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ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY OF

CHAGHAI DISTRICT
BALOCHISTAN
2003-04

Mohammad Yahya Musakhel,
Abdul Jabbar,
Rao Javed
Ali Imran Syed

Islamic Relief UK- WWF-Pakistan and Forest and Wildlife
Department Government of Balochistan
______________________________Environmental Survey Report of District Chaghai

CONTENTS

S.No. TOPIC Page#
Acronyms and Abbreviations i
Preface ii
Acknowledgements iii
Executive Summary iv
Report Methodology v
List of Maps, Tables and Graphs vi
Acronyms and Abbreviations vii
PART – I
01 DISTRICT CHAGAI (AT A GLANCE) 01
02 CHAGAI – NAME 02
03 POPULATION PROJECTED 03
04 HOUSEHOLD SIZE 04
05 ETHNIC COMPOSITION 04
06 TRIBES IN CHAGAI 05
07 HISTORY OF MAJOR TRIBES 06
08 HEALTH 09
09 MAJOR DISEASES 11
10 EDUCATION 11
11 OCCUPATIONS 12
12 SUMGGLING 15
13 AGRICULTURE 17
14 IRRIGATION 20
15 LIVESTOCK 21

Part II

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16 SURVEY OF FLORA
Part III
17 SURVEY OF FAUNA 58
Part IV
Recommendation/Observations 68
Part V
Future Interventions 74

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PREFACE
Environment has been defined as a” total of natural and physical
factors (with their interaction) surrounding an organism, but since long we (all the
stakeholders) have not given it due importance in real terms”. The transfer of
power to grass root and formation of local government set up at district level
came as a ray of hope for helping resident communities to solve their
conservation issues themselves. It is candid as well as considered opinion that
the participation of resident communities in outlining of environmental issues
would be a foundation on which will be built the edifice of sustainable
conservation.

Keeping in view the scenario emerging from recent drought and owing to the
peculiar condition of Chagai the need of a document, containing multifarious
information of all the resources was felt. Hence, this study namely
“Environmental Profile of District Chagai” was initiated by the Islamic Relief,
Balochistan. Though reference documents like: District Profiles of all
administrative districts of Balochistan, Balochistan Conservation Strategy,
National Conservation Strategy, Forestry Sector Master Plan, etc have been
available containing relevant information in piece meal; but it was direly felt that
the available references lack to address certain areas of information particularly
status of fauna & flora, etc.

The Chagai District has an arid climate, but contains many species and
habitats of global biodiversity significance. Conservation efforts have been
limited, and not very effective in much of the area, though the Government sector
and local communities have been effective to some degrees in this regard .But
still due to scarce resources for undertaking conservation activities and lack of
political will, the critical habitats continue to degrade and many species of global
importance have either become extinct or are critically endangered. Although
conservation of arid ecosystems is essential to maintain an ecological balance
and conserve biodiversity, these are generally considered ‘waste’ lands due to

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their limited productive potential. Therefore the district has received very little
attention for conservation. Overgrazing, cutting of scanty vegetation for fuel,
indiscriminate hunting and trade in wild species are common practice and have
caused large-scale environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. If that
was not enough, the recent persistent drought has taken toll of whatever was
remaining.

The devolution plan while empowering public representatives also
envisages dissemination of information to the masses both in public and private
sectors. The document has been made so much that a common citizen can also
retrieve and get the information of his own interest at a glance as it divulges
information starting from area information to the checklist of fauna and flora.
Besides it also contains roles and responsibilities of elected representatives,
government functionaries and resident communities for conservation of natural
renewable resources, which will reinforce the management of Common Property
Resource by local communities. It could be very well used as planning and
decision making tool as it contains detailed resource/area information. It is
indeed least but not the last document, which consists of detailed information of
the district Chagai.

May Almighty Allah bless our country to achieve the goal of biological
diversity conservation an alleviation of poverty.

Programme Coordinator
Islamic Relief Balochistan
Quetta

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me immense pleasure for appreciating the efforts of Islamic Relief
(IR) Balochistan for preparing “Environmental Study of District Chagai. It was a
gigantic task, which the IR accomplished in a limited period with inadequate
resources by its own initiative. While going through the study report, I found it
comprehensive, informative and interesting.

The study embodies not only details of various resources and requisite
data in Chagai District but also provides solutions to existing problems by the
local stakeholders.

It would be definitely beneficial for the general public, elected
representatives, government functionaries as well as for the planners. Another
important segment of the report is suggestion of solutions to existing problems by
the local stakeholders. Similarly there is description of roles and responsibilities
of elected representatives, resident communities and government functionaries
for conservation of renewable natural resources.

I owe my personal gratitude and thanks to the staff of IR who had
worked hard and had many sleepless nights in compiling this study.

May Almighty Allah bless our beloved country.

Na zim Chagai

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Islamic Relief – Pakistan working in Chagai and Kharan Districts under Program
‘Chaghi Integrated Rehabilitation Program’ (CIRDP) and ‘ Kharan Integrated
Rehabilitation Program’ (KIRDP). Both Districts were severely affected from
drought. The situation asserted substantial on Socio-economic conditions,
Natural Resources, Water Resources; Rangelands, Livestock and Natural
habitats of Wild life. There was a dire need to assess the damages in the District
to suggest appropriate measures to not only minimize the effects but to pave
ways to improve the livelihood and resource conditions of the people of the area.

Islamic Relief Pakistan apart from its main mandate of relief goods’ distribution to
needy communities of suffering areas initiated a step further to conduct survey
regarding people and Resources. Environmental survey was conducted through
a survey team following a comprehensive Questioners development to collect
data on Socio-Economic and Socio-Environmental aspects. Survey reports
reveal substantial damages to the Natural Resources and Livelihood of the
District Chagai. There is dire need of design of activities to address the identified
issues.

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REPORT PROCEEDINGS

The Offices of Islamic Relief and WWF - Pakistan at Quetta approached
renowned experts and experienced scientists of flora, fauna, water and socio-
economic sectors. They were asked to submit a proposal regarding
environmental survey. Later consultative group was established. The group was
given presentation of proposals. After incorporating the technical comments, two
Questionnaires were developed on Socio-Economic and Socio- Ecological
survey of the projects villages. The selection of villages at the union level was
made on the priority activities of Islamic Relief where communities were already
established and they had enough confidence on Islamic Relief.

Two teams were established who collected data on developed Questionnaires
from the villages of various Union Councils in the District. Each team covered
flora, fauna, water and socio-economic sectors. Apart from discussing/presenting
the data to the Consultative group, the obtained information were also shared
with the District Government, Community members, Local NGOs and
representative of Civil Society at Dalbandin.

Later all delivered inputs, primary and secondary data was incorporated and
report was completed. Whole course has been completed in three months time.

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LIST OF MAPS, TABLES & GRAPHS

 Map of Balochistan
 Satellite image of Chagai District
 Map of Chagai District
 Land use map of Chagai District

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ACRONYMS & ABBREVIATIONS

BCS Balochistan Conversation Strategy

BEPA Balochistan Environmental Protection Agency

BFWD Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department, Quetta

CBO’s Community Based Organizations

CO Chief Officer

DCO District Coordination Officer

DHO District Health Officer

EIA Environmental Impact Assessment

GoB Government of Balochistan

IEE Initial Environmental Examination

IR Islamic Relief Pakistan

IT Information Technology

IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature

LG&RDD Local Government and Rural Development
Department

NCS National Conservation Strategy

NEQS National Environmental Quality Standards

NGO Non-Governmental Organization

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P&D Planning and Development

PHED Public Health Engineering Department

RCD Regional Cooperation for Development

SMEDA Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority

Sq.Km. Square Kilometres

TMO Tehsil Municipal Officer

TVO Trust for Voluntary Organisation

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees

WAPDA Water and Power Development Authority

WWF – P World Wide Fund for Nature Pakistan

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Study Districts

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Tehsil wise Boundaries

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Part I

DISTRICT AT A GLANCE

District Headquarter NUSHKI
Established as District 1896
Area 50545 Sq. KM

Population

1901 1995
Male Female Total
186454
61082 59373 120455

Latest
Male Female Total
108736 93826 202564

Sex Ratio 1.02
Population Density
Major Ethic Groups Baloch Brahvi
Major Language Balochi Brahvi
Climate Dry hot in summer and dry cold in
winter.
Major Crops. Wheat, Onion, Melons and Fodder.
Economy. Majority of the population is involved
directly and indirectly in Agriculture and
livestock. Informal and mining sector
also engages a small segment.

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Employment. 48% Agriculture 30% production and
related work, 13Mining and
construction 9% others.

Important Minerals. Copper, Gold, Silver, Steel, Chromites,
Granite, Marble(onyx) Pumice and
Sulpher.

Important Places. Nushki, Taftan, Dalbandin, Nokkundi,
Saindak, Shrine of Sher Jan Agha and
Ziarat Bala Nosh.

Important Industry. Saindak Metals.

Communication. Metalled 605KM
Shingle 1369KM
Railway 529KM
Airport two

1. Chagai - Name Chagai District was established in 1896 when its Northern
boundary was demarcated by a joint Afghan and British Commission. The
district drives its title from Chagai, a village on the western border of
Hamun Lora and local traditions attribute the origin of the name to the
number of wells or ‘Chahs’ which are said to have formerly existed in the
vicinity.

1.1 Very little is known about the ancient history of Chagai. The earliest
monuments are the ruins of terraced embankments and ascribed to
Zoroastrians or ‘Gabres’ as locally called ‘the fire worshippers’. These are
mainly found at foot of Ras-koh. The next traces of ancient history are

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square shaped tombs in the western areas of the District, which are
attributed by the local traditions to the Kianian dynasty of Iran.

1.1.1 The Baloch are perhaps the oldest inhabitants of the District who,
according to various sources, migrated from Aleppo. The Brahvis, about
whose origin there are different theories, must have moved towards the
north from their original home in Kalat and settled down in pockets with a
major concentration in the Nushki area. Both Baloch and Brahvi appear to
have been firmly established in the beginning of 16th century. From middle
to the end of 16th century, the district remained under the rule of Safavid
dynasty. Later it appears in history as part of Mughal Empire and with the
down fall of Mughal Empire, the northern portion of Nushki was annexed
to the territories of KHAN of Kalat.

The Advent of the British in this area commenced with the British
agreement of 1878 with Khan of Kalat. Subsequently as a result of the
partial Survey and definition of the western boundary with Iran from Kukak
to Koh-i-Malik Siah and demarcation of the Afghan Baloch boundary in
1896, the present Dalbandin sub division and Nokkundi Tehsil, earlier
known as Sanjrani Tract, become part of Kalat State. In Nov: 1896 the first
British Political Agent of Chagai was appointed. Nushki continued to be
Niabat of Kalat State. Three years later, however the Niabat of Nushki was
leased by the British from the Khan on an annual rent of Rs.9000. The
management of Niabat was handed over on the 1st July 1899 to the British
government. From July 1899 to the 13th August, 1947, the district
remained under the British. After independence in 1947, it became part of
Pakistan and after declaration of Balochistan as a province in 1970,
Chagai became a district within Quetta Division. After devolution, the
Divisions have been abolished. Now Chagai is a district.

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 Location

It is located in the extreme west of Pakistan between 27 – 55 to 29 – 50 north
latitudes and 60 –45 to 66 – 22 east longitude. It is bounded on the North by
desert region of Afghanistan (which lies in the south of Hilmand river), on the
east bounded by parts of Quetta, Mastung and Kalat Districts, on the south by
Kharan District and on the west by Iran; with the total area of 0.050 million
square kilometer.

1.2 Population Projected: As per latest survey total population of Chagai
District is 202564, of which 108736 are male and 93828 are female. The
population growth is in the range of 3.6% since 1981. As per 1961, 1972
and 1981 following are the figures:

1961 1972 1981
Population 41,263 65,295 120,455
M/F ratio 104 104 1 03
Population Density (per sq km) 081 13 24
No of Households 18,430
Average Household Size 65
Percentage under 15 years 525
Urban Population 11,300
M/F ration Urban 1.08
Rural Population 109,155
M/F ratio Rural 1.02
Peri Urban Population 9.3
Source 1961, 1972 census, 1995 NIPS productions

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1.2.1 House hold Size:

The average household size at the time of independence was 5. In-between it
increased and decreased and government figures project average household,
size as 6.5 where as data collected by Islamic Relief of 7 Union Councils
indicates per household 5 to 8 members and average household size thus comes
slightly above 7. Union Councils Sadar, Padag, Chilgazi, Chagai, Balanosh,
Amori and Nukkundi were selected for test check.

1.2.2 According to census around 90% population lived in rural area. Although
there is rural urban migration creating employment and lots of other social
problems but still rural population is predominant.

1.2.3 Around 52.5% population is below 15years of age while 4.6% is above 60,
which speaks volumes about overall poverty level in the District. Adult
population is (above 18years of age) is slightly above 42% of which 50%
is female population, which is employed on non-wage agriculture and live
stock, beside working as housewives.

1.3 Ethnic Composition:
The population of the district is not homogenous. It consists of three major ethnic
groups namely Baloch, Brahvi and Pashtoon. Baloch are 57.1%, Barhvi 34.2%
and Pashtoons 2.8%. Around 1% are Hindus, Punjabis etc.

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1%
0%
8%
0%

Brahvi

Pashtoons

Punjabis

Hindus

Baloch

91%

1.3.1 The Principal dialects spoken by the population are Balochi, Barhvi and
Pashto. Pashto is mainly spoken by Brech and Ghilzai nomads as well as
settlers. Hindu population speaks Jatki at home, but their business
languages are both Balochi & Brahvi.
1.4 The following table shows the races and tribes in Chagai District:

Balochi Rind Sub Tribes
Rakhshani Badini, Jamaldinis, Mandai, Siahpad,
Tauki, Sanjranis, Rekis.
Brahvi Kambrani Zagar Mengals
Langove
Mengals
Muhammad Hasni
Raisani
Sarpara
Pashto Barech
on Chilzai
Kakar
Tarin

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Others Chanals
Syeds
Dehwar
Loris
Hindus

1.4.1 As already stated Baloch tribes are the old inhabitants of this area,
whereas Brahvis might have migrated in early 16 th centaury from Kalat.
Barech and Ghilzai Pashtun tribes were basically nomads and had been
coming to this area over the centuries in search of pastures and grazing
grounds. They were also known for their expertise in Karez cleaning and
construction business. Gradually they also settled in and around Nushki
and other main towns.

1.4.2 The Mandais claim to have arrived in the area earliest and there fore they
remained in sole possession of land. There after Jamaldini Rakhshani
came from Kharan and yet at another stage Badini Rakhshanis also
arrived and thus initial lands and rights were divided as follows:
i). Badinis: One half of Nushki stram, one fourth of Baghak
spring, the Mal Lands, and a portion of Dak Lands extending from
Shorawak border to Kulei.
ii). Jamaldnis: Five-twelfths of the Nushki stream, one forth of
Baghak spring, the Dedar, gomazgi and Bandkhi Lands, and five
shares of the Dak Lands from Kulei to the border of Chagai.
iii). Mandais: One-twelfth of the Nushki stream, one half of the
Baghak spring, Khudaband and Jabir Lands and the two shares out
of the Dak Lands from Kulei to border of Chagai.

Some times later the Zagar Mengals from Kalat entered the
district and on refusal back to Kalat by their Sardar, the Khan of
Kalat compensated them by the grant of one-third of the Badini

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share of the Nushki Stream, 2½ Shabanaroz of Baghat Karez and
2½ Shahanaroz of the Nushki Stream.

1.5 History of Major Tribes:
Rakhshani tribes are named after its founder named Rakhsh, locally Rashkh,
who lived around 50 generations ago had two sons Harun and Jamaldin. On the
death of their father the two brothers quarreled and Jamaldin left his home in
Aleppo and migrated with his followers to Kharan where he died after 30 years.
His clan became known as Jamaldinis. About this time Mandais of Nushki, who
came from Arabia, invited Jamaldinis in assistance against oppressive Mughals,
hence Jamaldinies migrated to Nushki. Land of Nushki was equally divided
among the males of two tribes.

1.5.1 In the mean time the other tribe of Rakhshanis, offsprings of Harun were
compelled to migrate under the leadership of Badin to Jalawer in Kharan.
Even Mandais with the help of Jamaldinis could not hold on to Mughals,
therefore they also invited Badin with his tribe/ followers.

There is a story that Badini in league with Mughals massacred the
Mandais and Jamaldinis during a feast but they satisfied the rulers in
Kabul and were later granted rights of Land in Nushki. The Nushki word is
therefore originates from that feast that Mandais and Jamaldinis had
hosted for Badinis. It is from the words ‘NOSH KHANE’ eat your feast.

1.5.2 Zagar Mengals:
This is the most numerous tribe among the Brahvis and it is divided in three
sections. Mengals of Jhalawan, Mengals of Bolan and Zagar Mengals of Nushki.
Zagar Mengal link their ancestral lineage with Zakria, one of the sons of Ibrahim.
They settled down in Nushki after their prolonged feud with Badinis of Nushki and
Mehrab Khan of Kalat allowed them land on Khaisar Stream and they built their

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first village on Khaisar. Today Zagar Mengals are prominent tribe of Chagai and
are around 30% of population.

1.5.3 Muhammad Hasni:
Also known as Momasani, are nomadic tribe who are found in all the region from
Kharan to Chagai and Seistan upto Helmand. Their roots are in old Persia and
they take pride in having linkage with Rustam of Iran. Now they have settled
down, otherwise throughout known history they remained nomads.

1.5.4 Sanjranis:
Also known as Rakhshani Baloch also claim link with Rind Baloch. Their ancestor
Sanjar got separated from main body of Rinds in a series of battles and came to
Chagai around 20 to 25 generations ago. The Sanjranis never paid tribute to the
Khan of Kalat, nor were they ever been subject to Kharan Chief. Prior to British
occupation their dealings for many years were exclusively with Afghanistan
though a small tribe, they can rightly be termed as owners of Nukkundi and
Dalbandin.

1.5.5 Rekis:
Rekis are dwellers of Sand as in Balochi ‘Reg’ is the word used for sand. Rekis
are divided in three sections, Rekis of Mirjawa, Rekis of Jalak and Rekis of
Mashkel. They are also a tribe of Rind, who was left in Kalat and Mashkel.

1.5.6 Barech:
The Brech are Saraban Afghans who are sub-divided in four clans: Mandozai,
Zakazai, Badalzai and Shirani and they mostly occupy shorawak district of
Afghanistan. Barechs of Chagai are Akazai of Mandozai Sub-clan.

1.5.7 There are some, Syyeds, Langau, Loris, Hindus but they are all in very
small numbers.

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1.6 A Survey conducted by Islamic Relief shows that some villages were in
existence for more than a century where as some were there for only two
decades. This survey proves the theory of constant migration in the
district. Over a century long droughts, internal feuds, search of grazing
grounds forced people to migrate. This pattern is more pronounced in the
rural areas and particularly in nomadic tribes like Muhammad Hasnis, who
basically move in search of grazing grounds and settle when they find
permanent sources of employment. Besides there has recently been some
migration, the figure of which are not forthcoming, which was due to
extended drought both in Kharan and Chagai. But this can not be taken as
exceptional migration as this phenomenon occurred earlier as well.

 Climate

The climate of District ranges from extreme hot in summer to severe cold in
winter. The temperature vary from area to area, some places of district are very
hot while some areas having harsh winter. The annual average rainfall in the
district is 104 mm. High velocity winds are common feature and causing topsoil
erosion and subsequent damage to cultivable lands.

In Dalbandeen, particularly, the erosion is increasing as sand-storms frequent in
the area. Roads are blocked due to sandy storms, some times totally, the road is
totally covered under sand. Wind blows from May to middle of September.

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Wind errusion- common throughtout the year
 Physiognomy

Chagai district also has the large Salt Plain, locally known as “HAMOON” (area
where water disappears). This Hamoon is named as “Hamoon-e-Lora”. It
constitutes the North-Central part of Chagai up to the border of Afghanistan and
in its Southern extremities it reaches up to Kochaki Plains of Padag. This area
constitutes a high percentage of salts therefore devoid of vegetation.

The district physiographically can be divided into three main regions:

1. Mountains of Raskoh, Kopdar, Koh-Siah in the South of the district.
Pachin Koh, Kohe-Taftan in the West.
2. Desert region of Dak, Padag, Dalbandin constitutes the central part, and
Noshki, in the East.
3. Plain areas constitute the area of Dalbandin, Nokundi and Taftan.
 Soil

Mostly the soils of Balochistan are homogenous porous structured conducive for
plant growth. Soils, of some parts however have original lamination in the
subsoil. All the soils are invariably calcareous. Their lime contents ranges

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between 5 and 30 percent. The lime is uniformly distributed in most soils. If soils
have a high lime contents, they are hard when dry but soft and terrible when
moist. Their organic matter content is generally low, 0.3 to 0.5 percent. The best
soil in Chagai district is a light loam called "Matt", which is found in the greater
part of the Dak plain and in the Baghak, Mal, and Chagai tracts. It requires less
water, retains moisture longer and is suited for all crops. Another soil is "Reki" or
"Ragi", as the name implies, sand constitutes the predominant element; this type
of soil is considered suitable for the production of Jowar and melons. Other types
of soils are the "Daddo" a hard stony soil and the "Sor", which is impregnated
with salt. Both soils are inferior24 .

Soils of the Mountains.

The mountains comprise of Chagai and Koh-e-Sultan ranges in the north, the
eastern portion of the district included in the Sarlath range and Mir Jawa, Kachau
and Ras-Koh hill on the south west border. Ras-Koh or Ispedar is the highest
mountain in the district.

Much of the surface of the mountain and hill slopes comprise bare rock without
soil cover. Small patches contain shallow or very shallow, strongly calcareous,
gravely and stony loams. While the soils produce very sparse shrub vegetation
and grass, offering limited grazing, the rock outcrop has only water catchment
value.

Soils of the Plains

The plains consist of the area between Nushki and Chagai. The soils developed
in the plains are essentially brown silt loams or very fine sandy loams, well
drained and strongly calcareous containing about 22% calcium carbonate. Soils
formed in redeposited loess are mainly silty clay loams and silty clays,
homogenised to moderate depths and strongly calcareous with a 17% lime
content.

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2 Health: Before some figures are quoted from any source it is not out
of place to mention that figures given in government literature may not be
present on ground. Any B.H.U or Dispensary shown to be existing in a
particular place does not mean that it is also operational as well. The data
collected by Islamic Relief Shows that most Union Councils and Villages
have those basic Health facilities but those are not in operation. For
example in survey of 122 villages only 7 had these facilities.

However, as record of Health Department Government of
Balochistan following health facilities exist in areas mentioned in whole of
the district.
Particular Number
Hospital 1
Dispensary 19
RHC 2
BHU 21
MCH Centre 4
Private Clinic 1

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Health Facility Summary 7 HAZAR JUFT
8 JAMALDINI
BASIC HEALTH UNIT 21 9 KANI
10 KIRTAKA
DISPENSARY 22 11 KISHINGI
12 KOCHAL MAL
HOSPITAL 1 13 MAL
MATERNAL & CHILD 4 14 PADAG
HEALTH CENTRE 15 PATGONAKO
16 POSTI
RURAL HEALTH 3 17 RAJEY
CENTRE
18 REKO
Population Welfare Facility 19 SARGASHA
Summary
20 TAFTAN
RHS-A's (**) 0
21 ZARO CHAH
MSU's 0
22 AMINABAD
VBFPWS'S, 1
23 AMRI
FWC-urban 3
24 ANAM BOSTAN
FWC-semi urban 0
25 BADAL KAREEZ
FWC-rural (*) 2
26 DARZI CHAH
LHWs 157
27 OIL MURAD
Location of Health Facilities
28 GILANGUR
BASIC HEALTH UNIT
29 ISSA CHAH
1 AHMED WAL
30 JULLI
2 BASLANI
31 K. NADIR KHAN
3 BHATTO
32 KACHAO
4 CHAR SAR
33 KANRAK (HAJI DAD
5 CHIATER
KHUDA)
6 DAIDAR
34 KILLI HAJI MUHAMMAD

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NOOR
35 KILLI LANDI MEHMOOD
ZAI
36 KILLI MENGLE
37 LASHKRAB
38 NUSHKI
39 PAK RAILWAY
DALBANDIN
40 PAK RAILWAY NUSHKI
41 RDC CAMP SANDAK
42 YEK MACH
43 ZANGI NAWAR
HOSPITAL
44 DHQ HOSPITAL NUSHKI
MATERNAL & CHILD
HEALTH CENTRE
45 CHAGAI VILLAGE
46 DALBANDIN
47 NOKUNDI
48 NUSHKI
RURAL HEALTH CENTRE
49 CHAGAI VILLAGE
50 DALBANDIN
51 NOKUNDI

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2.1 Major Diseases:

Major diseases reported by D.H.O office Chagai are diarrhoea, typhoid, Malaria,
tuberculosis and urinary tract infection. IR survey indicated that provision of
health facilities in the district is one of major demands of general public.
4. Education:

The total number of students enrolled in 1996 at primary level was 19399, out of
which 11,924 were boys and 7475 girls. At middle level they number 3457 of
which 2654 were boys and 793 were girls. While at high level the total number of
students was 1454, boys were 1178 and girls 279. Following table highlights the
position:

Number of Pupils/Students
Enrolment 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96
m/f m/f m/f m/f m/f
Mohallah/ Home
school
Madrases
Mosque School 982/187
Primary School 13.212/ 12.170/ 11,709/ 12.163/ 11,924/
3,543 4,308 5,061 5,560 7,475
Primary passed
No of Teachers 508
Vocational Training -
Middle Schools 2,399 / 269 2,466 / 497 2,697 / 2,651 /611 2,669 / 793
1,532
Middle S passed
High School 956/100 1,105/80 1,072/92 1,148/131 1,178/276

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High S passed
College 270 / 37 - 271/43 269 / 63 300 / 69
College graduates 79/0 - 59/8 31 /18 59/18
Source BEMIS, 1995 & District Education Officer Nushki, 1996

Recent figures obtained from education department government of
Balochistan reflect the following picture of educational facilities in Chagai
district.

Primary School Middle School High School Colleges
Chagai Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
215 120 31 18 20 11 1 1

There is no vocational institution in the district.

3.1.1 Figures quoted in 1996 showed literacy rate 10% to 20% in urban areas
and 9 to 10% in rural areas. The literacy rate for males was 17% as
compared to 2% for female. There is big gap between boys and girls
enrolment. The same figure emerges of drop outs.

3.1.2 Figures collected of various villages in Nukkundi and Dalbandin show that
out of 25 villages 12 have school (all primary) except one, which was
upgraded to middle. The 25 villages have only one girls primary school.
Although exact position could not be determined, however two schools
have more than 300 students with one teacher each. Although it is not a
representative survey but it does indicate one thing that concentration of
education facilities are near Nushki or major towns and teachers do exist
on paper but for various reasons teachers are not found on duty, which
practically defeats the basic purpose of physical facilities.

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3.1.3 The medium of instructions in Chagai District like any other district of
Balochistan is Urdu. This creates problems for to toddler. Majority’s
mother tongue is either Balochi or Brahvi. In the past some efforts were
made to introduce regional languages in school but those half hearted
efforts did not succeed. Overall standard is very low. Students upto
primary & middle are almost illiterate as they can hardly read and write.

4. Occupations:
As given in the District Summary 48% population is employed in Agriculture
which includes livestock, 30% in production and related fields, 13% mining and
construction and 5% trade and 4% are attached with other profession.

5% 4%
4.1.1 Before 13% Agriculture we go
to Production
48% Mining
Trade
30% Other

4.1.2 Secondary source details, primary data collected shows that housewives,
although not identified separately, 100% work either in the field or tend the
livestock. There is no separate mention found for this anywhere. Islamic
Relief survey shows 50 – 60% male population as labourers, which seems
to be misnomer for Agriculture labour. As in villages there is no major
employment generating sector. Major landlords employ people as ‘Bazgar’
and share the produce with them. 10 to 20% population as per above
survey is attached with livestock and due to drought, they had a setback
and their employment has shrunk.

4.1.3 Government statistics show that labour force comprising age 15 and
above but less than 60 is roughly 24.3%, of which 47.8% is engaged in

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Agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry. The labour force participation rate
for urban and rural areas are 20,6% and 24.7% respectively. The rates for
male and female labour are 47% and 9% respectively.

4.1.4 The data collected by Islamic Relief shows that people prefer government
and NGO’s to generate employment. The population in Agriculture Sector
is enormous as per KM density is lowest in the country. I.R. survey shows
that in certain areas water table is not very low and if regular electricity is
provided to whole district tube wells would definitely bring remarkable
change both in area under cultivation and variety of crops as land is virgin
and never remained under plough. By the time if that is not possible
sinking hand pumps may bring some respite for livestock and encourage
poultry farming.
4.1.5 Indifferent attitude of government can be judged from the fact that no
technical institute exist in whole of district. People can not be employed
even in mining industry which has ample scope in future. Even private
sector is not planning for future skilled labour supply. Outside labour both
skilled and unskilled is being resisted by local population because of high
rate of unemployment. Few major projects in mining sector with matching
skilled labour can eradicate this chronic problem which has created a
vicious cycle. Why there is no industry, because there is no electricity and
skilled man-power and why electricity can not be provided because there
is no industry and hence no demand for skilled man-power. This is
paradox.
4.1.6 Law of comparative advantage says that nations specialize in areas of
economic comparative advantage. For example nations surrounded by
water harness water as source for economic development. Some take
advantage of manpower like China and Japan and India is also following
in their footsteps. Some use natural resources as a catalyst for economic
development.

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Pakistan and particularly Balochistan is a blessed region where
nature has bestowed both human and natural resources in plenty.

Tapped and untapped there are millions of strategic mineral both
metallic and non-metallic, which if exploited can change the complexion of
this District. If government allows mining to the private party with buy back
guarantees, there is no reasons why even small deposits are not
exploited. This mining activity can be given industry status, with tax
incentive etc. in order to suck private sector in this field.

As already mentioned, the maximum employable workforce
available in the district is not more than twenty thousand. If mining picks
up as an industry and each facility provides fifty to hundred people direct
and indirect then the local population would be insufficient to meet labour
demand. If multiplier is taken as 10 to 12 then one can well imagine the
quantum.
5. Smuggling:
Smuggling is one such source of employment which does not get any
mention in any government document. Even NGOs may not have worked in
this particular area. Generally on national level it is taken as social and
economic evil. Social, because directly or indirectly if breeds corruption and
other social ills in the society. Economic, because it deprives government of
possible revenues in-duties and importers lose profits/ markets because of
smuggling.

Locally it is considered as yet another business. Any region which
has no agriculture, no industry, no trade and no other economic activities
essential for sustaining life, then only way out seems smuggling. Those
who shrug their shoulders on mentioning smuggling as an evil in the area
should realize that living souls need something to live on. Passing value
judgment does not require any effort. As mentioned earlier majority of

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population survives on Agriculture and livestock. Drought had robbed
them of this activity, now small charities occasionally dole out to them
meagre funds but these do not provide permanent answer to their
persisting economic problem of unemployment.

Figures are not forthcoming, how many people are directly involved
in this illegal business. However, it is an open fact that in the absence of
proper sources of employment, thousands able bodied people look
towards this only source. Quetta and border areas where were houses
spilling over with smuggled goods, tell an untold story as well. Deliberately
or per force Agencies, both Federal & Provincial responsible for enforcing
check on smuggling, ignore the inflow. A study conducted shows that cost
on anti smuggling is higher than what is confiscated by these agencies in
a year. For example cost of F.C., Customs and Customs intelligence,
excluding Police is Rs.2288.12million whereas value goods seized is
Rs.2263.12million. The cost is 101% of value of goods seized.

WTO Regime once enforced in 2005 may eliminate smuggling,
thereby drying away this source of employment, otherwise in this barren
area. Personally I do not agree with this theory. All such measures in the
past had dual effect i.e. trade diversion and trade creation. In case of free
flow of goods & services under WTO, presumably smuggling shall cease!
But it is not true for following reasons:-
(a) Pakistan shall not import/ export all goods and services with price
difference through formal channels.
(b) Even if government would like to import, small items may not be
feasible to other importers, in the country from Iran.
(c) But most important thing would be element of subsidy allowed by
Iranian government to some if its sectors for bringing diversification
in the economy. This point needs some further explanation.

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Under WTO all countries would be bound to export at market cost
or home country market cost plus freight. All countries have right to
develop certain sectors in economy by giving incentives. Now in bordering
areas the price difference of subsidized goods, pushes these goods and
services to high price area. A portion of those goods cross over to
neighbouring country. A recent example can be quoted to make the point
clearer. Recently Afghanistan imported POL and allowed duty free sales in
the country. The price difference pushed exported POL back to Pakistan.
Similarly present Islamic Government in Iran tried to diversity its economy
and provided incentives to agriculturist to boost agriculture produce. This
incentive made both inputs and outputs cheaper than Pakistan and some
of these inputs as well as outputs find their way to Pakistan, particularly
eggs, vegetables and some cereals are being smuggled in to Pakistan.

There is yet another aspect; adjoining areas of Iran are extremely
poor, Pakistan made goods from down-country become so expensive after
freight charges that they prefer cheap articles from across the border
without going into ethical aspects. The quantum of regular and irregular
trade going on can engage hundreds of trucks for transportation of these
goods. This alone, guarantees employment for thousands directly and
indirectly.

WTO studies project that if quantum of trade among Asian
countries pick up by 5 to 10%, it will generate far higher income than
global aid given by rich countries. So like wise by increasing and
regulating the trade from border alone can generate income level of
population beyond our imaginations.

6. Agriculture:
In terms of labour involvement agriculture is the main activity in the district
economy. Wheat, Melons, Onions, Potato and dates are normally sown. In

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Rabi season mostly wheat, vegetables and fodder is cultivated and in Kharif
onion, Potato and fodder are major crops. In agriculture female population is
involved with male counterparts in planting, harvesting and thrashing
activities.

Wheat crop field- Aminabad Chaghi

6.1.1 According to latest figures made available from provincial agriculture
department, cultivable area is 61019 acres, where as 385398 is cultivable
waste. Area under wheat cultivation in 2000- 2001 was 11401 acres of
which 9666 was irrigated and 1735 un-irrigated.

6.1.2 There is uneven production of major crop, wheat, because of uneven and
uncertain rainfall. Major area under plough is Barani. In 1992-93
production was 19500 tons, which increased to 20820 tons next year and
again went down to 15430 in 1994-95 and next once again jumped to
20460. So it is very difficult to gauge trend in wheat and other crops
production.

6.1.3 The Director General Extension Agriculture Department has provided
following data showing crops, area under cultivation and production in
tones.
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DISTRICT CHAGAI
AREA COMPARISON OF ALL CROPS
Area in Hectares
Crops 2002-03 1997-98 % increase / decrease
Irrig: Un- Total Irrig: Un-Irrig: Total Irrig: Un-Irrig: Total
Irrig:
RABI CROPS
Wheat 11,585 1,120 12,705 9,800 6,350 16,150 18 -82 -21
Barley 780 - 780 75 - 75 940 - 940
Rape Seed 135 - 135 - - - 0 0 0
Cumin 2,300 150 2,450 350 230 580 557 -35 322
Vegetables 2,525 - 2,525 855 - 855 195 0 195
Fodder 1,837 - 1,837 137 - 137 1241 0 1241
Sunflower 506 - 506 - - - 0 0 0
Safflpwer - - - 70 20 90 -100 -100 -100
Total Rabi 19,668 1,270 20,938 11,28 6,600 17,867
Crops 7

Crops 2002-03 1997-98 % increase /
decrease
Irrig: Un- Total Irrig: Un- Total Irrig Un- Total
Irrig: Irrig: : Irrig:
KHARIF CROPS
Sorghum - - - 81 101 182 -100 -100 -100
(Jowar)
Millet - - - 80 - 80 -100 0 -100
Fruits 1,318 - 1,318 1,136 - 1,136 16 0 16
Onion 4,200 - 4,200 5,715 - 5,715 -27 0 -27
Potato - - - 81 - 81 -100 0 -100

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Vegetables 1,531 - 1,531 2,505 - 2,505 -39 0 -39
Melons 1,530 1,298 2,828 1.515 2,180 3,695 1 -40 -23
Chillies 115 - 155 - - - 0 0 0
Fodder 2,095 - 2,095 650 2,000 2,650 222 -100 -21
Coriander 40 - 40 20 - 20 100 0 100
Garlic 6 - 6 - - - 0 0 0
Cotton 168 - 168 - - - 0 0 0
Total Kharif 11,003 1,298 12,301 11,783 4,281 16,064
Crops
GRAND 30,671 2,568 33,239 23,070 10,881 33,951
TOTAL

DISTRICT CHAGAI
PRODUCATION COMPARISON OF ALL CROPS
Production in Tonnes
Crops 2002-03 1997-98 % increase / decrease
Irrig: Un- Total Irrig: Un-Irrig: Total Irrig: Un-Irrig: Total
Irrig:
RABI CROPS
Wheat 24,050 1,145 25,195 23,440 6,490 29,930 3 -82 -16
Barley 1,059 - 1,059 120 - 120 783 0 783
Rape Seed 74 - 74 - - - 0 0 0
Cumin 1,225 - 1,225 246 105 351 398 -100 249
Vegetables 42,203 - 42,203 14,045 - 14,045 200 0 200
Fodder 42,689 - 42,689 5,150 - 5,150 729 0 729
Sunflower 526 - 526 - - - 0 0 0
Safflpwer - - - 30 8 38 -100 -100 -100
Total Rabi 111,826 1,145 112,97 43,031 6,603 49,634
Crops 1

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Crops 2002-03 1997-98 % increase /
decrease
Irrig: Un- Total Irrig: Un- Total Irrig Un Tot
Irrig: Irrig: : - al
Irri
g:
KHARIF CROPS
Sorghum - - - 132 73 205 -100 - -
(Jowar) 10 100
0
Millet - - - 68 - 68 -100 0 -
100
Fruits 6,441 - 6,441 10,903 - 10,903 -41 0 -41
Onion 76,860 - 76,860 91,440 - 91,440 -16 0 -16
Potato - - - 1,232 - 1,232 -100 0 -
100
Vegetables 10,087 - 10,087 34,120 - 34,120 -70 0 -70
Melons 15,810 12,526 28,336 29,210 23,520 52,730 -46 - -46
47
Chillies 179 - 179 - - - 0 0 0
Fodder 61,947 - 61,947 28,700 42,400 71,100 116 - -13
10
0
Coriander 20 - 20 11 - 11 82 0 82
Garlic 30 - 30 - - - 0 0 0
Cotton 255 - 255 - - - 0 0 0
Total Kharif 171,629 12,526 184,155 195,816 65,993 261,809
Crops
GRAND 283,455 13,671 297,126 238,847 72,596 311,443
TOTAL

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6.1.3 Cropping pattern:
Cropping pattern of Chagai district shows that wheat occupies a major area
under production. During 2000-2001 54% was under wheat production, followed
by melon with 18%. The area under Jowar is 4%. If Wheat, Melons and Jowar as
food crops than 43% area is under cash crops.

6.1.4 Although it is difficult to draw conclusions from existing statistics, however
a trend appears that shows that as area under wheat and other crops in
Barani area increases, per acre yield goes down. Per hectare wheat in
Chagai district is 1870Kg against that of Balochistan which is roughly
2320Kg per hectare which by any standard is very low.

24% Wheat

Melo

Jawar
4%
54%

Other

18%

However, per hectare Potato yield is 15172Kg against provincial
per hectare yield of 15081, which is definitely much better. Again in case
of onion per hectare yield is 17795Hg whereas provincial per hectare yield
is 20002Kg. Low per hectare yield except that of potato can only be
attributed to non-availability or less-availability of water and low quality
seeds.

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6.2.1 Irrigation:
The major source of irrigation in the district are tube wells whereas traditionally
Karezes used to be major source of irrigation which have now dried down
because of irregular and low level of rains in catchment areas. Switchover to tube
wells is due to feuds on ownership of water rights. Total area under tube well
irrigation is 11256 hectare (86%). Under Karezes, springs, open wells and other
irrigation 1200 hectare. Through perennial rivers 400 hectare. Following table
shows distribution of Land under different sources of irrigation:

Irrigation Sources Ha. % of Total
Cult.
Tube wells 11,256 86.2
Open Surface Well 202 1.6
Karezes, Springs, other 1,200 9.2
Canals 400 3.1
Total 13,058 100.0

3%
9%

2%

Tube wells

Open Surface Well

Karezes, Springs, other

Canals

86%

When wheat, jawar, cumin and fodder is fed by rain water the yield per
hectare goes down. Due to non-availability of electricity 88% tube wells

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are on diesel and only 12% on electricity, which make the irrigation a
costly business and only very well-to-do can afford because majority
population is so poor that they can not afford even hand-pumps for
domestic consumption.

6.3.1 Livestock:
Livestock is second major source of income for the people of Chagai. Islamic
Relief survey of the district shows that every village has multiple flocks of small
ruminates, as livestock provides for food as well as it is source of income. It is
also a symbol of social status. People take pride in having large flocks. 1996
livestock census shows more than a 603729 cattle head as well as small
ruminates, if we go by average this is one of the highest ratio in Balochistan. The
break-up of livestock as per 1996 survey is as under:

Chagai Cattle Sheep Coats Camels Horses Donkeys
2649 1959416 278782 26493 25 3151

6.3.2 Above statistics shows that sheep and goat population is more than
470000 which is respectable figure for a district where there is no other
source of income. But at the same time this higher population has
changed the bio-diversity by overgrazing. Villages and ranges have since
been dried up, thereby resulting in desertification. Now the torrential rains
which are mostly seasonal, hardly charge the water table, rather these
rains bring more harm than any good. Recent survey of livestock
population in 2001-2002 presents slightly different picture. Following are
the statistics:
6.3.3
Chagai Cattle Sheep Coats Camels Horses Donkeys
2724 181202 304917 24454 29 3025

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6.3.4 The above statistics bring out one important phenomenon. The small
ruminant population had gone one million in the intervening period but
the drought played havoc with live stock in Chagai. Besides
devastating effects resulting in high casualties, the drought had long
term and invisible effects as well. The small animals obtain feed left
ranges and water points completely exhausted and dry. Many farmers
disposed of starved and debilitated females at throw away price i.e.
rupees 200 to 300 per head against normal market price of Rs.1500 –
2000. Similarly losses in animal production accounted for 40%
predominantly because of reduction in conception rate, still births of
lambs and kids, premature deaths of newborns, added with eruption
fatal diseases due to low immunity of animals and reduced feed intake
off springs were to be discarded because dams could not feed the new
born. IR survey and survey conducted by other relief agencies show
that in Chagai mortality rate in sheep/goats and cattle was 16% and
overall 70% livestock was effected.

Drought- hits in Chaghi

6.3.5 Islamic Relief survey of a Union Council and scores of villages (Table
below), show that invariably all villagers had complained about mortality,
high rate of disease, disappearance of range lands and non-availability of
water. The picture can in no way be described as satisfactory. Measures

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being taken by respective concerned agencies are of temporary in nature
and do not guarantee long term and lasting solution.

S. Sheep Goat Camel
Name of
# Before After Before After Before After
Village

1 Killi Taj
500 50 900 100 25 8
Mohammed
2 Saleh
450 30 600 20 18 4
Mohammed
3 Haji
2500 1000 1200 100 100 50
Mohabat
4 Killi Abdul
80 2 200 7 40 1
Majeed
5 Boran 300 10 1200 20 50 0
6 Gul Mir shah 900 50 4000 500 120 0
7 Hagi Dad
1200 40 1500 45 25 2
Kareem
8 Sorab 800 3 2500 10 130 2
9 Lal
700 0 900 0 150 0
Mohammad
10 Sahib Khan 50 2 200 10 40 5
11 Haji Shah
400 0 1000 20 200 5
Sarwar
12 Gul
150 20 150 30 12 0
Mohammad
13 Kardug
500 100 300 80 120 20
Madad Shah
14 Pishok 300 108 500 134 50 2

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15 Malik RB
1000 100 1000 110 350 20
Laghap
16 Dur
230 2 1500 15 40 2
Mohammed
17 Mir Khancha 80 10 300 15 105 0
18 Liwari 300 2 100 30 100 0
19 Dur Banchah 2000 20 4000 100 500 32
20 Dad Khuda 200 1 300 10 20 0
21 Khuda rahim 25 0 150 10 30 0
22 Amalof 2000 20 2000 50 1000 50
23 Station 8000 1000 11000 1500 40 0
24 Khuda
2000 300 2000 300 600 200
Bakhsh
25 Killi Ali
200 20 600 15 5 0
Bakhsh
26 Allahyar 500 20 1000 30 50 2

6.3.6 Actually conservation of range lands and provision of permanent
sources of water are required. No agency whether government or non-
government can alter the rain regularity. However in strategic locations
check dams, delay action dams and small dams can be constructed as
permanent solution. Small dams can also be used for irrigation purposes,
resulting in permanent settlements. Nomadic pattern of population is not
changing because of non-availability of water and source of income.

6.3.7 Figures given by provincial government depict that 180319 livestock
including cattle heads perished due to recent drought. By any standard it
is very high when compared to total figure of 503816.

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7. Islamic Relief conducted a very detailed and thorough survey of 7 Union
Councils with 122 villages covering a population of 19078. The questions
incorporated in questionnaire included variety of areas like education,
male female ratios, rangelands and their distances, drought and its
effects, problems faced by them and possible solutions to these problems.
The answers are eye openers and at the same time mind bugling. The
statistics gathered proves our earlier analysis. People are dependent on
Agriculture and livestock. Education is at its lowest, because of lack of
facilities and poverty. Schools have been established without teachers.
Absenteeism in teachers is alarming. In some schools (primary) for more
than 300 students there is one teacher. This results in high drop out rate
among the students.

7.1.1 Health sector gives equally dismal position. Hospitals, BHUs and other
health facilities are abnormally low. Hospitals and Dispensaries are
without doctors, paramedics and medicines. Poor peoples are desperate
for health facilities as malnutrition due to low level of income, has a telling
effect on overall health of masses.

7.1.2 Livestock is second major source of income and source of food and
nutrition. Surprisingly no vet facilities are worth mentioning Vet hospitals
and dispensaries are either non-existence, if they do exist they lack both
staff as well as medicines. Private Sector is also not forthcoming as
livestock population is mostly scattered in rural hinterland and due to
absence of roads and means of communication, private sector lacks
initiative finding it more problematic than profitable.

7.1.3 The survey brings out two revealing facts to fore, a population in general
tacks potable water facilities whereas water level in majority of places is
not very low. Sinking of hand pumps would not be a gigantic task for
government agencies or NGOs. This small service can solve one major

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problem besides providing an opportunity for kitchen gardening or poultry
farming as practiced in Balochistan ,s villages. Another area which is high
lighted in the survey is technical education. Majority population is unskilled
labour, employed on land or doing add job. Some kind of technical
orientation can improve their productivity. Majority of women folk work as
Agriculture Labour or tend their livestock. Mobile units by government or
NGOs can impart training to them, how best they can utilize their labour,
thereby increasing their productivity and income. Embroidery of Balochi
women is admired and appreciated. A little introduction to new designs
and a bit of marketing outlets can enhance their source of living.

8. Nature has generously gifted the district with natural resources. Chagai is
also called museum of minerals. The big deposits are copper, onyx
marble, sulphur, iron and granite. Saindak Metal Ltd which was working
with Government of Pakistan has now been handed over to Chinese
Company for ore mining operations. The project is expected to yield
annual production of Copper (15810 tonnes) gold (1.47 tonnes) and Silver
(2.76 tones) over two decades. Another 40 thousand Sulphuric Acid can
be generated from the fuel gases from Saindak Project.

8.1.1 At present about 1235 people are employed on the project. Dilband,
Pachni Koh, Zan Kan, Juhli Botak, Mashki Chah and Chigendid are known
for Iron, Copper Gold and Onyx Marble. If properly exploited and
developed this sector alone can solve the unemployment problem of the
District. Both government and IR Survey indicate 15 and above but less
than 60 years of age population to be around 20% of which half the work
force consist of women. Only 20% of 202564 are employable male work
force. If half of employable workfare remains attached with Agriculture,
livestock and other profession, only 20,000 are to be provided
employment. Two to three projects in mining sector can provide the
answer to this aggravating issue. If government binds all private mine

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owners to establish one to two processing units of Marble and granite it
can generate employment for more than job seekers, besides creating a
nucleolus of skilled work force. Saindak Project, Pachiukch Project
executing agencies and Private Mine/ quarry owners of Marble Onyx can
jointly put a technical training centre of good quality for improving the skills
of labour force. Majority respondent in IR survey demanded training in
skills.

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Part II:
SURVEY OF FLORA

Introduction:
Chagai district falls under Balochistan Xeric Woodlands Eco-region, which
comprises of Desert and Xeric Scrublands; which is bio-regionally out
standing and having critical conservation status.
Vegetation Survey
The vegetation is typical of arid areas and depends upon the summer and
winter rain fall. The vegetation on mountains dry, streambeds, stony and
sandy plains vary in terms of species, habitat diversities and community
structures. The harsh climate, minimal rain fall, and poor soil conditions do
not allow for rich biodiversity. Natural vegetation is facing high grazing
pressure from livestock, deforestation, soil and wind erosion. The area is
much disturbed by biotic influence. It is extremely difficult to find a spot of
undisturbed natural vegetation.
On the basis of floristic composition, Chaghi ecosystem is divided in to three zones,

1. Highly degraded Zone.
2. Minimum degraded zone.
3. Upper marginal zone.

1. Highly degraded Zone.

This zone comprises a very vast area of Dalbandeen Sadar, Padag, Nukundi,Yakmach,
Dak, Killl Gul Mohammad, Mirkhancha, and Village Dur Mohammad areas. lower
rachis of these areas are devoid of Tamerix trees.

Due to harsh climatic conditions, drought and overgrazing, there is degradation in
the density and composition of vegetation. Following species such as, Halixilon
salicornicum (Larag), Rhazyz stricta ( Esharq ), Chenopodium album (Sagdaro ),
Artimisia maritima ( Dranig),Citrullus colocynthis (Kulkushta), Calotropis procera
( Qarq), Zygophylum spp. ( Alonj), Alhagi marrurum ( Shinz), Saccharum griffithii (Kash
), Tamerix oxiphylla (Ghaz), Tribulus sp. (Sarhing), Salvia sp.(Mour), Tamerix
articulata (Kirri),Typha (Kul), Pogh, Hordium sp., Talaka, Alako, Kandar, Phonix
dactlifea (Mach), Morobi, Mazh, Krach, Janboo, Righit, Obisht, Maisk, Rodinko, Odish,
Unknown 1 and Alako sp. Are widely distributed species of the study area. Frequency,
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relative frequency, relative density, relative cove and importance value index of dominant
plant species are given in the Table (1).

2. MINIMUM DEGRADED ZONE:
This zone includes upper rachis Gardi Gangle, Gokanar, upper zone of Dak Area,
Aminabad, Chaghi near city area, Zangi Nawar, and Noshkey areas.

In this zone the vegetation is comparatively less disturbed. Species in the area
observed as; Tamerix oxiphylla, Phonix dactilifera, in trees, in shrubs Withanea
coagulans, eriplca aphylla, Tockcia brahvica, fagonia arabica, Pteropyrum olivieri,
Galonia aucheri and Halixilon saliconicum, in herbs, Alhaji marrurum, Citrulus
colocynthis, Peganum harmala, Saccharum griffithii, Typha Spp., Artimisia maritima,
Malva neglecta, Halixilon salicornicum, Zygophylum Spp., Plantago oveta,

3. UPPER MARGINAL ZONE:
This zone comprises the areas, Kali Kurd, Killi Saleh Mohammed Upper part of
Zangi Nawer, western side of Amin Abad and Doganan. These areas were less disturbed
by human influence, deforestation and grazing pressures. In these areas, following plant
species such as Morus alba, Tamerix oxiphylla, Populas alba, Ficcus carica, Ziziphus
jujuba, Pistacia atlantica, in trees and Pteropyrum olivieri, Stockcia brohivica,
Calotropis procera, Galonia aucheri, Withanea coagulans, Periploca aphylla, Sophora
mollis in shrubs and in herbs, Saccharum griffithii, Citrullus colocynthis, Malva neglecta,
Alhaji marrurum, Peganum harmala, Tupha, Plantago oveta, Hordium sp., Artimisia sp.,
Kandar, Alako, Puzho, Zera, Kobang, Porhko, Kalmala, Hertia intermedia, Sherago,
were observed in the present survey.

The general conditions of the vegetation is rather poor due to drought and highly grazing
pressure. Citrulus colocynthis, Alhaji marrurum, Rhazya stricta and Halixilon
saaliconicum were the dominant species in the area. Other associated species were
Tamerix oxiphylla, Phonix dactilifera and Saccharum griffithii.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

VEGETATION STUDY:
Vegetation was sampled by “line intercept method” (Canfied 1941) randomly. In
each site 3 transects of 30 meter length was laid at random. Name of species and their
cover intercepting the line were noted, and phyto-sociological attributes (relative density,
relative frequency, and relative cover and importance value) were calculated.

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Nomenclature of plants followed is that of Stewart (1972) and up-to date Flora of
Pakistan.

INFORMATION RELATING TO PLANT SPECIES USES IN THE AREA:

Ethnobotanical information was collected from various villages of selected area of
Chaghi. We tried to meet elders and key informants, from whom we enquired the
information about the importance of plants and the traditional uses with whom they were
familiar with.

In this way, interviews were taken from various local healers. Research circulate over the
following data:

 local Names of the species
 Scientific Name of the species
 Habit of the species
 Parts of plants used
 Medicinal uses of species
 Socio-economic value of species
 Quantities harvested
 Quantities sold
 Market value of species

Plant specimens were collected from Chaghi area and local names and different uses of
plants were asked from local people of the area.

ETHNOBOTANICAL DATA

Speaking of Ethnobotanical data, referring to the board range of information, data
collected on how local people interact with natural environment. Data is collected in
many different forms- collection of plants, different information from locals people and
other traditional people, photographs were taken and as well as the market surveys and so
on…

A little survey of the markets was made for the purpose to know about the source
of introduction of these plants to the market, how frequently these plants are used and in
what conditions these plants are kept in their shops. some photographs were taken of
their shops, medicinal plants and other products.
Traditional knowledge or folk medicinal knowledge is also referred that what the
local people know about the natural environment whereas scientific knowledge is also
considered in this research.

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Interviews about palnt use in the area

MARKET SURVEY:
No economic study of Biological resources can be completed without a survey
of the plants sold in local market. So many medicinal plants and plants other products
have a important regional value, which can only be discovered by talking with producers
and sellers. The amount of income that a community can earn from trade by these
products is determined by their access to market places and the current value of goods as
determined by supply and demand. It is noticed that many wild products were brought in
small quantities to the market and we enquired and observed that these plants, which
were brought to the market for the first time, would never ever searched out for the
second time because the plants which were uprooted once, never they would survive
again in those harsh circumstances and destructive drought. It was also observed that the
people who were purchasing medicinal plants, were inquiring about the value and
importance of the plants and also unaware about the treatment procedure. They asking
about the preparation, procedure of dosage of medicinal plants for different illnesses or
diseases. These observations were clear evidence of t he trade and the clear threat to the
survival of medicinal plants. You can learn much is paying attention to the item, which is
purchased, and the prices paid.

Range Vegetation:
Range vegetation were studied, Tamerix oxiphylla and Halixilon persicum and
Phonix dactilifera in trees, Pteropyrum olivieri, Stockcia brohivica and Withnea
coagulans in shrubs and Citrullus colocynthis, Peganum haramla, Halixilon
salicornicum and Alhaji marrurum in herb species.

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PHYTO – SOCIOLOGY OF MIR KHANCHA AREA

Table Stand No. 1 Peganum harmala- Rhazya stricta Stand

S.N NAME OF PR/IN/ IND T/CO F-1 C-3 D-3 F-3 Y-3
o. PLANTS QU VER
1. Peganum harmala 6 17 90.7 60 12.75 22.66 27.2 20.87

2. Rhazya stricta 4 11 102.5 40 14.4 14.66 18.18 15.74

3 Galonia auchari 3 14 111 30 15.60 18.66 13.63 15.96

4 Alhaji marrurum 3 11 188 30 26.43 14.66 13.63 18.24

5 Plantago oveta 2 5 122.5 20 17.22 6.66 9.09 10.99

6. Halixilon 2 10 86 20 12.09 13.33 9.09 11.50
salicornicum
7. Kanda 1 6 7.5 10 1.05 8 4.54 4.53

8 Tamerix oxiphylla 1 I 3 10 0.42 1.33 4.54 2.09

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Table Stand No. 2: Citrullus colocynthis – Tamerix oxiphylla Stand
S.N NAME OF PR/IN/ IND T/CO F-1 C-3 D-3 F-3 Y-3
o. PLANTS QU VER
1. Citrullus 4 17 84.5 40 6.17 16.83 13.79 12.26
colocynthis
2. Tamerix oxiphylla 5 11 12.45 50 9.09 10.89 17.24 12.40
3. Phonix dactilifera 4 6 200 40 14.60 5.94 13.82 11.45
4. Alhaji marrurum 3 10 88 30 6.42 9.90 10.34 8.88
5. Artimisia Spp. 2 14 51 20 3.72 13.86 6.89 8.18
6. Hordium marrurum 3 9 312.5 30 22.82 8.91 10.34 14.02
7. Alako 2 6 211.5 20 15.44 5.94 6.89 9.42
8. Talaka 1 5 36 10 2.62 4.95 3.44 3.68
9. Plantago oveta 1 1 28 10 2.04 0.99 3.44 2.15
10 Rhazya stricta 1 11 102 10 7.46 10.89 3.44 7.26
11 Gallonia aucheri 1 5 95 10 6.93 4.95 3.44 5.11

12 Tribulus terrestres 2 6 36 20 2.62 5.94 6.89 5.15

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Table Stand No. 3: Alhaji marrurum – Citrullus colocynthis Stand

S.N NAME OF PR/IN/ IND T/CO F-1 C-3 D-3 F-3 Y-3
o. PLANTS QU VER
1. Ahaji marrurum 6 17 90.7 60 12.75 22.66 27.2 20.87

2. Citrullus colocynthis 4 11 102.5 40 14.4 14.66 18.18 15.90

3. Saccharum griffithii 3 14 111 30 15.60 18.66 13.63 15.96

4. Peganum harmala 3 11 188 30 26.43 14.66 13.63 18.24

5. Rhazya stricta 2 5 122.5 20 17.22 6.66 9.09 10.99

6. Tribulus terrestres 2 10 86 20 12.09 13.33 9.09 11.50

7. Withania coagulans 1 6 7.5 10 1.05 8 4.54 4.53

8. Malva neglecta 1 1 3 10 0.42 1.33 4.54 2.09

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Table Stand No. 4 Tamerix oxiphylla – Rhazya stricta Stand

S.N NAME OF PR/IN IND T/CO F-1 C-3 D-3 F-3 Y-3
o. PLANTS /QU VER
1. Tamerix oxiphylla 4 11 212.5 40 17.64 15.49 15.38 16.17
2. Rhazya stricta 5 17 98 50 8.13 23.94 19.23 17.10
3. Alhaji marrurum 3 6 28.2 30 2.32 8.45 11.53 7.43
4. Stockia brahuia 2 14 122 20 10.12 19.71 7.69 9.13
5. Onobryclus 2 2 209.5 20 17.36 2.81 7.69 9.28
tavernierifolia
6. Convolus spionsus 2 2 18 20 1.49 2.81 7.69 4.10
7. Tribulus terrestress 1 1 4 10 0.33 1.40 3.84 1.95
8. Plantago oveta 2 2 37 20 3.07 2.81 7.69 4.60
9. Halixilon 2 9 282 20 23.40 12.67 7.69 14.58
salicornicum
10. Peganum harmala 2 6 190 20 15.76 8.45 7.69 10.65

11. Kanda 1 1 4 10 0.33 1.40 3.84 1.95

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Table Stand No. 5 Saccharum griffithii – Rhazya stricta Stand

S.N NAME OF PR/IN/ IND T/CO F-1 C-3 D-3 F-3 Y-3
o. PLANTS QU VER
1 Saccharum griffithii 5 10 121 50 12.96 11.77 22.72 15.71

2 Rhazya stricta 4 14 109.5 40 11.73 16.47 18.18 15.46

3 Malva neglecta 3 11 137.5 30 14.72 12.93 13.63 13.76

4 Withina coagulans 2 2 36 20 3.85 2.36 9.09 5.1

5 Periploca 2 17 39 20 4.18 20 9.09 11.09
aphylla
6 Stockia brhuia 2 6 212.5 20 22.76 7.05 9.09 12.96

7 Peganum harmala 2 9 188 20 20.13 10.58 9.09 13.26

8 Janbo 1 5 71 10 7.60 5.88 4.54 6.00

9 Anthemis 1 11 19 10 2.03 12.94 4.54 6.53
odontostephara

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TABLE No. A-1 VALUES OF PLANTS IN VARIOUS STANDS

S.N STAND No. MEDICINAL FODDER TIMBER FUEL SHELTER FENCING EDIBLE
WOOD FRUIT
o
1 1 3 3 - 4 2 - -

2 2 6 5 1 3 3 - -

3 3 4 4 - 2 1 - -

4 4 4 7 1 3 2 1 -

5 5 5 5 - 3 1 1 -

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TABLE No. A-2 PRESENCE IN A QUADRATE
S. No. PLANTS NAME STAND. 1 STAND. 2 STAND. 3 STAND. 4 STAND.5
1 Tamerix oxiphylla √ √ √
2 Saccharum griffithii √ √
3 Malva neglecta √ √
4 Withanea coagulans √
5 Periploca aphylla √
6 Stockia brahvia √
7 Peganum harmala √ √
8 Janbo √ √ √ √
9 Anthemis odontostephara √
10 Rhazya stricta √ √ √ √ √
11 Alhaji marrurum √ √ √ √
12 Onobryclus tavernierifolia √
13 Convolus spinosus √
14 Tribulus terrestris √ √ √
15 Plantago oveta √ √ √
16 Halixilon salicornicum √ √
17 Kanda √ √
18 Citrullus colocynthis √ √
19 Phnix dactilifera √
20 Artimisia Sp. √
21 Hordium marrurum √
22 Alako √
23 Talaka √
24 Galonia aucheri √ √

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TABLE No. A-3: RELATIVE COVER OF SPECIES IN ALL STANDS
S. No. PLANTS NAME STAND. 1 STAND. 2 STAND. 3 STAND. 4 STAND.5
1 Tamerix oxiphylla 1.33 13.79 15.38
2 Saccharum griffithii 13.63 22.72
3 Malva neglecta 4.54 13.63
4 Withanea coagulans 4.54 9.09
5 Periploca aphylla 9.90
6 Stockia brahvia 7.69 9.09
7 Peganum harmala 27.2 13.63 7.69 9.09
8 Janbo 4.54
9 Anthemis odontostephara 4.54
10 Rhazya stricta 18.18 3.44 9.09 19.23 18.18
11 Alhaji marrurum 13.63 10.34 27.2 11.53
12 Onobryclus tavernierifolia 7.69
13 Convolus spinosus 7.69
14 Tribulus terrestris 6.89 9.09 3.84
15 Plantago oveta 9.09 3.44 7.79
16 Halixilon salicornicum 9.09 7.69
17 Kanda 4.54 3.84
18 Citrullus colocynthis 13.79 18.18
19 Phonix dactilifera 13.82
20 Artimisia Sp. 6.89
21 Hordium marrurum 10.34
22 Alako 6.89
23 Talaka 3.44
24 Galonia aucheri 13.63 3.44

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TABLE No. A-4 RELATIVE DENSITY OF SPECIES IN ALL STANDS
S. No. PLANTS NAME STAND. 1 STAND. 2 STAND. 3 STAND. 4 STAND.5
1 Tamerix oxiphylla 1.33 10.89 15.49
2 Saccharum griffithii 18.66 11.77
3 Malva neglecta 1.33 121.93
4 Withanea coagulans 8 2.36
5 Periploca aphylla 20
6 Stockia brahvia 7.69 7.05
7 Peganum harmala 22.61 14.66 7.69 10.58
8 Janbo 5.88
9 Anthemis odontostephara 12.94
10 Rhazya stricta 6.66 10.99 6.66 19.23 16.47
11 Alhaji marrurum 13.33 9.90 22.66 11.53
12 Onobryclus tavernierifolia 8 7.69
13 Convolus spinosus 7.69
14 Tribulus terrestris 5.94 13.33 3.84
15 Plantago oveta 0.99 7.69
16 Halixilon salicornicum 7.69
17 Kanda 3.84
18 Citrullus colocynthis 16.83 14.66
19 Phnix dactilifera 5.94
20 Artimisia Sp. 13.86
21 Hordium marrurum 8.91
22 Alako 5.94
23 Talaka 4.95
24 Galonia aucheri 18.66 4.95

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TABLE No. A-5 RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIES IN ALL STANDS
S. No. PLANTS NAME STAND. 1 STAND. 2 STAND. 3 STAND. 4 STAND.5
1 Tamerix oxiphylla 4.54 17.24 15.38
2 Saccharum griffithii 13.63 22.72
3 Malva neglecta 4.54 13.63
4 Withanea coagulans 4.54 9.09
5 Periploca aphylla 9.09
6 Stockia brahvia 7.69 9.09
7 Peganum harmala 27.2 13.63 7.69 9.09
8 Janbo 4.54
9 Anthemis odontostephara 4..54
10 Rhazya stricta 18.18 3.44 9.09 19.23 18.18
11 Alhaji marrurum 13.63 10.34 27.2 11.53
12 Onobryclus tavernierifolia 7.69
13 Convolus spinosus 7.69
14 Tribulus terrestris 6.89 9.09 3.84
15 Plantago oveta 9.09 3.44 7.69
16 Halixilon salicornicum 9.09 3.84
17 Kanda 13.79 18.18
18 Citrullus colocynthis 13.82
19 Phnix dactilifera 6.89
20 Artimisia Sp. 10.34
21 Hordium marrurum 6.89
22 Alako 3.44
23 Talaka 13.63 3.44
24 Galonia aucheri

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TABLE No. A-6 IMPORTANCE VALUE INDEX OF SPECIES IN ALL STANDS
S. No. PLANTS NAME STAND. 1 STAND. 2 STAND. 3 STAND. 4 STAND.5
1 Tamerix oxiphylla 2.09 12.40 16.17
2 Saccharum griffithii 15.96 15.71
3 Malva neglecta 2.09 13.79
4 Withanea coagulans 4.53 5.1
5 Periploca aphylla 11.09
6 Stockia brahvia 9.13 12.96
7 Peganum harmala 20.87 18.24 10.65 13.26
8 Janbo 6.00
9 Anthemis odontostephara 6.53
10 Rhazya stricta 15.74 7.26 10.99 17.10 15.46
11 Alhaji marrurum 18.24 8.88 20.87 7.43
12 Onobryclus tavernierifolia 9.28
13 Convolus spinosus 4.10
14 Tribulus terrestris 5.15 11.50 1.95
15 Plantago oveta 10.99 2.15 4.60
16 Halixilon salicornicum 11.50 14.58
17 Kanda 4.53 1.95
18 Citrullus colocynthis 12.26 15.90
19 Phnix dactilifera 11.15
20 Artimisia Sp. 8.18
21 Hordium marrurum 14.02
22 Alako 9.42
23 Talaka 3.68
24 Galonia aucheri 15.96 5.11

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MISCELLANOUS USES OF PLANTS IN AREA
FODDER SPECIES:

In total of 44 plant species,20 species are found to be used as fodder in Chaghi by
the maximum contribution of grasses belonging to the family Poaceae. However, Wheat
(Gandum), Zea mays (Makai), Avena sativa (Jandar) are also used in their respective
season.

Saccharum griffithii-A source of fodder plant
Table:. Fodder species of Chaghi

Trees:

Botanical Name Local Name Family
Ficus carica Ingeer Moraceae
Moas alba Toth Moraceae
Pistacia atlantica Shanai Anacardiaceae
Ziziphus jujuba Ber Rhamnaceae

Shrubs;

Technnical Name Local Name Family
Stockia brahovica Kotor
Pteropyrum olivieri Karwan kush
Rhazya stricta Esharq
Periploca aphylla Gisher Asclepiadaceae

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Herbs:
Botanical Name Local Name Family
Allium ascalpnicum Piaz Alliaceae
Buddleja crispa Jir Buddlejaceae
Chenopodium album Sag Chenopodaceae
Convolvulus arvensis sag Convolvulaceae
Cooculus pendulus Oshang Menispermaceae
Cymbopogan jawarncusa Jir bot Gramineae
Hordeum mrinum Kandar Gramineae
Lepidium draba Kunchid Cruciferae
Malva neglecta Pochako Malvaceae
Plantago oveta Isphagole Plantaginaceae
Teucrium stocksiamum Kalporag Lamiaceae
Saccharum griffithii Kash Gramineae

FENCING
Fencing is done around animal enclosures, homestead and to protect cropland. Three
types of fences are common in Chaghi: poles, dead branches and a living fence.
The traditional way of fencing is by filling up branches of Ziziphus species in to
the ground surface; other species used for dead fences include Periploca aphylla and
Stockia brahvica. Fencing with poles involves creating a continuous wall of 3-4 m height
in holes or in a trench dug round the area to be fencing.

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FOOD PLANTS:

GUMS AND RESINS FOR CHEWING

In this category are species that exude substances, which are sucked. Many are
almost tasteless but are sucked just to exercise the mouth and to pass time. Resins are
mainly obtained from periploca aphylla, Pistacia atlantica can be made into chewing
gum.

EDIBLE FRUITS
Although consumed as snacks, fruits constitute a major part of the food ingested
by children and women looking after cattle as well as morons in the wilderness. The five
most preferred fruits are:

 Pastacia khinjuk (Shanae)
 Ziziphus jujuba (Ber)
 Morus alba (toth)
 Ficus carica (Engeer)

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EDIBLE ROOTS AND TUBERS
A number of species especially Allium Sp., Carraluma edulis and several genera
in Asclepiadaceae have edible tubers. A slight sweet taste and a juicy consistency
characterize all. As a result they are also preferred for their water. The plains of grassland
are the home to the majority of these edible tubers, many of which are noticed, only in
rainy season when they sprout new shoots from their underground tubers.

PLANTS USED AS FIREWOOD
A great number of species can be used as firewood. In Chaghi, however, tradition
requires a woman to use wood for fire. Mostly they preferred Halixilon and Tamerix
species for its characteristics: the wood burns brightly, thus providing lighting for the
usually dark village houses;

The most important firewood species in order to preference are:

 Pistacia atlantica (Gowan)
 Zizipus jojoba (Ber)
 Dilbergia sissoo (Tali)
 Morus alba (Tut)

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MEDICINAL PLANTS

This survey lists about …..species used for medicinal purposes in humans. The
vast number is an indication of the important role played by plants in the health of the
Chaghi people. The common diseases in the area, are malaria fever, tuberculosis, gesture-
intestinal problems and infections of the urinary tract.

Florestic List Of Wild/Medicinal
Plants Of ChaghI
S.NO SCIENTIFIC NAME LOCAL NAME FAMILY
1 Carelluma edulis Marmooth Asclepiadaceae
2 Calotrophis procera Karq Ascilopiadaceae
3 Chenopodium album Sagdaro Chenopodiaceae
4 Cocculus pendulus Menispermaceae
5 Convolvulus arvensis Dera Convolvulaceae
6 Ficus carica Ingeer Moraceae
7 Citrullus colocynthis Kulkushta
8 Hordium murinum Kandar Gramineae
9 Mentha longifolia Jnagli podina Lamiaceae
10 Moras alba Tut Moraceae
11 Malva neglecta pochako Malvaceae
12 Plantago oveta Aspaghol Plataganaceae
13 Nerium oleander Gandarai Apocynacnaceae

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Tamerix- in flowering condition A Beauty full flower – Chilghazi area

Pteropyrum pliveri Common in the area Nerium oliender, having an additional beauty

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5.1. Nature of Urbanisation/Settlement

According to 1981 census 91% of the population is living in the rural areas.
Although there are rural- urban migration. The actual extent of rural- urban
population is difficult to measure.

5.2. LAND TENURE

According to 1990 census of Agriculture, the total Number of forms in the district
is 5794, which are all private forms. The total area under these forms is 97954
hec. The total cultivated area during the census year was 15295 hec. The
cultivated area as percentage was 16%. Average farm area was 17 hectares
while average cultivated area was 2.64 hectares. The classification of the farms
and their area was; the small farms up to 5 hectares numbered 2510, i.e. 43% of
the total farms, the area under these farms were 6736 hectares, which is just 7%
of the total area. The large farms having an area of more than 20 hectares
numbered 1273, i.e. 23% of the farms, the area under these farms were 71972
hectares, which is the 73% of the total area.

Out of the total 5794 farms, 4860 farms were owner farms, 117 were owner-cum-
tenant farms and 819 were tenant farms. It shows that 84% owner farms have
86% of the area, 2% owner cum tenant farms have 8% of the area and 14%
tenant farms have 5% of the area. Tenancy contracts are done on the basis of
one sixth. Where the tenant’s share is 1/6 and the owner 5/6, labors are
employed on the prevailing daily wages in the open market, which varies from
place to place and season to season.

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6. Methodology

6.2. Selection of Samples

To conduct Environmental study, the site selection was too
Much difficult. For this sake the Topography of Chaghi based on Desert, hill and
plains. The experts decided to conduct the survey and assessment of
Dalbandeen, Taftan and Nokundi Tehsils. In these tehsils following areas (killi Taj
Mohammad, Saleh Mohammad, and Haji Mohbat) from Chaghi Union Counsel,
(Killi Abdul Majeed, Boran, Syed Mir shah and Haji Dad Kareem) from Chilghazi
Union Counsel, (Killi Sohrab, Lal Mohammad, Pishok and Shah Sarwar) from
Dalbandeen Sadar, (Village Dur Mohammad, Mirkhancha and Liwari) from
Amuri, (Village Dur Bancha, Dad Khuda and Khuda Karim) from Nukundi Union
Counsel, (Killi Amalof and Station Killi) from Taftan Union Counsel and (M.
Khuda Bakhsh, Ali Bakhsh and Killi Allah yar) from Padag Union Counsel for
detailed table ( ).

6.2.1. Selection of site along the road and far from the road

Along the Road Away From Road
1. Aminabad 1. Taj Muhammad
2. Gul Muhammad 2. Saleh Muhammad
3. Pishuk 3. Haji Muhabat
4. Khuda Bux 4. Boran
5. Allah Yar 5. Syed Gul Mir Shah
6. Ali Bux 6. Haji Dad Karim
7. Station Taftan 7. Suhrab
8. Lal Muhammad

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9. Sahib Khan
10. Shah Sarwar
11. Mada Kharan
12. Rasool Bux Laghab
13. Dur Muhammad
14. Mirkhan Chah
15. Lewari
16. Durban Chah
17. Khudai Rahim
18. Dad Khuda
19. Amalof

Size of samples
Sample size and area of Surveyed Villages and Union counsels
S. No. Union Council Village Area of Total
Village
1 Killi Taj
7956 Acr.
Mohanmmed
21616
2 Chaghi Saleh
400 Acr Acr
Mohammed
3 Haji Mohabat 13260 Acr
4 Killi Abdul
9282Acr
Majeed
5 Ziarat Boran 18560 Acr 48660
6 Balanosh Gul Mir shah 9282 Acr Acr

7 Hagi Dad
19890 Acr
Kareem
8 Chilghazi Sorab 39870 71694

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9 Lal Mohammad 9282 Acr Acr
10 Sahib Khan 5304 Acr
11 Haji Shah
17238 Acr
Sarwar
12 Gul Mohammad 6630 Acr

13 Kardug Madad
Dal Bandeen 6630 Acr 27846
Shah
sadar Acr
14 Pishok 15912 Acr
15 Malik RB Laghap 5304 Acr
16 Dur Mohammed 13260 Acr
27846
17 Amuri Mir Khancha 6630
Acr
18 Liwari 7956 Acr
19 Dur Banchah 13260 Acr
26520
20 Nokundi Dad Khuda 10608 Acr
Acr
21 Khuda rahim 2652 Acr
22 Amalof 6630 Acr 19890
Taftan
23 Station 13260 Acr Acr

24 Khuda Bakhsh 6630 Acr
25 Padag Killi Ali Bakhsh 9945 Acr 27183 Acr
26 Allahyar 10608 Acr

Survey technique

Interviews
A series of interviews were conducted for the determination of the effects of
drought. For this sake interviews taken from old ones, young, educated,
uneducated, farmers, students, nomads, sheep hard, hunters, Hunting
facilitators, local game watchers and local plant sellers. Different uses of plants

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were recorded. The old ones were found very informative about plant use. Hunter
told about the average loss of animals after drought. Beside this, many animals
were perished after atomic radiations in the area. Their fur and wool became
separated and they fell to skin diseases, and in the result they died.

Photography / Movie
During survey, the photographs of plants, animals and important places and
Habitats were taken. Beside photographs movies of plants, animals, their habitat
and important Archaeological places, hills and all the events meeting for
interviews were also made on the spot.

Plant Collection
During survey, it was a necessary process to collect specimens of plants and
animals for proof and exact identification. About twelve plant species were
collected from different localities of Chaghi district. No new plant came under
observation. Two types of Lizard, one species of Scorpion, one specie of Jackal,
one specie of Snake were collected during the survey.

Ecological Attributes

Ecologically, the area has great significance because of there are such ancient
places which are hundred of years ago. It is the migratory rout of birds (Houbara
bustard, Cranes) and habitat of costly and endangered species of Reptiles. It is
linked with two neighbor countries, Iran and Afghanistan. Chaghi is the place
where all kind of minerals found. Even gold is also found in the area. Sulpher
spring in Amuri Union counsel is a source of medicine and used by local for cure
of several allergic problems and other external diseases. The main rout to Middle
East runs in the centre of District.

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Economic benifits from Biodiversity
In Chagai district, most of the people live in huts. Huts in summer made form
leaves of Nannorophs ritchiana, which’s capability to allow wind through small
holes, which keep the hut cool. In winter they over lap over a blanket made of
wool of goat and sheep which relieve them from cold weather. Now the people
have no livestock and their wool. They are making rooms for this sake. The wool
of livestock was like a cash crop. They make blanket and other items, sold, and
were a source of income. Chaghi is a migratory rout of Houbara Bustard that
pay a lot of income for local people. The bird’s worth not only provide direct
beneficiaries to local but also provide many Hospitals, Mosques, windmills, hand
pumps and costly vehicles. Local people sell plants as medicine, fuel wood,
timber or as Shelter.

Plants and Animalspaly an important role in the economy of people

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WATER SITUATION
S. No. Union Village Water & Drought
Counsel Before ft After(ft)
1 Killi Taj
40 65
Mohammed
2 Chaghi Saleh
18 38
Mohammed
3 Haji Mohabat 4 20
4 Killi Abdul
5 18
Majeed
Ziarat
5 Boran 55 66
Balanosh
6 Gull Mir shah 40 60
7 Haji Dad Karim 15 40
8 Sorab 12 30
9 Lal Mohammad 18 48
10 Chilghazi Sahib Khan 45 54
11 Haji Shah
180 180
Sarwar
12 Gul Mohammad 60 60

13 Kardug Madad
100 130
Dalbandeen Shah
14 sadder Pishok 95 95
15 Malik RB Lag
70 100
hap
16 Dur Mohammed 15 25

17 Amuri Mir Khancha 15 40
18 Liwari 10 15

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19 Dur Bancha 75 75
20 Nokundi Dad Khuda 5 13
21 Khuda Rahim 5 30
22 Amalof 10 20
Taftan
23 Station 250 300
24 Khuda Bakhsh 50 60
25 Padag Killi Ali Bakhsh 90 100
26 Allahyar 20 40

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Part 3:
Fauna Survey:

Introduction:
Chagai, with a huge land cover, comprises the Northwestern part of Balochistan
province. The vast tract of land reflects that such areas harbor desirable wildlife
both in number and variety; but the ruthless hunting and poaching has reduced
the wildlife population near to extinction. Chinkara Gazelle, Goitered Gazelle,
Persian Ibex have probably lost their appearance and some others are leading
precarious existence and are on the verge of extinction.

The physical and natural factors have constituted a variety of unique habitats in
Chagai resulting in typical diversity of animals; though less in number (as
reflected in the following table) the area is home to some of endemic reptile and
small mammalian fauna. From available record following is the comparison of
biodiversity richness in Chagai from what is present in the province of country:

No. of No. of
Endemic
species species in No. of species
Type Species in
in Balochista in Chagai
Balochistan
Pakistan n
Amphibian
20 8 0 ?
s
Reptiles 159 94 7 29
Mammals 182 71 2 36
Birds 666 356 0 110

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Protected Areas in the District

The district being vast in territory has little percentage of its area under protection
of some law or regulation. Still it has history of protected areas dating back to
early eighties, established mainly to protect key ungulate species. It also has an
important wetland of international importance the “Zangi Nawar Lake”. It is a salt
lake in between the moving sand dunes. An internationally threatened bird
“Marbled Teal” breeds here. Its status as Ramsar site changed due to drought in
Balochistan since 1997, during that period the lake almost dried out. Fortunately
it is again filled with water in the winter rains of 2002.

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES:
S.N Establishment
Name Major Fauna
o. Year
1 Gut Ibex, Urial and Chinkara 1983
GAME RESERVES:
1 Zangi Nawar Migratory, Breeding and
Wintering Waterfowls, 1982
especially Marbled Teal.
2 Kambran Ibex, Urial and Chinkara 1983

Amphibian

Secondary data regarding the Amphibians of Chagai was not found and no
amphibians were sighted during the survey due to limitations of the weather.

Reptile
As it was winter season, reptiles were in hibernation. At very rare occasions
some reptiles were observed and identified as mentioned in the following
appendix (The two lizards sighted were previously recorded from the area).

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S. Common Scientific Status Locality Habitat
No. English Name
Name
REPTILES:
1 Not Known Phrynocephalus Rare Zangi Sand
euptilopus Nawar Dunes
2 Black-tailed Phrynocephalus Common Nokundi Mountain
Toad Agama maculatus foot-hills

Chagai is unique in a sense that it has endemic reptile species of global
significance, though in recent study no endemic species was sighted due to
winter season hibernation. A list of most important species is as under:

Common Name Scientific Name Status
Sharp-tailed Spider Agamura femoralis Rare, endemic
Gecko
Lumsdeni Gecko Stenodactylus (crossbemon) Very rare,
lumsdeni endemic
Whip-tailed Sand Gecko Stenodactylus maynardi Endemic
Reticulate Desert Eremias acutirostris Uncommon,
Lacerta endemic
Chagai Desert Lacerta Eremias aporosceles Endemic
Maynard’s awl-headed Lytorhynchus maynardi Rare, endemic
snake

According to the report of BCS seven species of reptiles are endemic in
Balochistan and their distribution is limited to sand dunes of Chagai district.
Status of all these endemic species is rare or very rare. The status of these

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reptiles is still exactly not known. Because no detailed survey of the area is
conducted population wise. Previous surveys which are conducted in the region
are only limited to Chagai sand dunes and were only focused on the species
identification. Threat to these endemic reptiles of Chagai is increased due to the
live catch of these reptiles by professional traders of pet animals in Pakistan.
According to the locals of the area this type of live catch of reptiles in the area is
from three decades and still going on. According to the locals this practice is
increasing and too many collectors come to Chagai desert to catch reptiles. If this
type of activity continues in the area then, these rare reptiles will vanish from the
area for ever.

Snake at Chilghazi

Lizard- for Chaghi is Famous

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One of the Most Dangerous snake of Chaghi area
Avian

As far as the birds are concerned, most of them were winter visitors in the area. A total of
17 species of birds out of 110 species reported from the area were sighted during the
survey. Details are in the following Appendix. In Zangi Nawar Lake during the survey 35
“Common Pochards” were observed. Due to large number of hunters around the lake
waterfowls were unable to stay in the lake. According to the reports by the locals, in vast
salt plains of Hamoon-e-Lora migratory Common Cranes stay for a night enroots to their
journey towards North in spring and South in winter.

S. Common Scientific Status Locality Habitat
No English Name
Name
1 Bar-tailed Ammomane Common Chagai, Desert, semi-
Lark s cincturus Dalbandin, desert and

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Padag, mountain foot-
Noshki, Dak hills.
Plains
2 Hoopoe Alaemon Sparse Chagai, Desert and
Lark alaudipes Dalbandin, Semi-desert.
Padag,
Noshki, Dak
Plains
3 Crested Galerida Common Chagai, Mountain
Lark cristata Dalbandin, Foot-hills and
Padag, Semi-desert.
Noshki, Dak
Plain
4 Northern Vanellus Rare Dak plains One bird was
Lapwing vanellus hunted by a
local man on
Wheat fields.
5 Raven Corvus Rare Dak plains, Caracas of
corax near Esa-chah donkey.
village Desert
6 Rufous- Lanius Common Zangi Nawar Wetland,
tailed isabellinus Lake, Noshki Temarix
Shrike articulata and
Halixilon
ammodandran
trees
7 Common Alcedo atthis Rare Zangi Nawar Wetland,
Kingfisher Lake, Noshki Temarix
articulata trees
8 Lesser Sylvia Rare Zangi Nawar Wetland,

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Whitethroa curruca Lake, Noshki Temarix
t articulata and
Halixilon
ammodandran
trees
9 Plain Leaf Phylloscopu Sparse Zangi Nawar Wetland,
Warbler s neglectus Lake, Noshki Temarix
articulata and
Halixilon
ammodandran
trees
10 Citrine Motacilla Sparse Zangi Nawar Wetland
Wagtail citreola Lake, Noshki

11 Common Aythya ferina Rare Zangi Nawar Wetland
Pochard Lake, Noshki

12 Spanish Passer Sparse Zangi Nawar Wetland,
Sparrow hispaniolensi Lake, Noshki Temarix
s articulata and
Halixilon
ammodandran
trees
13 Common Fulica atra Very Rare Zangi Nawar Wetland
Coot (Feathers Lake, Noshki
of two
birds seen,
hunted by
locals)

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14 Houbara Chlamydotis Very Rare Hookan area, Desert, with
Bustard macqueeni (Footprints North of Halixilon
of two Ahmad Wall, ammodandran
birds seen) Noshki trees
15 Northern Oenanthe Rare Murad Semi-desert
Wheatear oenanthe Village(Yagi;
Pulchoto)
16 Desert Oenanthe Rare Murad Semi-desert
Wheatear deserti Village(Yagi;
Pulchoto)
17 White- Pycnonotus Rare Sarmal Area, Mountain
cheeked leucogenys Noshki Foot-hills.
Bulbul leucotis

Birds’ species of major concern are Houbara Bustard, Common Crane, Marbled
Teal, Saker Falcon, Peregrine, and Egyptian Vulture. Houbara Bustard were
once common throughout the desert and semi-desert habitat of Chagai. Hunting
by the Arab dignitaries and locals of the area with sophisticated vehicle has
reduced the wintering population of this rare winter visitor to Pakistan from
Central Asia. Present status of this bird is critical. If this type of unsustainable
hunting of this bird continues then no bird will be left for their visit to Chagai.
Similarly, Common Crane, a passage migrant via Chagai from Central Asia.
Hunting of the cranes is done by the local hunters of the area. An exact threat to
the population of cranes is not known.

Marbled Teal, a breeding bird in Zangi Nawar Lake, which is a rare bird. Its
status is critical in Zangi Nawar Lake. Hunters were observed in the Lake. Most
of the hunters were locals. No Marbled Teal was sighted in the Lake. Two
species of rare Falcons are reported from the area; Saker Falcon and Peregrine.
Both of them are passage migrant from Central Asia. Reportedly they are

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captured by the locals of the Punjab and N.W.F.P provinces of Pakistan. A group
of 10-15 people comes to Chagai district in Hooqan and Dak Plains in Autumn
season and capture these rare migratory birds. Exact data of capture is not
available. Threat to the Egyptian Vulture, which is the only vulture reported from
Chagai area. Its status is threatened by the poisoning of dead animals by the
locals.

Mammalian fauna

On the basis of indirect observation two species of Mammals were sighted in the
Hooqan area i.e. Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) and Asiatic Jackal
(Canis aureus) in Desert habitat, with sparse population of Haloxylon spp. A rare
species of fox the Ruppelli’s Fox (Vulpes rueppellii) was sighted in Dalbandin
area in desert habitat. The fox observed was killed by the locals near the human
settlements. This fox was previously reported from Chaman and Ormara area.
This new sighting will add to the checklist of Mammals of Chagai. A total of 36
Mammals species are reported from Chagai district. The latest will be 37 with this
addition.

Ruppelli’s Fox- has been sighted after 80 yaears

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Mammals:

Mammals of major concern in the area are Persian Ibex, Chinkara Gazelle,
Goitred Gazelle, Blanford’s Fox, Rueppall’s Sand Fox, Marbled Polecat, Striped
Hyena, Jungle Cat, Sand Cat, Caracal, Cape Hare. Persian Ibex reportedly once
common in Raskoh, Kopdar and Pachin Koh, but due to illicit and illegal hunting
in the area this rare wild goat of Pakistan is near to extinction from these
mountain ranges. Recent scientific studies are not conducted in the area for the
population density of Persian Ibex in the district.

Chinkara Gazelle were once common in the plain areas of Chagai, Nokundi,
Dalbandin, Dak Plains, but now a days these Gazelles are totally exterminated
from the area, no sign of the Gazelle is reported from the area.

Goitred Gazelle once common in the North Eastern Dak Plains of Chagai
touching the borders of Afghanistan. Reportedly it is extinct from the district. This
species population was limited to this area of Pakistan. To confirm the extinction
of this rare species from Pakistan, a detailed survey is needed.

Blanford’s Fox is also among rare species of Mammal in Pakistan. To know the
exact status of the Fox detailed survey is needed.

Rueppall’s Sand Fox was only reported from Chaman and Ormara areas of
Balochistan. This rare fox is now sighted in Chilgazi Union Council of Dalbandin
Tehsil, District Chagai. Exact status is still not known.

Marbled Polecat inhabits mountain ranges of Chagai. It was once exported for its
valuable fur out side the country. At present its status is not known.

Detailed studies on the population and distribution status of small mammals of
Chagai are not conducted. Detailed studies of small mammals are needed.

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Striped Hyena, a scavenger in nature, lives in the vicinity of the human
inhabitants and in the vicinity of water source. Being solitary in nature and
nocturnal is easily killed by the locals near the carcases of livestock by adding
poison on them. Exact status is not known.

Three species of cats; Jungle Cat, Sand Cat and Caracal is reported from the
area. Once they were exported to zoos in western countries. There status is not
known.

Cape Hare, once common in the area is now rare in the area because of the
hunting by the locals during night with the help of vehicles, because Cape Hare is
nocturnal in nature.

MAJOR ECOLOGICAL ISSUES:

 Deforestation
 Illegal Hunting of Wild animals
 Grazing and fodder collection
 Soil erosion
 Desertification
 Lack of awareness
 Poisoning of dead animals
 Lack of proper marketing of forests products
 Lack of ownership of the forests by the community

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PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS:

 Environmental education
 Implementation of forests and wildlife laws
 Supply of electricity on subsidized rates
 Proper marketing of forests products
 Creating a sense of ownership among people
 Comprehensive ecological studies of the area
 Reforestation in the degraded zone
 Introduction of trophy hunting
 Community managed conservation areas

METHODOLOGY:
The survey of the Chagai district was conducted from December 17 th, 2003 to
December 21st, 2003. The area covered was Sarmal, Hooqan, Kuchaki,
Pulchoto, Dak Plains, Chagai thesil and the vicinities, Dalbandin, Zaro-Chah,
Essa-Chah, Noshki, Zangi Nawar Lake, Ahmad Wall, Padag, Hamoon-e-Lora.
Identification of the faunal species was based on observation and if necessary a
collection was made for identification as in the case of reptiles. A binocular, still
camera and movie camera was used to observe and record the faunal and floral
species of the animal it inhabits. 4x4 vehicle was used during the survey for
logistics.

Before going to field a checklist of species more probably to be encountered was
prepared for Reptiles, Mammals and Birds, which are mentioned in the Appendix
VI, VII and VIII respectively.

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Part III:

Recommendation/Conclusion/Observation
FINDINGS OF THE FAUNA SURVEY:
As it was a winter season, reptiles were in hibernation. At very rare occasions
some reptiles were observed and identified as mentioned in Appendix IV. These
two lizards were previously recorded from the area. As far as the birds are
concerned, most of them were winter visitors in the area. A total of 17 species of
birds out of 110 species reported from the area were sighted during the survey.
Details are in the Appendix V.
On the basis of indirect observation two species of Mammals were sighted in the
Hooqan area i.e. Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) and Asiatic Jackal
(Canis aureus) in Desert habitat, with sparse population of Helixilon spp. A rare
species of fox the Ruppelli’s Fox (Vulpes rueppellii) was sighted in Dalbandin
area in desert habitat. The fox observed was killed by the locals near the human
settlements. This fox was reported from Chaman and Ormara area. This new
sighting will add to the checklist of Mammals of Chagai. A total of 36 Mammals
species are reported from Chagai district. The latest will be 37 with this addition.
As far as endemic reptiles are concerned in Chagai no endemic species was
sighted due to winter season. To know the status of the endemic reptiles of
Chagai a survey should be conducted in the month of June and July. The list of
endemic reptiles of Chagai is given in Appendix II. Secondary data regarding the
Amphibians of Chagai was not found and no amphibians were sighted during the
survey due to limitations of the weather. On a visit to Zangi Nawar Lake during
the survey 35 “Common Pochards” were observed. Due to large number of
hunters in the lake waterfowls were unable to stay in the lake. Mostly hunting
was conducted by the villagers of the nearby village. During a two days survey in
the lake eight hunters were seen hunting waterfowls in the early morning and in
the evening

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6.2.2. Observations Flora (Yahya)

In recent survey it was observed that the desert, Plains and hills Ecosystems, the
conditions of all three regions were severely destroyed. Biodiversity, plants and
animals were rare but some ones extinct from area. Throughout the area it was
observed that the living condition of every village was not better. They follow the
old traditions of there fore father’s time. They live in simple hut made up of
Leaves of Nannorophs ritchiana, Halixilon salicornicum in summer and in winter
they overlap “Gidan” a blanket made up wool of goat and sheep. Some people
live in Mud made rooms. In village it was observed that there is no tradition of
boundary of house. Although poverty rule in the area, but for gust sitting the
arrange a room or hut in which they keep their all house hold items and Balochi
tradition Carpets and other thing lied there. In the whole surveyed area, only
three species of Lizard, two species of Jackal, one specie of Snake, One specie
of Scorpion, four species of Butter fly and 10 different species of Aves, and in
flora, seven tree species, six species of Shrub and thirteen species of Herbs
were observed. Deforestation, uprooting of plants were common, besides this
over-hunting of birds especially Houbara bustard was in great quantity. Arabs
hunt in a shape of caravan and the whole community instead of resisting,
facilitate them and feel proud to give them company. In the whole area it came
under observation that the sense of conservation of Biodiversity. The main
reasons were, ignorance, poverty, sense of ownership and lack of aware ness.
Locally the people found to no strategies for future, they mostly depended over
rain, although water table is access able in most of the areas and the land is very
fertile, smooth and able for any crop. They were found very cooperative and
hospitable through out the survey.
Results and Achievements (Flora)

o Checklist of Plants of area
o Checklist of animals
o Local uses of plants
o Water table of the surveyed areas
o Livestock before and after drought

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o Education ratio
o Fuel wood consumption per annum
o Local Nomenclature of wind of area
o Sand dunes problems in District
o People views about wildlife conservation and destruction
o Traditions of area
o Livestock assessment
o Agriculture techniques used in the area
o Photographs and Movies of plants and animals.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Electricity on Subsidy basis
2. Awareness raising and Environmental Education Program should be start
in the area
3. Introduction of Solar and wind energy for electricity as alternate source of
wood.
4. Commercial use of Medicinal plants on sustainable base.
5. Marketing of medicinal plants in the country and out side.
6. Marketing of local Embroidery.
7. Documentation of indigenous knowledge about medicinal plants in the
form of a book.
8. Detailed study of the flora and fauna of the area.

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CONCLUSION (Mehfooz Sb):

Chagai as a barren waste land has low population with enormous
untapped potential resources. God Almighty has blessed this district to
with two virgin resources. One is enormous hidden wealth of mineral and
unutilized human resource. Both human and natural resources need
harnessing. Priorities are to be refixed. Any self respecting nation which
can not provide jobs to a working population of ten thousand then it is
pathetic. Pauperization process, put into operation for fighting the drought
is eating into the very fabric of the society. Begging lands are snatching
away the glory of a proud population. We as society should respect them.
This district has a unique honour of getting Sword of Honour at Sand
Hurst. The only solution to these pestering issues is to harness the human
resource and generate self supporting and self-sustaining economic
activities. All projects in the region should proceed with technical training
centre.

10. RECOMMENDATIONS (Mehfooz Sb):
In order to develop the District economically following practical
recommendations are appended for considerations.

 Electricity is one of the major area of concern of the people of the District.
Regular electricity through National grid to entire district particularly rural
area would be time consuming and an expensive business due to line
loses. In Chagai district, it is Sunny and windy almost eleven months of
the year. When sun and wind is in plenty, then this becomes one of your
advantage, paradoxically. This climate makes the area most suited to wind
mills (Turbines) and solar energy. If these wind mills and solar energy
panels are erected all over this is going to generate enough affordable
energy to light homes, save fuel wood and energize motors of domestic

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wells besides one or two tube wells in the area. In Northern area,
electricity problem was resolved by AKRSP by utilizing water channels by
putting small turbines near every natural or man made fall. Now all hill
tops are lighted and people irrigate small patches by pumping up or down
as the case may be, through motors as energy is available.

 We did discuss menace of smuggling in the district. People in boarding
towns and villages are per force involved in this social evil. But we did not
touch upon quantum of land route trade from this district. Following two
statements show that despite so many genuine hypothesized problem
land route trade to and from Iran is not of the size, it should be but still
three years comparison shows that it is in billions(rupees). It provides
answer to one of our basic question. Employment and finances for infra
structure provision. Two statements are annexed.

 Government has levied 15%GST on all transactions. Imports from Iran to
the tune of Rs.35443million yield Rs.4187.5million as sales tax in as
shown in one of the attached statement. So if the amount received
through sales tax alone is diverted for creating some economic activities, it
is far higher than all relief programmes put together.

 This is one aspect of border trade. Following statement shows customs
seizures in three years. The quantities and value of these seizures except
that of narcotics and arms, shows that the border is very active.
Conservative estimates are that quantity and value of goods which find
way in regular markets are four to five tunes higher than seizures, are
indicative that if properly regulated trans-border trade alone can generate
huge employment opportunities besides generating self-supporting
economic activities, resulting into wellbeing of general masses. One
example would be NGOs and other social organizations to infuse hope
and show them direction. No effort will bring as much change, as change
in thinking. AKRSP had provided vision to the people besides inculcating

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self-respect in peoples mind. With out banking completely on government
if people organize and mobilize themselves by converging their resources,
they can move mountains.

 Ladies in the district are active/ dynamic but neglected force. This
important resource should not go waste. No woman sits idle at home.
They tend livestock, work on land and when free from household chores,
engage themselves in needle-work. This last mentioned activity is their
area of specialization. Social organizations and NGOs can provide credit
and channel their product in the market. Handmade articles have huge
market in foreign countries. In Maharashter, India, NGOs provided
marketing facilities for village milk, through collection centres which turned
it into an industry which changed social complexion in entire area.
Similarly NGOs which seriously desire to bring change should provide
small, (manageable credit) create collection centres and find market for
these embroidery works within and outside the country. The important
element should be involvement of local population, particularly women, to
give them sense of ownership and participation. This will bring confidence
and bring imperceptible social change without compromising basic values.

The Chagai district historically gets occasional torrential rains, that too in winters.
These rains cause flash floods and damage crops, orchards and property. No
concrete efforts were taken for conserving this run-away water. Excessive boring
is causing depletion of underground water table. If delay action dams and
Kuchcha Dams are built at various water courses, this will recharge the water.

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Part IV:
Future Intervention

Early Disaster Management for District Chagai

Drought Impacts and Coping Mechanisms

recurring drought-induced food insecurity is a serious development issue in arid,
semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas. Drought is a slow onset natural hazard and
offers opportunity and time to mitigate its impact. The transition from
meteorological to hydrological and then agricultural drought constitutes its basic
consequences. The deterioration of drought conditions over a period of time
leads to famine, the ultimate consequence of drought.

The household response pattern to food crisis generally involves a succession of
stages along a continuum of “coping” that runs from risk minimization, absorption
and risk-taking to survive. Risk minimization and absorption strategies are those
through which households preserve their productive assets to recover in another
season after the drought. These are reversible strategies. “Risk taking to survive”
strategies are those when a household’s position is so desperate that they
sacrifice future security for present survival. These are all less reversible
strategies, which leave households worse than before.

Identification of Indicators for Early Warning

Various indicators appear broadly, sequentially reflecting the extent and depth of
household stresses. Agro-climatic indicators are leading indicators that reflect the
initial signs of risk minimization strategies adopted by households. Market
socioeconomic indicators are concurrent and denote risk absorption strategies.
Late anthropometric indicators reflect survival symptoms.

The objective of designing an early warning system is to keep track of leading
indicators to get ample lead-time to intervene at the drought onset phase itself,
compared to early warning systems designed to capture concurrent or late
indicators. However, most interventions based on late indicators force
governments to adopt a crisis management approach to dealing with drought-
induced food insecurity stresses. There are many deficiencies in this approach;
and in the long-run it does not reduce vulnerability to drought.

Evolving Early Warning Systems in Study area

Studies in drought management approaches in the last hundred years reveal that
Study area relied too heavily on crisis management approaches before and
during the pre-independence era. However, after the experience of tackling the

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drought-induced food crisis, serious efforts were made to replace ad hoc crisis
management relief interventions with an anticipatory drought management
approach.

A drought management approach differs from a relief approach with regard to
objectives, reliance on early warning indicators and timing of public intervention.
Thus the drought management approach aims at ensuring food production,
relying on leading agro-climatic indicators, like rainfall, water level in reservoirs
and progress of cropping pattern, to detect early signs of a developing drought
situation.

A drought forecasting required to be established to monitor the impact of the crop
conditions and to suggest corrective measures to minimize crop losses. The
National Early Warning System at federal and provincial levels have an
integrated drought forecasting and monitoring system. It is structured to provide
operational and retrospective intelligence for constant information update based
on feedback on the impact of intervention measures. This early warning system
offered a lead-time of five months before the appearance of distress indicators in
December-January. This was evident in the management of a severe multi-year
drought during 1985-87 in case India.

There are two components of the National Early Warning System: drought
forecasting and drought monitoring. The drought forecasting function is to carry
out by the Provincial Government , which meets during the monsoon period from
June to September. It monitors the impact of the monsoon on agricultural
operations and also suggests corrective measures to minimize any possible
adverse impact of aberrant monsoon conditions on crop production as per the
standing plan. This triggers the operationalization of an emergency contingency
action plan for drought management, which envisages institutional arrangements
and operating procedures for the drought monitoring system. In case of Chagai
District it will

Early warning System at work:
The Government was able to assess the potential impact of the long dry spell of
July-August 2002 and suggested appropriate intervention.

It must be stressed that in 1992, early warning systems were successful in
"sounding the alarms" with respect to the drought emergency in African
Countries. The message went out not only from the early warning system but
also through the other Government's Famine Early Warning System. Responses
to those alerts, however, varied considerably at the national, regional, and
international levels. While some governments took prompt action to mobilize
resources for the emergency, a number of them lost valuable time before
developing a national strategy or formally appealing for assistance. Although the
US Government took steps very quickly to supply food to the region, many
donors waited until the full extent of the drought had been confirmed.

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At the onset of the 1991-92 drought, few countries in southern Africa had
established disaster management capabilities. The drought served as a focus for
national and local governments to work toward building a coordinated emergency
response. A concern was expressed, similar to those expressed following other
drought emergencies - that the emergency coordination structures were
demobilized prematurely. Experience that has been gained in a given drought
episode is soon lost, as individuals seconded for these activities are redeployed
to other emergency situations, and whatever management capacity (albeit
limited) that did exist soon becomes dissolved.

In an effort to assist the governments to create and maintain quick-response
capacities and effective emergency coordination mechanisms, responses were
assessed to the drought by its member Districts and organized a series of
District and provincial workshops to focus on the identified strengths and
weaknesses in order to set an agenda for future preparedness action.

Of the principal natural disasters, drought is unique in terms of the length of time
between the first indications that a drought may be developing and the point at
which it begins to have an impact on populations of the affected areas. Although
it cannot be prevented, its impact can certainly be lessened through properly
designed and implemented preparedness measures. The initiative builds on and
complements efforts in the District by the Government working with, UN, and
Non-Governmental Organization partners to develop area specific disaster
management plans.

In preparing the Government appeal, it was clear that the Chagai’s drought was
not a one-dimensional emergency that could have been resolved by food aid
alone. Donor assistance was also needed in order to prevent deterioration in the
health and water sectors, in protecting livestock, and in ensuring the availability
of agricultural inputs for the planting of crops for the next growing season. In this
type of emergency, all partners in a relief effort must look closely at ways to
reduce longer-term societal and household vulnerability and not simply to
respond to a drought episode as an isolated crisis to be resolved on an ad hoc
basis. They are recurrent phenomena.

Policy at both the District and provincial levels must be redirected to incorporate
planning for recurring drought. In recognition of the fact that drought has the
potential to nullify rather rapidly hard-earned development gains and to impose
severe costs, not only on groups that are directly affected, but also on the wider
economy as a whole, donors and international financial institutions must
encourage drought-prone countries to view drought management in the context
of their longer-term development objectives.

Similarly, there is a need to take a closer look at the possible implications of
economic reform in the development context and the relationship to longer-term

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drought (as well as other disaster) mitigation activities. The concern was
expressed that structural adjustment programs may have reduced the capacity of
governments in the area to support economic diversification, thereby increasing
their vulnerability.

While development-based mitigation must be seen as a priority, it is also equally
important not to re-invent the wheel. A substantial body of knowledge already
exists in the Study area, and elsewhere, on natural resource management and
on agricultural research such as drought-resistant crop varieties. In efforts to
foster District cooperation, the study proposes to promote collaboration in the
Districts -wide capacity building, information exchange, and partnership with a
focus on natural disasters and complex emergencies. Attention must be paid to
the optimal utilization of available scarce resources.

One obvious, but necessary, statement is that preparedness capacities must be
developed through an integrated multi-sect oral approach. Importantly,
preparedness plans for clean water supplies and for the strengthening of the
health infrastructure. The recent droughts is highlighted a number of structural
needs in the health sector that were directly relevant to the effectiveness of
emergency relief operations. The absence of quality baseline data was one of the
factors which led to problems in targeting beneficiaries (e.g., at-risk groups)
during the relief phase.

It is important that partnerships forged among governments, regional
organizations, the UN, and governmental and nongovernmental donors to
combat Provincial drought be sustained to improve the quality of disaster
preparedness, including early warning and response. Finding adequate
resources required will not be easy. Both donors and national governments
themselves must be convinced to invest in preparedness. Failing to do so
ignores the reality that drought not only increases food insecurity but carries the
potential for serious social, political, and economic disruptions. This is one of
those very important lessons learned that must be applied.

Keeping in view the above discussion and data collected at union council levels,
following recommendations are made:

 Establishment of District Early Warning Disaster (EWD) Committee
 Establishment of EWD funds
 EWD Plan/Strategy to address possible hazards to avoid suffering

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Dry Land Management
Drylands offer an especially fruitful opportunity for the application of the
ecosystem approach. Lessons learned from its use in the drylands can be of
value as a guide for informed policy development and decision-making in other
fora. In the course of the presentations and the rich discussions under Part
(Flora report), the following key topics emerged:

 The low and erratic productivity in the drylands means that large areas are
used extensively rather than small areas intensively. Consequently,
decision-makers seeking to understand and address drylands issues,
should consider large areas, and be particularly aware of annual and multi-
annual time cycles.

 The complex linkage between wetlands and drylands is rarely taken into
account in agricultural development policies and donor interventions. The
tendency to invest in the wetlands - clustering intensive agriculture,
irrigation schemes and other investment there, often results in wetlands
development at the expense of already marginal drylands whose
production systems are dependent seasonally or in other ways on those
wetlands. There is also a tendency for outsiders to grab these wetlands-in-
drylands and put them to uses that exclude traditional users (e.g.,
transhuman pastoralists and nomadic users). As a result, drylands users
may be forced into a choice between degrading their resources or giving
up their livelihood. In one example, Narok pastoralists in Kenya, who must
have access to high land for grazing in the dry season, have been confined
to the plains year-round by the conversion of higher lands to wheat
cultivation.

 The relationship between urban wellbeing and rural livelihoods and
sustainability has changed greatly in recent years, and continues to evolve.
Decisions relating to (and affecting) drylands are most effective if they are
based on an understanding of this interrelationship. Although rural-urban
linkages sometimes impose constraints in the kinds of mechanisms that
are used for drylands management, they offer important opportunities for
achieving the objective.

 Indigenous knowledge is a very important source of “local science” and
technology. It is also a constant source of tools for adaptation to change.
Through their shared as well as separate experiences, both women and
men make important contributions which should be recognized and valued.
By integrating traditional and local knowledge and practices with modern
technology, we may be able to find innovative solutions to dryland
management problems.

 It is important to find an appropriate mechanism for recognition of the
importance of gender in dryland management. Options include the

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establishment of a permanent inter-institutional mechanism to facilitate
continuous attention to gender-sensitive approaches at all levels of
implementation of the UNCCD, exploring the possibility of integrating the
issues in the agenda of the UN inter-agency task force on gender.

 The ecosystem approach is, at base, a process of building effective
management over large areas, ‘from the bottom up’. Using it encourages a
broader view by those engaged in on-the-ground drylands management,
not only by expanding consideration geographically, but also by exploring
interlinkages with other sectors, activities, policies and strategies.

 In its work, the Conference of Parties may find it useful to distinguish
between drylands management in less developed countries with a high
percentage (70% or more) of their populations in rural areas, and middle-
income countries where a similar percentage live in towns and cities,
leaving drylands and other rural areas less habited. Larger drylands
populations use that ecosystem more and in varied ways, necessitating a
more challenging balancing process. They also provide many more people
within the area who can serve as protectors and managers of that
ecosystem. Consequently, there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach to
ecosystem management.

 It is important to note the barriers to investment, and to lift disincentives to
local investment in drylands management. Such measures may have a
more substantial positive effect in the drylands than any donor financing.
This may include addressing property rights issues, and conditions
governing market access of dryland products.

 The impact of local trade for poor farmers and the environment needs to be
addressed by trade partners and donors in order to find viable solutions to
the problems affecting drylands areas.

 At present, none of the multilateral environmental policy (either at District
or provincial level) comprehensively address the full range of issues
relating to rural development.

 It is direly needed that agricultural and forestry practices must be
environmentally friendly and sustainable.

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Land Resource and Livelihood Improvements:
Land degradation has emerged as a major factor hindering sustainable rural
livelihoods, particularly in resource constrained areas (like Chagai) which support
substantial percentage of the total rural population. Thousands hectares of rain
fed and irrigated agricultural lands are lost to production every year due to severe
land degradation, among other factors.

Land degradation perpetuates the vicious cycle of poverty. Food insecurity and
low income earning capacity undermine the rural Poor’s capacity for investment
to increase their land and labor productivity. Inappropriate land management,
particularly in areas with high population densities and growth rates, further
increases loss of productivity. This in turn affects food security and the potential
for rural on and off-farm income generation.

The challenge for the District reveal out of the study is to develop land
management to increase the availability of high-quality and fertile lands in areas
where population growth is high, poverty is endemic, and existing institution
capacities are weak. The aim of survey is to share knowledge on the technical,
social, institutional and policy interventions needed to improve land resources
management in the District to improve upon the socio-economic conditions.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. . Ali, S and S.Dolton, 1985: A Pictorial Guide to The Birds of the Indian
Subcontinent.
2. Ali. S and S. Dillon 1989 (a)rds of India and Pakistan
3. Ali, S and S.Dolton, 1989 (b) Birds of India and Pakistan.
4. Ali, S. and S. Dillon 1995 : A Pictorial Guide to The Birds of the Indian
Subcontinent
5. Baquar, S. R. 1995: Trees of Pakistan, Published at Royal Book Publisher
Karachi, Pakistan.
6. Burkill, I. H. 1969: A working list of the flowering plants of Balochistan,
Printed at the west Pakistan Government Press, Karachi
7. Eric. W, et al 2000: Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific
8. Faiz, T. M. et al 1997: District Profile of Chaghi District, Printed at Quetta
Printing Press, Quetta.
9. Grimmett. R, et al 1998: Birds of the Indian Subcontinent.
10. GOB and IUCN 2000: Balochistan Conservation Strategy, 2000
11. Grimmet, R et al 1998: Birds of Indian Sub-Continent
12. Khan, M. S. 1998: Drug plants of Balochistan, Published at Latif Abad
No. 7, Haidar Abad, Pakistan
13. Malik, A., 2002: Preliminary Ethno botanical Study of Nushki Tehsils,
M. Sc. Thesis University of Balochistan, Quetta
14. Qureshi J.I and Akram S.M. 1993: Taxonomic Studies on the Snakes of
Balochistan
15. Qurishi, J.I and Sufi, M. A, 1992-93: Taxonomic Studies on the Snakes of
Balochistan.
16. Roberts, T.J 1997: the Mammals of Pakistan, Printed at Oxford University
Press, Karachi.

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17. Roberts, T.J, 1991: The Birds of Pakistan Vol I, ii, Printed at Oxford
University Press, Karachi
18. Roberts, T. J. 1995: Wild Flowers of Pakistan, printed at Oxford
University Press, Karachi.
19. Robert T.J. 1995: The Birds of Pakistan, Vol: 2, printed at Oxford
University Press, Karachi..
20. Tareen, R. B. et al 2001-2002: Development and Propagation Medicinal
Plants in Balochistan, Forest Department and University of Balochistan,
Quetta.
21. Yahya, A. M. 2003: An Ethno Botanical Study of Musakhel Area, M. Sc.
Thesis, University of Balochistan, Quetta.

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CHECKLIST OF PLANTS OF DISTRICT CHAGHI AND KHARAN
S.N Local Name Botanical Name Medicinal Timber Fuel Social Fodder Other Status Pattern
o Wood Value
1 Kiker, Babar Acacia arabica
2 Boai Madran Achillea santolina
3 Shinz, Zoz Alhagi maurorum
4 Piaz Allium cepa
5 Peemluk Allium griffithium
6 Zher Artimisia meritima
7 Khafkhander, Capparis spinosa
Khawarg
8 Tor sag/ Madela Chenopodium
album
9 Kulkushta, Citrullus colocynthis
Karigiri
10 Kootigh, Citrullus lanatus
Hindwana
11 Dhania Coriandrum satium
12 Galove, Cucumis melo

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Khattakai
13 Gwaja, Gwajag Cynodon dactylon
14 Gajjir Daucus carota
15 Khaksheer Descurainea
Sophia
16 Garbusth, Lepidium aucheri
Buska
17 Naromb Ephedra intermedia
18 Sehuna Euphorbia
ostridges
19 Thorai Luffa cylendrica
20 Pochko, Malva neglecta
Kargotikai
21 Nim Melia azedarach
22 Giyawani Mentha longifolia
poorchink
23 Purchenk Mentha spicata
24 Tut Morus alba
25 Gandalai, Jaur, Neruium oleander
Ganderi

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26 Alucha Prunus domestica
27 Pichlee, Kulpa Partulaca oleracea
28 Aspend, Peganum harmala
Hermal,
Kisankur
29 Hum, Hasan Periploca aphylla
buti
30 Gwan, Shanae Pistacia khinjuk
31 Spagool Madah Plantago lanceolata
32 Piddarri, Plantago oveta
Barthang
33 Sheerkau , Polygonum
Sheergo aviculare
34 Ispaidar Polpulus alba
35 Alshwarg, Rhazya stricta
Eshark,
Hezwarg
36 Kashim, Kash Saccharum griffithii
37 Matato Salvia cabolica
38 Chamimmar, Salvia santolinifolia

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chamma
39 Thor angoor, Solanum nigrum
Angun, Karezgi
40 Kirri Tamerix articulata
41 Ghaz Tamarix oxphylla
42 Karpola, Teucrium
Kalpora stocksianum
43 Sarhing Tribulus terretris
44 Moize, Angoor Vitis venifera
45 Ber, Kunar Ziziphus jujuba
46 Injeer Ficus carica
47 Daneechk, Plantago major
Barthang
48 Anar Punica granatum
49 Hing Ferrula foetida
50 Karawag, Fagonia arabica
Karkawa
51 Gangu, Mungli Hertia intermedia
52 Koheebhang, Hyoscyamus
Kohbana insanus

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53 Rawash Rheum ribes
54 Awishk, Kweti, Withania coagulans
Panirband
55 Nadah, Hawe Cymbopogan
jawarancusa
56 Pish Nannorophs
ritchiana
57 Simsok Nepeta
glamerulosa
58 Taghaz Haoxylon
amodendron
59 Karak Calotrppis procera
60 Khusbo Perovskia
Purchunk abrotanoides
61 Maur Salvia agyptiaca
62 Koh-e-Bhung Hyocymus muticus
63 Kaled Capparis aphylla
64 Babur Prosopis spicigera
65 Marmotk Caralluma
tuberculata

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66 Charamaing Trichodesma
indicum
67 Karwan kash Pteropyrum olivieri

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CHECKLIST OF BIRDS OF CHAGAI

S.N Common English Name Scientific Name
o
NON-PASSERIFORMES
1 Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
2 Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
3 Slavonian Grebe Podiceps auritus
4 Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis
5 Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus
6 Greylag Goose Anser anser
7 Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna
8 Wigeon Anas penelope
9 Gadwall Anas strepera
10 Common Teal Anas crecca
11 Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
12 Northern Pintail Anas acuta
13 Shoveler Anas clypeata
14 Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris
15 Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina
16 Common Pochard Aythya ferina
17 White-eyed Pochard Anthya nyroca
18 Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula
19 Goosander Mergus merganser
20 Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus
21 Saker Falcon Falco cherrug
22 Peregrine Falco peregrinus
23 Purple Swamphen Porphyrio prophyrio
24 Eurasian Coot Fulica atra

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25 Great Bustard Otis tarda
26 Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus
27 Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta
28 Stone Curlew Burhinus oedicnemus
29 Cream-coloured Courser Cursorius cursor
30 White-tailed Lapwign Chettusia leucura
31 Green Plover Vanellus vanellus
32 Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus
33 Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus
34 Sykes’s or Sindh Nightjar Caprimulgus mahrattensis
35 Alpine Swift Apus melba
36 Great White or Rosy Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus
37 Great Bittern Botaverus stellari’s
38 Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus
39 Black-Crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
40 Little Egret Egretta garzetta
41 Great Egret Egretta alba
42 Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
43 Black Kite Milvus migrans migrans
44 Egyptian Vulture Neophron perenopterus
45 Short-Toad Eagle Circaetus gallicus
46 Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus
47 Long-Legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus
48 Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax
49 Bonelli’s Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus
50 Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus
51 Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
52 Chukar Partridge Alectoris chukar
53 See-See Partridge Ammoperdix griseogularis
54 Common Quail Coturnix coturnix

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55 Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata
56 Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus
57 Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
58 Close-Barred Sandgrouse Pterocles lichtensteinii
59 Coronetted Sandgrouse Pterocles coronattus
60 Spotted Sandgrouse Pterocles senegallus
61 Black-Bellied or Imperial Pterocles orientalis
Sandgrouse
62 Large Pin-Tailed Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata
63 Rock Pigeon Columba liva
64 Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis
65 Northern Eagle Owl Bubo bubo
66 European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus
67 Blue-Cheeked Bee-Eater Merops superciliosus
68 European Bee-Eater Merops apiaster
69 Hoopoe Upupa epops
70 Scaly-Bellied Green Picus squamatus
Woodpecker
PASSERIFORMES
1 Sand Martin Riparia riparia
2 Bar-Tailed or Black-Tailed Lark Ammomanus cincturus
3 Hoopoe Lark Alaemon alaudipes
4 Hume’s Short-Toed Lark Calandrella acutirostris
5 Crested Lark Galerida cristata
6 Small Skylark Alauda gulgula
7 Common Skylark Alauda arvensis
8 Pale Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne fuligula
9 Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
10 Indian or Long-Billed Rock Pipit Anthus similes
11 Pied Stonechat Saxicola caprata

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12 Shrike Bulbul Hypocolius ampelinus
13 Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos
14 White-fronted Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus
15 Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
16 Pied Wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka
17 Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabellina
18 Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti
19 Finsch’s Wheatear Oenanthe finschii
20 Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata picata
21 Hume’s Wheatear Oenanthe alboniger
22 Moustached Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon
23 Blyth’s Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum
24 Indian Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus
25 Booted Warbler Hippolais caligata rama
26 Desert Warbler Sylvia nana
27 Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis
28 Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus
29 Eastern Rock Nuthatch Sitta tephronota
30 BayBacked Shrike Lanius vittatus
31 Rufous-Backed Shrike Lanius schach
32 Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor
33 Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor
34 Raven Corvus ruficollis
35 Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus
36 Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer Montanus
37 Scrub Sparrow Passer moabiticus
38 House or Striolated Bunting Emberiza striolata
39 Black-Headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala
40 Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus

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Appendix VIII

CHECKLIST OF MAMMALS OF CHAGAI

S.No Common English Name Scientific Name
.
1 Afghan Hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus
2 Brandt’s Steppic Hedgehog Paraechinus hypomelas hypomelas
3 Zarudny’s Shrew Crocidura zarudnyi
4 Least Mouse-Tailed Bat Rhinopoma muscatellum
5 Greater Horseshoe Bat Rhinolopus ferrumequinum
6 Notch-Eared Bat Myotis emerginatus
7 Sindh Bat Eptesicus nasutus
8 Kuhl’s Pipistrelle Pipistrellus kuhlii
9 Grey Wolf Canis lupus
10 Asiatic Jackal Canis aureus
11 Common Red Fox Vulpes vulpes griffithi
12 Blanford’s Fox Vulpes cana
13 Rueppall’s Sand Fox Vulpes rueppellii (New Record From
Chagai)
14 Marbled Polecat Vormela peregusna
15 Striped Hyaena Hyaena hyaena
16 Jungle Cat Felis chaus
17 Sand Cat Felis margarita
18 Caracal Felis caracal
19 Chinkara Gazelle Gazella bennettii
20 Goitred Gazelle Gazella subgutturosa
21 Persian Wild Goat Capra aegagrus
22 Cape Hare Lepus capensis

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23 Indian Crested Porcupine Hystrix indica
24 Balochistan Pigmy Jerboa Salpingotus michaelis
25 Small Five-Toed Jerboa Allactaga elater
26 Hotson’s Five-Toed Jerboa Allactega hotsoni
27 Blanford’s Jerboa Jaculus blanfordi
28 House Rat Rattus rattus
29 House Mouse Mus muscullus
30 Migratory Hamster Cricetulus migratorius
31 Balochistan Gerbil Gerbillus nanus
32 Indian Hairy-footed Gerbil Gerbillus gleadowi
33 Indian Gerbil Tatera indica
34 Libyan Jird Meriones libycus
35 Sundevall’s Jird Meriones crassus
36 Great Girbil Rhombomys opimus

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THREATS ANALYSIS DISTRICT DALBANDEEN, CHAGHI 24/ 12/ 03

WATER

Threats Reasons Strength Solution
Stoppage of rain water Drought Due to rain all lands able for Awareness raising campaign
Deforestation cultivation for sustainable use of
Natu5ral Resources
Underground water shortage Deforestation and low No. of Growing of bushes Low water up-taking plants
forests and bushes Good lives stock should be grown, Dames after
Increase in population Shortage in storms every 40 miles
Unsustainable use of water Increase in wealth of Delay action dames
community
Increase in seeds of plants Family planning methods
Increase in number of birds should apply
Medicinal plants could grow,
useful for animals and as well
as for livestock.

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RANGELANDS

Threats Reasons Strength Solution
Worms / insects After low rain Rain in much quantity
Drought Bad wills, deforestation Help and support
Shortage of water Deforestation Good wills,
Fast winds Lack of trees in desert due to A forestation
wind blowing bushes and
herbs came under sand and Employment
diseases spread Electricity
Diseases Drought Self protection
Deforestation Un employment Gas
Livestock of Afghan Refugees Burden of Livestock

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Forests

Threats Reasons Strength Solution
Cutting of wood with out any Un employment, Arrival of Forest catch rain, the Active forest department
resistance Afghan refuges, Forest example rain in Raskoh,
department enactive and Ahmedwall,
because forest like
Continued drought Our wills, Allah un happy magnet. Participatory based management
of forests
Increase in population Social evils, Afghan refuges, Source of income+, Alternate source of fuel wood, A
No rules fodder fro animals forestation
Lack of awareness Poverty, water shortage, Timber, fuel wood Govt. should raise forest like in
alternate source of fuel wood Iran, bane on Deforestation
Wild life, Medicinal
plants

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WILDLIFE
Threats Reasons Strength Solution
Hunting Fun, meat, Medicine Endemic species of birds and Appeal from Islamic Relief to
animals found only in Chaghi contact Government for sake
Domestic animals, threat of district of bane over hunting
Deforestation Carnivores Bane on deforestation
Lack of awareness Birds for fighting and fro best Watch man
Lack of source of water voice Participatory committee for
Lose concentration of forest Dangerous snake protection of wild life
department Trophy of animals fixing on Cooperation of District
Lack of fund walls Government
Bitten of lizard for sake of Bane from Government,
reward prison and fine 50 thousand
Owl killed for Taweez
Kill Crocodile for sake of fear

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DAILY ASSESSMENT SHEET – FAUNA

S.No. Date & Time Local name of Zoological Locality/Ha Special
Fauna sighted Name bitat Commen
ts

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Appendix…..

Socio-Ecological Data Collection Questionnaire

Date

District Tehsil

Union Council Village

Dependence on
natural
resources

Type of Forest □ Rangeland □
wilderness area( Other □
in acres)

Status of State land □ Communal land □
wilderness area( Protected area □ Other □
in acres)

Services with usage ( Subsistence = S; Commercial = C; Fun
=F)
Timber □ Fuel wood □
Fodder □
Wildlife □ Medicinal plants □
Water □
Mineral □ Other □

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Water
Ground water Present
Historical
1. Avg depth
2. Quality
3. Increase /
Decline rate

Stream flow Present
Historical
1. Frequency
2. Quality
3. Intensity
4. Stream type
(seasonal / perennial)

Spring Present
Historical
1. Number
2. Quality
3. Flow
4. Type
(seasonal / perennial)

Tube-wells Present
Historical
1. Number
2. Avg depth
3. Water level
(decline / increase rate)
4. Water Quality

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5. Flow
6. Type
(Electric / Diesel /
Draught)

Problems

Solutions

Social Tradition Norms

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Rains Present
Historical
1. Intensity
2. Frequency
3. Distribution

Problems

Wind
Local
nomenclature

Characteristic Present
Historical
1. Intensity
2. Change in dynamics
3. Distribution

Problems

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Sand dune problem

Temperature Present
Historical
1. Intensity

Problems

Social Tradition

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Forest / Range
lands

Livestock
population

Cattle
Camels
Sheep
Goats
Horses
Donkey
Poultry
Other

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Livestock 1. Preference (Quality / Quantity)
management 2. Average herd size
3. No. of herds
4. New Livestock improvement
technique
5. Traditional LS imp technique
6. Feeding (grazing / stall feeding)

Range resource 1. Total range area
2. Type
3. Range condition
4. Grazing practice
5. Location / distance
6. Availability of fodder
7. Any fodder shortage
8. Causes of fodder shortage
9. Any local rules for grazing
10. Any traditional range protection
/ improvement approach

Nomads 1. Are nomads use your area
2. For how much period
3. No. of their LS
4. Do you get incentives
5. In what form (cash / kind)
6. Impact of such use

Fuel wood 1. Quantity utilized
a. Winter

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b. Summer
2. Purchased/acquired
a. From market
b. From range/forest area

Medicinal plants

Types

Quantity harvested

Use

1. Local use
2. Sold

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Wildlife

Present in your Heard Sighted
area A. Mammals

B. Birds

C. Reptiles

Hunting /
Self □ Heard □ Seen □
poaching

Are people hunt Themselves □ To facilitate others □

Why people do Fun □ Fur □ Meat □
hunt Money □ Other □

Problems

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Solutions

Social Tradition/ Norms

Surveyors name
signature

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Appendix…

Socio-Ecological Data Collection Questionnaire

Date

District Tehsil

Union Council Village

Dependence on
natural
resources

Type of Forest □ Rangeland □
wilderness area( Other □
in acres)

Status of State land □ Communal land □
wilderness area( Protected area □ Other □
in acres)

Services with usage ( Subsistence = S; Commercial = C; Fun
=F)
Timber □ Fuel wood □
Fodder □
Wildlife □ Medicinal plants □
Water □
Mineral □ Other □

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Water
Ground water Present
Historical
4. Avg depth
5. Quality
6. Increase /
Decline rate

Stream flow Present
Historical
5. Frequency
6. Quality
7. Intensity
8. Stream type
(seasonal / perennial)

Spring Present
Historical
5. Number
6. Quality
7. Flow
8. Type
(seasonal / perennial)

Tube-wells Present
Historical
7. Number
8. Avg depth
9. Water level
(decline / increase rate)
10. Water Quality

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11. Flow
12. Type
(Electric / Diesel /
Draught)

Problems

Solutions

Social Tradition Norms

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Rains Present
Historical
4. Intensity
5. Frequency
6. Distribution

Problems

Wind
Local
nomenclature

Characteristic Present
Historical
4. Intensity
5. Change in dynamics
6. Distribution

Problems

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Sand dune problem

Temperature Present
Historical
2. Intensity

Problems

Social Tradition

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Forest / Range
lands

Livestock
population

Cattle
Camels
Sheep
Goats
Horses
Donkey
Poultry
Other

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Livestock 7. Preference (Quality / Quantity)
management 8. Average herd size
9. No. of herds
10. New Livestock improvement
technique
11. Traditional LS imp technique
12. Feeding (grazing / stall feeding)

Range resource 11. Total range area
12. Type
13. Range condition
14. Grazing practice
15. Location / distance
16. Availability of fodder
17. Any fodder shortage
18. Causes of fodder shortage
19. Any local rules for grazing
20. Any traditional range protection
/ improvement approach

Nomads 7. Are nomads use your area
8. For how much period
9. No. of their LS
10. Do you get incentives
11. In what form (cash / kind)
12. Impact of such use

Fuel wood 3. Quantity utilized
a. Winter

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b. Summer
4. Purchased/acquired
a. From market
b. From range/forest area

Medicinal plants

Types

Quantity harvested

Use

3. Local use
4. Sold

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Wildlife

Present in your Heard Sighted
area D. Mammals

E. Birds

F. Reptiles

Hunting /
Self □ Heard □ Seen □
poaching

Are people hunt Themselves □ To facilitate others □

Why people do Fun □ Fur □ Meat □
hunt Money □ Other □

Problems

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Solutions

Social Tradition/ Norms

Surveyors name
signature

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SURVEY TEAM/PEOPLE WHO CONTRIBUTED

 Dr Rasool Bukhsh Tareen
Associate Professor, Botany Dept. University of Balochistan Quetta
 Mr. Jamal Abdul Nasir
Lecturer Zoology: Govt Degree College Quetta
 Mr. Abdul Jabbar
Regional Head: WWF-P Quetta
 Mr Mahfooz
Director NIPA Quetta
 Ali Imran
Deputy Conservator of Forest, Co-ordination, Research and Training
Quetta
 Rao Javed Iqbal
Programme Co-ordinator Islamic Relief Quetta
 Mr. Muhammad Yahya
Special Task Consultant WWF – Pakistan Quetta /Research Study Assistant
Islamic Relief Quetta
 Mr Ali Dost
Filed Officer Islamic Relief (Dalbandine Office) Nushki

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Consultative Group for Environmental Survey of District Chagai
Name Organization Designation
Dr. Saleem Sherani Forest and Wildlife Chief Conservator of
Department, Balochistan Forest
Mr. Manzoor Ahmed Forest and Wildlife Conservator Forest
Department, Balochistan Balochistan Quetta
Mr. Abdul Jabbar World Wide Fund For Nature- Regional Head
Pakistan, Quetta.
Mr. Javeed Rao Islamic Relief-Pakistan. Program Officer
Quetta.
Mr. Ali Imran Forest and Wildlife Deputy conservator of
Department, Balochistan Forests Balochistan.
Mr. Arbab Yahya Forest and Wildlife Ex. DFO. Forest
Department, Balochistan
Mr. Hamid Forest and Wildlife Ex. DFO. Forest
Department, Balochistan
Mr. Mohammed Yahya Islamic Relief-Pakistan. Environmental Study
Musakhel Quetta./ WWF-Pak Consultant
Shiekh Irshad Forest and Wildlife Ex-Chief Conservator
Department, Balochistan of Forest, Balochistan
Quetta
Captain Javed United Nations UN Provincial
Facilitator
Dr.Rasool Bakhsh University of Balochistan Associate Professor
Tareen Quetta
Mr. Jamal Abdul Nasir Government College Quetta Lecturer
Capton jawed United Nations Provencial Program
Facilitator

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How the idea was Conceived?

Islamic Relief – Pakistan working in Balochistan under Program ‘Chaghi
integrated Rehabilitation Program’ (CIRDP) and ‘ Kharan Integrated and
Rehabilitation Program’ (KIRDP). The both Districts were severely affected from
drought and the economy, natural Resources, water reservoirs; Rangelands,
Livestock and Natural habitats of wild animals were fully destroyed. In
preliminary stage, Islamic Relief – Pakistan do only relief work and distribution of
Food items, Blankets, tents, Camps and other items. In second stage, it was
decided to deal other social aspects beside Relief program.
Senior Program Officer Islamic Relief, Rao Javed Iqbal Contact the Regional
Head WWF- Pakistan, Mr. Abdul Jabbar for conducting Environmental Survey of
Project Areas. WWF is the only recognized organization that aims to conserve
nature and Ecological processes by;

 Preserving genetic, species and ecosystem diversity
 Ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable both
now and in the longer term
 Promoting actions to reduce pollution, and wasteful exploitation and
consumption of resources and energy.
Importance of Forest Department is not neglect able; Mr. Ali Imran Deputy
Conservator Forest Department was also conducted for mentioned purpose.

How the Team was formed?

To assess the environmental degradations after drought it was necessary to do
first complete survey of the area. For conducting Floral Survey, Dr. Rasool
Bakhsh Tareen, Associate Professor Department of Botany University of
Balochistan Quetta and Mr. Mohammed Yehya Musakhel, did Masters in Botany
from University of Balochistan Quetta for both Floral and Socio-Ecological
Survey, Mr. Jamal Abdul Nasir, Lecturer Government Degree College Quetta for
Survey of Fauna and Mr. Ali Dost, Field Officer Islamic Relief Dalbandeen office
for Socio-Economic survey.

Survey Techniques:

A questionnaire consist of four pages was made Socio-economic Survey, in that
all the aspects of daily life was described like, Population, languages, Social
traditions, Infrastructures, Health, Education, Livestock, Potable water sources,
Livelihood, agriculture, Horticulture, village products, Drought impacts, Approach
and expected solutions. An other questionnaire was prepared for Socio-
ecological Survey which was also of Four pages and rotates over the
dependence of people on natural Resources, Status of Wilderness, Water, Rain,
Wind characteristics, Temperature, Livestock population, Livestock management,
Range resources, nomadic situation, fuel wood, Medicinal plants, uses, Wildlife
and problem in the are to wildlife. Before going in the field fro survey and

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analysis, the ideas were shared with a consultative group, consist on Dr. Saleem
Sherani, Chief Conservator of Forest Government of Balochistan, Mr. Manzoor
Ahmed, Conservator of forest, Rao Javed Iqbal, Senior Program Officer Islamic
Relief- Balochistan, Mr. Abdul Jabbar, Regional Head World wide Fund for
Nature Pakistan, Quetta., Mr. Ali Imran, Deputy Conservator of Forests,
Balochistan, Mr. Arbab Yahya, Ex. DFO, forest, Mr. Hamid, Ex. DFO forests, Mr.
Mohammad Yahya Musakhel, Environmental Study Assistant Islamic Relief
Pakistan. The ideas presented in shape of presentation by Mr. Abdul Jabbar to
the consultative group for further inputs and amendments. All the participants
actively participated at the opening of the discussion. Upon detailed arguments
following decisions were unanimously made;

 The design covered scope of areas at a very broader level, it must be
reduced to the realistic level for achievements.
 Awareness raising components and indicators of out puts must properly be
addressed in the design.
 Flora and Fauna issues must be covered after consultative meetings with
concerned communities instead of making decisions of interventions in
isolation.
 A separate compaign for women and children’s participation be also included
in the design.
 If the design included State land, the forest department must be taken into
confidence, a MOU must in this regard be executed.
 The consultative group also be provided opportunity to visit the field area.
 Ten years rainfall data must be referred for making any decision in the design
 Village management plan should also be made included to prepare the
project activities a success.

All members including DG, EPA, Balochistan or representative of potential NGOs
may be notified by Islamic Relief.

On 8th November we start the survey of Chaghi district from Killi Taj Mohammad
of Union Counsel Chaghi. Although the area was backward in education but in
Agriculture side they were better. They used ti irrigate the lands by tube wells.
Here livestock quantity some what better. Flora observed in this area were,
Alhagi marurum (Shinz), Halixilon persicum (Trat), Tamerix aphylla(Ghaz),
Phonix dactilifera (Mach), Citrullus colocynthis (Kulkushta), Peganum haramala
(Aspand). The same we surveyed Killi alih Mohammad and Haji Mohabbat of the
same Union Counsel. Here too, the conditions and situations not vary from Killi
Taj Mohammad. We observed in flora, Halixiln persicum (Trat), Alhagi marurum
(Shinz), Phonix dactiifera Mach), Citrulus colocynthis (Kulkushta), Tamerix
aphylla (Kirri), Saccharum griffithii (Kashm), Malva neglecta (Pochako), Kotor,
Mentha sp. (Podina) Peganum harmala (Aspantan), Ficus carica (Engeer),
Mouras alba (Tooth). The education ratio of the both villages was not so good.
The dependency of the people of area over Agriculture and smuggling. The
needs of daily life not available there.

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On 9th of October we visited the village Abdul Majeed of Union Counsel Ziarat
Bala Nosh. We observe there the old signs of Perennial flowing stream and
springs which were dried after the drought. Among them three springs are till flow
but in minute quantity. All the orchards were dried, planted by the people. After
completing necessary written work we asked about the wild life present situation
in the area from a Local hunter. He was very upset from the situation now a days.
He told that I have hunted about 90-100 wild goats. Floral condition of the area
was some better and following plants were observed; Acaia nilotica (Kiker),
Peganum harmala (Aspantan), Tamerix oxiphylla (Ghaz), Alhagi marurm (Shinz),
Citrulus colocythis (Klkushta), Saccharum griffithii (Kash), Typa (Tazak), Halixilon
persicum (Larag), Periploca aphylla (Gisher), Pteropyrum olivieri (Karwankush),
Carraluma edulus (Marmoth), fagonia (Tusu). The peole of the area use the
plants as medicinal.

On 10th November we visited the Southern part of Chilghazi Union counsel. It
was fully desert and the economical condition of the people was very bad. All the
livestock were finished. Water was the main problem in the area. The floral
condition of the area was severely destroyed and very few plants were observed.
They were citrullus colocynthis (Kulkushta), Halixilon ammodandran (Taghaz),
Rhyza structa (Esharq) , Halixilon persicum (Larag), Tribulus sp. (Saring), Phonix
dactilifera (Mach). In the way to Sorab we found two Jackal killed by a local
person for sack of safety of livestock. After complete observation and
identification it was proved that these Jackals were observed sixty years ago in
Chaman area (T.J. Roberts).
On 11th of November we surveyed the Union counsel Dalbandeen Sadar and
visited the villages Gul Mohammad, Madad Khan, Pishok and Rasool Bakhsh
laghaf. The area was desert and in some areas the shortage of water was the
major problem. Education ratio comparatively not shows good sign. The secomd
main problem was poverty and the people depended over livestock and livestock
were finished with severe drought. Few of plants observed in the area and were
Tamerix oxiphylla (Ghaz), Halixilon persicm (Larag), Alhagi marurum (shinz), and
Citrullus colocynthis (Kolkushta).

On 3rd December we visited the Union counsel Amori the backward area,
very vast area. We visited the village Dur Mohammad, Mir Kancha and Liwari.
Here too, on priority the main problem was water. After completing necessary
written work we asked some questions from different communities of the same
villages and inquire the situations before and after drought. The we observed in
flora from area Rhyza stricta (Esharq), Tamerix oxiphylla (Shinger), Nannorophs
ritchiana(Pish), Halixilon persicum (Larag), Fagonia (Tusu), Phonix dactilifera
(Mach), halixilon ammodandran (Taghaz), Acacia nilotica (kiker), Pteropyrum
olivieri (Karwan kush). In fauna we found a snake killed be villagers in Liwari.
Beside this we observed a Shikari and beautiful Buttrefly which I never see in my
life.

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On December 4, we surveyed the Union Counsel Nokundi nad the village
Durbanch, Khuda Rahim and Dad Khuda were in our way. on the way before
interns in the village Durbancha here came a Sulpher spring from which the
people take water for the purpose of Pimples on the body. The water of the
spring was not able to drink and a smell of chemical comes out from it. Ti was
very poor area and the economy, livestock and daily life is not able to describe.
In the whole Union Counsel, we observed only Halixilon persicum (Larag). All the
plants were fished in the area, even the wood for burning bring from other areas.
No source of alternate income.

On 5th December we visited the Union counsel Taftan, and we surveyed the
villages Amalof and Station Taftan. The amalof village was behind of Sandak
Project plant. In the area potable water was the main problem because the
nearby water or Underground water was salty. Beside this the chemical
discharge from Sandak project made the area polluted. In this project no any
incentives for the local persons. We observed the following plants in the area;
Artimisia Sp.(Dranag), Citrullus colocynthis (Kulkushta), Halixilon
Persicum(Larag), Alhagi marrurum (Shinz). In the area, while in Statiopn village
the eduaction ratio was some what better and the people mainly depend over the
smuggling because the border was near to the area.
On 8th December we surveyed the union counsel Padag and the villages were
Khuda Bakhsh, Allahyar and Ali Bakhsh. The water table of the area was not so
for and accessible but the people were very poor. They do not dig a well for
agriculture because the land was fertile. We observed in flora Rhyza stricta
(Esharq), Halixilon persicum (larag), Alhagi marrurum (Shinz), Zizipus
nummerila (Kunar), Peganum harmala (Aspintan), Delbergia sissoo (Tali).

The report was presented to the Consultative Group and the presented in
Dalbandin in front of Local stakeholders on December 24.

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