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2016

ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
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Table of Contents
Task 1 .............................................................................................................................................. 3

LO1: understand the relation between organizational structure and culture .................................. 3

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3

Task 2 .............................................................................................................................................. 5

LO2: understand different approaches to management and leadership .......................................... 5

Task 3 .............................................................................................................................................. 7

LO3: understand ways of using motivational theories in organizations ......................................... 7

Task 4 .............................................................................................................................................. 8

LO4: Understanding mechanisms of developing effective team work in an organisation ............. 8

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 9

Conclusion: ................................................................................................................................... 10

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Task 1

LO1: understand the relation between organizational structure and culture

Introduction
The theory of understanding the relation between organizational structure and culture suggests
that the strong background of a company depends mostly on its cultural and structural theories.
The structure of the organization sometimes reflects its culture and by its culture one can be sure
about the structure of the company. It can be said that the structure is the framework for the
culture that is implemented. If the culture starts to degenerate no doubt in no time the structure
will follow its path. The business is severely affected by the functional structure as it may slow
down the communication process of the organization which will create problems to adhere with
new technology, political grounds, social facts, changing cultures and other level of
communications.

The strength of corporate culture of a company is directly correlated to the level of its profit
(George, 2016). The observation of this theory is that if the manager and the employees share the
same culture then the environment makes it easier to share common goals and the right
procedure to achieve them. The organizational structure determines how the roles and the
responsibilities are allocated between different sectors and levels and is being monitored well. In
a centralized structure the decision making power is laying in the hands of higher authority of
management. But in a decentralized structure the decision making power has been allotted to the
lower level as to extent the speed of implemented work and to reach to the level of job
satisfaction (Aswathappa and Kavitha, 2010).

Organizational structure can be divided in to two types like vertical and horizontal. In vertical
type of organizational structure, the management skills need not to be so perfect because it has
many different levels with individuals like managers and supervisors in control of low span
where they have handful of subordinates working under them in comparison to horizontal
structure. But in horizontal structure the span is tend to get wider with many subordinates under
a single manager or supervisor. Horizontal structure proves to be more effective in the part of

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cost cutting and tend to have better communication as it does not require many supervisors and
managers (Mullins, 2005).

An organization needs to follow a formal structure in order to achieve its goal. It is very
important for an organization to divide the work between its employees to generate an effective
group work. When two or three employees are working together on a same project the culture of
the company should make sure that they should generate proper outputs so that the company can
get the inputs. Without people a company cannot run and this tends to create different opinions,
traits in behaviour with lots of different aptitudes (Appannaiah and Kavita, 2010). The term
organization represents a place where human resources are being used in its best possible way to
get the maximum utility for the organization. Organizational culture plays a vital role in order to
get success for the organization. Different types of organizational culture are as follows:

Hierarchy culture:

Hierarchy culture is a kind of culture that denotes stability and control so that an organization
can run smoothly.

Market:

Market is a type of culture which also supports stability and security like hierarchy. This culture
is very competitive in nature and mainly focuses on production.

Clan:

Clan is also very important culture in the field of organizational behaviour. It is quite friendly for
the employees as it demands the employees to take part in discussion as it may add new level of
advancement to an effective team work (Karthick, 2010).

Conclusion:

Sincere employees working under the assigned decorum tend to lose their sincerity in a poor
cultural structure in an organization. This kind of theory is result of employees not having
control of the organizational procedures, policies, and all other organizational system. Motivated
employees will get demoralize due to the poor structure of an organization. These kinds of
feelings are generally amplified by the performance management that whimsically pushes people
to behave forcefully like organizational system, process and procedure. When as field of

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academic study organizational behaviour wasnt fully accepted by the American psychological
association in 1970s, its roots went back to 1920s when Hawthorne electric company
conducted a series of experiments that how the change of environment can influence the
productivity. In conclusion to this chapter, we reviewed the cultural diversities of organizational
behaviour. Different diversity can be added to the companys benefit and competitive advantage.
Organizational behaviour is a product of knowledge about how peoples, individuals reacts to
different situation and how they set their minds in order to achieve their goals. It is also
important for organizations to capitalize the innovative ideas of their employees.

Task 2

LO2: understand different approaches to management and leadership


Dear Sir,

I am one of the sincere followers of yours and have invested a quality of time to get account of
your great journey and success.

Hello Mr. Smith it is highly commendable that you made it possible to bring a small entity of
business to this level of success where it now known as scoop n smiles ltd. This massive
growth of your business took some long years and hard work to reach to more people and spread
happiness. However as it is no more a stall where you are managing the business with handful
of employees, you need some managing skills and some advance thought in order to get higher
profit. In this present situation of your ice cream factory that requires many employees as well as
managers to get some more delicious sensorial fun to the customers and that can only be
achieved by a skilful management and leadership style. I hereby compile some essential ideas
that will provide a lot of information for running a modern day organization. I am not going to
give you lessons on how to run an organization but will provide some of the important
management principles of leadership that suits to your business profile. There are four
exceptional styles that classified leadership. Those are as follows:

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Human relation leader: this kind of leaders supports a sympathetic ground towards employees by
giving less importance to work. In their perspective supportive work environment serves a happy
employee which encourages effective performances.

Democratic leader: this type of leader however takes more interest in work which leads to
expectation from the employees to work hard. This kind of leaders creates a challenging
environment to get the outputs beneficial to the organization.

Laissez faire leader: This sort of leader does not pay much heed to the environment or to the
performances of the employees, they do think that employees are unpredictable and dictating
them every minute will not help in getting an effective work.

Autocratic leader: This type of leadership is very much practical to generate the outputs as it
believes that the employees are not at all sincere and responsible towards their work
(Appannaiah et al.2010). So they are very much rigid and have less empathy in decision making
process in order to fulfil the job.

There are certain differences between a manager and a leader. A manager is the person that
manages his or her followers, whereas a leader sets the goal of a group work and motivates their
subordinates to achieve the goal, sets example of a perfect organizational behaviour and helps to
define organizational or group culture (Scarnati, 2001).

Sometimes a manager can influence his or her followers to work in a broad range to achieve the
organizational goals but conferring such position or power upon a person does not make him a
leader. That person might have the authority to control his subordinates but his skill of leadership
depends mostly upon his ability to influence and inspire his subordinates to work for achieving
their desired goal, is way more important than the authority.

There is nothing like always a manager turns out to be a good leader, and sometimes some
leaders are not well to manage. A manager is a person from the team who manages, coordinates,
contacts and organize the affairs of the team. All the functions of a manager may well be
different from the quality of a leader. A leader supposed to have the quality to influence his team
members; the management does not need any prior quality like this.

An example would help to understand the difference between leadership and management skills:

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Suppose a manager is newly appointed in a factory in the position of a plant supervisor. He
decides to would impress his subordinates. So when he came to production room door which was
dominated by the workers union and entered the doorstep, suddenly he announced loudly that he
was in command of all decisions and operations which everyone else were obliged to follow. The
workers will immediately feel distanced from this particular manager and would not perform his
duties whole heartedly.

Now with this instance we can differentiate the approach of a leader and a manager. But there are
certain fundamental differences between a manager and a leader like; a manager administers
things, supervises, has the authority to control whereas a leader innovates ideas, look in to the
personal benefits of their subordinates as well as of companies (Wu, 2013).

Task 3

LO3: understand ways of using motivational theories in organizations


It is a fact that leadership has changed the entire course of action of mankind as it has provided
variety of ways and motivation to humankind so that they can act according to the situation.
There is some kind of internal force that derive the energy of a person for work, to meet new
goals in their professional lives and in an organization people need to get motivated as to bring
immense benefit to the organization. People also get motivated when their intrinsic and extrinsic
needs will be satisfied that covers the security and the money.

Motivating employees is a researched subject as it will affect the personal performance of the
motivated person and also the professional productivity of the organization. Barnes (2012)
opined that a manager must be able to understand what it takes an employee to be motivated
towards his work and nurture the exact environment for them to reach their desired goal.

Motivation is a term that indicates control, obedience towards ones assigned work. It reflects the
moral behaviour of an individual like if a person is hungry he or she will eat food to diminish his
or her hunger, in the same way a motivated person will work till the end. One of the most
interesting ways of motivation is to give the workers a ground of interesting work, not a less
challenging work. What motivation actually means---it is the innermost desire to fulfil ones need

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of desired thing and to achieve their goal and individuals set their short term or long term goals
what is required for their living.

By motivating employees organizations enable themselves to reach out for their decided goals
and increase their effectiveness. Two most renowned companies of the world like British airways
and HSBC has motivated their employees to reach the goal. The British airways have started the
pension scheme for its employees and also the new pension scheme for the British airways
employees all over the world. It also comes with the benefits of club and employee association of
BA employees and all this organizational benefits refer to love and belongingness of human
character and are subject to affiliate employees to the company.

HSBC differs completely in terms of its business rules from British airways. This financial
banking group offers a variety of organizational benefits to its employees. My choice is a
beneficial package that is bound to the choice of employees. All the employees are free to choice
their desired benefits whether it is a pension scheme or some other packages depending on their
personal needs. These benefits act as a knot that tightens the bond between the stuffs and the
organization. In companies like British airways and HSBC the leaders also influences their
subordinates and help them to achieve the goal.

According to (Wei L., Liu J. 2011) a SMART goal that is specific, measurable, attainable, and
realistic and time related could derive from the employees an effective work specimen. In the
ground of reality this goal is applicable in the context of HSBC. But it is also evident that the
benefits of motivation should be limited otherwise the lack of rewards, could bring about the fall
of the productivity of an organization.

At times of changes in an organization many policies has been introduced in order to make the
employees finish their assigned work with in a time frame. It is the leaders duty to assure the
employees about the policies and work process of the organization. All these achievements are
significant to the organization at times of sudden changes. Its the leaders duty to collect
maximum contribution from the employees for the welfare of the organization (Bush, 2015).

Task 4
LO4: Understanding mechanisms of developing effective team work in an organisation.

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Introduction
The researchers always approve that an efficient team is the key to success of an organization. At
the time of crisis it is acknowledged that an efficient team with its ability of hard working and
technique can carry forward the brand of an organization a long way by achieving its targets. In
general an organization is working with numbers of human resources and the duty of the
organization is to understand the psychic and behaviour of their employees (Mller, 2014). The
behaviour of an individual is being influenced by many different things like psychological
factors, personal and organizational system and environmental factors. The first thing is
psychological factors that define personality, perspective, attitudes and values. The second thing
goes for personal factors like age, skill, abilities. The most important factors to be mentioned are
political, economic, social norms and cultural values.

Teamwork is a term that becomes ironically famous in the industrial sectors now a day. Not all
of the organizations but a few are actually nurturing this commodity. If an organization need its
employee to become an integral part of their team then it is very important to make them feel that
the given task is way larger than their everyday job. By involving in such a work one should feel
as an integral part of the project and that each and every individual effort matters in reaching the
goal. In every organization the team works under the supervision of a good leader (Abaya,2015).
The leader first needs to know the behavioural pattern of his team members and the leader must
be familiar with the path in which he is going to walk with his team to achieve his target, and
should know the way to handle his team members to avoid chaos, uncertainty.

The first stage of developing an effective teamwork is to create a good team; at this initial stage
when a team is being formed all the individuals are naturally not familiar with each other (Hira
and Shiao, 2016). This is a quiet complex phase where a team leader should perform his action
by making all the team members feel relieved and comfortable, and the primary lesson for the
team members will be making approaches with caution with each other. Effective team work is
developed through experience and unity. A team consists of many diversions like diversity in
culture, background, personalities and with all those diversity comes respect and share of
experience, and this will help to build an effective teamwork (Fombona et al.2013).

An effective teamwork is always facilitated by an open and clear voice of ideas. All the team
members should be on the same page in concern of responsibility, deadline meeting and

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generating ideas. They should be comfortable in giving their ideas as it may advance the project.
In this process whenever a complex situation arises the team with effective communication and
effort resolved it and overcome it rather than engaging themselves in worthless gossips.

For generating an effective teamwork few things are needed like setting goals for the team,
communication, dealing factors with conflicts. First the leader need to set goals for the team and
it should be in written format so that everyone in the team is able to see their target and it will
help them to achieve their targeted objective (Vennebo, 2016) .Second, the leader needs to get
communicated with his team members in a very clear way so that each member of the team can
understand their target. Allowing the team members to communicate with each other outside the
office hours to create a mutual bonding between the team members, exchanging the ideas and the
experience will add to the advantage. The management should organize some of the training
sessions just to interact with their stuffs; these tools for communication will surely results in an
effective team work.

Diversity is another important key to form an efficient team where different individuals
communicate with each other which will result in benefits for the entire team (Mullins, 2005).
All the employees need to be technologically sound as per the requirement of the job. In addition
to that data storage, various mode of communication over the social media will bring
productivity to the organization.

Conclusion:
The term team reflects the idea that it takes lots of hard work of an efficient team to build a
strong organization. An efficient team forms when the people are enthusiast enough to work with
each other to achieve the goal. However smart leader understands the team and delivers great
guidance to acquire their goal, as he needs to get familiar with the physical and internal feature
of his fellow associates, because it will help him to assign the task to the person who knows his
job well. In this field of industrial competition new technologies has been introduced. Many
companies are using this opportunity as new ways of profit to the business. New technologies are
also used as a mean of upgrading the staffs. Technologies can improve in some cases like email,
mobile phones, software, computers all are add to the benefits in the functioning are of the team
members.

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