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Air Compressor

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Shyam P V

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 11, November-2013 1380

ISSN 2229-5518

Air Compressor

P V Shyam, Vithuraj T

Abstract This paper presents a project work aimed at developing a Mathcad tool capable of designing different types of industrial

centrifugal air compressor volutes. Six different volutes are designed in this project with the help of suitable algorithms, which are

Rectangular Cross Sectional External and Semi-External volutes; Elliptical Cross Sectional External and Semi External volutes; Circular

Cross Sectional External and Semi-External volutes. The geometry generated incorporates the manufacturing and performance

requirements necessary for a practical volute design. The Mathcad tool capability is validated by comparing with the prediction of an

established Commercial Tool called COMPAERO . Thus, this project ultimately looks in introducing a volute design tool compatible to the

industry.

Index Terms Algorithms for Mathcad, CAM design, Circular Cross Sectional External and Semi-External Volutes, Elliptical Cross

Sectional External and Semi External Volutes, Rectangular Cross Sectional External and Semi-External Volutes, Validation with

COMPAERO , Volute or Scroll

1 INTRODUCTION

IJSER

HE main objective of the project is to generate the cross II. Rectangular Cross sectional Semi-External Volute

sectional profiles of the volute and hence arrive at the 3D III. Elliptical Cross sectional External Volute

structure of the volute. The tool is developed as a Mathcad IV. Elliptical Cross sectional Semi-External Volute

script using the commercially available design software called V. Circular Cross sectional External Volute

Mathcad-14. Design methodology adopted is to establish the VI. Circular Cross sectional Semi-External Volute

area distribution in the volute from the principles of Conserva-

tion of Angular momentum and Mass (CAM Designs) [1].

2 DESIGN ALGORITHMS

The algorithms used for designing the Elliptical and Circular

cross sectional volutes are done in such a way that 3/4th of the

volute profile is an ellipse or circle and the rest is rectangle for

manufacturability. The equations used for the design can be

referred in the Appendix A.

a) Algorithm for Geometrical properties for the Full Col-

lection Plane.

Input Values:- Volute Inlet Radius; Volute inlet

Width; Sizing parameter; Aspect Ratio; Inlet Flow

angle; Number of Stations for Volute generation

Equations for finding Variables like Height, Width,

Area, Mean Radius and Maximum Radius for the

Volute Passage cross section are derived from

CAM designs and Geometrical concepts

Fig. 1 Full Collection Plane of the Volute

If Width Volute inlet width then, Width = Volute

The tool developed is capable of designing six types of com- inlet width and continue solving the equations by

monly used industrial volutes which are as follows:- keeping this value in finding other variables

I. Rectangular Cross sectional External Volute Otherwise, continue with the value obtained for

Width from CAM design equations and use that to

find further variables

P V Shyam is currently pursuing B.E. Hons. Mechanical Engineering in This process is continued for the corresponding

Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani Hyderabad Campus, India

E-mail: 1993shyam@gmail.com

number of Stations

Vithuraj T is the manager of TD-CAC in ELGI Equipments Lim- Display Values of Variables in a table format

ited,Coimbatore, India E-mail: vithurajt@elgi.com b) Algorithm for 3D Co-ordinates for Full Collection

Plane

Input Values:- Height, Width, Mean Radius and

IJSER 2013

http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 11, November-2013 1381

ISSN 2229-5518

Maximum Mean Radius of the Volute Passage, equations

Number of Stations for Volute Generation This process is continued for the corresponding

Equations for finding the 3D Coordinates(X, Y, Z) number of Stations

at 5 points of the Rectangle which are Volute inlet Display the Values in a table format

Point; the three Corner points of the Rectangle and b) Algorithm for 3D Co-ordinates for Full Collection

the Volute inlet width point derived from mathe- Plane

matical modeling concepts Input Values:- Height, Width, Mean Radius and

The process is continued for all the stations speci- Maximum Mean radius of the Volute Cross sec-

fied tional Passage; Number of Stations for Volute gen-

Display the coordinate values in a table format eration; Thickness between the annular passage

c) Algorithm for Geometrical Properties of the Exit Cone and the Volute Passage

Input Values:- Ideal Divergence angle needed for Equations derived from the basic concepts of

the Exit cone; the geometric properties of the rec- Mathematical modeling to get the values for X, Y,

tangle at 3600 of the Full Collection Plane; Number Z Coordinates for 6 points in the rectangle which

of sections for Exit cone generation include Volute inlet point, Volute width + thick-

Equations derived from basic geometrical concepts ness point, Volute inlet width point and the rest of

of frustum to find the height, width and area of the 3 corner points of the Rectangle

Exit cone Cross section at each section after giving The process is continued for all the stations speci-

a fixed value to the Exit Flange Area fied

All the parameters of the Exit cone are calculated Display the coordinate values in a table format

and displayed in the Output c) Algorithm for Geometrical Properties of the Exit Cone

d) Algorithm for Coordinates of the Exit Cone Input Values:- Ideal Divergence angle needed for

Input Values:- Geometrical Properties & Coordi- the Exit cone; the geometric properties of the rec-

nates of the Rectangle at 3600 of the Full Collection tangle at 3600 of the Full Collection Plane; Thick-

IJSER

Plane; Geometrical Properties of the Exit Cone at ness between the annular and Volute passage;

each section Number of sections for Exit cone generation

Equations are derived from Mathematical Model- Equations derived from basic geometrical concepts

ing concepts for finding the 3D spacing of the Exit of frustum to find the height, width and area of the

Cone at each section Exit cone Cross section at each section providing a

Results are displayed in Array format showing the fixed value to the Exit Flange Area

Coordinate values of the Exit cone All the parameters of the Exit cone are calculated

and displayed in the Output

2.2 Algorithm for Rectangular Semi-External Volute d) Algorithm for Coordinates of the Exit Cone

a) Algorithm for Geometrical Properties of Full Collec- Input Values:- Geometrical Properties & Coordi-

tion Plane nates of the Rectangle at 3600 of the Full Collection

Input Values:- Volute Inlet Radius; Volute inlet Plane; Geometrical Properties of the Exit Cone at

Width; Sizing parameter; Aspect Ratio; Inlet Flow each section; Thickness between the annular and

angle; Number of Stations for Volute generation; Volute passage

Thickness between the annular passage and the Equations are derived from Mathematical Model-

Volute Passage ing concepts for finding the 3D spacing of the Exit

Equations for finding the Height, Width, Area, Cone at each section

Mean Radius and Maximum Mean Radius of the Results are displayed in Array format showing the

Volute Passage Derived from the CAM design and Coordinate values of the Exit cone

geometrical concepts

If Aspect Ratio (Width/Height) > 1 then take the

Equation of Height and check for all the stations 2.3 Algorithm for Elliptical External Volute

and if Height 2*Volute inlet width then Height a) Algorithm for Geometrical properties of Full Collec-

=2* Volute inlet width and continue solving the tion Plane

equations by keeping this value in finding other Input Values:- Volute Inlet Radius; Volute inlet

Variables. Otherwise continue with the value ob- Width; Sizing parameter; Aspect Ratio; Inlet Flow

tained from CAM design equations angle; Number of Stations for Volute generation

If Aspect Ratio (Width/Height) < 1 take the Equa- Equations for finding Variables like Total Height,

tion of Width and check for all the stations and if Width, Area, Mean Radius and Maximum Radius

Width 2*(Volute inlet width +Thickness) then for the Volute Passage are derived from CAM de-

Width = 2*(Volute inlet width +Thickness) and signs and Geometrical concepts

continue solving the equations by keeping this If Width Volute inlet width then Width = Volute

value in finding other Variables. Otherwise con- inlet width and continue solving the equations us-

tinue with the value obtained from CAM design ing this value to find values of other variables

IJSER 2013

http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 11, November-2013 1382

ISSN 2229-5518

Otherwise, continue with the value obtained for Volute Passage

Width from CAM design equations and use that to Equations derived from the basic concepts of

find further variables Mathematical modeling to get the values for X, Y,

This process is continued for the corresponding Z Coordinates for n+3 points in the Cross section

number of Stations which include Volute inlet point, Volute width +

Display Values of Variables in a table format thickness, Volute inlet width point, the rest of n

b) Algorithm for Co-ordinates of Full Collection Plane points for the Ellipse and an inside corner point of

Input Values:- Height, Width, Mean Radius and the 1/4th rectangle

Maximum Mean radius of the Volute Cross sec- The process is continued for all the stations speci-

tional Passage; Number of Stations for Volute gen- fied

eration; Number of points for Ellipse Generation Display the coordinate values in a table format

Equations derived from the basic concepts of

Mathematical modeling to get the values for X, Y,

Z Coordinates for n+3 points in the Cross section 2.5 Algorithm for Circular External Volute

which are Volute inlet point, first corner point of a) Algorithm for Geometrical Properties of Full Collec-

1/4th rectangle portion, n points for 3/4th Ellipse tion Plane

and Volute inlet width point Input Values:- Volute Inlet Radius; Volute inlet

The process is continued for all the stations speci- Width; Sizing parameter; Inlet Flow angle; Num-

fied ber of Stations for Volute generation

Display the coordinate values in a table format Equations for finding Variables like Total Height,

Width, Area, Mean Radius and Maximum Radius

for the Volute Passage are derived from CAM de-

2.4 Algorithm for Elliptical Semi-External Volute signs and Geometrical concepts

a) Algorithm for Geometrical properties of Full Collec- If Width Volute inlet width then Width = Volute

IJSER

tion Plane inlet width and continue solving the equations us-

Input Values:- Volute Inlet Radius; Volute inlet ing this value to find values of other variables

Width; Sizing parameter; Aspect Ratio; Inlet Flow Otherwise, continue with the value obtained for

angle; Number of Stations for Volute generation; Width from CAM design equations and use that to

Thickness between the annular passage and the find further variables

Volute Passage This process is continued for the corresponding

Equations for finding the Height, Width, Area, number of Stations

Mean Radius and Maximum Mean Radius of the Display Values of Variables in a table format

Volute Passage Derived from the CAM design and b) Algorithm for Co-ordinates of Full Collection Plane

geometrical concepts Input Values:- Height, Width, Mean Radius and

If Aspect Ratio (Width/Height) > 1 then take the Maximum Mean radius of the Volute Cross sec-

Equation of Height and check for all the stations tional Passage; Number of Stations for Volute gen-

and if Height Volute inlet width then Height = eration; Number of points for Circle Generation

Volute inlet width and continue solving the equa- Equations derived from the basic concepts of

tions by keeping this value in finding other Varia- Mathematical modeling to get the values for X, Y,

bles. Otherwise continue with the value obtained Z Coordinates for n+3 points in the Cross section

from CAM design equations which are Volute inlet point, first corner point of

If Aspect Ratio (Width/Height) < 1 take the Equa- 1/4th of rectangle portion, n points for 3/4th of

tion of Width and check for all the stations and if Circular portion and Volute inlet width point

Width (Volute inlet width +Thickness) then The process is continued for all the stations speci-

Width = (Volute inlet width +Thickness) and con- fied

tinue solving the equations by keeping this value Display the coordinate values in a table format

in finding other Variables. Otherwise continue

with the value obtained from CAM design equa-

tions 2.6 Algorithm for Circular Semi-External Volute

This process is continued for the corresponding a) Algorithm for Geometrical properties of Full Collec-

number of Stations tion Plane

Display the Values in a table format Input Values:- Volute Inlet Radius; Volute inlet

b) Algorithm for 3D Co-ordinates for Full Collection Width; Sizing parameter; Aspect Ratio; Inlet Flow

Plane angle; Number of Stations for Volute generation;

Input Values:- Height, Width, Mean Radius and Thickness between the annular passage and the

Maximum Mean radius of the Volute Cross sec- Volute Passage

tional Passage; Number of Stations for Volute gen- Equations for finding the Height, Width, Area,

eration; Number of points for Ellipse Generation; Mean Radius and Maximum Mean Radius of the

Thickness between the annular passage and the Volute Passage Derived from the CAM design and

IJSER 2013

http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 11, November-2013 1383

ISSN 2229-5518

geometrical concepts v. Coordinates for the Exit Cone

If Aspect Ratio (Width/Height) > 1 then take the vi. Area Variation of Full Collection Plane

Equation of Height and check for all the stations vii. Circumferential Area Increase of Full Collection Plane

and if Height Volute inlet width then Height = viii. Radial Orientation of Full Collecton Plane

Volute inlet width and continue solving the equa- ix. Variation of Full Collection plane around Diffuser

tions by keeping this value in finding other Varia- x. 3D Contour Plot of the Volute

bles. Otherwise continue with the value obtained xi. Variation of the Exit Cone

from CAM design equations xii. Radial Orientation of the Exit cone

If Aspect Ratio (Width/Height) < 1 take the Equa-

tion of Width and check for all the stations and if

Width (Volute inlet width +Thickness) then

4 VALIDATION WITH COMPAERO

Width = (Volute inlet width +Thickness) and con- In this section, the comparison results are reported for all the

tinue solving the equations by keeping this value External volutes which were previously generated by Mathcad

in finding other Variables. Otherwise continue software. The procedure is repeated for Semi-External Volutes

with the value obtained from CAM design equa- so, its immaterial to report those results here. In COMPAER-

tions O sofware the properties generated for internal volutes are

This process is continued for the corresponding basically the properties for Semi-External volutes. Thus, the

number of Stations results obtained in Mathcad for Semi-External volutes are di-

Display the Values in a table format rectly compared with the internal volutes. The process used

b) Algorithm for 3D Co-ordinates for Full Collection for comparison of geometrical properties is COMPAERO

Plane results were subtracted from the Mathcad outputs. For match-

Input Values:- Height, Width, Mean Radius and ing the cross sectional shapes a separate mathcad file was cre-

Maximum Mean radius of the Volute Cross sec- ated for each volute. In this program 5 angles were taken on a

tional Passage; Number of Stations for Volute gen- symmetric basis and the cross sectional shapes of the Volute

IJSER

eration; Number of points for Circle Generation; were compared at each of these angles. In this section the cross

Thickness between the annular passage and the sectional shape at the exit of the full collection plane of the

Volute Passage Volute is shown.

Equations derived from the basic concepts of

Mathematical modeling to get the values for X, Y,

4.1 Rectangular External Volute

Z Coordinates for n+3 points in the Cross section

which include Volute inlet point, Volute width +

thickness, Volute inlet width point, the rest of n Comparison of Full Collection Planes Geometries

points for the Ellipse and an inside corner point of

the 1/4th rectangle Avg% Area Avg%R Error Avg% Rmax Avg% Wmax

The process is continued for all the stations speci- Error Error Error

fied 0.4 -0.1 -0.1 -0.4

Display the coordinate values in a table format

The algorithm for the generation of Exit cone for Elliptical and These values are procured by subtracting the COMPAERO

circular cross sectional External as well as Semi-External vol- result values from Mathcad result values. A small difference is

utes are not mentioned because the existing algorithm used for seen while comparing the results because COMPAERO soft-

rectangular cross sectional External as well as Semi-External ware has reduced the area by filleting the corner part of the

volutes are repeated over there. rectangle with the radius having the magnitude of volute inlet

width as shown in fig.2. The properties taken here for validat-

ing are the Area of the Full Collection Plane, Mean Radius

3 MATHCAD OUTPUTS Variation of the Volute Passage (R), Maximum Mean Radius

The algorithms which are made above are converted into pro- Variation of the Volute Passage (Rmax), Maximum Width of

grams in Mathcad software so that a new tool could be created the Cross Section of the Volute (Wmax).

for designing the Volutes. The programs were created such

that each algorithm produced an individual program for each

volute. So, a total of 24 programs were created for the design

of all the six volutes and all programs were clubbed together

in another fresh Mathcad file. An additional program called

Choice was added to it so that a user could choose between

any of the six volutes and model the selected one. The Output

of the combined programs consists of 12 parts which are:-

i. Full Collection Plane Geometrical Properties

ii. Coordinates for the Full Collection Plane

iii. Exit Cone Geometrical Properties

iv. Length of the Exit Cone

IJSER 2013

http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 11, November-2013 1384

ISSN 2229-5518

Comparison of Cross sectional shape Mathcad.

At 3600 Polar Angle

Comparison of Cross sectional shape

At 3600 Polar Angle

Fig. 4 Comparison of Circular Cross sectional shapes generated

erated in Mathcad and COMPAERO

in Mathcad and COMPAERO

Equations involved in Design of each volute are presented in this

Avg% Area Avg%R Error Avg% Rmax Avg% Wmax section. These equations are directly derived from the CAM de-

IJSER

Error Error Error sign concepts of centrifugal air compressor.

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

For all the below volutes the equation for Area calculation is

Elliptical cross sectional Volutes showed a great similarity

between the results produced in both the soft wares. This tells TABLE 1

about the authenticity of the programming algorithm used by NOMENCLATURE

the Mathcad software to design the Volutes. Variables Representation

r Volute Radius Measured from the center of the com-

Comparison of Cross sectional shape pressor

At 3600 Polar Angle R Radius of the Mean Passage flow

Rmax Volute Outer Radius Measured from the Centre of

the Compressor

b Volute Inlet Width or Minimum width of the volute

t Thickness between the Annular passage and the

Passage flow inside the volute

H Height of the Cross section of the volute

W Width of the Cross section of the volute

A Area of the Cross section of the volute

Density of the air flow in the volute

Polar angle representing the sections of volute pas-

sage

Fig. 3 Comparison of Elliptical Cross sectional shapes generated

in Mathcad and COMPAERO

Vf Meridional velocity of the air

Vw Swirl component of the velocity of the air

V Absolute Velocity of the air

Flow angle with respect to the volute cross section

4.3 Circular External Volute Divergence angle required for the Exit Cone

Comparison of Full Collection Planes Geometries L Length of the Exit Cone

SP Sizing Parameter for performance

Avg% Area Avg%R Error Avg% Rmax Avg% Wmax 4 Volute Inlet Position

Error Error Error 5 Full Collection Planes maximum radial position

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 Tongue Position

7 Position of the Exit Flange Area

Circular Cross Sectional Volutes also gave a great similarity C Mean Passage Flow position of the volute

between the results obtained from COMPAERO and from E Intermediate Exit cone position

IJSER 2013

http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 11, November-2013 1385

ISSN 2229-5518

taken from the CAM design concept [1] as, 5.2 Acknowledgments

(rV)c = (rVw )4 (1) This Project has been done during the Practice School II course

(V)c A = (rbVf )4 (2) conducted by Birla Institute of Technology and Science,

A = SP rc b4 tan4 (3) PILANI. Hence, special acknowledgement is given to the Prac-

tice school division for the background support given in com-

Rectangular Cross Sectional External Volute pletion of the project successfully.

For Rectangular Cross sectional External Volute, The authors are thankful to Mr. Pavan Kumar Reddy and Dr.

=

1

+

2

+ 4 4 (4) Swaminathan Gopalakrishnan at ELGI EQUIPMENTS LIM-

2 2 2

ITED for their valuable support during the course of the pro-

Where S = SP b4 tan4 ject. A special gratitude is shown to the Learning and Devel-

opment Department of ELGI EQUIPMENTS LIMITED for

Rectangular Cross sectional Semi-External Volute providing the opportunity to do the project.

For Aspect Ratio Greater than 1 (AR > 1)

1 t t2

H= + 4 + 4 (S + b24 AR) (5) 6 CONCLUSION

2AR 2

The primary project goal of development of a volute design

For Aspect Ratio Less than 1 (AR < 1) tool using the Mathcad was successfully completed. The new

(b4 t)2

W=

1 b4 t

+ + 4 S (6) tool is capable of designing centrifugal compressor volute pro-

2 2 4

files of six different types which were mentioned all along the

Where S = SP AR r4 b4 tan4 project. The main aim was the consideration of ease of manu-

facturability and performance which are of prime concern for

Elliptical Cross sectional External Volute industry which was attained with the help of this tool. The

For Elliptical Cross sectional External Volute, main reason for this is that the output of the tool is in a format

which could be easily imported to any CAD software for

IJSER

2

W = S 3 + S 3 + 4 AR r4 S 3 (7) modeling the same and for further manufacturing process.

1+ 1+ 1+

4 4 4 The Mathcad results obtained are authenticated and validated

Where S = SP b4 tan4 with commercially approved software called COMPAERO,

which is used in most of the major centrifugal compressor

Elliptical Cross sectional Semi-External volute production industries. All these comparison results are report-

For Elliptical Cross sectional Semi-External Volute, ed and it has been observed that the results produced were

For Aspect Ratio Greater than 1 (AR > 1) greatly matching with the results of COMPAERO software.

Performance validation module could be taken up as a future

1 3

H= 3 t + t 2 + 4 1 + (S + b24 AR) (8) work. Thus, it can be concluded that the Mathcad tool gener-

1+ AR 4

4

ated volute designs could be used in the manufacturing indus-

For Aspect Ratio Less than 1 (AR < 1) tries for the Centrifugal compressors.

1 b4 t (b4 t)2 3

W= 3 + + 4 S 1 + (9)

1+ 1 1 4

4 7 REFERENCES

Where S = SP AR r4 b4 tan4 [1] R..H. Aungier Volute design. In Centrifugal compressors: a strategy for aerody-

namic design and analysis (pp. 195-200). New york: ASME.

Circular Cross Sectional External Volute [2] Cohen, H., & Rogers, G. (1996). Centrifugal Compressors. In Gas Turbine

For Circular Cross sectional External Volute, Theory (pp. 141-151). England: Longman Group Limited.

2

[3] Meherwan. (2003). Centrifugal Compressors: a basic guide. In Boyce, Compressor

W = S 3 + S 3 + 4 r4 S 3 (10) Selections (pp. 1-30). Oklahoma: PennWell Corporation.

1+ 1+ 1+

4 4 4

[4] PMFM_Lecture_Slides. (2011, February). Centrifugal compressor. Hyderabad,

Where S = SP b4 tan4 Andhra, India: BITS-Pilani.

[5] Reunanen, A. (2001). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of different

Circular Cross Sectional Semi-External Volute volutes in a centrifugal compressor. High Speed Technology Research Program,

For Circular Cross sectional Semi-External Volute, 152.

1 b4 t (b4 t)2 3 [6] Ronald. (n.d.). Turbomacinery Aerodynamic Technology. Retrieved 2013,

W= 3 + + 4 S 1 + (11)

1+

4

1 1 4 from Design and Analysis software and Consulting services: http:// www.turbo-

Where S = SP r4 b4 tan4 aero.com/documents/CompAero.aspx

equation used is as follows,

WE =2*W360 *tan(/2) (12)

Where, W 360 is the Width of the Cross section of the full collec-

tion plane.

IJSER 2013

http://www.ijser.org

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