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1. Name different electromagnetic frequency spectrum region and microwave band

designations for CCIR/IEEE/US military bands.

2. List out the advantages of micro-strip line over rectangular wave guide.

3. Determine the cut off frequency of the dominant mode for an air filled rectangular WG
when a/b = 2 with a = 4cm.

4. What is meant by the dominant mode of a waveguide? What is the dominant mode in
rectangular wave guide?

5. Determine the group velocity and phase velocity for a dominant mode propagating
through a waveguide of breadth 10cms at frequency 2.5GHz.

6. How are waveguides different from normal two wire transmission lines? Discuss the
similarities and dissimilarities.

7. Compare the differences between Waveguide and Co-axial cable.

8. What are the advantages of dominant mode propagation?

9. Determine the group velocity and phase velocity for a dominant mode propagating
through a waveguide of breadth 10cms at frequency 2.5GHz.

10. List out the advantages of microstrip line over rectangular waveguide.

11. Examine the TE mode field pattern in rectangular waveguide.

12. An X- band rectangular waveguide filled with a dielectric with r = 2.25 is operating at
f=9GHz. Calculate the phase and group velocities in the waveguide. (X Band WG the
dimensions are 2.286 x 1.016cm)

13. List the typical applications of microwaves

14. Apply the boundary conditions for TE mode along the boundary walls of the waveguide.

15. Calculate the group and phase velocities for an angle of incidence of 330

16. Explain how the excitation of modes is done in rectangular waveguide?

17. Define dominant and degenerative modes of waveguide.

18. Write the equation of Q factor of microstrip line.


Part B

19. Discuss the significance and advantage of dominant mode in rectangular waveguide.
20. A rectangular waveguide with a width of 4cm and a height of 2cm is used to propagate an
electromagnetic wave in the TE10 mode. Determine the wave impedance, phase velocity
and group velocity of the waveguide for the wavelength of 6cm.
21. Distinguish between TE and TM modes of the propagation in rectangular waveguide.
22. A wave frequency 6GHz is propagated in a parallel plane waveguide separated by 3cm.
calculate (i) the cut off wavelength for the dominant mode. (ii) wavelength in the
waveguide. (iii) the group and phase velocities. (iv) characteristic wave impedance.
23. What is a microwave spectrum bands? Explain briefly the applications of microwaves at
various frequency bands.
24. Explain the TE & TM modes of propagation in waveguides. Why TEM wave does not
exist in rectangular waveguide.
25. What are the advantages of dominant mode of propagation in rectangular waveguides.
26. Derive the field equation for dominant TE mode of propagation in rectangular
27. What are dominant and degenerate modes? What is the significance of dominant modes?
Indicate the dominant mode in rectangular wave guide and calculate fc for the same.
28. Design a rectangular waveguide so that the cut off frequency for the TE 10 mode is 14GHz
and the cut off frequency for TM11 mode is 3GHz.
29. Derive TMmn mode field equation in rectangular waveguide.
30. A rectangular waveguide has dimensions 2.5 x 5cms. Determine the guide wavelength of
4.5 cms for dominant mode.
31. Explain the wave impedance of a rectangular waveguide and derive the expression for the
wave impedance of TE and TM modes.
32. Calculate the cut off frequency of the following modes in a square waveguide 4cm x 4cm
TE10, TM11 and TE22.
33. Derive the expression for the characteristic impedance of microstrip lines.
34. Derive the field equations for rectangular waveguide in TE mode starting from maxwells
35. Why TEM wave is not possible in rectangular waveguide?
36. Determine the impedance of rectangular waveguide in TE and TM mode.
37. Draw the field line for the following modes of rectangular waveguide TE10, TM11,
38. A microstrip line is made of a copper conductor has 0.362mm width on a G-10 fiber
glass-epoxy board which is 0.30mm in height. The relative dielectric constant r of the
board material measured at 30GHz is 5.2. the microstrip line of 0.028mm thickness is
used for 15GHz. Assume the conductivity of copper is 5.96x10 7mho/cm. determine the
parameters given below:
(i) Characteristic impedance Z0 of the microstrip line
(ii) Surface resistivity Rs of the copper conductor
(iii) Conductor attenuation constant c
(iv) Quality factor Qc

1. What is meant by cavity resonator? Derive the expression for the resonant frequency of the
rectangular cavity resonator.
2. Explain the working of a two hole directional coupler with a neat diagram and derive the
expression for the coupling and directivity of a two hole directional coupler.

3. Explain the applications of directional couplers and obtain scattering matrix.

4. Explain the properties of E-plane & H-plane Tee with neat diagram.
5. Explain the working of a dielectric phase shifter with neat diagram.
6. Explain Faraday rotation with neat diagram and explain the working of a ferrite isolator.
7. Obtain the scattering matrix for a 3-port circulator and also prove that it is impossible to construct
a perfectly matched lossless, reciprocal 3-port junction.
8. What is the applications of circulator? Derive S Matrix calculations for circulator with neat
9. What are different compositions and characteristics of ferrite components?
10. Derive the expression for rectangular cavity resonator.
11. Explain coupling factor, directivity and isolation using directional coupler.
12. Find the first five resonances of an air filled rectangular cavity with dimensions of a=5 cm, b=
4cm and c=10cm (dab).


1. What are the limitations of conventional tubes at microwave frequencies. Explain hoe these
limitations can be overcome.
2. A reflex klystron having an accelerated field of 300v oscillates at a frequency of 10GHz with a
retarding field of 500v. if its cavity is returned to 9GHz, what should be the new value of the
retarding field for oscillations in the same mode to take place?
3. What are slow wave structures? Explain how a helical TWT achieves amplification.
4. Draw the equivalent circuit of a reflex klystron and discuss electronic admittance in detail. Use
relevant expression and plots. Mention the performance characteristics of reflex klystron?
5. Two cavity klystron is operated at 10GHz with V0 = 1200v, I0=30Ma, d=1mm, L=4cm and Rsh
=40K. neglecting beam loading. Calculate (i) input RF Voltage V1 for a maximum output
voltage, (ii) voltage gain and (iii) Efficiency.
6. The helical TWT has diameter of 2mm with 50turns per cm. calculate axial phase velocity and a
node voltage at which the TWT can be operated for useful gain.
7. Explain the principle of Two cavity klystron with a neat diagram?
8. The operating frequency of a reflex klystron is 5GHz, it has a DC beam of 250V, a repeller
spacing of 0.1cm for 13/4mode. Determine the maximum value of power and the corresponding
repeller voltage for a beam current of 60Ma.
9. Explain why there are four propagation constants in TWT and derive equations to these
propagation constants.
10. What is reflex klystron? Explain its operation with a neat diagram.
11. What are the limitations of conventional vacuum tubes to operate at microwave frequencies.
12. Explain the principle of working for two cavity klystron with velocity diagram.
13. What is need of Helix in TWT? Describe the amplification process for TWT.

Unit -4

A circular magnetron has the following parameters: cathode radius 2mm and anode radius is 4mm.
determine the hull cut off voltage if the magnetic flux density is 0.3Wb/m 2 and cut off magnetic flux
density if V0=15v.

Write short notes on Gunn Diode

Explain the mode operation of magnetron. How to separate it from other modes?.

What is GUNN effect. Explain the operation of GUNN diode.


EXPLAIN THE construction of GUNN diode using RWH theory.

What are microwave solid state devices? Explain operation and applications of TEDs with neat


WHAT is VSWR. Discuss the measurement of low and high VSWR.

Calculate the SWR of a transmission system operating at 8GHz. Assume TE10 wave transmission
inside a wave guide of dimensions 3.5cm and 2.1cm. the distance measured between twice minimum
power points is 1mm on a slotted line.

Explain E-H plane Tee junction. Why a hybrid E-H plane Tee referred to as Majic Tee. Derive the
scattering matrix for all these Tees.

How to measure an attenuation of a given microwave signal?

Determine the s-matrix of a 3-port circulator given insertion loss of 0.5dB, isolation of 20dB and
VSWR of 2.

Draw the block diagram and its operation for attenuation measurement using power ratio method.

Explain the measurements of power using bolometer technique.

Derive the scattering matrix of H-plane Tee?

What are the properties of S-matrix?. Derive the scattering matrix for a 3 port circulator?

Explain the following with neat diagram

(i) Measurement of microwave power

(ii) Measurement of VSWR.