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Department of Mechanical Engineering

Sub Code : NME 553



Total no. of Experiment: 10

S. No. Name of Experiment

1. To study the crystal structures of materials and Bravais lattices with the help of
2. To perform the tensile strength test on a mild steel specimen and compare the
strength before and after heat treatment.
3. To perform and compare Charpy and Izod Toughness of the specimen before and
after Heat Treatment.
4. To determine the hardness of a given specimen using Rockwell hardness testing
5. To study the behavior of the given material specimen under reverse stresses on a
fatigue testing machine.
6. To study and perform the various heat treatment processes.

7. To study and perform dye penetration test.

8. To prepare the specimen for the microstructure examination by cutting, grinding,
polishing and etching.
9. To study the micro and macro structure of the welded specimen.

Experiment No: 1

Aim: To study the crystal structures of materials and Bravais lattices with the help of
Apparatus required: Model of BCC FCC and HCP structure
Theory: The solids are either crystalline or non-crystalline. The majority of engineering
materials, many ceramics, most minerals, some plastics and all metals are crystalline is structure.
The type of their crystal structure bears significantly on the physical properties of these
materials. The various defects which arise in the formation of crystals of a material are further
responsible for certain aspects of chemical and physical behavior of these crystalline materials.
Crystal structures/system: - A regular and repetitious pattern in which atoms or groups of
atoms (i.e. molecules) of a crystalline material arrange themselves is known as a crystal
structure. All crystalline solids may be classified into seven crystal systems or structures, which
are as follow.
1. Cubic Structure: - In this crystal arrangement, three equal axes are at right angles.
2. Tetragonal Structure: - In this crystal arrangement, three axes are at right angles two of
these axes are equal while third one is different.
3. Orthorhombic Structures: - In this crystal arrangement, three unequal axes are at right
4. Rhombohedral Structures: - In this crystal arrangement, three equal axes are equally
included but at an angle other than a right angle.
5. Hexagonal Structure:- In this crystal arrangement, three equal axes are in one plane at
120º to each other, and a fourth axis normal to this plane. The interval along the fourth
axis is unique.
6. Monoclinic Structure: - In this crystal arrangement, there are three unequal axes. One of
the axes is at right angles to the other two axes, but the other two axes are not at right
angles to each other.
7. Triclinic Structure: - In this crystal arrangement, three unequal axes are unequally
inclined and none being at right angles.
Crystal Structures for Metallic Elements: - Generally, the metallic elements crystallize in one
of the following three structures.

1. BCC 2. FCC 3. HCP

W.C):. or a total of four whole atoms.C):. Some of the familiar metals having this crystal structure are copper.C. Since the co-ordination number is less for BCC than FCC. Two atoms are BCC structure of a material associated with each BCC unit cell the equivalent of one atom from the eight corners.68 versus 0. Ag. silver. FCC structure of a material . Cr. the unit cell has one atom at each corner of the cube and one at body center of the cube.C. 2. Pt. so also is the atomic packing factor for BCC lower-0. Ni.γ-iron (910ºC to 1400ºC) Cu.74. K. Examples.1. aluminium. Examples. Face centered cubic structure (F. Al. Mo.In this type crystal structure.δ-iron (1400ºC to 1539ºC). and gold. may be assigned to a given unit cell. Li. V. each of which is shared among eight unit cell.α-iron (below 910º C). the unit cell has an atom at each corner of the cube and in addition has one atom at the center of each face. Body centered cubic structure (B.In this type of crystal structure. Pb. The co-ordination number for the bcc crystal structure is 8 each center atom has as nearest neighbors its eight corner atoms. Na. For FCC crystal structure each corner atom is shared among eight of each of the eight corner atom and one half of each of the six atoms.

one atom at the center of the two hexagonal faces and three atoms symmetrically arranged in the body of the cell.1363 Gold FCC 0.1246 Silver FCC 0.C. ions. Cd.1750 Titanium HCP 0.1445 Chromium BCC 0. Examples.In this type of crystal structure.P):.1431 Zinc HCP 0.Mg.1371 Iron BCC 0. Zn.1430 Cadmium HCP 0.1445 Lead FCC 0.1387 Cobalt HCP 0. there are 14 possible Bravais lattices in three-dimensional space. A crystal is made up of a periodic arrangement of one or more atoms (the basis) repeated at each lattice point.1490 Platinum FCC 0. Ti. . Zr.1278 Molybdenum BCC 0. the unit cell has one atom at each of the twelve corners of the hexagonal prism. the Bravais lattice concept is used to formally define a crystalline arrangement and its (finite) frontiers.1442 Tantalum BCC 0. Two Bravais lattices are often considered equivalent if they have isomorphic symmetry groups. the crystal looks the same when viewed from any equivalent lattice point. namely those separated by the translation of one unit cell. Hexagonal close-packed structure (H. The 14 possible symmetry groups of Bravais lattices are 14 of the 230 space groups.1253 Tungsten BCC 0.1249 Bravais lattice: When the discrete points are atoms. In this sense. 3.1241 Nickel FCC 0. HCP structure of a material Atomic Radii and crystal structure of some materials Metal Crystal Atomic Metal Crystal Atomic Structure Radius (nm) Structure Radius (nm) Aluminium FCC 0. Consequently. or polymer strings of solid matter.1332 Copper FCC 0. These are given below.

VIVA-QUESTIONS:- 1. Define ‘crystal’? 2. The co-ordinate number of FCC? .

Define the inter planer spacing? 4.3. Define planer density? 5. FCC & HCP? Experiment No: 2 Aim: To perform the tensile strength test on a mild steel specimen and compare the strength . How many atoms in unit cell of BCC.

In some cases the machine may be computer controlled. The dimensions of the specimens are standardized (TS. and the rate of loading is constant. strain data. This test is done on a universal mechanical testing machine which is typically screw-driven or hydraulically powered. Introduction In this test the load is applied along only one axis. the gage section and the ends. elongation which is to be converted into stress vs. yield strength. load is measured using a load cell. in older or simpler testing machines. Apparatus required: UTM machine. Vernier caliper. toughness. . uniform elongation. a purely mechanical or hydraulically device may be employed for measuring main parts. This laboratory experiment is designed to demonstrate the procedure used for obtaining mechanical properties as modulus of elasticity. before and after heat treatment. DIN. elongation and reduction in area at rupture. Test specimen.) A good surface finish is required so that surface flaws do not provide stress concentrations to cause premature failure. ASTM etc. The primary data generated are load vs. In modern tensile testers. graph paper Objective The tensile test measures the resistance of a material to a static or slowly applied force. ultimate tensile strength (UTS).

Ultimate tensile strength test m/c Procedure 1. Take the reading at various points very carefully (Till specimen fractured). Set up the UTM machine for conducting tensile test. 4. 7. Measure the fracture length and diameter of the specimen. Fix the specimen ends in the upper and lower jaw of the UTM platen. 9. Test is carried out till failure of the specimen. 2. 8. Measure all the original gauge length and diameters of the specimen. remove the dial gauge. . Gradually apply load and for each equal increment of the load note down the corresponding dial gauge reading. 3. Remove the specimen from the jaw. 10. Bring the indicating pointer on the measuring dial to zero with the help of supporter and applying the load on the specimen. Repeat the procedure for the specimen after heat treatment. 13. After taking eight to ten reading. 5. 6. Note down the new gauge length and diameter of the fractured section. 12. 11. Draw Stress vs Strain graph.

. 7.. 2. No. 4.Af Percentage Reduction in Area % RA = X 100 = Ao Observation Table: S. 5.mm2 point of Fracture Lf . 6... . 3.. 8.…mm Do = original diameter of the specimen = ……………………mm Df = diameter at the point of fracture = ……………………. Dial gauge reading Load (kgf) Stress (kgf/mm2) Strain g / Lo (g mm) Ao = original cross sectional area = …………………..mm2 Af = cross sectional area at the = ……………………. 9.Observation and calculation Before Heat Treatment Lo = original gauge length... = ……………………mm Lf = fracture length = ………………….Lo Percentage Elongation % EL = = X 100 = Lo Ao .

..mm2 Af = cross sectional area at the point = …………………….. 5.. After Heat Treatment Lo = original gauge length. . 10. 2.…. 6....Lo Percentage Elongation % EL = = X 100 = Lo Ao .mm Ao = original cross sectional area = …………………... = …………………….Af Percentage Reduction in Area % RA = X 100 = Ao S. Dial gauge reading Load (kgf) Stress (kgf/mm2) Strain g / Lo (g mm) Lf = fracture length = ………………….mm Do = original diameter of the specimen = …………………… Df = diameter at the point of fracture = ……………………. No..mm2 of Fracture Lf .. 4. 7. 3.

No. S.. All reading should be noted carefully. Results: S. Before heat treatment: 1 Ultimate tensile strength = ……………………………………………. The test specimen should be free from stress raisers like scratch marks in the gauge length portion... 3 Percentage Elongation = …………………………………………….... 3 Percentage Elongation = ……………………………………………. 10. 8. The specimen should be prepared in uniform cross-sectional area.. 2 Fracture Stress = ……………………………………………... 6. 4. 4 Percentage Reduction in Area = …………………………………………….. VIVA QUESTION . The dial indicator should be fixed firmly on the moving arm of the UTM and the indicator needle should be set to zero before starting the experiment. 2. Load should be applied gradually. All dimensions should be noted carefully. No. Conclusion: Precautions: 1. The oil level in the tank must be desire position. 8.. 3. 5. 9.. The readings for stress and strain should be taken simultaneously... The specimen should be fixed firmly in the vise on the UTM.. during the test. 2 Fracture Stress = ……………………………………………. 9. 4 Percentage Reduction in Area = …………………………………………….. 7. After heat treatment: 1 Ultimate tensile strength = …………………………………………….

1. Muffle furnace. Differentiate between Engineering Stress/Strain and True Stress/Strain. What is the safety precaution need to take care during experiment? 3. called fibrous fracture. the Charpy and Izod. Theory: Notched-bar impact test of metals provides information on failure mode under high velocity loading conditions leading sudden fracture where a sharp stress raiser (notch) is present. indicating brittle behavior. What is meant by Gauge Length? 8. Brittle materials have a small area under the stress- strain curve (due to its limited toughness) and as a result. are relatively smooth and have crystalline appearance in the metals. those for high energy fractures have regions of shear where the fracture surface is inclined about 45° to the tensile stress. How many types of experiments perform on UTM? 4. Ultimate Strength. Fracture Strength? 7. 5. Lower Yield Point. Charpy v-notched impact tests are more common in practice. The fracture surfaces for low energy impact failures. On the contrary. were designed and used extensively to measure the impact energy. Standard Izod/Charpy V-Notched test specimens. The load is applied as an impact blow from a weighted pendulum hammer that is released from a position at a fixed . What is meant by Plastic & Elastic Deformation? 6. Similar characteristics can be seen on the fracture surfaces of broken specimens. What are the various types of fractures? Experiment No: 3 Aim: To perform and compare Charpy and Izod Toughness of the specimen before and after Heat Treatment. and have rougher and more highly deformed appearance. Although two standardized tests. Equipment Required: Impact testing m/c. As plastic deformation capability of the materials (ductility) increases. Define Upper Yield Point. little energy is absorbed during impact failure. the area under the curve also increases and absorbed energy and respectively toughness increase. The energy absorbed at fracture is generally related to the area under the stress-strain curve which is termed as toughness in some references. Which modulus did you find from the initial portion of the stress-strain curve? 2.

Izod Charpy test Specification of machine & specimen detail: . chemical composition of materials. strikes and fractures the specimen at the notch (position of the Izod test specimen in a vertical while in charpy the material placed horizontally). If the dimensions of specimens are maintained as indicated in standards.height h. The energy absorbed at fracture E can be obtained by simply calculating the difference in potential energy of the pendulum before and after the test such as. testing temperature.(h-h ') where m is the mass of pendulum and g is the gravitational acceleration. E = m. The specimen is positioned at the base and with the release of pendulum.g. Izod and Charpy test specimen is given in Figure-2. The pendulum continues its swing. notched-bar impact test results are affected by the lattice type of materials. etc. rising a maximum height ‘h’ which should be lower than ‘h’ naturally. which has a knife edge. degree of strain hardening. thermo-mechanical history.

Based on the room temperature result.6 m/sec  Specimen size = 55×10×10 mm / 63. 5.. 2. Release the hammer.1400  Distance between supports = 40  Striking velocity of hammer = 5. .5×12. Observation Table: Izod/Charpy Type of heat treatment done = ……………………………. 8.  Impact capacity = 300 joule  Least count of capacity (dial) scale = 2 joule  Weight of striking hammer = 18.7×3. 7. Locate the test specimen on the machine supports. and as many temperatures in between as possible. 4. decide whether to concentrate on higher or lower temperature.1200 -900 Charpy. attempting to establish a fully ductile test. Test specimens over a selected range of temperatures. a fully (or nearly) brittle test. 9. 6. Impact strength of the test specimen is the difference of the initial energy stored in hammer and the residual energy. Note the residual energy indicated on the scale the hammer. test a specimen at room temperature.7  Swing diameter of hammer = 1600  Angle of the hammer before striking = Izod. First. Check the zero calibration of the impact tester.2mm ASTM 370 Charpy/Izod ASTM D256  Type of notch = V-notch  Depth of the notch = 2mm Procedure: 1. Lift the hammer to an appropriate knife edge position and notch the energy stored in the hammer. hammer will strike the work piece and break the piece and shoot up the other side of the specimen. 3.

.. Charpy toughness after heat treatment …………………………………. 3. with Specimen Un = ( Us-Ui) Joules specimen 1 2 3  Modulus of rupture= Rupture/Effective volume of specimen  Notch impact strength = Absorb energy/Effective cross section area Result: Izod toughness before heat treatment …………………………………… Izod toughness after heat treatment …………………………………. with Specimen Un = ( Us-Ui) Joules specimen 1 2 3 After heat treatment UI = Energy loss Specimen Energy Us (H-h) Nett energy Mean Energy (H-h) without No. Charpy toughness before heat treatment ………………………………. Conclusion: Precautions: 1. Nobody should stand within the range of swing of the pendulum. Release the pendulum lever carefully. 2. Adjust the loose pointer in contact with the fixed pointer after setting the pendulum....Before heat treatment UI = Energy loss Specimen Energy Us (H-h) Nett energy Mean Energy (H-h) without No. 5. VIVA QUESTIONS .. Specimen should be placed carefully.. considering the correct position of the V-notch.. Pendulum brakes should not be applied while the pendulum is returning. 4.

What is the purpose of V-notch in impact testing and what is its dimension? 6. the greater the resistance to penetration. The load and ball diameter selection is important depending on the hardness of materials and 500 kgf is used for softer materials with the same ball diameter. Vickers and Rockwell hardness tests for metals and alloys. The most popular methods are Brinell. Generally as hardness increases so does yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Keeping the ratio of load P to the square of diameter D2 constant (30 for steels and cast irons and 5 for soft metals and alloys). 1. grain size. What is the difference between Charpy and Izod test? 3. Equipment Required: Rockwell testing machine. The harder the materials. What are the main uses of the Charpy test? 2. What is resilience? Experiment No-4 Aim: To determine the hardness of a given specimen using Rockwell hardness testing machine. Brinell Test: In a standard Brinell test 10 mm diameter hardened steel ball is forced to penetrate the material by 3000 kgf for steels and cast irons. Factors influencing hardness include microstructure. strain hardening. What is meant by toughness? 5. Introduction: Hardness is generally considered as resistance to penetration. What are precautions needs to take care during test? 4. test specimen etc. different load and ball diameter combinations can be selected and . Hardness is directly related to the mechanical properties of the material. thus specifications often require the results of hardness tests rather than tensile tests. etc.

except the indenter is a diamond pyramid with square base. The geometry of indentation is given in Figure-1. and the hardness is determined according to the relationship 2P BHN = ------------------------- π D ( D . by the surface of the pyramidal depression yielding the relationship Where d is the average length of diagonals in mm. in kgf. The angle between the faces of pyramid is 136 as shown in 0 Figure-2. P = Load applied D = Diameter of the ball d = Diameter of the indentation or impression. which is actually a segment of sphere. The Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) of materials is obtained by dividing the applied force P.d ²)) Where.used in Brinell hardness testing. Due to the shape and hardness of indenter the method is applicable to metals and alloys with wide variety of hardness. by the curved surface area of the indentation. Test load is selected . The Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) is obtained by dividing the applied force P. in kgf. Figure-1: Geometry of deformation Figure-2: Vickers hardness indentation under a Brinell hardness indenter Vickers Test: The Vickers hardness test is based on the same principle as the Brinell test.√ (D² .

Rockwell tests differ from other indentation hardness tests in that the depth of indentation determines the hardness rather than the indentation size (see Figure. Therefore. 50 HRC for 50 points on the C scale of dial). Additional penetration due to major load is measured and readings are obtained from a calibrated scale (dial) directly. which has a maximum value of 100.e. Diamond cone or Brale indenter with cone angle of 1200 is used to test hard materials and the balls of sizes between 1.3). depending on the depth of penetration. surface condition of specimens is very important in Rockwell testing because of its high dependency on the accuracy in indentation depth measurements. where X indicates the scale used (i. It is also possible to apply micro hardness testing by keeping the force between 5 grf and 2 kgf in Vickers scale. Rockwell Test: In the Rockwell test.between 1 and 120 kgf depending on the hardness of materials. It should be noted that a Rockwell hardness number is meaningless unless the scale is not specified. a diamond cone or a hard steel ball is employed as the indenter depending on the hardness of materials.7 mm (1/2") are used in testing softer materials. and the major load is then applied.6 mm (1/16") and 12. Is first applied. In order to establish a reference position a minor load of 10 kgf. The hardness numbers are designated HRX. HR = E-e . Most commonly used Rockwell hardness scales are given in Table-l with typical applications.

some empirical relationships have been established between hardness and engineering ultimate tensile strength of metals and alloys. for steels UTS can be roughly estimated from Brinell hardness as follows: UTS (in MPa) = 3. Rockwell Hardness Machine Since the deformations caused by an indenter are of similar magnitude to those occurring at the ultimate tensile strength in a tension test.45 x BHN . For example.

(according to the shape of specimen)  Turn the wheel clockwise so that the specimen starts touching the penetrator.d ²)) Where. of the indentation BHN . P = Load applied D = Diameter of the ball d = Diameter of the indentation or impression.) Dia. Major load of 100 kg is applied of scale B with steel ball penetrator and 150 kg for scale C with diamond cone penetrator.  Apply minor load of 10kg till the small needle comes over in the set position of dial gauge. This is for specimen to avoid the imperfections.  Turn back the hand wheel and remove the specimen.  When the long pointer of dial gauge reaches a steady position take back the lever from position B-A.  Place the specimen securely on testing table or anvil. Before Heat Treatment: Load applied (kg.e.Procedure:  Adjust the load selector for desired load. If tilt is noticed the same way may be adjusted by rotating the outer ring of the dial. at 0 at black scale and at 30 on red scale.  Turn the level from position N-B slowly so that load is brought into action without any jerk.  Repeat the same for further specimen or at different points in specimen.  Rotate the dial in such way that the main pointer comes in the set marking i. Observation Table: Type of heat treatment done:.……………………………………………… 2P BHN = ------------------------- π D ( D .√ (D² . The reading on C scales employing diamond cone penetrator. of the Ball Dia.  Place desired penetrator like diamond cone or steel ball in the indentor holder.  Note down the reading of scales.

Release the lever gently while applying the major load.) (mm) ( mm) BHN 1. 4. Care must be taken to set the anvil and indenter firmly. 4. 3. of the indentation S. VIVA QUESTION: 1.. Handle the Brinell microscope carefully. (mm) ( mm) 1. What are the different types of heat treatment? . of the Ball Dia. What is meant by heat treatment? 2. 5. 3. No. Apply the minor load carefully.S. 2. Result: BHN before heat treatment: …………………………………… BHN after heat treatment: ……………………………………. No. 2. 2. Conclusion: Precautions: 1. After Heat Treatment: Dia. Observation should be made at a sufficient distance from previous indentation. 4. Load applied (kg. 3.

What is the limitation for thickness of test specimen? 13. What surface condition for various hardness tests. What are the different types of indenters used in hardness testing? 8. Vernier calipers. i. 5 Aim: To study the behavior of the given material specimen under reverse stresses on a fatigue testing machine. What the various precaution need to take care during experiment. 12. What is meant by BHN? 6. Introduction: Fatigue failure accounts for the majority of mechanical failure of metallic materials subjected to cyclic loads. Why is the minor load applied before applying the major load? 10. List different types of hardness testing methods? 5. tension and compression in a rotating beam but can also be tension-tension. Equipment required: Specimen with the correct design. Fatigue cycles are often completely reversed state of stress. Experiment No. In all cases the number of cycles to produce failure increases with the lowering of the stress leve1. What are the factors which effect the hardness of steels? 9. Fatigue testing machine. Differentiate between hardenability and hardness? 7. Enumerate the need for heat treatment of steel? 4. Dead weight as load Wrench for tightening the bolt of specimen holder. Fatigue failures result from repeated applications of stress which is usually well below the static yield stress. . 3.e. How the Rockwell hardness test work? 11.

 The test stress is decreased for each succeeding specimen until one or two specimens do not fail in the specified numbers of cycles. This test results in data presented as a plot of stress (S) against the number of cycles to failure (N). A log scale is almost always used for N.  The usual procedure is to test the first specimen at a high peak stress where failure is expected in a fairly short number of cycles. The modem fatigue test frames are servo- controlled electro-hydraulic or electro-mechanical devices. The highest stress at which a run out (non-failure) occurs is taken as the fatigue threshold.There are different types of fatigue testing machines. which is the minimum peak stress divided by the maximum peak stress. The amplitude is express as the R ratio value.  The data is obtained by cycling smooth or notched specimens until failure. 2. Each point on the surface of the rotating specimen will go through the points 1. The stress . The load F can be adjusted by positioning the sliding piece with the weight G. . and will be subjected to a dynamic stress. 3. One test focuses on the nominal stress required to cause a fatigue failure in some number of cycles. Fatigue testing machine  There are two general types of fatigue tests conducted. the S-N relationship is determined for one specific loading amplitude. The "stress amplitude . Rotary bending fatigue testing machines are simple and low-cost practical machines which are used since 1850. which is known as an S-N curve. (R= σ min/σ max). Not all materials have a fatigue threshold (most nonferrous metallic alloys do not) and for these materials the test is usually terminated after about 108 or 5x108 cycles. etc.time curve is a sinusoidal curve with the amplitude.  Since the amplitude of the cyclic loading has a major effect on the fatigue performance. The number of rotations is determined by a counter and the machine is stopped at failure. which is usually at least 10 7cycles.number of cycles" curve can be determined by repeating the test at different stress levels.

Furthermore. In this test.  A variation to the cyclic stress controlled fatigue test is the cyclic strain controlled test. No. For example. Estimate the fatigue limit for this steel. Note the scatter. Kg is the load at which number of cycles are 107 is called endurance limit or fatigue strength. What information can be obtained observing the fracture surface? . of cycle ……………. Plot all the available results on a S-N curve. Observation Table: S. there is often a considerable amount of scatter in fatigue data even when carefully machined standard specimens out of the same lot of material are used. First. Load (kg) No. components with surface conditions.  It should be noted that there are several short comings of S-N fatigue data. Results 1. VIVA QUESTION: 1. Strain controlled cyclic loading is more representative of the loading found in thermal cycling. the strain amplitude is held constant during cycling. What is distinctive about the surface appearance of a fatigue fracture? 2. where a component expands and contracts in response to fluctuations in the operating temperature. such as pitting from corrosion. 2. which differs from the condition of the test specimens will have significantly different fatigue performance. the conditions of the test specimens do not always represent actual service conditions.

. 3. Job holding tong. Equipments Required: Electrically heated temperature controlled oven (Muffle Furnace). What are the stages in a fatigue fracture? 4. Where do most fatigue cracks start? Why? Experiment No: 6 Aim: To study and perform the various heat treatment processes. specimen.

usually to room temperature. annealing is carried out to relieve stresses. Heat treatment not only increases the hardness but also increases the tensile strength and toughness. The rate of cooling and the manner of cooling are the controlling factors in heat treatment processes. holding or “soaking” at that temperature. Annealing: The term annealing refers to a heat treatment in which a material is exposed to an elevated temperature for an extended time period and then slowly cooled. for example. and toughness and/or produce a specific process by which carbon is added to the surface of low-carbon steel. When the carburized steel is heat-treated. This results in a carburized steel that has a high-carbon surface and a low-carbon interior.9500c above the critical temperature which is dependent upon the composition of material. After sufficient time turning to austenite the process term austenitizing the treatment is terminated by air cooling. which are irregularly shaped and relatively large. Two methods are used for carburizing steel.Theory: Properties of metals and alloys can be changed by heating followed by cooling under definite conditions to make them suitable for specific applications. During heating and cooling. the case be. Carburizing: Carburizing is a case-harden. Normalizing: Steels that have been plastically deformed by. To cool the parts.comes hardened and the core remains soft and tough. Accordingly steel can be hardened to resist cutting action and prevent abrasion. ductility. and cooling. a rolling operation. It accomplished at a temperature 8300c . increase softness. Annealing process consists of three stages heating to the desired temperature. consists of grains of pearlite. The other method has the steel placed in a container packed with charcoal or some other carbon-rich material and then heated in a furnace. One method consists of heating the steel in a furnace containing a carbon monoxide atmosphere. you can leave the container in the furnace to cool or remove it and . Different heat treatment processes are carried-out in temperature controlled furnaces and ovens. Ordinarily. Time is an important parameter in these procedures. there exist temperature gradients between the outside and interior portions of the piece. but very substantially in size. their magnitudes depend on the size and geometry of the piece. An annealing heat treatment called normalizing is used to refine the grains and produce more refine and desirable size distribution fine grained pearlitic steels are tougher than coarse grained.

With to. Cyaniding: This process is a type of case hardening that is fast and efficient. In both cases. The parts are then heated in a furnace that has an ammonia gas atmosphere. This process is used to case harden items. and in fact any steel. cylinder sleeves. The depth of the carbon penetration depends on the length of the soaking period. and then either cooling very slowly in the furnace. during which there is a coalescence of the Fe 3C to form the spheroid particles. Hardening: Hardness is a function of the Carbon content of the steel. the parts become annealed during the slow cooling. The Spheroidizing heat treatment. Upon removal. Spheroidized steels have a maximum softness and ductility and are easily machined or deformed. Nitriding: This case-hardening method produces the hardest surface of any of the hardening processes. Hardening of a steel requires a change . Preheated steel is dipped into a heated cyanide bath and allowed to soak. This process produces a thin. carburizing is almost exclusively done by gas atmospheres. Spheroidizing times will ordinarily range between 15 and 25 h. such as gears. It differs from the other methods in that the individual parts have been heat-treated and tempered before nitriding.  If the precursor microstructure contains pearlite.let it air cool. as follows:  Heating the alloy at a temperature just below the eutectoid [line A1 in or at about] in the region of the phase diagram. The major drawback is that cyanide salts are a deadly poison.and high-carbon steels having a microstructure containing even coarse pearlite may still be too hard to conveniently machine or plastically deform. hard shell that is harder than the one produced by carburizing and can be completed in 20 to 30 minutes vice several hours. camshafts and other engine parts. can take place by several methods. it is quenched and then rinsed to remove any residual cyanide. No quenching is required so there is no worry about warping or other types of distortion. These steels. that need to be wear resistant and operate in high-heat areas.  Heating to a temperature just above the eutectoid temperature. may be heat treated or annealed to develop the Spheroidized’s methods. Spheroidizing: Medium. or holding at a temperature just below the eutectoid temperature.

 Now take it out of the oven after austenitizing treatment is terminated by air cooling or quenching. . When suddenly quenched. Do not use it bared. the Martensite is formed.  Maintain it at this temperature for about 10 minutes.  The handle of tong should be plastic insulated. Procedure:  Heat the specimen according to various heat treatment process . Precautions: -  The oven is electrically heated. The steel is heated to Austenitic region.  Do not hold the hot specimen by hand always use tongs to hold it. When the cooling rate is extremely slow then it would be mostly Pearlite which is extremely soft. When slowly quenched it would form Austenite and Pearlite which is a partly hard and partly soft structure from the body-centered cubic structure found at room temperature to the face centered cubic structure found in the Austenitic region. This is a very strong and brittle structure. Therefore take care to avoid burning from heat of the furnace and shock due to electricity.

What are the needs of performing annealing and normalizing on metals (steels)? 3.? Experiment No. What are the melting points of steel and C. developers. What is heat treatment? 2. Apparatus Required: Liquid penetrant.VIVA-QUESTIONS:- 1.I.7 Aim: To study and perform dye penetration test. wiping cloth Introduction: .

It can be used to inspect almost any material provided that its surface is not extremely rough or porous. the type of discontinuities being expected in the component and the condition and environment under which the inspection is performed. However. or grit blasting have been performed. The surface must be free of oil. These and other mechanical operations can smear metal over the flaw opening and prevent the penetrant from entering. grease. seams. etc. It improves the detectability of a flaw due to the high level of contrast between the indication and the background which helps to make the indication more easily seen (such as a red indication on a white background for visable penetrant or a penetrant that glows under ultraviolate light for fluorescent penetrant).). Steps of Liquid Penetrant Testing The exact procedure for liquid penetrant testing can vary from case to case depending on several factors such as the penetrant system being used. Materials that are commonly inspected using this method include. This acts as a blotter that draws the penetrant from the discontinuity to reveal its presence. This method is used to reveal surface discontinuities by bleed out of a colored or fluorescent dye from the flaw. water. glass. The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface discontinuity by capillary action.Liquid penetrant or Dye penetrant testing is one of the oldest and simplest NDT methods where their earliest version (using kerosene and oil mixture) dates back to the 19th century. sanding. laps. Surface Preparation: One of the most critical steps of a liquid penetrant testing is the surface preparation. However. The sample may also require etching if mechanical operations such as machining. Liquid penetrant testing is one of the most widely used NDT methods. the size and material of the component being inspected. lack of fusion. After a period of time called the "dwell time". or other contaminants that may prevent penetrant from entering flaws. the general steps can be summarized as follows: 1. many ceramic materials. porosity. excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer applied. metals. The advantage that a liquid penetrant inspection offers over an unaided visual inspection is that it makes defects easier to see for the inspector where that is done in two ways: It produces a flaw indication that is much larger and easier for the eye to detect than the flaw itself. . liquid penetrant testing can only be used to inspect for flaws that break the surface of the sample (such as surface cracks. Its popularity can be attributed to two main factors: its relative ease of use and its flexibility. rubber and plastics. Many flaws are so small or narrow that they are undetectable by the unaided eye (a person with a perfect vision cannot resolve features smaller than 0.08 mm).

penetrant materials used. 5. Penetrant Application: Once the surface has been thoroughly cleaned and dried. Generally. the material. Penetrant dwell time is the total time that the penetrant is in contact with the part surface. Penetrant Dwell: The penetrant is left on the surface for a sufficient time to allow as much penetrant as possible to be drawn from or to seep into a defect. the form of the material being inspected. Depending on the penetrant system used. Developer Application: A thin layer of developer is then applied to the sample to draw penetrant trapped in flaws back to the surface where it will be visible. the penetrant material is applied by spraying. this step may involve cleaning with a solvent. 4. The ideal dwell time is often determined by experimentation and may be very specific to a particular application. 3. there is no harm in using a longer penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant is not allowed to dry. The times vary depending on the application.2. or first treating the part with an emulsifier and then rinsing with water. Minimum dwell times typically range from five to 60 minutes. brushing. Dwell times are usually recommended by the penetrant producers or required by the specification being followed. and the type of discontinuity being inspected for. Developers come in a . direct rinsing with water. or immersing the part in a penetrant bath. Excess Penetrant Removal: This is the most delicate part of the inspection procedure because the excess penetrant must be removed from the surface of the sample while removing as little penetrant as possible from defects.

Clean Surface: The final step in the process is to thoroughly clean the part surface to remove the developer from the parts that were found to be acceptable. magnetic and nonmagnetic. dipping. 6.  Rapid inspection of large areas and volumes.  Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. Significantly longer times may be necessary for tight cracks.  Few material limitations (metallic and nonmetallic. Indication Development: The developer is allowed to stand on the part surface for a period of time sufficient to permit the extraction of the trapped penetrant out of any surface flaws. Inspection: Inspection is then performed under appropriate lighting to detect indications from any flaws which may be present. or spraying (wet developers). and conductive and nonconductive materials may be inspected).  Portable (materials are available in aerosol spray cans)  Low cost (materials and associated equipment are relatively inexpensive) Disadvantages . 7.  Suitable for parts with complex shapes. This development time is usually a minimum of 10 minutes. 8. Advantages  High sensitivity (small discontinuities can be detected).variety of forms that may be applied by dusting (dry powders).

 Protect eye from the chemicals.  Do not touch the chemicals direct by hand. polishing and etching. Equipment required: . VIVA-QUESTION: 1.  Only materials with a relatively nonporous surface can be inspected. Theory: - Grain boundaries are not visible in an ordinary piece of metal machine. 800. Their removal is essential for preparation of the specimen to be viewed under a microscope. 23. Therefore. and grit or vapor blasting must be removed. Precaution:  Keep the area clean remove residual liquid agent spread on the surface.1200 are also used. grinding. 17 micron particle size.  Only surface breaking defects can be detected.  The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected.  Chemical handling and proper disposal is required. dry belt grinder or cored surface. aluminium or any other metallic/alloy specimen. What are the various types of penetrant use for the test? 2. 1000. 600 grits and 33. Emery papers of grades 100.Cutting saw/hand saw. grinding (rough and fine). polishing and etching are done on them. Fine grinding is done by abrasive papers of finer grades viz.  Metal smearing from machining.  Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. grinding. What are the various precaution need to be take care during test 4.  Pre-cleaning is critical since contaminants can mask defects. dry belt grinder. 3. polishing machine. Polishing . 400.  Proper attention required while performing experiment. grinding machine. 600.  Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials is required. etchant.To prepare the specimen for the microstructure examination by cutting. What do you understand by developer? i Experiment No: 8 Aim: . 200. 400. How the dye penetrant work for locating the defects.  Multiple process operations must be performed and controlled. liquid soap.

digit rpm indicator. It also facilitates swift polishing of specimen with various grades of emery. It is mounted with a ½ hp or 1hp motor having continuous step less variable speed up to 1400 rpm.It is a variable speed double disc machine for fine grinding and super polishing (lapping).The experiment is carried out on a series of machines is given below: 1. and discs of 200mm/250mm done by polishing compound (Al2O3 powder) of 0. Water is used as lubricant.5% hydrochloric acid + 2.  Do its fine grinding on dry belt grinder.Note down the grades and sizes of emery papers and polishing compound. 3.100mm round bar and square. 1-phase motor.  Do rough polishing by using emery paper of fine grade. Cu and its alloys. Know the specifications of machines used.  Do its grinding on grinding machine. concentration. Cut-off machine: . Test set-up and specifications of m/c: . 4. placed on a cloth that covers the wheel. Learn the names of etchants their composition. .This is used for initial rough grinding of specimen.  Now etch the specimen by immerging it in an etchant. Etchant for aluminium is a blend of 1% hydrofluoric acid + 1.) size of different kinds of water-emery papers.The experiment is conducted in the following sequential steps.5% nitric acid + distilled water. Continue grinding till the scratches disappear.  Cut a cylindrical or square piece of metal/alloy of any size between 10 mm to 25 mm diameter side as specimen. Grinding/Polishing Machine: . composition of etchant and etching time. Procedure: .It consists of 4-surface plates to fix 3” x 11” (75mm x 275mm. Observation: . Hand Polishing Stand: . 2. Following observations taken in a test are presented for a ready reference.  Perform fine polishing on polishing machine to get scratch free surface. 200V. 80mm. It is mounted with ¼ hp. and other metals and alloys. Use liquid soap as lubricant. endless belt of 100mm width and 915mm length on dynamically well balanced rollers.  The specimen is ready for microscopic study. Belt-grinder: .05 micron.This is an open type abrasive cut-off machine capable of cutting up to 60mm. Etching is done to make the grain boundaries visible. and etching time for iron and steel. Etching should be done for 15 to 30 seconds.

by polishing? 3.To study the micro and macro structure of the welded specimen. Theory: . lap welded. and with the etchant. rods of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys. What is lapping? which degree of accuracy can be achieved in metals. Equipments Required:-  Welded components of different types viz.  Welded sheets.  The etchant is acidic in nature. butt welded etc.• Grade and size of (i) Particles 320 420 600 800 1200grits (ii) Emery paper 33 23 17 microns • Polishing compound for 1. Welding is one important technique among them. VIVA-QUESTIONS:- 1.5% HCl + 2. Fine polishing: Aluminium powder in oil lubricant • Composition of etchant 1.Various techniques are adopted to manufacture varieties of products.  Heat affected zone (HAZ) of some metals and alloys. arc welded. so avoid excessive and unnecessary contact. Why is grinding performed before polishing? 4. Why is dry polishing done before wet polishing? Experiment No: 9 Aim: .5%HNO3 + distilled water • Etching time i) 15 to 30 seconds Precaution: -  Work carefully on grinding machine. wires. What are the specifications of grinding and polishing machines? 2. 1% HF + 1.  Do not touch eyes and other body parts until the hands are washed properly. Why is the specimen rotated by 90°. It refers to intimate joining of metals and alloys by heating to . Rough polishing: Diamond powder in oil lubricant 2. while changing from one grade of emery paper to another? 6. What is the need of polishing on four grades of emery paper? 5. polishing machine.  Metallurgical microscope.

80mm.suitable temperature with or without the use of pressure or/and filler material. • Perform the macro-crack test. J or bevel type and single or double type welding  Welding all around.It consists of 4-surface plates to fix 3” x 11” (75mm x 275mm. 3. 2. • Check the size and throat of the weld. and impact test also. inclusions. • If butt welding. These are-  Electric arc welding: Shielded metal arc welding. convex contour or other types  Flat welded. Belt-grinder: . Welded components are made by several methods.This is an open type abrasive cut-off machine capable of cutting up to 60mm. Metal inert gas (MIG) etc.  U. Hand Polishing Stand: .) size . fillet welding or corner/edge welding. • See whether the weld is butt type. Cut-off machine: .  Butt welding. lap welding. slag. 1-phase motor. Their macro and micro structures are also quite different. 200V. downward. In micro-examination:- • View the components under microscope by adopting the procedure as outlined 1. gas welded or else. The microstructures of welded components made by different methods vary widely due to different chemical compositions and other manufacturing parameters. Procedure: . upward. overhead.Study different welded components one by one first from macro view point and then from micro view point. It is mounted with ¼ hp. or any other type. blow-holes. endless belt of 100mm width and 915mm length on dynamically well balanced rollers. pores. flush contour. V-type (single or double) or any other type. leftward or rightward. V. • Check whether the welding has any defect such as cracks. weld tensile test. lap type. 100mm round bar and square. undercuts incomplete penetration etc. • Examine the contour of weld and the welding method by which the component has been made.This is used for initial rough grinding of specimen. see whether its edge preparation is of U-type (single or double). In macro examination:- • Check the type of weld whether arc welded.

It also facilitates swift polishing of specimen with various grades of emery. The mechanical properties of metal in this zone is also affected considerably. In some of these metals and alloys. Where does the maximum and minimum shearing stress occur in the cross-section of a beam? . RESULT/CONCLUSION:- VIVA-QUESTIONS:- 1. It is mounted with a ½ hp or 1hp motor having continuous step less variable speed up to 1400 rpm. • Perform different non-destructive tests. Grinding/Polishing Machine: . non-ferrous metals and alloys under HAZ through microscope will show different structures. alloy steel. complex structural changes take place within HAZ in alloy steels due to rapid rate of cooling. digit rpm indicator. brings changes in metallic structure also. The heating and cooling through a wide range of temp. While welding mild steel. Visualization of carbon steel. the grain growth may occur in HAZ. However. and discs of 200mm/250mm dia. the structure may be dendritic. In case of welding of non-ferrous metals and alloys. of different kinds of water-emery papers. 4.It is a variable speed double disc machine for fine grinding and super polishing (lapping). this change may vary from overheated area near the weld to under-annealed structure away from the weld. Various region of the HAZ Study of HAZ (Heat Affected Zone):- The region of base metal which has undergone a metallurgical change as a result of exposure to welding heat (during welding process ) is called HAZ.

Where does the maximum and minimum bending stress occur in the cross-section of a beam? 3. Microstructures of metals are different from each other-why? 4. What are the effects of microstructure of steel and C. on their mechanical properties? .I.2.