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Building Acoustics

and Vibration
Theory and Practice

, Osama A. B. Hassan
Umea University, Sweden

11 World Scientific
NEW JERSEY LONOON SINGAPORE SElJING SHANGHAI HONG KONG TAIPEI CHENNAI
Contents

Preface VII

I. An Overview of Building Acoustics and Vibration


1.1 Scope of Building Acoustics 1
1.2 Sound in Theory and Practice 4
1.2.1 Nature of sound 4
1.2.2 Sound and vibration 8
1.2.3 Basic definitions, terms and measurable parameters 10
1.2.4 Mechanism of hearing 34
1.2.5 Sound and health 36
1.2.6 Sound levels 37
1.2.7 Loudness 41
1.2.8 Frequency weighting 43
1.2.9 Time weighting 46
1.2.10 Sound categories with respect to time 46
1.2.11 Vibration measurement, effect and estimation 47
1.3 Physical Ratings of Sound 50
1.3.1 Single value representation related to sound pressure 50
1.3.2 Energy-based ratings 58
1.3.3 Statistical ratings 60
1.4 Effects of Noise 60
1.4.1 Sound and noise 60
1.4.2 Noise contral strategies 62
1.4.3 Exposure to outdOOf and indoor noise 63
1.4.4 Exposure to enviranmental noise and its evaluation 67
1.4.5 Community noise 69

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xii Buildings Acoustics and Vibration: Theory and Practice

1.4.6 Noise survcy and measurement 70


1.5 Sources of Noise and Vibration in Bui1dings 77
1.5.1 Industrial noise 77
1.5.2 Transportation noise 80
1.5.3 Construction noise 83
1.5.4 Domestic noise and noise from leisure activities 84
1.5.5 Regenerated and structure-bome noise 84
1.5.6 Vibration in buildings 86
1.6 Sound Insulation 89
I .6.1 Sound transmission paths in the room 89
1.6.2 Sound tjelds in a raorn 90
1.6.3 IInpact sound 90
1.6.4 Flanking transmission 92
1.6.5 Common rating of sound insulation 92
1.6.6 Sound intrusion into the dweIling 95
1.6.7 Noise contral treatment strategies 99
1.6.8 Common sound insulation measures 102
1.6.9 Sound contro1 strategies 103
I .6. 10 Acoustica1 design in practice 106
1.6.11 Mechanical service noise contral... 112
1.6.12 Treatments re1ated to room acoustics 118
1.6.13 Insu1ation types 121
1.6.14 Masking noise 122
1.6.15 Resonance phenomenon 124
1.7 Sound Absorption 125
1.7.1 Mechanism of absorption 125
1.7.2 Categories of sound absorbers ., 128
1.7.3 Reverberation time and noise reduction 134
1.7.4 Practica1 issues on damping materials 135

2. Fundamental Building Acoustics 137


2.1 The Complex Number System 137
2.2 Wave Phase and Motion 141
2.2.1 Phase of wave 141
2.2.2 Phase interference 141
2.2.3 Simple harmonie motion 143
2.2.4 The RMS or effective value 144
Contents XIll

2.3 Speetrum and Oetave Bands 146


2.4 Aeoustie Intensity and Fie1ds 148
2.4.1 The free fie1d 149
2.4.2 The diffuse fie1d 152
2.4.3 Aetive and reaetive sound fields 152
2.5 Propagation of Sound Waves 153
2.5.1 Refleetionofsound 153
2.5.2 Dispersion and diffraetion 154
2.5.3 Refraetion 155
2.5.4 Geometrie spreading of waves 156
2.6 Levels of Aeousties Quantities 159
2.7 Frequeneies and Speetrum 159
2.7.1 Signal proeessing flow 160
2.7.2 Exeitation types 162
2.8 Charaeteristie Impedanee 162
2.9 Sound Waves in Air 166
2.9.1 Wave equation 166
2.9.2 Solution of the wave equation in one dimension 167
2.9.3 Solution of the wave equation in three dimensions 171
2.9.4 Sound pressure for eoherent and ineoherent sourees 176
2.9.5 Spheriea1 waves 177
2.9.6 Transmission of sound in media with normal ineidenee 177
2.9.7 Transmission of sound in media with oblique ineidenee 181
2.9.8 Sound transmission through a wall 183
2.1 0 Absorption of Sound in a Medium 187
2.11 Waves in E1astie Solids 190
2.11.1 Pure longitudinal wave 190
2.11.2 Quasi-longitudinal wave 192
2.11.3 Transverse wave 196
2.11.4 Torsiona1 wave 198
2.11.5 Bending (or flexural) wave 200
2.11.6 Group ve10eity 207
2.11.7 Body and surfaee waves 208
2.12 Bending Waves in Struetures 211
2.12.1 Standing waves in a beam. 212
2.12.2 Damping in struetures 216
2.12.3 Bending wave equation for p1ate 220
XIV Buildings Acoustics and Vibration: Theory and Practice

2.12.4 Input force and moment impedances 225


2.12.5 Bending vibrations of finite plate/beams 226
2.13 Statistical Energy Analysis 230
2.13.1 Free plate 231
2.13.2 Two coupled plates 232
2.13.3 Coupled plate-room 236
2.13.4 Coupled room-plate 238
2.13.5 Coupled room-plate-room 241
2.14 Elementary Radiators 244
2.15 Sound Radiation from Structures 255
2.15.1 Radiation from infinite plates/beams 257
2.15.2 Radiation from finite plates/beams 263
2.15.3 Radiation efficiencies of finite plates 264
2.15.4 Analysis of radiated sound power.. 267
2.15.5 Influence of finiteness of plate on the radiation 273
2.15.6 Sound radiation control strategies 275

3. Single Number Ratings and Test Methods 278


3.1 ISO and ASTM Rules 278
3.2 Airborne Sound Insulation 280
3.2.1 Sound reduction index/transmission loss 280
3.2.2 Weighted sound reduction index 285
3.2.3 Weighted standardised level difference 288
3.2.4 Adaptation terms 288
3.3 Measuring the Airborne Sound lnsulation 292
3.3.1 Tests of sound insulation 293
3.3.2 Intensity approach 297
3.3.3 Measuring the reverberation time of aspace 298
3.3.4 Measuring the sound absorption 299
3.4 Impact Sound Level 302
3.4.1 Weighted impact sound leveL 304
3.4.2 Impact sound improvement 306
3.4.3 Adaptation terms 308
3.4.4 The equivalent weighted impact sound level of a bare
massive floor 310
3.4.5 On the standards of impact sound insulation 311
3.5 Outdoor- Indoor Noise Insulation 312
Contents xv

3.6 Weighted Sound Absorption Coefficient 316


3.7 Sound Insulation Regulations 319
3.7.1 British standards 319
3.7.2 Swedish standards 324
3.8 Sound Transmission Class 326
3.9 Impact Isolation Class 336
3.10 Other ASTM Rating Factors 339
3.10.1 Outdoor to indoor transmission class 339
3.10.2 Noise reduction coefficient.. 341
3.1 0.3 Ceiling attenuation class 341
3.10.4 Articulation class 343
3.11 Comparison between ISO and ASTM for Sound Insulation 344
3.11.1 STC vs. R w 344
3.11.2 HC vs. L n w 345
3.12 Sound Insulation Practices 345
3.13 Dose-Response Relationships and Sound Insulation 347

4. Airborne Sound Insulation 349


4.1 Background 349
4.2 Sound Reduction Index (Transmission Loss) of Single-Leaf
Partitions 350
4.2.1 Region I: Stiffness-controlled region 352
4.2.2 Region 11: Mass-controlled region 357
4.2.3 Coincidence region and the transmission loss 360
4.2.4 Region III: Damping-controlled region 364
4.2.5 Practical design guideless for a single wall 369
4.2.6 Examples of sound insulation of single-Ieaf walls 371
4.3 Approximate Methods for Estimating the Sound Reduction
Index tr Single Leaf Partitions 372
4.3.1 First approximate method 373
4.3.2 Second approximate method 374
4.4 Sound Reduction Index (Transmission loss) for Composite
Walls 376
4.4.1 Background 377
4.4.2 Composite wall without mechanical connections 379
4.4.3 Design considerations for composite walls with no
mechanical connections 389
XVI Buildings Acoustics und Vibration: Theory und Practice

4.4.4 Airflow resistivity and the transmission loss 393


4.4.5 Double constructions with mechanical connections 396
4.4.5.1 Rigid studs 397
4.4.5.2 Non-rigid studs 407
4.4.5.3 Discussion ofresults and assumptions 410
4.4.6 The influence of stud configuration on sound insulation .. 412
4.4.7 Double constructions in practice 413
4.4.8 Practical guidelines on the sound insulation of double
constructions 420
4.5 External Lining for Sound Insulation 423
4.6 Multiple and Composite Partitions 428
4.6.1 Multi-leaf partitions 428
4.6.2 Transmission loss of composite walls 429
4.7 Sound Transmission Loss of Inhomogeneous and Orthotropic
Plates 431
4.7.1 Composite panel of two laminated layers 431
4.7.2 Orthotropic plates 435
4.7.3 Sandwich plates 439
4.8 Sound Transmission through a Finite-Size Panel... 445
4.8.1 Forced transmission 448
4.8.2 Resonant transmission 450
4.8.3 Total sound transmission loss 452
4.8.4 Literature review 454
4.8.5 Dependence of sound transmission loss on panel area 455
4.9 Transmission of Sound through Infinite Plate 457
4.9.1 Transmission loss of oblique incidence sound waves 457
4.9.2 Transmission ofrandom-incidence (diffuse) sound
through infinite plate 459
4.9.3 Discussion 461
4.10 The Loss Factor in Practice and Theory 463
4.11 Sound Transmission Loss of Holes and Slits 466
4.11.1 Calculation procedure 466
4.11.2 Acoustical treatment 470
Appendix 472

5. Impact Sound Isolation and Insulation of Floors 474


5.1 Prediction of Impact Sound 474
Contents xvii

5.2 Impact Sound Improvement with Floor Coverings 481


5.3 Impact Sound Isolation in Practice 489
5.4 Floating Floors 499
5.4.1 Prediction of floating floor performance 500
5.4.2 Lightweight floors 512
5.4.3 Floating floors in practice 512
5.5 Particle-type Materials to Improve Impact Sound Insulation 514
5.6 Airborne Sound Insulation of Floor Constructions 515
5.6.1 Effect of floor coverings 516
5.6.2 Effect of t10ating floor 517
5.6.3 Special floor types 517
5.6.4 Effect of suspended ceilings on sound insulation and
isolation '" 518
5.6.5 Lcak of sound via ceiling system 525
5.7 The Relation between Impact Sound and Transmission Loss 527

6. Flanking Sound Transmission 531


6.1 Airborne Sound Insulation 531
6.2 Impact Sound Level 538
6.3 Prediction of the Vibration Attenuation of the Junction 543
6.3.1 Velocity level difference 543
6.3.2 Vibration reduction index 550
6.4 Laboratory/In-situ Measurement 01' Flanking Transmission 555
6.5 Vsing the SEA to Predict the Flanking Transmission 557
6.6 Practical Issues on Flanking Transmission Calcu1ations 559
6.7 Approximatc Model of Flanking Transmission 567
6.8 On the Measurement 01' Flanking Transmission 571
6.9 Common Practical Measures to Mitigate the Effect of Sound
Flanking 573
6.9.1 Lightweight concrete 573
6.9.2 Fa<;ades 574
6.9.3 Lightweight walls / floors 576
6.9.4 Flanking paths - sealing gaps 579

7. Sound Insulation of Doors and Windows 581


7.1 Doors 581
7.1.1 An overvicw 581
xviii Buildings Acoustics and Vibration: Theory and Practice

7.1.2 Practical considerations 585


7.1.3 Sound reduction index of door in buildings 589
7.2 Windowsl Fas:ade Insulation 590
7.2.1 Sound insulation of fas:ades and windows 590
7.2.2 Practical issues on sound insulation of windows 594
7.2.3 Insulation values of fas:ade/window 597
7.2.4 Factors affecting the sound insulation of windows 603
Appendix 617

8. Outdoor Sound Propagation 620


8.1 Propagation of Sound in Real Atmosphere - Excess Attenuation
Model 620
8.2 Atmospheric Absorption - A abs 622
8.3 Meteorological Conditions - Aweather 624
8.4 Ground Effect - Aground 627
8.4.1 Calculation 628
8.4.2 Practical implications 632
8.5 Atmospheric Turbulence - Aturbulancc 634
8.6 Vegetation - Avegclation 635
8.7 BaITiers - Abarrier 638
8.7.1 Acoustical barrier wall performance 639
8.7.2 Sound pressure level across barrier 646
8.7.3 Design consideration of barriers and practical
implications 647
8.7.4 Advanced model for baITier attenuation 654
8.8 Non-Point Sources 658
8.9 Determination of Source Strength 659
8.10 Feasibility of Excess Attenuation Model 660
8. I 10ther Propagation Models 661
8.12 Traffic Noise 662

9. Room Acoustics 666


9.1 Propagation of Sound in a Room (Indoor Sound) 666
9.1.1 Steady-state sound level in a room 667
9.1.2 Steady-state sound level with absorption in the air 674
9.2 Reverberation Time 679
9.2.1 Reverberation time in typical rooms 679
Contents xix

9.2.2 Reverberation time with absorption in the air 684


9.2.3 Room design for optimum reverberation time 687
9.3 Reverberation Time and Room Acoustical Design 689
9.4 Sound from Adjacent Room 692
9.5 Standing Waves in Room 696
9.5.1 Types of modes in room 698
9.5.2 Spectrum of sound pressure in room 701
9.5.3 Acoustic design and room modes 702
9.6 Room Absorption in Practice 705
9.7 Acoustic Barriers in Rooms 709
9.8 Speech Intelligibility 712
9.9 Acoustics Enclosures 714
9.9.1 Small acoustic enclosures 715
9.9.2 Large acoustic enclosures 719
9.9.3 Acoustic enclosures in practices 726
Appendix 729

10. Air Distribution System Noise 741


10.1 Background 741
10.2 Fan Noise 744
10.3 Noise Attenuation in Air Distribution Systems 751
10.3.1 Attenuation in branches 752
10.3.2 Attenuation in straight unlined duct runs 753
10.3.3 Attenuation in straight lined duct runs 754
10.3.4 Attenuation in bends (elbows) 756
10.3.5 The attenuation of sound at the open end
(end reflection) 758
10.3.6 Flow-induced noise in air distribution system fittings 759
10.3.7 Flow noise generation in grilles 761
10.3.8 Sound pressure level in room from grille 764
10.4 Control of Noise in Air Distribution Systems 774
10.4.1 Absorptive or dissipative silencers 776
10.4.2 Reactive or reflective silencers 783
10.4.3 Dispersive or diffuser silencers 784
10.4.4 Packless duct silencers 785
10.4.5 Active silencers 785
10.4.6 Practical considerations 786
xx Buildings Acolmies and Vibration: Theory and Praetiee

10.5 Control of Structure-bome Noise and Vibration 789


10.6 Duct Noise 790
10.6.1 Breakout sound 791
10.6.2 Breakin sound transmission into ducts 795
10.6.3 Crosstalk 797
10.6.4 Control of duct noise 799
10.6.5 Round and rectangular ducts 803
10.7 Final Remarks 805
10.7.1 Cut-offfrequency 805
10.7.2 Point, line and plane sound source 805
10.7.3 Flow generated (regenerated) noise 807

11. Vibrations in Buildings 808


11.1 Background 808
11.2 SDOF System (Simple Resonator) 810
11.2.1 General case 811
11.2.2 Free motion of the damped SDOF system 813
11.2.3 Solution of the forced vibration 815
11.2.4 Natural frequency versus deflection 818
11.2.5 Magnification factor and transmissibility 820
11.2.6 Structurally damped systems 825
11.2.7 Forced vibration caused by motion excitation 826
11.2.8 Frequency response functions 829
11.3 Damping Factors 832
11.4 Design Considerations for Resilient Elements 837
11.4.1 Rubber and rubber-like materials 838
11.4.2 Metal and other elastic isolators 840
11.4.3 Combination of isolators 842
11.4.4 Vibration isolation in practice 844
11.5 Floor Vibrations 844
11.5.1 Human perception of vibration 846
11.5.2 Acceptance criteria 849
11.5.3 Fundamental frequency of floor 853
11.5.4 F100r response 856
11.5.5 Practical design issues 860
11.5.6 Modal mass 861
11.5.7 Damping of floors 862
Contents XXI

11.5.8 Acceptable floor performance 864


11.6 Practical Measures for Excessive Floor Vibrations 867
11.7 Mobility Method 870
11.7.1 Analysis ofvibration isolation 872
11.7.2 OutIine of structural vibration analysis 881
11.7.3 Cavity wall ties 884
11.8 Linear and Nonlinear Vibrations 886

Appendix 1. Summary of Building Acoustic Measurements 888

Appendix 2. Sound Insulation of Common Constructions: ISO and


ASTM Ratings 895

Appendix 3. Sound Reduction Indices (Transmission losses) of Some


Common Constructions 920

Bibliography 927

Index 943