l2
Mneg = 0.061(18.3)(7.1)2
Mneg = 56.27 kN m

For positive moment


Mpos = CDL wuDL l2 + CLL wuLL l2
Mpos = (0.023)(1.2)(7.25)(7.1)2 + (0.030)(1.6)(6.0)(7.1)2
Mpos = 24.61 kN m
74

SUMMARY (Edge Slabs on Second Floor)


Using 12 mm reinforcing bars, with 20 mm concrete cover
Table 27. Reinforcements for Edge Slabs on Second Floor
Continuous Edge Midspan Discontinuous
Edge
Mu -56.27 24.61 -8.20 kN-m
b 1000 1000 1000 mm
h 180 180 180 mm
d 154 154 154 mm
Ru 2.63629 1.15300 0.38433 MPa
0.00677 0.00285 0.00093
min 0.00337 0.00337 0.00337
use 0.00677 0.00337 0.00337
As 1042.04 519.52 519.52 mm2
Abar 113.10 113.10 113.10 mm2
s 105 215 215 mm
smax 105 215 215 mm
s use 105 215 215 mm

NOTE: Use the data of continuous edge and midspan for the design of
the span without discontinuous edge.

Design for Interior Slabs (both ends continuous at both spans, CASE 2)

Figure 11. Interior Slabs


75

From the initial thickness of slab


h = 170 mm
Ib
=
Is

For interior beams with 7.5 m slab width


(400)(700)3
1.6 12
= (7500)(170)3
12
= 5.96
m = 5.96 > 2.0
fy
ln (0.8 + )
1400
h= 90 mm
36 + 9

Solving for the minimum thickness of slab


ln = 7500 400
ln = 7100 mm
7500 400
=
7500 400
=1
fy
ln (0.8 + 1400)
h=
36 + 9
415
(7100)(0.8 + 1400)
h=
36 + 9(1)
h = 172.99 say180 mm 90 mmOK!

Therefore, the minimum thickness for interior slabs is 180 mm.

Design of Interior Slabs for Roof Deck


From ROOF DECK Loads
wself = conc x thickness = 24 x 0.18 = 4.32 kPa
wDL = 3.63 kPa + 4.32 kPa = 7.95 kPa
wLL = 4.8 kPa

Clear span of slab


la = lb = 7.1 m
m=1

From moment coefficient tables (Case 2)


Ca = Cb = 0.045 (Coefficient for negative moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.018 (Coefficient for dead load positive moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.027 (Coefficient for live load positive moment)
76

Along both span:


For negative moment at continuous end
wu = 1.2wDL + 1.6wLL
wu = 1.2(7.95) + 1.6(4.8)
wu = 17.42 kPa
Mneg = Cwu l2
Mneg = 0.045(17.42)(7.1)2
Mneg = 39.52 kN m

For positive moment


Mpos = CDL wuDL l2 + CLL wuLL l2
Mpos = (0.018)(1.2)(7.95)(7.1)2 + (0.027)(1.6)(4.8)(7.1)2
Mpos = 19.11 kN m

SUMMARY (Interior Slabs on Roof Deck)


Using 12 mm reinforcing bars, with 20 mm concrete cover
Table 28. Reinforcements for Interior Slabs on Roof Deck
Continuous Edge Midspan

Mu -39.52 19.11 kN-m


b 1000 1000 mm
h 180 180 mm
d 154 154 mm
Ru 1.85154 0.89532 MPa
0.00466 0.00220
min 0.00337 0.00337
use 0.00466 0.00337
As 717.28 519.52 mm2
Abar 113.10 113.10 mm2
s 155 215 mm
smax 155 215 mm
s use 155 215 mm
77

Design of Interior Slabs on Second Floor


From Second Floor Loads
wself = conc x thickness = 24 x 0.18 = 4.32 kPa
wDL = 2.93 kPa + 4.32 kPa = 7.25 kPa
wLL = 6.0 kPa

Clear span of slab


la = lb = 7.1 m
m=1

From moment coefficient tables (Case 2)


Ca = Cb = 0.045 (Coefficient for negative moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.018 (Coefficient for dead load positive moment)
Ca = Cb = 0.027 (Coefficient for live load positive moment)

Since the condition of the long span is the same as that of the short span,
the design for reinforcement is as follows:

For negative moment at continuous end


wu = 1.2wDL + 1.6wLL
wu = 1.2(7.25) + 1.6(6.0)
wu = 18.3 kPa
Mneg = Cwu l2
Mneg = 0.045(18.3)(7.1)2
Mneg = 41.51 kN m

For positive moment


Mpos = CDL wuDL l2 + CLL wuLL l2
Mpos = (0.018)(1.2)(7.25)(7.1)2 + (0.027)(1.6)(6.0)(7.1)2
Mpos = 20.96 kN m
78

SUMMARY (Interior Slabs on Second Floor)


Using 12 mm reinforcing bars, with 20 mm concrete cover

Table 29. Reinforcements for Interior Slabs on Second Floor


Continuous Edge Midspan

Mu -41.51 20.96 kN-m


b 1000 1000 mm
h 180 180 mm
d 154 154 mm
Ru 1.94477 0.98199 MPa
0.00490 0.00242
min 0.00337 0.00337
use 0.00490 0.00337
As 755.15 519.52 mm2
Abar 113.10 113.10 mm2
s 145 215 mm
smax 145 215 mm
s use 145 215 mm
79

5.3 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION


(GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING)

5.3.1 Introduction
Geotechnical engineering has a very important part in the design of the
public market. This field focuses on the foundation of the building which will
carry the load of the superstructure. It needs further investigation of the soil to
consider all types of failure that might occur upon loading.

The project is located in Palanginan, Iba, Zambales. The group had


decided to look for reliable data on soil investigation and use the data within
Palanginan. The sample geotechnical report presents the result of the geotechnical
investigation for the above cited bridge project of the DPWH Zambales First
District Engineering Office. The investigation work involving borehole drilling
was carried out in December 2012 by Quantum Material Testing and Inspection
Laboratory Corporation in accordance to its contract with proponent.

The purpose of the investigation is to determine the general subsurface


condition at the site by test boring with SPT sampling and to evaluate the results
with respect to the concept and foundation design of the proposed structure. The
samples obtained from the boreholes were tested for engineering classification
and strength determination.

The report covers the methodology of field and laboratory investigations.


Subsurface conditions and includes the geotechnical evaluation of the site,
estimation of the allowable soil bearing capacity and settlement analysis required
for the foundation design.

One boring with a depth of 30m below the present ground level along the
alignment of the bridge site was carried out with the use of a rotary drilling
machine. The drilling work was executed on the whole day of December 14, 2012
following the ASTM procedures.

The borehole was advanced by wash boring and standard penetration test
SPT performed every 1.50 meter of depth measured from the ground surface.
Initially, an NW-casing was driven into the ground using the driver hammer
weighing 63.5 kg up to a depth of 0.50 m. The section of the casing which was
driven into the ground was cleaned up to the bottom by wash boring. The term
wash boring refers to the process in which a hole is advanced by combination of
chopping and jetting to break the soil or rock into small fragments called cuttings
and washing to remove cuttings from the hole. The tools used consist of drill rods
with a chopping bit at the bottom and a water swivel and lifting bail at the top.
This is connected to the water pump by a heavy duty hose attached to the water
swivel. This assembly is attached to the cathead by means of a rope which passes
through the sheave and ties to the lifting bail. The tools are then lowered to the
80

level of soil in the casing, and water under pressure is introduced at the bottom of
the hole by means of water passages in the drill rods and the chopping bit. At the
same time, the bit is raised and dropped by means of the rope attached to the
lifting bail. Each time the rods are dropped they are also partially rotated
manually by means of a wrench placed around the rods. The latter process helps
to break up the material at the base of the hole. The resulting cuttings are carried
to the surface in the drilling water which flows in the annular space between the
drill rods and the inside of the casing. The process is continued until the depth for
taking SPT samples is reached.

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) was used to extract relatively


distributed samples from the borehole at intervals not exceeding 1.50 meters. This
was done by driving a standard split-barrel sampler with the following
specifications:

: Make : Std. Sprague and Henwood Type


: Outside Diameter : 5.40 cm
: Inside Diameter : 3.50 cm
: Length : 61.0 cm

This split-barrel sampler is attached to the end of a string of rods and is driven
into the ground by means of blows from a donut type or center-hole cell hammer
weighing 63.50 kg. The hammer is dropped repeatedly and freely from a height of
76.2 cm into a special anvil until the required 45.0 cm penetration is attained. The
sample is initially driven a distance of 15.0 cm to seat it on undisturbed soil and
the blow count also recorded (unless the weight of the assembly sinks the
sampler, so no N can be counted). The blow count for each of the next two 15-
cm-increment is summed up and used as the penetration number N, unless the last
increment cannot be completed either from encountering rock/gravelly layer or
the blow count exceeds 50. Where N-blow counts exceeds to 50, the test is
stopped and the penetration attained is recorded as a denominator to the number
of blows e.g. 50/10 meaning 50 blows for 10 cm penetration. This would be
indicated as refusal in the borehole log. The method described above is the
standard penetration tests (SPT). N-values derived from the borings are reflected
in appropriate columns in the Final Borehole Log in Appendix A. Samples
extracted were identified and placed in properly marked airtight plastic bags.

Using the data from a soil report on the bridge construction in Palanginan,
the group had an idea on the value of the soil bearing capacity in the area. There
are two options in designing the foundation, whether the group will use isolated
footing, or mat foundation.

Isolated square footing was adapted since the columns are square in shape,
the footing is shallow, and the column to column distance is relatively far.
81

The design method adapted was ultimate strength design, and the codes
were based from the NSCP 2010. Service loads and factored loads were based
from the ETABS Support Reaction Output. The supports were assumed to be
hinged since footing tie beams was established to minimize bending moment
carried by the footing. There are 101 isolated square footing designed, and all
complied with the requirement of the structural code.

Using the ETABS Support Reaction Output, the service dead load and
service live load will be used to solve for the plan dimension. With the net bearing
capacity, and using the simple stress formula, the dimension of the square footing
can be assumed.

To estimate the thickness, two types of failure should be considered; one-


way shear failure which considers failure at effective depth distance from the face
of the column, and two way shear failure which considers failure at half the
effective depth distance from each face of the column. Ultimate strength design
formulas from NSCP 2010 will be used to solve for the effective depth and by
adding the main bar diameter and the concrete cover, the thickness can be
estimated.

For steel reinforcements, cantilever type of beam is assumed for the


bending of footing due to upward soil pressure. The column-footing connection is
assumed to be rigid, and so it will restrain moment due to soil pressure, and will
resist shear due to soil pressure as well. Ultimate strength design formulas from
NSCP 2010 will also be used to solve for the steel requirement on both direction.
Since it is a square footing, the required number of bars will be the same for both
directions.

The design of foundation will show the design of isolated square footing
for the support that carries the greatest axial load.

5.3.2 Footing Design

For a column with square cross section, square footing will be used. Since
the column to column distance is 7.5m, we can use isolated square footing.

Given:
fc = 27 MPa
fy = 415 MPa
CC = 75 mm (for footing)
main = 20 mm
82

From ETABS Support Reactions Output:


PDEAD = 1117.34 kN
PSDL = 532.86 kN
PLL = 631.95 kN

PDL = PDEAD + PSDL


PDL = 1117.34 + 532.86
PDL = 1650.20 kN
PLL = 631.95 kN

From soil information verified by an engineer in Iba, Zambales


Df = 2.50 m (depth of footing)
qa gross = 240 kPa (gross allowable soil bearing capacity)
soil = 15.6 kN/m3

Hence,
q anet = q agross soil Df
kN
q anet = 240kPa (15.6 3 ) (2.50 m)
m
kN
q anet = 240 kPa (15.6 3 ) (2.50 m)
m
q anet = 201 kPa

The plan dimension of the footing can be solved by


PDL + PLL
q anet =
Aftg

Using an isolated square footing,


Aftg = B2
PDL + PLL
q anet =
B2
1650.20 kN + 631.95 kN
201 kPa =
B2
B = 3.37 msay 3.4 m

Therefore, use a 3.4 m x 3.4 m square footing.


For the design thickness, consider both shear failures.
83

One-way Shear Failure:

Figure 12. One-Way Shear Failure

Vuactual = Vucapacity

where:
Vuactual = q u Ashaded
Pu
qu =
Aftg
Pu = 1.2PDL + 1.6PLL
Vucapacity = Vc
Vc = 0.17fcbw d

1.2(1650.20) + 1.6(631.95)
qu =
3.42
q u = 258.77 kPa = 0.25877 MPa
3400 500
Ashaded = ( d) (3400)
2 2
Ashaded = (1450 d)(3400)
84

Vuactual = Vucapacity
0.25877(1450 d)(3400) = (0.75)(0.17)(27)(3400)(d)
d = 407.28 mm

Two-way Shear Failure:

Figure 13. Two-way Shear Failure

Vuactual = Vucapacity

where:
Vuactual = q u Ashaded
Vucapacity = Vc
Vc = 0.33fcbw d

Ashaded = 34002 (500 + d)2


Vuactual = Vucapacity
0.25877[3400 (500 + d)2 ] = (0.75)(0.33)(27)(4)(500 + d)(d)
2

d = 552 mm

Since d in two-way shear failure is greater than d in one-way shear failure,


use d = 552 mm.
85

1
t = d + maina + mainb + CC
2
1
t = 552 + (20) + (20) + 75
2
t = 657 mmsay 675 mm

Therefore, use t = 675 mm.

For the required steel reinforcement,

Figure 14. Typical Footing

Assuming that the column is rigid, we can have a cantilever beam with a
uniform load of 258.77 kPa times the length of the beam along the other direction.

w = 258.77 kPa 3.4 m


w = 879.82 kN/m

Maximum moment occurs at the edge of the column,


z
Mu = w(z)( )
2
3.4 0.5
z=
2 2
z = 1.45 m
1.45
Mu = (879.82)(1.45)( )
2
Mu = 924.91 kN m

From the Ultimate Strength Design Method


Mu = R u bd2
Mu
Ru =
bd2
= 0.9
b = 3400 mm
d = 675 75 20 10 = 570 mm
86

924.91 106
Ru =
(0.9)(3400)(570)2
R u = 0.93031 MPa
0.85f c 2R u
= (1 1 )
fy 0.85f c

0.85(27) 2(0.93031)
= (1 1 )
(415) 0.85(27)
= 0.00289
1.4 fc
min = or (which ever is larger)
fy 4fy
1.4 27
min = or
415 4(415)
min = 0.00337 or 0.00313
min = 0.00337

Hence, use
= 0.00337
As = bd
As = 0.00337(3400)(570)
As = 6531.06 mm2

Using 20 mm reinforcing bars,


Abar = 314.16 mm2
As
no. ofbars =
Abar
6531.06
no. ofbars =
314.16
no. ofbars = 20.79 say 21 bars
b 2CC main
Soc =
(no. ofbars) 1
3400 2(75) (20)
Soc =
(21) 1
Soc = 161.5 mm say 160 mm
Sclear = 160 20 = 140 mm OK!

SUMMARY:
Use 3.4 m x 3.4 m footing, with a thickness of 675 mm having 21 20
mm reinforcing bars spaced at 160 mm o.c. on both directions.
87

5.4 RAINWATER CISTERN DESIGN


(ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING)

Developments in our surroundings have an impact on our natural environment,


economy, health and productivity. Management of environmental resources to protect
human health and the systems that support life is one of the biggest challenges facing
modern society. Discoveries in building science, technology, and operations are now
available to designers, builders, operators and owners who want to build green and
maximize both economic and environmental performance. In recognition of the
interdisciplinary nature of these challenges, our project provides the education needed to
address current and future environmental issues.

Environmental Engineering is a diverse field that focuses on the sustainable use


and preservation of natural resources anthropogenic interactions in an increasing
urbanized world. Environmental engineering is the integration of science and engineering
principles to improve the natural environment, to provide healthy water, air, and land for
human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate pollution sites. Furthermore
it is concerned with finding plausible solutions in the field of public health, such
arthropod-borne diseases, implementing law which promote adequate sanitation in urban,
rural and recreational areas. It involves waste water management and air pollution
control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental
sustainability, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental
engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed
construction projects.

Environmental engineers study the effect of technological advances on the


environment. To do so, they conduct hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate
the significance of such hazards, advice on treatment and containment, and develop
regulations to prevent mishaps. Environmental engineers also design municipal water
supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems as well as address local and
worldwide environmental issues such as the effects of acid rain, global warming, ozone
depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial
sources.. Environmental "civil" engineers focus on hydrology, water resources
management, bioremediation, and water treatment plant design. Environmental
"chemical" engineers, on the other hand, focus on environmental chemistry, advanced air
and water treatment technologies and separation processes.

The project involves various methodologies to make it a Green building by using


Constructed Wetlands, Rainwater Harvesting System and Green Roofing. Green building
practices can substantially reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts through
high-performance, market-leading design, construction, and operations practices. As an
added benefit, green operations and management reduce operating costs, enhancing
building marketability, increase workers productivity and reduce potential liability
resulting from air quality problems.
88

The first methodology employed in the project is placing a Constructed Wetlands.


Constructed wetlands are natural way to remove the pathogens and remove the
contaminants in a wastewater. It is an artificial wetland created as a new or restored
habitat for native and migratory wildlife, for anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater,
stormwater runoff, or sewage treatment, for land reclamation after mining, refineries, or
other ecological disturbances such as required mitigation for natural areas lost to a
development. Constructed wetlands can provide effective, economical, and
environmentally-sound treatment of wastewater as well as serve as wildlife habitats. This
Constructed wetland is a secondary treatment process that is the water will undergo pre-
treatments processes that include settling tanks; and oil and grit removal. In a constructed
wetland, a variety of treatment processes then takes place such as filtration,
sedimentation, and biological degradation, which together effectively remove the
contaminants in domestic wastewater. In general, constructed wetlands require little
operation and maintenance when compared with technical treatment systems.

Constructed wetlands system can be classified into three types: Free Water
Surface, Subsurface Flow Systems and Aquatic Plan Systems. In this project, Subsurface
Flow is being used. Constructed Wetlands is a type of constructed wetland that
essentially consists of shallow basins filled with coarse sand or gravel as filter material.
Locally available wetland plants are grown on the surface of the filter bed, and pre-
treated wastewater flows through the bed horizontally below the surface.

Meanwhile, another method employed in this project is through rainwater


harvesting. Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for
reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock,
water for irrigation, etc. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit
with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage
and other purpose like irrigation.

The design of rainwater cistern can be established using the rainfall data from the
PAGASA. Rainwater can be collected from the roof deck, and will be used for flushing
toilets and irrigation for on-site vegetation.

Based on the Average Rainfall Data of Iba, Zambales, see Table 7:

Total Rainfall 2762.4 mm


Average Rainfall = =
12 12
Average Rainfall = 230.2 mm = 0.2302 m

Area of Rainwater Collection = 1/2 (Total Roof Area) = 1/


2 (4275 sq. m)
Area of Rainwater Collection = 2137.5 sq. m

Volume of Water Collected = Average Rainfall Area of Water Collection


Volume of Water Collected = 0.2302 m 2137.5sq. m
Volume of Water Collected = 492.0525 cu. m.
89

Therefore, the total volume of water that can be harvested is 492.0525 cu. m. The
design capacity of the rainwater cistern is 250 cu. m each. Two rainwater cisterns will be
installed in the structure to fully accommodate the 492.0525 rainwater harvest.

Lastly, the structure includes a Green Roofing System. The methodologies


employed on the structure include vegetation in the roofdeck of the market structure and
using white paints on the outer building parts. Half of the building roofdeck area or
2,137.5 sq. meters will be vegetated. Incorporating plants in the roof deck can be very
beneficial because they can reduce the heat island effect by replacing heat absorbing
surfaces with plants to cool the air through evapotranspiration. Vegetated roofs can also
retain stormwater, provide insulating benefits, aesthetically appealing, have longer
lifetimes than conventional roofs and often require less maintenance that conventional
roof. The plants that will be used on the roof are all native plants in Iba, Zambales to
lessen the need for irrigations. Meanwhile, white coated building exterior have a solar
reflectance of 0.8 and SRI of 100 and proven to cause a temperature rise on the structure
of only 10 degrees Celsius.

To further make the project a green building, aside from employing Constructed
Wetlands, Rainwater Harvesting System and Green Roofing, the design of the structure
also involves techniques to reduce water consumption, lessen the heat island effect on the
structure, maximized open space, and reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants that
are odorous, irritating and/or harmful to the comfort and well-being of installers and
occupants.
90

CHAPTER 6
PROMOTIONAL MATERIAL
The promotional materials used in this project were made using Google Sketch
Up and Adobe Photoshop. See Attachment CD for the walkthrough.

Figure 15. Perspective View

Figure 16. Front Elevation View


91

CHAPTER 7
BUDGET ESTIMATION

Bill of Quantities pertains to a document that shows the tendered itemized


materials, parts, labors, including all the units and cost in a construction project. In other
words, it is the summation of all the costs for a certain project.
The bill of quantities of this project is shown in the next pages.
92
93
94
95
96

CHAPTER 8
PROJECTS SCHEDULE

Name of the Project: Construction of Two- Story Public Market with Constructed
Wetlands, Rainwatern Harvesting System, and Green Roofing
Location: Brgy. Palanginan, Iba, Zambales
Lot Area: 43, 631 sq. meters
Project Start: July 8, 2013
Date of Completion: May 30, 2014
Project Duration: 327 Calendar Days

Table 30. Summary of Project Duration


CLASSIFICATION DURATION
1 General Requirements 62
2 Earth Works 139
3 Concrete Works 170
4 Masonry Works 47
5 Plumbing/ Sanitary Works 176
6 Electrical Works 40
7 Ceiling Works 23
8 Architectural Works 80
9 Specialty Works 49

Table 31. Manpower Utilization Schedule


DESIGNATION QUANTITY
1 Project Manager 1
2 Structural Engineer 1
3 Rebars/Concreting Works Engineer 1
4 Formworks Engineer 1
5 Line/Grade and Earthworks Engineer 1
6 Electrical Engineer 1
7 Sanitary Engineer 1
8 Quality Assurance and Control 1
Officer
9 Accountant 1
10 CAD Operator 1
11 Warehouse 1
12 Purchaser 2
97

13 Time keeper 1
14 Foreman 3
15 Carpenter 5
16 Steel Man 10
17 Masonry 5
18 Electrician 3
19 Welder 3
20 Laborer 75

Table 32. Equipment Utilization Schedule


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY
1 Excavator 2
2 Hauler 1
3 Dam Truck 1
4 Concrete Mixer 4
5 Elf Truck 2
6 Pick-up Truck 3
7 Vibrator 4

See the next pages for Project Schedule.


98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122

CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY

The project, Design of Two-Story Reinforced Concrete Public market with


Constructed Wetlands, Rainwater Harvesting System, and Green Roofing which is
planned to be constructed in Bgy. Palanginan, Iba Zambales, aims to design a two-story
reinforced concrete public market, consisting at least 250 stalls, to include a constructed
wetlands for wastewater treatment that is connected to the market; employ strategies to
minimize storm water runoff, and to plan a rainwater collection system that will be
located at the roof deck of the structure.
The designed market structure is composed of reinforced concrete members. The
structural system of the Two-story Reinforced Concrete Public Market was designed to
make it safe and economical. A total of 344 stalls are incorporated in the market
consisting of 200 wet section stalls and 144 concessionaires which is 94 stalls higher
compared to the planned 250 stalls.
A 7020 sq. m Subsurface Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands is connected in
the septic vault of the public market which will treat market effluents that will be stored
in a 100 cu. m pond. Water impounded in the pond will be used for irrigating the
vegetation inside the market area. A total of 7185 sq. m of vegetation was included in the
project as it will help in the reduction of storm water runoff, aesthetically pleasant and
reduce heat island effect through evapotranspiration.
The design of the two-story reinforced concrete public market includes rainwater
harvesting system. The main purpose of including it in the design is to reduce the potable
water use and to reduce storm water runoff. With the introduction of rainwater harvesting
system and water saving fixtures, the market water consumption to restrooms water
requirements has a reduction of 94.9356% compared to baseline cases where the
rainwater was not utilized. Rainwater will also be used for irrigating the vegetation.

The Design of Rainwater Cistern is based on the Average rainfall of Iba,


Zambales gathered by PAGASA Iba, Station; and the receiving area of rainfall which is
half the area of the roof deck. The average rainfall of Iba, Zambales is 230.2 mm on a
receiving area of 2137.5 sq. m roofdeck, thus on a monthly basis, 492.053 cu. m of
rainwater is being collected. To fully store the 492.053 cu. m rainwater, the designed
water collection system has two units of rainwater cisterns having a capacity of 250 cu. m
each.
123

Green Engineering Application:

Using LEED Reference Guide for Green Building Design and Construction, the
project garnered a total of 16 credit points.

Maximize Open Space


Sustainable Sites (SS) Credit 5.2 of Building Design and Construction
corresponds to Site Development- Maximize Open Space. The purpose of Maximizing
Open Space is to promote biodiversity by providing a high ratio of open space to the area
affected by the development of the site or the development footprint.
The benefits of having Open Spaces to the Project site includes providing habitat
for vegetation and wildlife, reduces the urban heat island effect, increases stormwater
infiltration, and provides human population a connection to the surroundings.
Iba, Zambales imposed no Local Zoning Requirements for New Constructions.
The project location has a total area of 46, 361 sq. m with a building footprint of 4547.25
sq. m, thus the open space area is 41,813.75 with a minimum vegetation area of 4547.25
sq. m.

Stormwater Design
Stormwater when in contact with the ground may contain contaminants such as
atmospheric deposition, pesticides, fertilizers vehicle fluid leaks or mechanical
equipment waste which will pollute adjacent bodies of water. Soil Compaction caused by
site development and construction of the Market Structure and the parking area produce a
larger quantity of stormwater runoff which can overload pipes and pipes and sewers and
damage water quality, affecting navigation and recreation. It can also increase bank full
events and erosion, widen channels and cause down cutting of streams. Stormwater
Design is further divided into two:
Quantity Control

Sustainable Sites (SS) Credit 6.1 of Building Design and Construction


corresponds to Stormwater Design-Quantity Control which aims to limit
disruption of natural hydrology by reducing impervious cover, increasing on-site
infiltration, reducing or eliminating pollution from stormwater runoff and
eliminating contaminants

To address the problem of increased magnitude of stormwater runoff on


the market area, the parking space paving material is pervious so as the water will
infiltrate to the ground which helps maintain the natural aquifer recharge cycle
and restore stream base flows. An average of 446.155 cu. m of stormwater will
also be collected from the roof deck of the structure for non-potable purposes
such as flushing toilets and for irrigation. Installation of vegetated roofs also helps
in the reduction in the magnitude of stormwater runoff.
124

Quality Control
Sustainable Sites (SS) Credit 6.2 of Building Design and Construction
corresponds to Stormwater Design- Quality Control which aims to limit
disruption and pollution of natural water flows by managing stormwater
runoff.
Porous Pavements and Constructed Wetlands will be employed to remove
up to 90% of Total Suspended solids from the Stormwater runoff which is
above the required 80% of the average annual post development load of total
suspended solids.

Heat Island Effect

Nonroof

Sustainable Sites Credit 7.1 of Building Design and Construction (BDC)


corresponds to Heat Island- Nonroof which aims to reduce the thermal gradient
difference between developed and undeveloped areas and its impacts on
microclimates and human and wildlife habitats.

The methodologies employed to reduce Heat Island Effect of the


nonbuilding structures are using materials with high Solar Reflectance index
(SRI) on the paving materials of the parking area and using shading materials
such as using vegetation.

The pervious paving material that will be used in parking area is light in
color preferably white with Solar Reflectance Index of at least 29.

Meanwhile, the parking area will have vegetation to reduce the heat island
effect and cool the air through evapotranspiration. Native trees to Iba, Zambales
such as Mango, Pines, Narra and other deciduous trees will be planted in the area
to serve as shades.

Roof

To reduce heat islands and minimize the impacts on microclimates and


human and wildlife habitats are the goals of SS Credit 7.2 of BDC also known as
Heat Island Effect Roof.
The methodologies employed on the structure include vegetation in the
roofdeck of the market structure and using white paints on the outer building
parts. Half of the building roofdeck area or 2137.5 sq.m will be vegetated.
Incorporating plants in the roof deck can be very beneficial because they can
reduce the heat island effect by replacing heat absorbing surfaces with plants to
cool the air through evapotranspiration. Vegetated roofs can also retain
125

stormwater, provide insulating benefits, aesthetically appealing, have longer


lifetimes than conventional roofs and often require less maintenance that
conventional roof. The plants that will be used on the roof are all native plants in
Iba, Zambales to lessen the need for irrigations. Meanwhile, white coated building
exterior have a solar reflectance of 0.8 and SRI of 100 and proven to cause a
temperature rise on the structure of only 10 degrees Celsius.

Water Efficiency (WE)

Water Use Reduction

The main purpose is to increase water efficiency within buildings to


reduce the burden on municipal water supply and wastewater systems. Water Use
Reduction corresponds to Water Efficiency Credit 1 of BDC.

This project has employed strategies that in aggregate use at least 20% less
water than the water use baseline calculated for the public market. Using water
conserving fixtures such as water-less urinals, low flow water closet and low-flow
faucets, the project has 44.26608% reduction in water consumption.

Water Efficient Landscaping

The intent of Water Efficient Landscaping is to limit or eliminate the use


of potable water or other natural surface or subsurface water resources available
on or near the project site for landscape irrigation. Water Efficient Landscaping
corresponds to WE Credit 2 of BDC.

The amount of potable water consumption for irrigation based on baseline


computation is 310.2381 cu. m. The designed potable water consumption for
irrigation is 143.7549 cu. m or 166.4832 cu. m (53.663%) potable water
reduction. Reduction in potable water used is due to the utilization of rainwater
and treated wastewater. Rainwater during January, where there is the least
rainwater (3mm/month) lessen the consumption by 6.4125 cu.m. Meanwhile, the
harvested treated wastewater from constructed wetland pond contributed 100 cu.
m for irrigation. (See Water Efficient Landscaping for Computation.)

Innovative Wastewater Technologies

The intent of Innovative Wastewater Technologies is to reduce wastewater


generation and potable water demand while increasing the local aquifer recharge.
Innovative Wastewater Technologies corresponds to WE Credit 2 of BDC.
The use of low-volume fixtures on the building compared to conventional
fixtures drastically reduced the sewage generation for the market as lesser volume
of water was used. An average of 492.0525 cu.m of rainwater will be harvested
126

per month which is sufficiently enough to supply the need of 234.8012cu.m need
for flushing. (See Innovative Wastewater Technologies for calculations.)

Low Emitting Materials


The main purpose is to reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants that are
odorous, irritating and/or harmful to the comfort and well-being of installers and
occupants
Adhesives and Sealants
All adhesives and sealants used on the interior of the market structure
must not exceed the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) limits
Paints and Coatings
Paints and Coatings used on the interior of the market building must not
exceed the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) limits

Controllability of Systems- Lighting


The purpose is to provide a high level of lighting system control by individual
market users and promote their productivity, comfort and well-being. Controllability of
Systems-Lighting corresponds to Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) Credit 6.1 of
Building Design and Construction.
The design of the public market provided 100% individual lighting controls to the
market vendors to enable them to adjust for individual needs and preferences.
127

CHAPTER 10
RECOMMENDATIONS

The design of Two-Story Reinforced Concrete Public Market with Constructed


Wetlands, Rainwater Harvesting System, and Green Roofing does not include further
studies about the electrical, plumbing, and detailed designs of the constructed wetlands
and rainwater harvesting cistern. The group would like to recommend further studies of
the aforementioned parts for the project to be fully workable.
The group also recommends further studies about building Sustainability using
LEED Guide for Green Building Design and Construction. Only 16 out of 110 possible
points is garnered by the project. Employ more strategies to make the structure a LEED
certified Green building.
128

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The group would like to thank the following for their utmost contribution for the
accomplishment of the project:
First, to Almighty God for his guidance and for giving them all they need to
accomplish the project.
Second, to the groups ever supportive parents, Engr. and Mrs. Dela Cruz; Mr.
and Mrs. Malolos; and Mr. and Mrs. Tamayo for providing the financial and emotional
needs of the members.
Third, to the groups adviser, Engr. Garry G. Alviento for his valuable
contribution to the success of the project. For sharing his academic experience and
knowledge on the design of the project.
Fourth, to Engr. Virgilio Santos, who serves as the groups second adviser for
sharing his ideas for the betterment of the project.
Fifth, to Sir Carmelito Tatlonghari, for sharing his ideas and materials about
Sustainability. His inputs play a vital role in making the project a Sustainable Structure.
Sixth, to Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Bureau of Design,
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
(PAGASA) Main Office, and Iba Engineering Office for giving the group all their needed
material for the conduct of the study.
Lastly, to their friends especially to Riel Castillo, Kevin Paoso and TEAM CE-
ENSE 2009 for their support and understanding throughout the duration of the project.
129

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