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Unsteady-State Flow

Well testing

Unsteady-State Flow

The unsteady-state flow (frequently called transient flow)

is defined as the fluid flowing condition at which the

rate of change of pressure with respect to time at any

position in the reservoir is not zero or constant.

This definition suggests that the pressure derivative with

respect to time is essentially a function of both

position i and time t, thus

Unsteady-State Flow

The pressure disturbance will move away

from the wellbore at a rate that is

determined by:

Permeability

Porosity

Fluid viscosity

Rock and fluid compressibilities

Unsteady-State Flow

Pressure disturbance as a function of time.

Unsteady-State Flow

Basic Transient Flow Equation

In unsteady-state flow condition, the flow rate into an

element of volume of a porous media may not be the

same as the flow rate out of that element

Time, t

Porosity,

Total compressibility, ct

Unsteady-State Flow

pseudosteady (semisteady)-state flow

As soon as the pressure disturbance reaches all drainage

boundaries, it ends the transient (unsteady-state) flow

regime. A different flow regime begins that is called

pseudosteady (semisteady)-state flow. It is necessary at

this point to impose different boundary conditions on the

diffusivity equation and drive an appropriate solution to

this flow regime.

pseudosteady (semisteady)-state flow

pseudosteady (semisteady)-state flow

Example 6-16

An oil well is producing at a constant oil flow rate of 1200 STB/day

under a semisteady-state flow regime. Well testing data indicate that the

pressure is declining at a constant rate of 4.655 psi/hr. The following

additional data is available:

h = 25 ft f = 15% Bo = 1.3 bbl/STB

ct = 12 x 10-6 psi-1

Calculate the well drainage area.

pseudosteady (semisteady)-state flow

Radial Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids

Example

An oil well is developed on the center of a 40-acre

square-drilling pattern.

The well is producing at a constant flow rate of

800 STB/day under a semisteady-state condition.

The reservoir has the following properties:

f = 15% ; h = 30 ft ; k = 200 md

m = 1.5 cp ; Bo = 1.2 bbl/STB; ct = 25 x10-6 psi-1

pi = 4500 psi ; rw = 0.25 ft ; A = 40 acres

a. Calculate and plot the bottom-hole flowing

pressure as a function of time.

b. Based on the plot, calculate the pressure

decline rate. What is the decline in the average

reservoir pressure from t = 10 to t = 200 hr ?

solution

Plot P vs t

Slope of te curve is dp/dt

Example

Q 416 stb/day

Radial Flow of Compressible Fluids (Gases)

These approximations are:

Pressure-squared approximation

Pressure-approximation

Pressure-squared approximation

the method provides compatible results to that of

the exact solution approach when p < 2000.

Pressure-Approximation Method

This approximation method is applicable at p > 3000 psi

Uniform permeability throughout the drainage area

Laminar (viscous) flow

possible deviation

Skin factor

Turbulent flow factor

Skin Factor

It is not unusual for materials such as mud

filtrate, cement slurry, or clay particles to

enter the formation during drilling,

completion or workover operations and

reduce the permeability around the

wellbore.

This effect is commonly referred to as a

wellbore damage and the region of altered

permeability is called the skin zone.

pressure drop is commonly referred to as

DPskin

Near wellbore skin-effect

Skin zones

DPskin > 0, indicates an

additional pressure drop due to

wellbore damage,i.e., kskin < k.

DPskin < 0, indicates less

pressure drop due to wellbore

improvement, i.e., kskin > k.

DPskin = 0, indicates no changes

in the wellbore condition, i.e.,

kskin = k.

Skin zones

Positive Skin Factor, s > 0

When a damaged zone near the wellbore

exists, kskin < k. The magnitude of the skin

factor increases

Negative Skin Factor, s < 0

When the permeability around the well

kskin> k, . This negative factor indicates an

improved wellbore condition.

Zero Skin Factor, s = 0

Zero skin factor occurs when no alternation

in the permeability around the wellbore is

observed, i.e., kskin = k.

Skin s calculations

Skin s calculations

Calculate the skin factor resulting from the

invasion of the drilling fluid to a radius of 2 feet.

The permeability of the skin zone is estimated at

20 md as compared with the unaffected

formation permeability of 60 md. The wellbore

radius is 0.25 ft.

4.16

Flow and skin effect

Turbulent Flow Factor

If turbulent flow does exist, it is most likely to

occur with gases and causes an additional

pressure drop similar to that caused by the skin

effect. The term non-Darcy flow has been

adopted by the industry to describe the

additional pressure drop due to the turbulent

flow.

Turbulent Flow Factor D given by:

Example

A gas well has an estimated wellbore

damage radius of 2 feet and an estimated

reduced permeability of 30 md. The

formation has a permeability and porosity

of 55 md and 12%. The well is producing

at a rate of 20 MMscf/day with a gas

gravity of 0.6. The following additional

data is available: rw = 0.25 ; h = 20; T =

140F ; mgw = 0.013 cp

Calculate: skin factor; turbulence

parameter b ; non-Darcy coefficient

F; turbulence flow factor D

S 1.7 ; B 159.904 x 10^-6 ; F 0.14 ; D 1.805 10^-4

WELL TESTING

pressure disturbance in the reservoir and

recording the pressure response at the wellbore, i.e.,

bottom-hole flowing pressure Pwf, as a function of time.

WELL TESTING

used in the petroleum industry include:

Pressure drawdown

Pressure build-up

Multirate

Interference

Pulse

Drill Stem

Fall off

Injectivity

Step rate.

WELL TESTING

Effective permeability

Formation damage or stimulation

Flow barriers and fluid contacts

Volumetric average reservoir pressure

Drainage pore volume

Detection, length, capacity of fractures

Communication between wells

WELL TESTING

Assumption

In pressure buildup and drawdown analyses, the

following assumptions, are usually made:

Reservoir:

Homogeneous

Isotropic

Horizontal of uniform thickness

Fluid:

Single phase

Slightly compressible

Constant mo and Bo

Flow:

Laminar flow

No gravity effects

WELL TESTING

Drawdown Test

A pressure drawdown test is simply a series of bottom-

hole pressure measurements made during a period of

flow at constant producing rate.

period of time sufficient to allow the pressure to equalize

throughout the formation, i.e., to reach static pressure

WELL TESTING

average permeability, k,

assess the degree of damage

determine the pore volume

detect reservoir inhomogeneities

Typical draw-down test

pressure disturbance in the reservoir and

recording the pressure response at the wellbore, i.e.,

bottom-hole flowing pressure Pwf, as a function of time.

Drawdown test calculations

Y = mx + c

Semi log p-t

Draw-down test

WELL TESTING

Formation damage s

Pwf = P1 hr ; which is found on the extension of the straight line at log t (1 hr),

WELL TESTING drawdown

Example

Estimate oil permeability and skin factor from the following

reservoir data:

h = 130 ft f = 20 percent

rw = 0.25 ft pi = 1,154 psi

Qo = 348 STB/D m = -22 psi/cycle

Bo = 1.14 bbl/STB mo = 3.93 cp

ct = 8.74 x 10^-6 psi-1

Assuming that the wellbore storage effects are not significant,

calculate:

Permeability

Skin factor

WELL TESTING

WELL TESTING

Pressure Buildup Test

The use of pressure buildup data has provided the

reservoir engineer with one more useful tool in the

determination of reservoir behavior.

wellbore pressure with time after a well has been shut in.

Pressure Buildup Test

Pressure buildup analysis to determine:

Effective reservoir permeability

Extent of permeability damage around the wellbore

Presence of faults and the distance to the faults

Any interference between producing wells

Limits of the reservoir where there is not a strong

water drive or where the aquifer is no larger than the

hydrocarbon reservoir

WELL TESTING- pressure buildup

A pressure buildup test is described mathematically by

using the principle of superposition. Before the shut-in,

the well is allowed to flow at a constant flow rate of Qo

STB/day for tp days.

At the time corresponding to the point of shut-in, i.e., tp,

a second well, superimposed over the location of the first

well, is opened to flow at a constant rate equal to -Qo

STB/day for Dt days.

WELL TESTING shut-in

STB/day. for time tp and then shut in for time Dt.

The time corresponding to the point of shut-in, tp, can

be estimated from the following equation:

WELL TESTING shut-in

Idealized pressure build-up test.

WELL TESTING shut-in

Calculations Horner plot equation

Y = -mx + c

WELL TESTING shut-in

A plot of Pws versus (tp + Dt)/Dt) would produce a straight line

relationship with intercept pi and slope of -m,

WELL TESTING shut-in

skin may be estimated from the build-up test data

WELL TESTING shut-in

Example

an oil well with an estimated drainage radius of 2,640 ft.

Before shut-in, the well had produced at a stabilized rate

of 4,900 STB/day for 310 hours.

Known reservoir data are:

depth = 10,476 ft rw = 0.354 ft

ct = 22.6 x 10-6 psi-1 Qo = 4,900 STB/D

H = 482 ft Pwf(Dt = 0) = 2,761 psig

mo = 0.20 cp f = 0.09

Bo = 1.55 bbl/STB casing ID = 0.523 ft

tp = 310 hours

Calculate

Average permeability k K 12.8

Skin factor S 8.6

WELL TESTING shut-in

WELL TESTING shut-in

WELL TESTING shut-in

STB/day. for time tp and then shut in for time Dt.

The time corresponding to the point of shut-in, tp, can

be estimated from the following equation:

WELL TESTING shut-in

STB/day. for time tp and then shut in for time Dt.

The time corresponding to the point of shut-in, tp, can

be estimated from the following equation:

Reservoir Fluid Samples

and Well Testing

DST Well Test

Drilling mud

Oil zone

Valve closed

Oil zone

Drill Stem Test

Valve open

Packer set

Oil zone

DST

Figure 7-11. Sequence of events reflected on pressure-time recording during a drill stem test.

Drill Stem Test Interpretation

Early Time Region

Well Bore Storage

Skin change in slope

Middle Time Region

Permeability of tested zone

Kh

Well Test K vs Core K?

Late Time Region

Reservoir Boundary

Fault

Permeability Change, shale out

Reservoir Limit

Skin Factor and Flow Efficiency

(k is in millidarcies)

162.6qo mo Bo

m

ko h

P1hr Pwf ko

s 1.151 log fm c r 2 3.23

m o ow

DPskin 0.87ms

Pe Pwf DPskin

FlowEffeciency

Pe Pwf

(See pg. 7-9, 7-10 in textbook)

WELL TESTING

References

John Lee, Well Testing (1982)

C. S. Matthews and D. G. Russell, Pressure Buildup and Flow

Test in Wells (1967)

Robert Earlougher, Advances in Well Test Analysis (1977)

Canadian Energy Resources Conservation Board, Theory and

Practice of the Testing of Gas Wells (1975)

Roland Horn, Modern Well Test Analysis (1995)

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