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Survey on the access to finance of enterprises, September to October 2016 (wave 15), summary by country

Results in grey indicate that the unweighted number of observations is below 20 for that particular category

d2 How would you characterise your enterprise?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
an autonomous profit-oriented enterprise, making independent financial decis % 87% 82% 78% 91% 89% 71% 84% 69% 74% 84% 86% 88% 97% 91% 89% 93% 90% 94% 71% 68% 72% 91% 95% 96% 85% 83% 91% 61% 84%
a non-profit enterprise % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
a subsidiary of another enterprise % 12% 17% 20% 8% 10% 24% 14% 29% 26% 16% 13% 12% 2% 9% 10% 7% 8% 6% 28% 27% 28% 8% 5% 4% 15% 16% 9% 39% 15%
a branch of another enterprise % 0% 1% 2% 1% 1% 5% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 2% 0% 1% 5% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1%
dk/na % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

d2a. In which country is the parent company of your enterprise located?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
same country % 64% 51% 48% 65% 43% 65% 54% 66% 49% 55% 78% 77% 61% 20% 48% 65% 58% 23% 45% 90% 68% 50% 36% 20% 24% 54% 59% 80% 57%
different country in EA % 19% 39% 38% 20% 34% 17% 36% 15% 37% 11% 13% 7% 29% 58% 17% 16% 23% 50% 43% 10% 13% 31% 47% 64% 52% 36% 23% 9% 19%
different country in EU member (non-EA) % 6% 4% 6% 2% 11% 5% 7% 8% 0% 20% 5% 6% 0% 12% 13% 3% 14% 16% 8% 0% 9% 8% 0% 10% 17% 7% 6% 3% 3%
different country outside EU % 11% 5% 9% 11% 12% 13% 3% 10% 14% 14% 4% 10% 10% 9% 22% 16% 5% 10% 3% 0% 11% 10% 16% 6% 7% 3% 12% 7% 21%
dk/na % 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
unweighted number of observations 2319 85 106 42 33 25 77 146 26 74 205 170 13 44 51 111 21 18 28 29 212 108 25 18 77 35 122 186 232

d1. How many people does your enterprise currently employ either full or part time in at all its locations?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
1-9 employees % 44% 38% 49% 40% 45% 46% 46% 34% 40% 39% 47% 31% 68% 50% 37% 59% 38% 36% 27% 39% 44% 53% 54% 35% 56% 48% 56% 40% 34%
10-49 employees % 30% 35% 29% 31% 28% 29% 26% 35% 31% 33% 29% 37% 19% 27% 34% 26% 32% 33% 37% 30% 29% 21% 26% 33% 21% 25% 26% 33% 36%
50-249 employees % 25% 28% 22% 28% 27% 26% 28% 32% 29% 28% 24% 32% 13% 23% 30% 16% 30% 31% 36% 31% 28% 27% 20% 32% 23% 27% 18% 28% 30%
250+ employees % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

d3 What is the main activity of your enterprise?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
industry % 18% 13% 15% 26% 23% 15% 28% 15% 27% 17% 15% 20% 12% 19% 12% 21% 20% 19% 16% 14% 14% 23% 14% 21% 21% 28% 13% 15% 13%
construction % 10% 12% 11% 9% 12% 12% 13% 10% 9% 16% 12% 8% 10% 10% 6% 12% 11% 11% 12% 10% 8% 11% 12% 10% 14% 13% 10% 12% 9%
trade % 26% 31% 27% 30% 26% 25% 23% 29% 21% 22% 20% 23% 36% 26% 30% 25% 27% 31% 28% 29% 26% 31% 31% 31% 26% 22% 28% 22% 25%
services % 46% 44% 47% 35% 40% 47% 37% 46% 43% 46% 52% 49% 42% 45% 52% 42% 41% 38% 44% 47% 52% 35% 43% 38% 39% 37% 49% 52% 53%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

d6 Who owns the largest stake in your enterprise?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
public shareholders, as your enterprise is listed on the stock market % 2% 2% 2% 4% 2% 4% 0% 7% 0% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 3% 1% 11% 8% 2% 1% 4% 2% 2% 2% 3% 2% 1% 7% 2%
family or entrepreneurs (more than one owner) % 40% 36% 46% 27% 16% 49% 31% 19% 27% 45% 34% 34% 63% 51% 49% 54% 23% 27% 27% 45% 39% 24% 59% 29% 31% 28% 52% 33% 43%
other enterprises or business associates % 12% 10% 13% 7% 12% 17% 6% 21% 22% 16% 17% 9% 7% 9% 5% 9% 8% 9% 36% 15% 10% 26% 9% 14% 11% 16% 14% 15% 9%
venture capital enterprises or business angels % 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 3% 0% 1% 1% 1% 0% 2% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 1%
one owner only, that is yourself or another natural person % 41% 49% 35% 60% 64% 27% 58% 47% 45% 33% 44% 50% 27% 37% 37% 31% 53% 50% 29% 35% 41% 42% 27% 51% 53% 51% 31% 37% 40%
other % 4% 2% 4% 2% 6% 0% 3% 6% 4% 3% 4% 4% 0% 2% 3% 5% 4% 6% 3% 1% 5% 6% 2% 3% 2% 3% 2% 6% 5%
dk/na % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

d4 What was the annual turnover of your enterprise in 2014?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
up to € 500,000 % 30% 19% 17% 57% 48% 31% 42% 8% 32% 18% 26% 19% 43% 51% 26% 37% 35% 41% 8% 18% 22% 42% 47% 48% 46% 35% 40% 15% 23%
more than € 500,000 and up to €1 million % 14% 13% 15% 11% 12% 14% 11% 17% 16% 14% 16% 14% 20% 9% 13% 16% 14% 16% 7% 18% 16% 13% 12% 15% 11% 12% 14% 13% 9%
more than €1 million and up to €2 million % 13% 13% 18% 10% 12% 13% 12% 12% 8% 16% 15% 14% 14% 10% 12% 12% 11% 12% 13% 16% 12% 10% 11% 9% 8% 12% 11% 17% 15%
more than €2 million and up to €10 million % 23% 26% 23% 15% 19% 23% 21% 26% 26% 28% 22% 29% 15% 18% 28% 18% 21% 20% 30% 30% 22% 19% 17% 21% 17% 22% 20% 28% 27%
more than €10 million and up to €50 million % 14% 22% 18% 4% 7% 13% 10% 22% 13% 18% 16% 18% 7% 8% 13% 12% 9% 6% 34% 16% 19% 10% 10% 4% 9% 15% 11% 16% 17%
more than €50 million % 3% 4% 4% 1% 2% 3% 1% 8% 1% 5% 2% 3% 0% 1% 4% 3% 2% 2% 5% 0% 6% 1% 2% 1% 2% 3% 2% 8% 5%
dk/na % 3% 3% 5% 2% 1% 4% 3% 6% 4% 1% 2% 3% 1% 4% 2% 2% 8% 3% 2% 2% 4% 5% 0% 4% 6% 2% 3% 3% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

d7 What percentage of your company’s total turnover in 2014 is accounted for by exports of goods and services?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
0% - no export of goods and services % 59% 42% 51% 63% 55% 61% 48% 49% 36% 58% 67% 60% 54% 47% 62% 58% 58% 47% 36% 50% 58% 58% 50% 70% 48% 30% 63% 53% 61%
less than 25% % 22% 28% 23% 14% 25% 15% 24% 26% 17% 25% 20% 22% 26% 19% 22% 20% 17% 19% 30% 19% 22% 23% 26% 14% 24% 33% 19% 26% 24%
between 25% and 50% % 8% 11% 8% 6% 8% 9% 12% 8% 21% 6% 6% 9% 7% 11% 5% 8% 8% 8% 10% 5% 7% 7% 9% 5% 13% 11% 8% 10% 6%
over 50% % 11% 18% 17% 16% 12% 12% 16% 16% 25% 10% 6% 8% 12% 23% 10% 12% 14% 23% 23% 22% 12% 10% 15% 11% 14% 24% 9% 9% 9%
dk/na % 1% 1% 1% 1% 0% 3% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0% 1% 2% 1% 0% 2% 2% 3% 1% 4% 1% 1% 1% 0% 1% 2% 1% 1% 1%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

d5 In which year was your enterprise first registered? (recoded to age of the enterprise)
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
> 2 years % 1% 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% 1% 2% 1% 0% 2% 1% 2% 0% 3% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 2% 1% 2% 2% 1% 0% 1% 1% 3%
2 years -< 5 years % 5% 5% 4% 7% 3% 3% 3% 5% 1% 3% 3% 6% 7% 4% 4% 4% 2% 4% 6% 3% 5% 6% 4% 9% 4% 3% 5% 9% 6%
5 years -< 10 years % 13% 13% 11% 23% 14% 9% 16% 16% 17% 13% 15% 11% 15% 22% 6% 11% 22% 26% 9% 11% 15% 13% 13% 21% 20% 13% 12% 16% 14%
>-10 years % 80% 81% 84% 70% 82% 87% 80% 77% 80% 84% 80% 82% 77% 74% 86% 84% 75% 70% 85% 85% 78% 80% 82% 68% 74% 84% 83% 75% 77%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q0. How important have the following problems been for your enterprise in the past six months? Please answer on a scale of 1-10, where 1 means not it is not at all important and 10 means it is extremely important.
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
finding customers mean 7.4 7.9 7.1 7.5 5.1 8.3 7.7 8.9 4.9 4.9 6.4 7.8 7.1 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.9 7.2 9.6 6.4 7.3 7.8 8.6 7.2 7.4 7.9 7.0 7.7
competition mean 6.8 7.3 6.6 7.6 6.8 8.3 6.3 9.7 6.2 6.0 6.3 6.8 7.1 6.3 7.0 7.0 8.6 7.9 8.3 8.2 6.2 6.5 7.2 7.0 7.1 6.9 7.1 7.8 6.6
access to finance mean 7.1 4.9 6.5 9.1 8.5 11.8 6.7 10.3 8.2 7.6 6.6 5.2 13.7 6.6 7.9 7.3 12.3 12.1 5.4 7.7 6.1 6.6 10.4 8.8 6.8 6.3 7.5 7.9 7.4
costs of production or labour mean 7.4 6.9 7.8 7.6 5.3 8.1 7.2 10.4 7.2 5.8 7.1 7.4 7.4 6.9 8.1 7.6 8.1 7.6 5.9 12.9 6.2 6.9 8.7 7.6 7.8 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.5
availability of skilled staff or experienced managers mean 7.5 7.9 7.2 8.6 5.2 9.0 8.9 9.0 6.5 5.7 7.0 7.8 6.8 7.6 7.3 7.3 8.7 9.2 8.0 7.4 7.4 6.9 7.7 8.8 7.4 7.9 6.8 7.7 8.0
regulation mean 8.1 6.7 8.2 8.8 8.1 12.8 8.5 13.8 10.4 6.3 7.6 6.9 11.9 8.5 7.2 8.6 11.4 12.4 8.6 11.1 7.0 7.3 9.9 10.0 8.5 7.3 8.8 9.0 7.6
other mean 2.1 2.2 1.2 1.7 1.8 3.5 3.0 0.7 4.8 1.3 1.6 2.0 6.5 2.5 2.3 2.3 5.1 2.3 1.1 0.9 1.0 2.0 1.8 3.4 4.0 2.5 2.0 1.1 2.1
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q0 What is currently the most important problem your firm is facing?

EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
finding customers % 25% 31% 19% 21% 5% 15% 24% 30% 7% 6% 19% 30% 10% 28% 29% 25% 20% 21% 21% 16% 23% 23% 30% 25% 9% 25% 31% 24% 30%
competition % 13% 11% 13% 17% 17% 17% 9% 18% 26% 27% 14% 8% 11% 7% 12% 15% 13% 26% 21% 27% 13% 14% 17% 11% 12% 14% 18% 15% 12%
access to finance % 9% 7% 8% 10% 15% 24% 8% 9% 6% 9% 10% 6% 24% 8% 12% 11% 11% 12% 6% 7% 11% 8% 11% 9% 7% 9% 9% 10% 6%
costs of production or labour % 12% 9% 15% 10% 11% 7% 10% 9% 13% 17% 12% 9% 7% 15% 10% 19% 12% 11% 9% 7% 10% 14% 11% 14% 8% 15% 14% 11% 10%
availability of skilled staff or experienced managers % 20% 25% 25% 27% 20% 7% 31% 20% 30% 19% 17% 29% 5% 23% 14% 12% 15% 12% 20% 29% 23% 19% 11% 19% 31% 13% 11% 24% 19%
regulation % 12% 10% 16% 10% 20% 15% 11% 10% 2% 15% 20% 11% 9% 8% 12% 9% 10% 9% 16% 12% 16% 15% 12% 11% 15% 12% 10% 11% 12%
other % 9% 6% 4% 5% 12% 15% 8% 3% 17% 7% 7% 7% 35% 11% 11% 10% 19% 9% 6% 3% 4% 8% 8% 10% 18% 12% 8% 5% 11%
unweighted number of observations 11310 237 237 176 85 22 302 135 40 123 1249 2123 239 216 101 1441 59 83 21 12 438 708 279 322 122 53 987 256 1242

q2a. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Turnover
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 41% 43% 39% 37% 41% 42% 39% 50% 44% 44% 39% 43% 31% 45% 57% 30% 27% 43% 42% 41% 56% 32% 40% 52% 33% 48% 42% 51% 46%
remained unchanged % 38% 40% 32% 39% 38% 32% 45% 34% 37% 36% 31% 44% 33% 31% 26% 45% 47% 34% 41% 40% 27% 42% 34% 27% 46% 40% 35% 32% 35%
decreased % 21% 17% 28% 23% 21% 25% 15% 15% 19% 19% 29% 13% 35% 23% 16% 24% 24% 22% 16% 19% 17% 25% 26% 19% 20% 10% 23% 16% 18%
dk/na % 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 2% 2% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 2% 1% 1% 1%
net balance % 20% 26% 12% 14% 20% 17% 23% 35% 26% 25% 10% 31% -4% 22% 40% 6% 3% 21% 26% 22% 39% 7% 14% 33% 14% 38% 19% 35% 28%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q2b. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Labour cost (including social contributions)
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 51% 56% 46% 55% 40% 32% 48% 44% 51% 42% 51% 58% 54% 54% 58% 39% 43% 63% 37% 64% 55% 47% 39% 65% 56% 38% 43% 57% 58%
remained unchanged % 43% 37% 41% 39% 56% 62% 46% 49% 42% 50% 43% 37% 39% 39% 37% 55% 52% 31% 55% 28% 35% 49% 56% 29% 40% 58% 50% 36% 38%
decreased % 5% 7% 12% 6% 4% 6% 5% 6% 7% 8% 5% 5% 7% 5% 3% 5% 4% 5% 6% 7% 9% 3% 5% 6% 3% 4% 6% 5% 4%
dk/na % 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 2% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 1%
net balance % 46% 49% 35% 48% 36% 26% 43% 38% 43% 34% 47% 54% 47% 50% 55% 34% 39% 58% 31% 57% 46% 44% 33% 59% 53% 33% 37% 52% 54%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q2c. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Other cost (materials, energy, other)
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 44% 36% 48% 38% 41% 24% 32% 32% 41% 41% 46% 43% 52% 46% 49% 44% 55% 44% 35% 38% 35% 42% 43% 45% 29% 28% 43% 39% 57%
remained unchanged % 49% 53% 44% 56% 55% 57% 61% 63% 45% 51% 48% 49% 42% 46% 44% 50% 42% 52% 60% 53% 52% 53% 53% 51% 64% 59% 49% 52% 38%
decreased % 6% 10% 8% 5% 3% 17% 6% 5% 13% 7% 4% 7% 5% 7% 6% 6% 3% 3% 4% 8% 12% 4% 4% 4% 6% 11% 7% 8% 4%
dk/na % 1% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 2% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%
net balance % 38% 26% 40% 34% 38% 6% 26% 27% 28% 34% 41% 36% 47% 39% 43% 38% 52% 41% 32% 31% 23% 38% 39% 41% 23% 17% 35% 32% 53%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q2d. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Interest expenses (what your company pays in interest for its debt)
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 14% 10% 12% 9% 13% 14% 7% 12% 14% 12% 19% 8% 19% 8% 20% 22% 9% 10% 8% 11% 10% 11% 17% 10% 7% 9% 16% 7% 13%
remained unchanged % 49% 55% 45% 38% 41% 39% 48% 56% 51% 62% 49% 48% 37% 40% 52% 50% 42% 34% 58% 51% 49% 50% 50% 40% 52% 47% 50% 56% 53%
decreased % 18% 23% 29% 14% 15% 27% 12% 17% 8% 12% 18% 27% 7% 12% 9% 16% 7% 8% 16% 13% 29% 8% 13% 8% 13% 21% 21% 16% 11%
not applicable, firm has no debt % 18% 11% 12% 38% 31% 19% 30% 14% 26% 14% 11% 15% 36% 39% 18% 10% 41% 45% 16% 25% 11% 30% 19% 40% 27% 22% 11% 17% 21%
don't know % 1% 0% 2% 1% 0% 0% 2% 1% 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% 2% 1% 2% 1% 2% 2% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 4% 2%
net balance % -4% -13% -17% -5% -2% -13% -5% -5% 6% 0% 1% -19% 12% -4% 11% 7% 2% 2% -8% -1% -19% 3% 4% 2% -6% -12% -5% -9% 2%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q2e. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Profit (net income after taxes)
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 32% 34% 30% 29% 35% 30% 35% 43% 32% 35% 25% 34% 15% 37% 43% 19% 17% 29% 23% 31% 46% 31% 29% 44% 30% 35% 32% 40% 38%
remained unchanged % 37% 41% 31% 38% 39% 29% 40% 32% 36% 35% 34% 43% 26% 34% 30% 45% 41% 35% 42% 40% 30% 38% 42% 27% 41% 45% 37% 33% 32%
decreased % 29% 22% 37% 31% 25% 39% 22% 21% 32% 28% 37% 21% 58% 25% 26% 34% 33% 29% 31% 29% 21% 30% 27% 27% 27% 19% 30% 23% 27%
dk/na % 2% 3% 2% 2% 1% 2% 2% 3% 1% 1% 5% 2% 1% 3% 2% 2% 9% 7% 4% 0% 3% 1% 2% 2% 3% 2% 1% 3% 2%
net balance % 3% 12% -6% -2% 10% -9% 13% 22% 0% 8% -12% 13% -42% 12% 17% -15% -16% 0% -7% 3% 25% 1% 2% 17% 3% 16% 2% 17% 11%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q2g. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Fixed investment (investment in property, plant, machinery or equipment)
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 27% 24% 25% 30% 32% 18% 39% 23% 29% 20% 23% 27% 20% 28% 32% 26% 25% 26% 26% 29% 27% 27% 24% 31% 29% 32% 26% 26% 27%
remained unchanged % 58% 54% 56% 61% 56% 70% 54% 58% 52% 62% 58% 56% 62% 57% 47% 56% 60% 58% 51% 49% 59% 63% 66% 55% 58% 60% 63% 63% 54%
decreased % 11% 16% 16% 6% 10% 11% 6% 5% 17% 13% 15% 11% 13% 9% 9% 15% 7% 4% 20% 10% 10% 7% 6% 10% 5% 7% 10% 7% 10%
dk/na % 5% 5% 3% 2% 1% 1% 1% 14% 2% 6% 4% 6% 5% 6% 12% 2% 9% 12% 3% 12% 4% 4% 4% 4% 9% 0% 2% 3% 9%
net balance % 16% 8% 9% 24% 22% 7% 34% 18% 12% 7% 8% 16% 7% 19% 24% 11% 18% 22% 5% 20% 16% 19% 19% 21% 24% 26% 16% 19% 18%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q2h. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Inventories and other working capital
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 20% 17% 18% 23% 33% 13% 25% 24% 25% 21% 18% 18% 12% 27% 28% 14% 19% 31% 16% 31% 23% 22% 17% 31% 21% 25% 24% 18% 23%
remained unchanged % 63% 64% 64% 64% 60% 66% 69% 59% 56% 62% 61% 66% 55% 58% 56% 68% 66% 54% 63% 50% 63% 64% 64% 56% 70% 65% 61% 65% 59%
decreased % 13% 16% 16% 11% 6% 21% 5% 9% 17% 13% 18% 9% 29% 10% 10% 14% 10% 13% 17% 13% 12% 11% 16% 9% 7% 8% 12% 11% 13%
dk/na % 4% 4% 2% 2% 0% 0% 2% 8% 2% 4% 3% 7% 3% 5% 6% 4% 5% 3% 4% 7% 2% 3% 3% 4% 2% 2% 3% 6% 5%
net balance % 8% 1% 2% 12% 27% -8% 20% 14% 8% 7% 1% 9% -17% 17% 17% 0% 9% 18% -1% 18% 11% 11% 1% 22% 15% 17% 11% 8% 11%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q2i. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Number of employees
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 25% 21% 27% 19% 30% 34% 19% 30% 23% 26% 22% 27% 23% 27% 36% 19% 15% 22% 22% 34% 33% 21% 24% 28% 25% 32% 25% 33% 27%
remained unchanged % 63% 66% 58% 68% 62% 54% 71% 57% 64% 56% 63% 62% 67% 62% 54% 67% 70% 60% 61% 58% 55% 68% 64% 55% 66% 56% 64% 52% 61%
decreased % 12% 12% 15% 12% 9% 11% 10% 13% 13% 18% 15% 11% 10% 10% 10% 14% 15% 17% 15% 8% 12% 11% 11% 16% 9% 12% 11% 14% 12%
dk/na % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
net balance % 13% 9% 12% 7% 21% 23% 9% 17% 10% 8% 7% 16% 13% 17% 26% 6% 0% 5% 7% 26% 21% 10% 13% 12% 16% 20% 15% 19% 15%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q2j. Have the following company indicators decreased, remained unchanged or increased over the past 6 months? Debt compared to assets
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 14% 11% 18% 9% 8% 14% 7% 13% 19% 13% 16% 12% 18% 10% 12% 18% 9% 12% 11% 6% 10% 12% 11% 18% 11% 9% 15% 11% 12%
remained unchanged % 51% 55% 44% 40% 51% 50% 35% 54% 50% 45% 49% 54% 40% 43% 51% 56% 43% 55% 48% 46% 49% 49% 56% 42% 45% 41% 50% 61% 55%
decreased % 21% 23% 31% 19% 21% 17% 20% 19% 14% 33% 23% 22% 16% 19% 25% 18% 15% 9% 25% 23% 34% 11% 18% 13% 20% 28% 24% 20% 21%
not applicable, firm has no debt % 12% 9% 4% 30% 19% 18% 36% 12% 17% 9% 7% 10% 23% 25% 9% 4% 25% 18% 12% 22% 5% 26% 12% 24% 20% 22% 8% 5% 10%
don't know % 3% 1% 2% 2% 1% 1% 2% 2% 0% 0% 4% 2% 3% 3% 2% 3% 8% 5% 3% 2% 1% 2% 2% 3% 3% 0% 3% 4% 2%
net balance % -7% -12% -13% -10% -14% -2% -13% -6% 5% -20% -8% -9% 2% -9% -13% 0% -6% 3% -14% -18% -23% 1% -7% 5% -8% -19% -8% -9% -9%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4a. Retained earnings or sale of assets (Internal funds) - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 27% 32% 19% 36% 37% 21% 23% 14% 40% 34% 32% 25% 16% 26% 42% 28% 20% 34% 26% 25% 15% 22% 19% 31% 34% 29% 22% 33% 32%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 70% 66% 77% 61% 62% 79% 74% 83% 53% 62% 65% 72% 81% 71% 55% 69% 68% 62% 72% 66% 79% 76% 72% 63% 63% 68% 73% 61% 64%
dk/na % 4% 2% 4% 3% 1% 0% 3% 3% 8% 3% 3% 2% 4% 3% 4% 4% 11% 4% 2% 9% 6% 3% 9% 6% 3% 2% 6% 6% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4b. Grants or subsidised bank loan - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxemboMalta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 32% 30% 21% 26% 41% 34% 34% 11% 20% 25% 30% 30% 46% 39% 28% 52% 21% 21% 22% 38% 13% 31% 48% 27% 14% 54% 37% 13% 20%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 65% 68% 74% 72% 57% 65% 64% 84% 72% 69% 68% 68% 51% 60% 69% 45% 59% 73% 76% 52% 82% 66% 44% 66% 83% 44% 59% 84% 76%
dk/na % 3% 2% 4% 2% 2% 1% 2% 5% 8% 6% 2% 2% 3% 2% 3% 3% 19% 6% 3% 10% 6% 2% 7% 7% 3% 2% 3% 3% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4c. Credit line, bank overdraft or credit cards overdraft - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 55% 63% 53% 61% 52% 70% 49% 62% 30% 73% 54% 52% 37% 35% 77% 59% 43% 44% 58% 83% 60% 57% 63% 59% 60% 66% 48% 52% 56%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 43% 36% 45% 38% 47% 30% 49% 37% 65% 26% 45% 47% 61% 64% 22% 39% 49% 52% 42% 9% 38% 42% 33% 38% 38% 32% 49% 46% 41%
dk/na % 2% 1% 2% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 5% 1% 1% 1% 2% 1% 0% 2% 7% 4% 0% 8% 2% 2% 3% 3% 2% 2% 3% 2% 3%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4d. Bank loan (excluding subsidised bank loans, overdrafts and credit lines) - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 50% 49% 58% 44% 51% 61% 42% 31% 41% 64% 66% 48% 56% 31% 59% 55% 39% 43% 52% 57% 45% 43% 57% 35% 46% 62% 56% 34% 41%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 48% 50% 40% 54% 49% 39% 57% 66% 53% 34% 33% 51% 42% 67% 40% 43% 52% 52% 48% 33% 53% 56% 39% 59% 52% 36% 41% 63% 55%
dk/na % 2% 2% 2% 1% 0% 0% 1% 3% 6% 2% 1% 2% 2% 2% 1% 3% 9% 4% 0% 10% 2% 2% 3% 6% 2% 2% 2% 3% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4e. Trade credit - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 35% 21% 30% 25% 15% 62% 16% 17% 20% 35% 26% 14% 56% 14% 71% 52% 18% 27% 31% 84% 30% 44% 47% 35% 31% 34% 48% 19% 57%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 63% 76% 67% 72% 84% 38% 81% 79% 77% 62% 72% 83% 43% 84% 29% 46% 69% 69% 63% 13% 67% 55% 50% 61% 68% 63% 49% 77% 41%
dk/na % 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 0% 3% 4% 3% 3% 2% 3% 2% 2% 0% 2% 13% 4% 6% 3% 3% 1% 4% 4% 2% 3% 3% 4% 2%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4f. Other loan - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 22% 22% 20% 27% 19% 18% 18% 16% 25% 33% 15% 27% 19% 18% 26% 13% 31% 31% 30% 19% 32% 17% 23% 35% 27% 26% 19% 25% 27%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 75% 76% 75% 69% 79% 82% 81% 81% 72% 65% 83% 71% 78% 80% 70% 83% 61% 66% 68% 73% 63% 81% 71% 61% 71% 71% 76% 72% 69%
dk/na % 3% 2% 4% 3% 1% 0% 1% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 4% 4% 8% 4% 1% 8% 5% 2% 6% 4% 2% 3% 4% 3% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4h. Debt securities - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 3% 1% 1% 1% 8% 2% 1% 3% 0% 1% 5% 1% 20% 2% 7% 3% 1% 1% 3% 5% 1% 1% 3% 4% 1% 1% 1% 5% 6%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 92% 96% 94% 96% 89% 98% 97% 93% 91% 96% 92% 96% 76% 96% 87% 90% 65% 95% 94% 83% 93% 97% 89% 86% 96% 96% 92% 91% 89%
dk/na % 5% 3% 4% 3% 2% 0% 2% 4% 9% 3% 3% 3% 4% 2% 6% 7% 33% 4% 3% 12% 6% 2% 8% 9% 2% 3% 7% 4% 5%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4j. Equity capital - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 13% 8% 16% 3% 23% 22% 2% 17% 18% 25% 21% 13% 26% 2% 15% 2% 44% 13% 25% 19% 28% 4% 3% 14% 2% 33% 2% 58% 17%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 83% 90% 79% 94% 76% 75% 96% 80% 75% 70% 75% 84% 70% 96% 80% 91% 48% 81% 71% 69% 68% 94% 89% 79% 95% 65% 91% 39% 78%
dk/na % 4% 2% 5% 3% 1% 3% 2% 4% 7% 4% 3% 3% 4% 3% 5% 7% 8% 6% 5% 12% 5% 2% 8% 7% 3% 3% 6% 3% 6%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4m. Leasing or hire-purchase - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 47% 54% 38% 45% 55% 23% 48% 47% 55% 69% 52% 59% 26% 38% 53% 26% 45% 50% 34% 35% 41% 59% 59% 51% 56% 49% 37% 56% 50%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 50% 44% 61% 54% 44% 77% 51% 51% 39% 31% 47% 40% 71% 62% 45% 70% 50% 46% 64% 58% 56% 40% 38% 46% 42% 49% 59% 43% 47%
dk/na % 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% 2% 3% 6% 1% 1% 1% 3% 1% 1% 4% 6% 4% 1% 7% 3% 1% 3% 3% 1% 2% 4% 1% 3%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4r. Factoring - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 10% 4% 6% 5% 18% 17% 7% 5% 13% 22% 14% 6% 14% 5% 11% 6% 11% 18% 16% 15% 7% 13% 18% 12% 9% 16% 11% 13% 11%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 86% 94% 89% 91% 79% 83% 91% 90% 81% 76% 84% 91% 81% 93% 84% 87% 73% 76% 80% 71% 87% 85% 75% 81% 88% 82% 83% 83% 84%
dk/na % 4% 2% 5% 4% 3% 0% 3% 4% 6% 2% 2% 3% 5% 3% 5% 6% 16% 5% 3% 14% 6% 2% 7% 7% 3% 2% 6% 4% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4p. Other sources of financing - Are the following sources of financing relevant to your firm, that is, have you used them in the past or considered using them in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes, this source is relevant to my enterprise % 5% 6% 5% 7% 4% 3% 3% 6% 11% 5% 5% 8% 4% 7% 4% 2% 7% 10% 1% 5% 12% 2% 5% 5% 4% 5% 6% 3% 5%
no, this source is not relevant to my enterprise % 89% 91% 88% 89% 93% 97% 91% 90% 83% 89% 91% 88% 91% 90% 89% 90% 67% 83% 97% 76% 82% 95% 83% 86% 91% 92% 87% 92% 89%
dk/na % 6% 3% 7% 4% 3% 0% 6% 4% 6% 6% 4% 4% 6% 4% 7% 8% 26% 7% 2% 19% 6% 3% 12% 8% 5% 3% 7% 5% 5%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4a2. Retained earnings or sale of assets (Internal funds) - Have you obtained such sources of financing in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 15% 19% 12% 14% 22% 10% 14% 8% 19% 18% 17% 16% 7% 13% 28% 16% 11% 18% 17% 18% 9% 13% 6% 14% 12% 18% 12% 13% 21%
did not use in the past 6 months % 11% 13% 7% 22% 15% 11% 9% 6% 20% 16% 15% 9% 9% 12% 13% 11% 9% 16% 7% 6% 6% 8% 13% 17% 21% 11% 10% 19% 11%
not relevant to enterprise % 70% 66% 77% 61% 62% 79% 74% 83% 53% 62% 65% 72% 81% 71% 55% 69% 68% 62% 72% 66% 79% 76% 72% 63% 63% 68% 73% 61% 64%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0%
dk/na % 4% 2% 4% 3% 1% 0% 3% 3% 8% 3% 3% 2% 4% 3% 4% 4% 11% 4% 2% 9% 6% 3% 9% 6% 3% 2% 6% 6% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4b2. Grants or subsidised bank loan - Have you obtained new financing of this type in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 7% 8% 5% 3% 8% 2% 8% 2% 1% 6% 8% 7% 5% 9% 6% 15% 1% 2% 6% 7% 2% 8% 6% 1% 1% 5% 7% 3% 4%
did not use in the past 6 months % 24% 22% 16% 22% 32% 32% 26% 9% 19% 18% 22% 23% 41% 29% 21% 36% 19% 19% 15% 31% 10% 24% 42% 26% 13% 49% 30% 9% 15%
not relevant to enterprise % 65% 68% 74% 72% 57% 65% 64% 84% 72% 69% 68% 68% 51% 60% 69% 45% 59% 73% 76% 52% 82% 66% 44% 66% 83% 44% 59% 84% 76%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
dk/na % 3% 2% 4% 2% 2% 1% 2% 5% 8% 6% 2% 2% 3% 2% 3% 3% 19% 6% 3% 10% 6% 2% 7% 7% 3% 2% 3% 3% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4c2. Credit line, bank overdraft or credit cards overdraft - Have you drawn on sucg type of credit in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 37% 47% 39% 34% 31% 46% 29% 48% 20% 55% 34% 37% 17% 18% 53% 43% 21% 26% 44% 55% 43% 42% 40% 36% 40% 35% 31% 34% 38%
did not use in the past 6 months % 17% 16% 13% 26% 20% 21% 20% 13% 9% 17% 20% 15% 21% 17% 24% 16% 22% 18% 14% 27% 17% 15% 23% 23% 20% 31% 17% 17% 17%
not relevant to enterprise % 43% 36% 45% 38% 47% 30% 49% 37% 65% 26% 45% 47% 61% 64% 22% 39% 49% 52% 42% 9% 38% 42% 33% 38% 38% 32% 49% 46% 41%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 3% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
dk/na % 2% 1% 2% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 5% 1% 1% 1% 2% 1% 0% 2% 7% 4% 0% 8% 2% 2% 3% 3% 2% 2% 3% 2% 3%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4d2. Bank loan - Have you taken out a new loan or renewed such a loan in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 18% 15% 26% 17% 19% 9% 18% 11% 18% 18% 25% 18% 15% 10% 15% 23% 17% 17% 17% 28% 13% 22% 19% 8% 10% 25% 22% 12% 11%
did not use in the past 6 months % 31% 33% 32% 27% 32% 52% 23% 20% 23% 46% 41% 29% 41% 21% 43% 32% 22% 26% 35% 29% 32% 20% 38% 26% 36% 37% 34% 21% 30%
not relevant to enterprise % 48% 50% 40% 54% 49% 39% 57% 66% 53% 34% 33% 51% 42% 67% 40% 43% 52% 52% 48% 33% 53% 56% 39% 59% 52% 36% 41% 63% 55%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
dk/na % 2% 2% 2% 1% 0% 0% 1% 3% 6% 2% 1% 2% 2% 2% 1% 3% 9% 4% 0% 10% 2% 2% 3% 6% 2% 2% 2% 3% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4e2. Trade credit - Have you obtained trade credit from your business partners in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 19% 15% 13% 12% 3% 33% 7% 11% 17% 24% 8% 9% 34% 5% 57% 24% 6% 19% 11% 50% 17% 35% 20% 19% 17% 5% 23% 11% 39%
did not use in the past 6 months % 15% 6% 17% 13% 12% 29% 10% 5% 2% 11% 18% 5% 22% 9% 13% 27% 11% 8% 20% 34% 13% 9% 26% 16% 14% 30% 25% 8% 18%
not relevant to enterprise % 63% 76% 67% 72% 84% 38% 81% 79% 77% 62% 72% 83% 43% 84% 29% 46% 69% 69% 63% 13% 67% 55% 50% 61% 68% 63% 49% 77% 41%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1%
dk/na % 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 0% 3% 4% 3% 3% 2% 3% 2% 2% 0% 2% 13% 4% 6% 3% 3% 1% 4% 4% 2% 3% 3% 4% 2%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4f2. Other loan - Have you taken out or renewed such a loan in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 9% 11% 6% 8% 4% 5% 7% 9% 13% 10% 6% 12% 9% 9% 11% 5% 16% 12% 10% 7% 11% 9% 7% 16% 9% 10% 7% 11% 10%
did not use in the past 6 months % 13% 11% 14% 19% 15% 13% 11% 7% 12% 23% 8% 15% 10% 9% 15% 8% 16% 19% 20% 12% 21% 8% 15% 19% 18% 16% 12% 13% 16%
not relevant to enterprise % 75% 76% 75% 69% 79% 82% 81% 81% 72% 65% 83% 71% 78% 80% 70% 83% 61% 66% 68% 73% 63% 81% 71% 61% 71% 71% 76% 72% 69%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
dk/na % 3% 2% 4% 3% 1% 0% 1% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 4% 4% 8% 4% 1% 8% 5% 2% 6% 4% 2% 3% 4% 3% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4h2. Debt securities - Have you issued any debt in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 1% 0% 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 2% 0% 11% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 1%
did not use in the past 6 months % 2% 1% 1% 0% 5% 2% 1% 3% 0% 1% 4% 1% 9% 1% 6% 2% 1% 0% 2% 5% 1% 1% 3% 4% 1% 0% 1% 3% 5%
not relevant to enterprise % 92% 96% 94% 96% 89% 98% 97% 93% 91% 96% 92% 96% 76% 96% 87% 90% 65% 95% 94% 83% 93% 97% 89% 86% 96% 96% 92% 91% 89%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
dk/na % 5% 3% 4% 3% 2% 0% 2% 4% 9% 3% 3% 3% 4% 2% 6% 7% 33% 4% 3% 12% 6% 2% 8% 9% 2% 3% 7% 4% 5%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4j2. Equity capital - Have you issued equity in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 2% 2% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 2% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 0% 1% 0% 14% 4% 4% 4% 1% 1% 0% 2% 0% 5% 0% 7% 2%
did not use in the past 6 months % 11% 6% 15% 3% 22% 22% 2% 14% 18% 24% 20% 10% 24% 2% 14% 2% 29% 9% 21% 15% 26% 3% 3% 11% 2% 28% 2% 50% 15%
not relevant to enterprise % 83% 90% 79% 94% 76% 75% 96% 80% 75% 70% 75% 84% 70% 96% 80% 91% 48% 81% 71% 69% 68% 94% 89% 79% 95% 65% 91% 39% 78%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0%
dk/na % 4% 2% 5% 3% 1% 3% 2% 4% 7% 4% 3% 3% 4% 3% 5% 7% 8% 6% 5% 12% 5% 2% 8% 7% 3% 3% 6% 3% 6%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4m2. Leasing or hire-purchase - Have you obtained new financing of this type in the past six months
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 23% 32% 20% 17% 21% 6% 21% 29% 33% 31% 24% 34% 8% 15% 24% 9% 27% 26% 20% 15% 19% 39% 16% 18% 17% 18% 12% 31% 29%
did not use in the past 6 months % 24% 22% 18% 28% 35% 17% 26% 18% 22% 37% 28% 24% 18% 22% 29% 17% 18% 24% 14% 20% 21% 20% 42% 32% 39% 30% 25% 25% 21%
not relevant to enterprise % 50% 44% 61% 54% 44% 77% 51% 51% 39% 31% 47% 40% 71% 62% 45% 70% 50% 46% 64% 58% 56% 40% 38% 46% 42% 49% 59% 43% 47%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0%
dk/na % 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% 2% 3% 6% 1% 1% 1% 3% 1% 1% 4% 6% 4% 1% 7% 3% 1% 3% 3% 1% 2% 4% 1% 3%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4r2. Factoring - Have you used factoring in the past six months
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 6% 2% 5% 3% 7% 11% 4% 2% 7% 10% 10% 3% 7% 2% 8% 4% 4% 8% 7% 8% 3% 8% 7% 5% 4% 8% 6% 8% 8%
did not use in the past 6 months % 4% 2% 1% 3% 11% 6% 3% 3% 5% 11% 4% 3% 7% 3% 3% 2% 7% 10% 9% 7% 3% 5% 11% 6% 5% 7% 5% 5% 3%
not relevant to enterprise % 86% 94% 89% 91% 79% 83% 91% 90% 81% 76% 84% 91% 81% 93% 84% 87% 73% 76% 80% 71% 87% 85% 75% 81% 88% 82% 83% 83% 84%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
dk/na % 4% 2% 5% 4% 3% 0% 3% 4% 6% 2% 2% 3% 5% 3% 5% 6% 16% 5% 3% 14% 6% 2% 7% 7% 3% 2% 6% 4% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q4p2. Other sources of financing - Have you obtained such source of financing in the past six months
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
used in the past 6 months % 1% 2% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 2% 6% 0% 1% 2% 0% 2% 1% 0% 2% 4% 0% 0% 2% 1% 0% 0% 1% 2% 2% 0% 1%
did not use in the past 6 months % 4% 4% 4% 4% 3% 1% 1% 4% 5% 4% 4% 7% 3% 4% 3% 2% 5% 6% 1% 5% 9% 1% 4% 5% 3% 3% 4% 3% 4%
not relevant to enterprise % 89% 91% 88% 89% 93% 97% 91% 90% 83% 89% 91% 88% 91% 90% 89% 90% 67% 83% 97% 76% 82% 95% 83% 86% 91% 92% 87% 92% 89%
relevant but do not know if used % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
dk/na % 6% 3% 7% 4% 3% 0% 6% 4% 6% 6% 4% 4% 6% 4% 7% 8% 26% 7% 2% 19% 6% 3% 12% 8% 5% 3% 7% 5% 5%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q32. You mentioned that bank loans are not relevant for your enterprise. What is the most important reason for this?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
insufficient collateral or guarantee % 4% 8% 4% 7% 1% 3% 3% 0% 1% 6% 6% 4% 4% 6% 4% 5% 8% 8% 2% 3% 4% 5% 2% 8% 5% 8% 4% 5% 2%
interest rates or price too high % 8% 5% 2% 19% 25% 17% 9% 4% 7% 1% 3% 4% 24% 9% 2% 14% 9% 8% 0% 11% 3% 13% 18% 18% 8% 8% 9% 1% 3%
reduced control over the enterprise % 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 2% 0% 2% 1% 1% 3% 1% 0% 0% 1% 1% 3% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1%
too much paperwork is involved % 4% 4% 2% 3% 7% 7% 4% 0% 2% 2% 3% 6% 2% 3% 1% 2% 3% 7% 2% 4% 2% 4% 3% 9% 4% 8% 3% 1% 1%
no bank loans are available % 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 3% 6% 1% 5% 3% 26% 2% 9% 5% 6% 3% 3% 5% 5% 2% 4% 1% 4% 11% 2% 3% 2%
I do not need this type of financing % 74% 76% 81% 66% 58% 60% 76% 85% 81% 88% 74% 78% 40% 68% 76% 68% 51% 56% 90% 74% 77% 68% 68% 54% 72% 64% 76% 86% 84%
other % 5% 4% 9% 2% 8% 6% 4% 6% 3% 3% 6% 3% 4% 8% 7% 5% 15% 16% 2% 3% 7% 6% 2% 7% 6% 2% 5% 2% 6%
dk/na % 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 5% 2% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 5% 1% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 2% 0% 0% 2% 1%
unweighted number of observations 7448 224 181 238 123 35 249 289 50 150 416 663 198 300 184 609 97 139 43 31 383 658 186 262 222 65 482 264 707

q5a. Bank loans (excluding overdraft and credit lines) - For each of the following types of external financing, please indicate if your needs increased, remained unchanged or decreased over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 19% 14% 25% 18% 29% 13% 13% 14% 15% 21% 24% 16% 36% 16% 18% 20% 21% 21% 9% 14% 19% 18% 17% 22% 14% 25% 17% 20% 14%
remained unchanged % 57% 55% 53% 65% 51% 56% 59% 64% 57% 50% 58% 53% 47% 46% 57% 64% 61% 63% 69% 61% 51% 60% 53% 47% 57% 50% 56% 57% 57%
decreased % 18% 24% 19% 12% 13% 15% 15% 15% 9% 25% 14% 26% 10% 18% 19% 13% 10% 6% 21% 11% 26% 13% 17% 6% 13% 18% 21% 18% 21%
not applicable % 6% 6% 3% 3% 6% 16% 12% 7% 19% 3% 4% 5% 7% 19% 6% 2% 5% 9% 2% 15% 3% 9% 13% 22% 16% 7% 4% 4% 8%
don't know % 1% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 1% 3% 1% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% 1%
net balance % 1% -10% 6% 6% 15% -2% -2% -1% 6% -4% 10% -10% 26% -3% -1% 8% 10% 15% -12% 3% -8% 5% 0% 16% 0% 7% -3% 2% -7%
unweighted number of observations 9170 266 279 269 172 72 252 152 46 306 952 733 334 231 302 980 90 141 52 60 350 654 333 200 242 138 784 174 606

q5b. Trade credit- For each of the following types of external financing, please indicate if your needs increased, remained unchanged or decreased over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxemboMalta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 19% 26% 17% 23% 19% 21% 8% 22% 30% 11% 16% 11% 37% 21% 24% 17% 12% 25% 13% 18% 24% 21% 15% 29% 18% 18% 18% 14% 22%
remained unchanged % 66% 55% 60% 66% 69% 55% 57% 60% 63% 76% 68% 61% 54% 53% 67% 71% 68% 61% 75% 73% 63% 71% 62% 54% 63% 65% 66% 74% 70%
decreased % 10% 16% 19% 10% 6% 10% 13% 11% 7% 10% 9% 19% 7% 13% 8% 9% 6% 7% 8% 6% 11% 6% 11% 6% 9% 7% 11% 4% 7%
not applicable % 4% 3% 3% 0% 7% 14% 19% 5% 0% 1% 5% 8% 3% 12% 0% 3% 8% 5% 0% 3% 1% 2% 13% 10% 9% 8% 4% 4% 1%
don't know % 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 3% 1% 0% 2% 2% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 6% 3% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 3% 1% 4% 0%
net balance % 10% 10% -3% 13% 13% 10% -5% 11% 24% 0% 7% -8% 30% 8% 16% 8% 6% 18% 5% 11% 13% 15% 4% 23% 10% 11% 7% 10% 15%
unweighted number of observations 5751 90 143 119 39 61 76 74 22 158 360 183 277 66 330 735 33 76 28 77 239 543 222 158 150 60 595 84 753

q5c. Equity - For each of the following types of external financing, please indicate if your needs increased, remained unchanged or decreased over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 14% 15% 7% 10% 7% 7% 0% 10% 4% 12% 11% 17% 19% 0% 11% 13% 14% 16% 9% 0% 6% 22% 7% 13% 0% 25% 14% 24% 13%
remained unchanged % 73% 71% 87% 73% 79% 87% 46% 80% 86% 77% 81% 66% 72% 67% 78% 63% 76% 68% 91% 82% 85% 60% 64% 67% 80% 59% 71% 66% 74%
decreased % 6% 11% 3% 17% 8% 4% 0% 2% 0% 8% 5% 7% 3% 16% 2% 16% 3% 2% 0% 7% 6% 9% 7% 1% 6% 9% 3% 7% 5%
not applicable % 6% 3% 3% 0% 7% 2% 54% 8% 10% 3% 2% 8% 4% 17% 6% 8% 5% 14% 0% 11% 3% 7% 23% 19% 13% 5% 12% 1% 6%
don't know % 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 2% 0% 3% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 3% 1%
net balance % 8% 5% 4% -8% -1% 3% 0% 7% 4% 4% 6% 10% 15% -16% 9% -3% 11% 13% 9% -7% 0% 13% 0% 12% -6% 16% 11% 17% 8%
unweighted number of observations 2180 38 77 15 61 23 10 78 16 116 284 174 126 9 68 29 81 36 23 17 209 44 14 59 13 59 31 253 217

q5d. Debt securities issued - For each of the following types of external financing, please indicate if your needs increased, remained unchanged or decreased over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxemboMalta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 11% 0% 0% 21% 13% 0% 0% 16% n/a 20% 7% 10% 22% 30% 4% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 14% 4% 14% 18% 47% 0% 24% 9%
remained unchanged % 65% 72% 83% 79% 77% 100% 36% 50% n/a 68% 79% 26% 54% 41% 55% 70% 38% 100% 66% 100% 88% 86% 52% 52% 82% 0% 79% 70% 66%
decreased % 7% 0% 0% 0% 6% 0% 0% 27% n/a 0% 4% 8% 10% 0% 13% 7% 35% 0% 34% 0% 12% 0% 16% 4% 0% 53% 9% 5% 7%
not applicable % 16% 28% 17% 0% 3% 0% 64% 7% n/a 11% 9% 56% 13% 29% 24% 13% 27% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 27% 23% 0% 0% 13% 0% 18%
don't know % 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% n/a 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 3% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
net balance % 3% 0% 0% 21% 7% 0% 0% -11% n/a 20% 3% 3% 11% 30% -9% -1% -35% 0% -34% 0% -12% 14% -11% 11% 18% -5% -9% 19% 1%
unweighted number of observations 525 4 7 4 23 3 3 15 0 8 76 12 100 7 32 45 3 2 3 5 9 14 15 19 5 2 13 22 74

q5f. Credit line, bank overdraft or credit cards overdraft - For each of the following types of external financing, please indicate if your needs increased, remained unchanged or decreased over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 20% 18% 25% 21% 25% 22% 11% 26% 33% 15% 24% 17% 33% 17% 15% 20% 24% 31% 20% 12% 19% 21% 19% 25% 16% 23% 23% 18% 17%
remained unchanged % 62% 59% 54% 63% 55% 70% 68% 52% 60% 69% 60% 62% 53% 58% 69% 65% 56% 57% 75% 67% 58% 64% 58% 50% 69% 62% 57% 68% 65%
decreased % 15% 18% 18% 13% 15% 2% 12% 20% 3% 14% 14% 17% 9% 14% 13% 14% 13% 6% 5% 16% 22% 13% 16% 9% 9% 11% 17% 12% 13%
not applicable % 3% 5% 3% 2% 3% 5% 6% 2% 4% 1% 1% 4% 3% 11% 2% 1% 3% 5% 0% 5% 1% 1% 7% 16% 5% 3% 3% 1% 4%
don't know % 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 2% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 3% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1%
net balance % 5% 0% 7% 7% 10% 20% -1% 6% 30% 1% 10% 1% 24% 3% 2% 6% 12% 25% 15% -5% -3% 7% 3% 16% 7% 11% 6% 6% 5%
unweighted number of observations 8828 291 243 296 140 71 232 275 33 329 714 697 181 168 355 813 82 129 52 79 448 686 304 267 283 120 581 236 723

q5g. Leasing or hire-purchase - For each of the following types of external financing, please indicate if your needs increased, remained unchanged or decreased over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 22% 22% 29% 17% 17% 25% 18% 22% 25% 16% 25% 20% 21% 27% 27% 20% 26% 19% 31% 16% 25% 20% 16% 22% 19% 20% 20% 25% 27%
remained unchanged % 61% 60% 59% 67% 66% 36% 56% 67% 55% 68% 60% 64% 57% 44% 54% 63% 59% 65% 54% 65% 63% 66% 52% 50% 57% 67% 60% 68% 61%
decreased % 11% 16% 9% 11% 10% 6% 12% 8% 17% 14% 11% 12% 6% 17% 13% 11% 10% 10% 5% 1% 10% 9% 17% 8% 13% 11% 12% 5% 8%
not applicable % 5% 2% 2% 4% 4% 33% 12% 2% 3% 2% 3% 4% 16% 11% 5% 4% 3% 5% 6% 17% 2% 4% 16% 20% 10% 2% 7% 1% 4%
don't know % 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 2% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 2% 1% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 1%
net balance % 11% 6% 20% 6% 7% 19% 6% 14% 8% 2% 15% 8% 15% 10% 14% 8% 16% 9% 26% 15% 15% 11% -1% 14% 6% 8% 9% 20% 19%
unweighted number of observations 7641 255 180 219 152 23 222 210 55 311 706 788 131 180 251 382 88 144 33 33 307 715 286 226 264 93 460 256 671

q5h. Other loan, for example from family and friends, a related enterprise or shareholders, excluding trade credit - For each of the following types of external financing, please indicate if your needs increased, remained unchanged or decreased over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 20% 26% 20% 15% 13% 8% 17% 22% 18% 21% 24% 16% 31% 22% 19% 22% 22% 19% 18% 16% 24% 24% 18% 19% 15% 21% 23% 21% 23%
remained unchanged % 57% 49% 65% 70% 64% 78% 53% 54% 57% 58% 58% 59% 52% 38% 58% 61% 65% 61% 62% 64% 56% 61% 56% 55% 60% 54% 57% 62% 54%
decreased % 13% 15% 11% 9% 19% 4% 10% 20% 12% 17% 10% 18% 6% 22% 15% 11% 7% 6% 17% 6% 17% 11% 12% 8% 12% 19% 12% 10% 13%
not applicable % 8% 10% 4% 5% 4% 11% 17% 4% 13% 4% 7% 7% 10% 17% 7% 6% 6% 11% 0% 14% 3% 4% 14% 17% 12% 3% 7% 5% 10%
don't know % 1% 1% 0% 2% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 3% 3% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 3% 1% 1% 1%
net balance % 7% 11% 9% 5% -6% 4% 7% 3% 6% 4% 15% -2% 25% -1% 4% 11% 15% 13% 1% 10% 7% 13% 6% 11% 3% 2% 10% 11% 10%
unweighted number of observations 3460 102 95 121 51 17 79 71 23 149 191 355 94 84 113 180 57 82 29 17 233 208 106 151 128 44 227 109 344

Q7aa. Bank loan (excluding overdraft and credit lines) - Have you applied for the following types of financing in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
applied % 27% 22% 35% 21% 25% 13% 25% 15% 19% 23% 36% 25% 21% 20% 17% 34% 23% 25% 26% 26% 20% 22% 27% 16% 18% 32% 30% 18% 15%
did not apply because of possible rejection % 6% 5% 4% 4% 6% 12% 2% 3% 12% 3% 5% 4% 26% 8% 9% 7% 11% 8% 4% 0% 8% 3% 7% 9% 6% 4% 7% 5% 4%
did not apply because of sufficient internal funds % 41% 54% 42% 33% 30% 48% 44% 52% 34% 54% 34% 49% 25% 46% 50% 30% 32% 4% 53% 50% 51% 52% 44% 37% 43% 44% 38% 54% 52%
did not apply for other reasons % 24% 18% 12% 40% 37% 25% 26% 23% 28% 19% 23% 20% 28% 24% 18% 28% 29% 47% 17% 23% 15% 22% 20% 30% 30% 20% 25% 21% 24%
dk/na % 3% 2% 7% 2% 3% 1% 3% 7% 7% 1% 1% 2% 1% 2% 6% 2% 5% 17% 0% 1% 7% 2% 2% 8% 3% 0% 1% 2% 5%
unweighted number of observations 9170 266 279 269 172 72 252 152 46 306 952 733 334 231 302 980 90 141 52 60 350 654 333 200 242 138 784 174 606

q7ab. Trade credit - Have you applied for the following types of financing in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
applied % 35% 41% 20% 25% 11% 26% 27% 27% 56% 38% 22% 29% 29% 31% 40% 35% 15% 41% 16% 28% 22% 41% 33% 46% 35% 11% 39% 13% 43%
did not apply because of possible rejection % 4% 6% 2% 6% 13% 11% 3% 1% 5% 0% 5% 2% 11% 4% 1% 4% 17% 4% 0% 0% 3% 2% 4% 4% 4% 10% 5% 3% 1%
did not apply because of sufficient internal funds % 33% 40% 38% 28% 24% 43% 46% 32% 28% 39% 39% 44% 27% 30% 33% 26% 34% 1% 58% 51% 50% 38% 38% 28% 25% 41% 31% 43% 28%
did not apply for other reasons % 25% 10% 21% 41% 47% 14% 20% 26% 4% 22% 30% 21% 31% 33% 21% 32% 26% 44% 26% 18% 17% 16% 22% 17% 34% 32% 23% 36% 22%
dk/na % 4% 3% 19% 0% 5% 6% 4% 14% 8% 1% 3% 3% 3% 2% 5% 3% 7% 10% 0% 4% 7% 3% 3% 5% 2% 6% 2% 5% 5%
unweighted number of observations 5751 90 143 119 39 61 76 74 22 158 360 183 277 66 330 735 33 76 28 77 239 543 222 158 150 60 595 84 753

q7ac. Other external financing - Have you applied for the following types of financing in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
applied % 16% 16% 11% 13% 12% 8% 15% 13% 15% 19% 22% 13% 15% 21% 16% 19% 20% 19% 27% 14% 16% 23% 8% 15% 18% 28% 19% 7% 16%
did not apply because of possible rejection % 4% 2% 4% 3% 7% 9% 2% 1% 1% 2% 4% 3% 13% 3% 3% 6% 9% 5% 0% 0% 3% 4% 6% 5% 2% 5% 5% 2% 2%
did not apply because of sufficient internal funds % 46% 53% 56% 36% 33% 42% 43% 45% 38% 55% 41% 53% 28% 45% 51% 34% 33% 4% 55% 55% 57% 46% 44% 45% 38% 40% 41% 58% 51%
did not apply for other reasons % 28% 26% 14% 45% 40% 32% 32% 24% 28% 23% 29% 26% 38% 27% 19% 38% 30% 52% 17% 16% 14% 25% 32% 27% 37% 25% 31% 28% 23%
dk/na % 6% 2% 15% 2% 8% 9% 7% 16% 18% 2% 4% 6% 7% 3% 12% 3% 8% 19% 2% 16% 11% 3% 10% 8% 4% 3% 5% 5% 9%
unweighted number of observations 10101 313 262 282 191 52 265 272 67 363 902 955 302 240 315 569 133 190 62 57 485 819 326 317 325 132 653 369 883

q7ad. Credit line, bank overdraft or credit cards overdraft - Have you applied for the following types of financing in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
applied % 31% 34% 32% 30% 33% 6% 24% 19% 35% 18% 41% 26% 25% 33% 20% 41% 29% 36% 45% 27% 14% 36% 33% 36% 35% 37% 42% 14% 18%
did not apply because of possible rejection % 5% 3% 2% 4% 5% 14% 1% 1% 21% 0% 4% 4% 25% 9% 7% 5% 15% 6% 0% 2% 7% 2% 6% 5% 4% 2% 5% 4% 3%
did not apply because of sufficient internal funds % 39% 43% 45% 28% 29% 45% 44% 49% 17% 50% 37% 48% 22% 38% 48% 25% 27% 3% 40% 45% 57% 39% 37% 32% 33% 40% 30% 53% 46%
did not apply for other reasons % 23% 18% 11% 37% 30% 35% 27% 24% 22% 31% 17% 19% 28% 18% 18% 27% 26% 49% 14% 20% 17% 22% 21% 22% 27% 20% 21% 27% 28%
dk/na % 3% 2% 9% 1% 3% 1% 3% 6% 5% 1% 1% 3% 0% 2% 7% 1% 3% 6% 0% 5% 6% 1% 2% 5% 1% 1% 1% 2% 5%
unweighted number of observations 8828 291 243 296 140 71 232 275 33 329 714 697 181 168 355 813 82 129 52 79 448 686 304 267 283 120 581 236 723

Q7ba. Bank loan (excluding overdraft and credit lines) - If you applied and tried to negotiate for this type of financing over the past 6 months, what was the outcome?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
applied and received everything % 70% 79% 78% 63% 61% 53% 83% 57% 63% 82% 79% 75% 28% 66% 60% 64% 60% 40% 58% 68% 50% 69% 58% 78% 53% 64% 66% 71% 69%
applied and received 75% and above % 5% 10% 5% 10% 12% 0% 5% 6% 0% 0% 2% 4% 7% 6% 6% 6% 5% 13% 14% 14% 6% 4% 3% 2% 3% 3% 9% 11% 1%
applied and received below 75% % 5% 6% 2% 6% 2% 4% 2% 0% 8% 7% 3% 2% 10% 3% 1% 7% 5% 9% 8% 0% 7% 2% 11% 6% 8% 7% 9% 0% 6%
applied but refused because cost too high % 2% 0% 1% 2% 4% 0% 1% 4% 9% 0% 0% 2% 9% 2% 0% 2% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 4% 3% 4% 3% 5% 2% 2% 1%
applied but was rejected % 7% 3% 5% 5% 8% 15% 2% 16% 10% 4% 7% 7% 20% 5% 3% 6% 20% 20% 6% 0% 17% 9% 4% 2% 5% 9% 7% 5% 3%
application is still pending % 10% 2% 7% 11% 13% 27% 6% 13% 9% 7% 8% 9% 21% 14% 27% 12% 7% 9% 0% 18% 18% 10% 13% 8% 19% 6% 6% 7% 18%
dk/na % 2% 0% 2% 3% 0% 0% 1% 4% 0% 0% 1% 1% 4% 5% 3% 3% 4% 5% 14% 0% 2% 2% 7% 0% 8% 7% 2% 4% 1%
unweighted number of observations 2438 60 101 63 44 13 65 24 11 74 366 190 75 49 56 353 20 35 14 14 71 145 95 37 45 46 248 33 91

q7bb. Trade credit - If you applied and tried to negotiate for this type of financing over the past 6 months, did you: receive all the financing you requested; receive only part of the financing you requested; refuse to proceed because of unacceptable costs or terms and conditions; or have you not received anything at all?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
applied and received everything % 73% 80% 49% 79% 82% 49% 82% 47% 94% 78% 72% 86% 40% 77% 75% 68% 56% 55% 60% 61% 52% 78% 59% 66% 66% 62% 72% 71% 85%
applied and received 75% and above % 11% 6% 17% 12% 18% 8% 14% 18% 0% 4% 9% 8% 16% 9% 14% 12% 0% 17% 17% 10% 16% 8% 14% 17% 15% 0% 12% 11% 10%
applied and received below 75% % 7% 5% 13% 6% 0% 36% 4% 17% 6% 9% 7% 4% 27% 10% 6% 11% 0% 16% 0% 5% 6% 4% 9% 11% 6% 12% 9% 18% 2%
applied but refused because cost too high % 1% 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 2% 2% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0%
applied but was rejected % 2% 2% 8% 0% 0% 5% 0% 7% 0% 0% 7% 0% 6% 4% 1% 2% 0% 5% 0% 5% 13% 2% 4% 3% 0% 0% 3% 0% 1%
application is still pending % 2% 4% 4% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 3% 1% 0% 6% 0% 0% 3% 0% 7% 23% 0% 7% 1% 4% 1% 6% 0% 3% 0% 1%
dk/na % 3% 3% 4% 3% 0% 0% 0% 7% 0% 5% 3% 2% 5% 0% 4% 4% 44% 0% 0% 20% 5% 6% 8% 1% 5% 26% 1% 0% 2%
unweighted number of observations 2030 35 29 32 5 19 21 19 12 62 87 54 81 22 138 267 5 30 5 22 54 228 76 73 54 7 244 10 339

q7bc. Other external financing - If you applied and tried to negotiate for this type of financing over the past 6 months, what was the outcome?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
applied and received everything % 75% 88% 79% 52% 78% 50% 74% 72% 61% 76% 82% 74% 51% 82% 83% 71% 67% 56% 85% 74% 71% 80% 71% 73% 76% 74% 70% 67% 81%
applied and received 75% and above % 5% 0% 0% 8% 3% 25% 8% 7% 18% 7% 1% 2% 12% 4% 3% 4% 7% 16% 11% 14% 5% 4% 8% 13% 3% 12% 9% 18% 4%
applied and received below 75% % 5% 7% 12% 0% 13% 10% 3% 5% 0% 3% 6% 5% 11% 5% 3% 6% 7% 6% 5% 13% 0% 5% 11% 2% 10% 7% 10% 0% 3%
applied but refused because cost too high % 1% 2% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 3% 3% 2% 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 4% 1% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
applied but was rejected % 3% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 8% 7% 5% 4% 2% 6% 1% 1% 8% 8% 12% 0% 0% 6% 2% 5% 4% 0% 3% 2% 0% 4%
application is still pending % 6% 3% 5% 29% 6% 15% 10% 2% 0% 4% 7% 6% 18% 4% 8% 6% 4% 0% 0% 0% 10% 6% 3% 0% 7% 5% 4% 11% 5%
dk/na % 4% 0% 4% 6% 0% 0% 6% 6% 14% 5% 1% 8% 0% 0% 2% 6% 8% 8% 0% 0% 4% 3% 2% 7% 5% 0% 7% 4% 3%
unweighted number of observations 1714 49 28 37 23 6 40 33 11 67 207 120 45 52 52 109 27 38 17 8 78 190 30 48 64 39 132 27 137

q7bd. Credit line, bank overdraft or credit cards overdraft - If you applied and tried to negotiate for this type of financing over the past 6 months, what was the outcome?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
applied and received everything % 71% 80% 73% 77% 75% 44% 89% 66% 71% 80% 69% 72% 45% 79% 60% 67% 58% 62% 80% 54% 45% 78% 62% 79% 79% 80% 71% 64% 75%
applied and received 75% and above % 7% 2% 8% 7% 9% 0% 5% 4% 14% 1% 7% 6% 3% 4% 10% 7% 0% 0% 13% 10% 10% 6% 16% 5% 5% 7% 9% 9% 4%
applied and received below 75% % 6% 6% 4% 2% 2% 0% 4% 9% 0% 6% 7% 5% 20% 2% 4% 8% 20% 6% 0% 0% 3% 2% 4% 3% 5% 0% 9% 0% 5%
applied but refused because cost too high % 2% 2% 0% 1% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 7% 0% 3% 4% 2% 3% 2% 0% 2% 0% 5% 3% 1% 2% 4% 1% 0% 2% 0% 2%
applied but was rejected % 6% 6% 11% 1% 3% 0% 0% 12% 0% 2% 11% 5% 21% 8% 7% 5% 9% 20% 3% 5% 15% 6% 4% 4% 2% 9% 4% 9% 5%
application is still pending % 5% 3% 1% 8% 3% 35% 0% 6% 8% 4% 5% 7% 4% 0% 11% 7% 10% 4% 0% 21% 18% 7% 5% 2% 5% 0% 2% 4% 6%
dk/na % 3% 2% 3% 2% 2% 21% 2% 2% 7% 0% 1% 3% 2% 6% 4% 4% 3% 6% 3% 5% 6% 1% 6% 4% 3% 4% 3% 15% 2%
unweighted number of observations 2719 98 83 94 46 6 58 54 13 62 300 178 48 58 74 340 25 47 24 20 66 255 103 102 107 46 253 34 125

q8a. What is the size of the last bank loan that your enterprise obtained/renegotiated/attempted to obtain in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
< € 25,000 % 13% 3% 11% 16% 26% 0% 13% 9% 20% 6% 17% 6% 10% 19% 10% 11% 13% 24% 0% 7% 6% 14% 17% 10% 18% 13% 19% 12% 14%
€ 25,000 - 100,000 % 26% 13% 25% 25% 14% 8% 30% 6% 0% 29% 28% 21% 32% 20% 26% 33% 36% 24% 33% 0% 19% 29% 30% 20% 16% 19% 29% 22% 17%
€ 100,000 - 250,000 % 21% 27% 25% 18% 19% 4% 24% 25% 17% 21% 21% 20% 18% 18% 23% 19% 8% 13% 9% 48% 19% 16% 23% 22% 19% 14% 26% 15% 18%
€ 250,000 - 1,000,000 % 22% 31% 21% 25% 28% 41% 12% 28% 44% 24% 23% 23% 20% 16% 15% 22% 25% 20% 34% 28% 25% 19% 22% 25% 23% 16% 19% 20% 19%
> € 1,000,000 % 16% 24% 14% 10% 8% 38% 20% 29% 19% 19% 10% 24% 16% 21% 20% 13% 14% 14% 23% 14% 28% 16% 7% 21% 15% 33% 8% 30% 30%
dk/na % 3% 2% 3% 6% 4% 9% 1% 3% 0% 1% 2% 5% 3% 6% 4% 2% 5% 6% 0% 4% 2% 7% 1% 2% 10% 5% 0% 2% 2%
unweighted number of observations 2384 60 99 61 44 13 64 23 11 74 363 188 72 46 55 344 19 33 12 14 70 142 89 37 42 43 244 32 90

q8B What interest rate was charged for the credit line or bank overdraft for which you applied?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland German Greece HungaryIreland Italy LithuaniLuxembourg Netherl Poland Portugal SlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
interest rate mean 2.2 1.4 1.1 2.4 3.1 1.9 1.8 3.0 1.4 1.1 1.8 3.3 4.4 2.0 2.4 2.3 1.1 2.1 1.3 3.5 2.2 1.9 2.2 1.7 2.3 2.1 2.2 1.9 1.8
interest rate median 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.0 1.0 1.8 0.0 2.5 0.0 0.7 0.9 2.3 4.7 1.6 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.9 1.2 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.5 2.0 1.5 0.0 0.0
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q6a1. Investments in property, plant or equipment (fixed investment) - For what purpose was external financing used by your enterprise during the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
selected % 38% 49% 38% 38% 40% 13% 45% 29% 36% 35% 40% 52% 21% 24% 31% 39% 34% 31% 37% 29% 33% 39% 27% 30% 41% 41% 27% 40% 32%
not selected % 40% 44% 35% 42% 46% 66% 41% 45% 33% 48% 25% 37% 59% 28% 54% 40% 45% 48% 25% 59% 43% 44% 41% 48% 51% 49% 52% 39% 39%
dk/na % 22% 7% 27% 20% 15% 21% 14% 26% 30% 17% 35% 11% 20% 49% 15% 21% 21% 21% 38% 12% 24% 17% 32% 22% 8% 10% 21% 22% 29%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q6a2. Inventory and other working capital - For what purpose was external financing used by your enterprise during the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
selected % 34% 47% 26% 40% 26% 36% 39% 39% 33% 40% 18% 33% 42% 23% 42% 36% 34% 49% 26% 48% 40% 34% 37% 45% 57% 48% 40% 25% 36%
not selected % 44% 45% 47% 40% 60% 43% 47% 35% 37% 43% 47% 56% 38% 29% 44% 43% 45% 30% 36% 40% 37% 48% 30% 33% 35% 42% 39% 53% 35%
dk/na % 22% 7% 27% 20% 15% 21% 14% 26% 30% 17% 35% 11% 20% 49% 15% 21% 21% 21% 38% 12% 24% 17% 32% 22% 8% 10% 21% 22% 29%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q6a3. Hiring and training of employees- For what purpose was external financing used by your enterprise during the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
selected % 15% 26% 7% 16% 14% 13% 11% 14% 5% 20% 8% 25% 8% 8% 11% 13% 7% 19% 13% 12% 13% 14% 9% 18% 16% 17% 11% 19% 15%
not selected % 63% 66% 65% 64% 71% 66% 75% 60% 65% 63% 57% 64% 72% 43% 74% 66% 72% 61% 50% 76% 64% 68% 59% 59% 75% 73% 68% 59% 56%
dk/na % 22% 7% 27% 20% 15% 21% 14% 26% 30% 17% 35% 11% 20% 49% 15% 21% 21% 21% 38% 12% 24% 17% 32% 22% 8% 10% 21% 22% 29%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q6a4. Developing and launching of new products or services - For what purpose was external financing used by your enterprise during the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
selected % 15% 27% 12% 14% 12% 26% 11% 12% 6% 20% 10% 21% 24% 12% 12% 15% 10% 14% 14% 16% 18% 12% 10% 13% 16% 18% 11% 18% 15%
not selected % 63% 65% 61% 65% 73% 53% 75% 62% 63% 64% 55% 68% 56% 39% 73% 64% 69% 65% 49% 72% 58% 71% 58% 64% 76% 72% 67% 61% 56%
dk/na % 22% 7% 27% 20% 15% 21% 14% 26% 30% 17% 35% 11% 20% 49% 15% 21% 21% 21% 38% 12% 24% 17% 32% 22% 8% 10% 21% 22% 29%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q6a5. Refinancing or paying off obligations - For what purpose was external financing used by your enterprise during the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
selected % 12% 24% 10% 10% 12% 26% 7% 14% 3% 14% 3% 19% 31% 6% 13% 6% 7% 14% 5% 14% 14% 17% 3% 15% 19% 18% 14% 6% 7%
not selected % 67% 69% 62% 70% 74% 53% 79% 61% 67% 69% 62% 70% 49% 46% 72% 74% 72% 65% 57% 74% 62% 66% 64% 63% 73% 72% 64% 73% 64%
dk/na % 22% 7% 27% 20% 15% 21% 14% 26% 30% 17% 35% 11% 20% 49% 15% 21% 21% 21% 38% 12% 24% 17% 32% 22% 8% 10% 21% 22% 29%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q6a6. Other - For what purpose was external financing used by your enterprise during the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
selected % 11% 12% 11% 8% 16% 20% 7% 8% 2% 15% 8% 14% 8% 6% 7% 16% 14% 8% 8% 8% 11% 12% 8% 7% 10% 7% 14% 11% 9%
not selected % 67% 80% 62% 72% 69% 59% 79% 66% 67% 68% 57% 75% 72% 46% 79% 63% 66% 72% 55% 80% 66% 70% 59% 71% 81% 83% 65% 68% 62%
dk/na % 22% 7% 27% 20% 15% 21% 14% 26% 30% 17% 35% 11% 20% 49% 15% 21% 21% 21% 38% 12% 24% 17% 32% 22% 8% 10% 21% 22% 29%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q11a. General economic outlook, insofar as it affects the availabilty of external financing - For each of the following factors, would you say that they have improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 17% 12% 16% 13% 21% 38% 23% 15% 13% 21% 14% 16% 4% 27% 35% 15% 11% 17% 9% 25% 36% 9% 20% 15% 20% 35% 33% 17% 11%
remained unchanged % 53% 56% 51% 53% 52% 41% 59% 63% 49% 56% 45% 60% 24% 38% 44% 57% 37% 50% 70% 62% 41% 56% 45% 56% 49% 41% 45% 64% 56%
deteriorated % 22% 29% 28% 30% 17% 15% 8% 8% 34% 18% 36% 16% 66% 22% 15% 23% 36% 18% 16% 8% 14% 25% 29% 18% 10% 12% 18% 5% 19%
not applicable % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
don't know % 8% 3% 5% 4% 10% 7% 9% 15% 3% 5% 6% 8% 5% 13% 6% 5% 16% 15% 4% 5% 9% 10% 6% 11% 21% 12% 4% 14% 13%
net balance % -5% -17% -12% -16% 4% 23% 15% 7% -21% 3% -22% 0% -62% 6% 20% -8% -25% -1% -8% 16% 22% -16% -9% -2% 9% 23% 16% 11% -8%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q11b. Access to public financial support, including guarantees - For each of the following factors, would you say that they have improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 6% 3% 6% 10% 9% 1% 3% 2% 0% 6% 6% 4% 1% 12% 10% 6% 1% 3% 4% 7% 14% 4% 7% 6% 6% 10% 10% 3% 4%
remained unchanged % 46% 45% 58% 52% 45% 35% 43% 36% 27% 49% 45% 45% 18% 28% 44% 57% 23% 26% 61% 50% 47% 42% 43% 41% 41% 45% 48% 54% 43%
deteriorated % 14% 18% 14% 12% 13% 20% 7% 3% 11% 14% 16% 10% 55% 21% 7% 18% 9% 9% 7% 14% 12% 12% 19% 9% 12% 8% 18% 3% 11%
not applicable % 26% 28% 14% 23% 22% 34% 39% 41% 53% 17% 27% 34% 22% 30% 31% 13% 50% 43% 22% 28% 14% 36% 24% 35% 27% 31% 17% 25% 28%
don't know % 8% 6% 7% 4% 11% 10% 8% 17% 9% 15% 6% 6% 3% 9% 8% 5% 17% 19% 5% 1% 14% 5% 8% 9% 15% 6% 8% 16% 14%
net balance % -9% -15% -8% -2% -4% -18% -5% -1% -11% -8% -10% -7% -54% -10% 3% -13% -8% -5% -3% -7% 2% -8% -13% -2% -6% 2% -8% 0% -7%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q11c. Your enterprise-specific outlook with respect to your sales and profitability or business plan - For each of the following factors, would you say that they have improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 31% 27% 29% 39% 38% 51% 32% 27% 12% 44% 25% 30% 20% 38% 48% 22% 22% 35% 29% 30% 49% 29% 32% 35% 37% 43% 39% 39% 29%
remained unchanged % 48% 52% 43% 43% 49% 32% 53% 50% 49% 43% 43% 54% 36% 37% 32% 57% 47% 42% 54% 52% 36% 48% 48% 43% 45% 46% 41% 50% 48%
deteriorated % 17% 18% 25% 15% 10% 16% 10% 7% 21% 12% 29% 12% 42% 21% 16% 16% 21% 18% 14% 15% 10% 19% 18% 16% 14% 7% 17% 6% 18%
not applicable % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
don't know % 4% 3% 3% 3% 2% 1% 4% 17% 17% 1% 2% 4% 2% 4% 3% 5% 11% 5% 3% 2% 5% 3% 3% 6% 5% 4% 2% 5% 5%
net balance % 13% 10% 3% 24% 28% 35% 22% 20% -9% 33% -4% 18% -21% 17% 32% 6% 1% 17% 14% 15% 39% 10% 15% 18% 23% 36% 21% 34% 10%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q11d. Your enterprise’s own capital - For each of the following factors, would you say that they have improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 28% 38% 38% 26% 28% 15% 28% 42% 30% 39% 24% 39% 12% 36% 36% 17% 19% 26% 30% 14% 54% 26% 8% 33% 25% 37% 9% 39% 26%
remained unchanged % 60% 49% 50% 64% 68% 67% 64% 45% 63% 52% 57% 51% 57% 55% 51% 68% 63% 65% 59% 78% 35% 62% 87% 59% 64% 56% 82% 51% 63%
deteriorated % 10% 13% 11% 9% 3% 16% 3% 8% 5% 9% 17% 7% 29% 8% 8% 12% 12% 6% 9% 4% 9% 10% 2% 7% 7% 4% 6% 7% 9%
not applicable % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
don't know % 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 5% 5% 2% 0% 2% 2% 1% 1% 4% 2% 6% 2% 2% 4% 2% 2% 2% 2% 4% 2% 4% 3% 3%
net balance % 18% 25% 26% 17% 25% -1% 24% 34% 25% 30% 6% 32% -17% 28% 28% 5% 6% 20% 20% 9% 45% 16% 7% 26% 18% 33% 4% 31% 16%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q11e. Your enterprise’s credit history - For each of the following factors, would you say that they have improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 24% 31% 32% 19% 22% 23% 18% 31% 18% 20% 24% 30% 16% 22% 35% 21% 14% 24% 25% 15% 38% 14% 22% 18% 17% 39% 22% 25% 25%
remained unchanged % 58% 54% 57% 55% 61% 62% 49% 52% 63% 76% 56% 54% 65% 45% 56% 66% 54% 48% 64% 71% 49% 56% 62% 50% 58% 46% 62% 62% 67%
deteriorated % 6% 6% 8% 2% 2% 10% 2% 5% 2% 4% 12% 5% 8% 5% 3% 9% 2% 6% 2% 3% 6% 3% 6% 4% 3% 1% 8% 4% 2%
not applicable % 10% 9% 2% 22% 16% 5% 30% 9% 15% 0% 6% 10% 11% 27% 4% 3% 26% 21% 9% 12% 6% 26% 8% 27% 20% 14% 6% 8% 3%
don't know % 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 2% 3% 2% 1% 2% 2% 0% 1% 1% 1% 4% 2% 0% 0% 1% 1% 2% 2% 1% 1% 2% 2% 3%
net balance % 18% 25% 24% 18% 19% 13% 17% 26% 15% 16% 11% 26% 8% 17% 32% 12% 12% 18% 23% 12% 33% 12% 16% 13% 14% 38% 14% 21% 23%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q11f. Willingness of banks to provide credit to your enterprise - For each of the following factors, would you say that they have improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 27% 23% 27% 44% 35% 33% 32% 25% 9% 17% 23% 26% 15% 44% 23% 29% 21% 24% 27% 27% 23% 21% 30% 40% 31% 39% 41% 20% 18%
remained unchanged % 52% 59% 56% 40% 45% 36% 47% 55% 70% 62% 52% 55% 37% 32% 49% 53% 48% 50% 55% 56% 46% 60% 49% 37% 52% 43% 45% 60% 56%
deteriorated % 12% 11% 10% 6% 10% 15% 3% 9% 9% 8% 18% 12% 32% 11% 11% 14% 6% 8% 11% 8% 19% 8% 14% 9% 4% 5% 9% 6% 8%
not applicable % 6% 6% 6% 6% 4% 14% 14% 8% 12% 5% 5% 5% 14% 11% 12% 2% 16% 11% 6% 9% 7% 7% 5% 11% 9% 10% 3% 8% 10%
don't know % 3% 0% 2% 3% 5% 2% 3% 3% 0% 7% 2% 2% 2% 2% 5% 2% 8% 7% 0% 0% 6% 3% 1% 3% 4% 3% 2% 6% 7%
net balance % 15% 11% 17% 37% 25% 18% 29% 16% 0% 9% 5% 14% -18% 33% 13% 15% 15% 17% 16% 19% 4% 14% 16% 31% 27% 34% 32% 14% 10%
unweighted number of observations 11354 345 329 341 200 83 311 293 51 389 1038 912 364 262 386 1100 110 170 65 82 515 849 372 301 329 150 881 264 862

q11g. Willingness of business partners to provide trade credit - For each of the following factors, would you say that they have improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 19% 12% 15% 24% 22% 21% 16% 25% 32% 15% 15% 19% 17% 25% 31% 16% 19% 21% 14% 20% 25% 23% 21% 35% 16% 26% 18% 23% 18%
remained unchanged % 62% 68% 60% 54% 47% 46% 51% 56% 68% 74% 55% 65% 53% 47% 54% 64% 38% 56% 69% 58% 52% 66% 58% 48% 64% 42% 64% 63% 68%
deteriorated % 8% 15% 10% 13% 9% 21% 0% 8% 0% 5% 14% 6% 21% 10% 3% 9% 5% 7% 7% 1% 9% 6% 11% 4% 11% 3% 6% 7% 5%
not applicable % 8% 4% 13% 7% 10% 12% 27% 8% 0% 2% 14% 9% 9% 12% 9% 7% 12% 10% 10% 18% 11% 4% 6% 11% 5% 22% 9% 3% 6%
don't know % 3% 1% 2% 3% 11% 0% 6% 4% 0% 4% 1% 1% 0% 6% 2% 4% 26% 6% 0% 3% 3% 1% 2% 2% 3% 6% 3% 4% 3%
net balance % 11% -3% 5% 12% 13% -1% 16% 17% 32% 10% 1% 13% -4% 15% 28% 7% 14% 14% 6% 20% 16% 17% 10% 30% 5% 23% 11% 17% 13%
unweighted number of observations 5751 90 143 119 39 61 76 74 22 158 360 183 277 66 330 735 33 76 28 77 239 543 222 158 150 60 595 84 753

q11h. Willingness of investors to invest in your enterprise - For each of the following factors, would you say that they have improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 10% 15% 9% 12% 10% 17% 4% 14% 6% 8% 12% 10% 8% 6% 15% 11% 6% 10% 9% 23% 15% 10% 12% 6% 8% 17% 9% 12% 9%
remained unchanged % 39% 29% 39% 40% 32% 28% 22% 38% 35% 49% 40% 35% 21% 25% 30% 54% 20% 20% 57% 38% 33% 43% 51% 36% 46% 22% 55% 40% 44%
deteriorated % 5% 5% 4% 4% 5% 2% 0% 3% 5% 5% 8% 4% 16% 10% 6% 9% 1% 1% 3% 0% 3% 5% 7% 2% 4% 3% 4% 2% 3%
not applicable % 40% 44% 44% 40% 45% 52% 69% 41% 48% 22% 36% 46% 52% 47% 43% 23% 55% 53% 28% 39% 42% 38% 28% 52% 39% 54% 28% 34% 40%
don't know % 6% 6% 4% 5% 7% 1% 5% 6% 6% 16% 4% 5% 3% 11% 5% 3% 18% 17% 2% 0% 7% 4% 2% 5% 4% 5% 5% 12% 4%
net balance % 5% 9% 6% 8% 5% 14% 4% 11% 1% 3% 4% 6% -8% -4% 9% 2% 4% 9% 6% 23% 12% 6% 5% 4% 4% 14% 4% 11% 5%
unweighted number of observations 5303 141 152 140 110 36 93 140 33 207 465 482 247 112 174 238 104 112 43 33 362 250 126 193 146 88 280 289 507

q9a. Bank loans (excluding overdraft and credit lines) - For each of the following types of financing, would you say that their availability has improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated for your enterprise over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 21% 13% 20% 28% 27% 22% 22% 21% 14% 11% 22% 21% 9% 31% 22% 23% 13% 34% 13% 9% 18% 13% 24% 19% 20% 30% 32% 17% 13%
remained unchanged % 59% 70% 66% 58% 58% 50% 59% 59% 67% 73% 56% 62% 41% 42% 55% 61% 62% 45% 65% 71% 60% 65% 54% 48% 58% 52% 55% 70% 61%
deteriorated % 10% 13% 7% 4% 8% 11% 3% 9% 14% 9% 14% 10% 36% 7% 9% 13% 8% 8% 7% 5% 12% 7% 8% 7% 2% 7% 6% 6% 8%
not applicable % 7% 4% 5% 8% 3% 17% 15% 8% 5% 2% 7% 5% 12% 16% 10% 2% 9% 10% 10% 12% 5% 11% 13% 24% 12% 10% 4% 3% 13%
don't know % 2% 0% 2% 2% 4% 0% 1% 4% 0% 3% 2% 1% 2% 3% 3% 1% 9% 3% 4% 3% 5% 5% 0% 2% 7% 1% 2% 4% 5%
net balance % 11% 0% 13% 24% 19% 11% 20% 12% 0% 2% 7% 11% -27% 23% 13% 10% 5% 26% 6% 4% 6% 7% 15% 12% 18% 23% 26% 10% 4%
unweighted number of observations 9170 266 279 269 172 72 252 152 46 306 952 733 334 231 302 980 90 141 52 60 350 654 333 200 242 138 784 174 606

q9b. Trade credit - For each of the following types of financing, would you say that their availability has improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated for your enterprise over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 18% 9% 14% 25% 26% 19% 16% 25% 19% 10% 11% 14% 13% 29% 31% 18% 17% 35% 7% 11% 20% 17% 19% 25% 15% 19% 28% 15% 16%
remained unchanged % 67% 75% 60% 68% 60% 46% 66% 56% 81% 81% 62% 68% 58% 51% 62% 70% 70% 56% 68% 81% 63% 73% 64% 59% 67% 62% 62% 70% 74%
deteriorated % 7% 12% 12% 3% 6% 17% 0% 10% 0% 4% 11% 7% 26% 8% 5% 8% 3% 6% 8% 1% 8% 5% 7% 5% 9% 5% 5% 7% 4%
not applicable % 6% 3% 10% 4% 2% 17% 17% 6% 0% 2% 14% 8% 3% 11% 1% 3% 3% 1% 18% 5% 5% 4% 10% 10% 5% 11% 3% 5% 4%
don't know % 2% 1% 3% 1% 6% 0% 1% 3% 0% 3% 2% 2% 0% 1% 2% 1% 8% 3% 0% 2% 4% 1% 0% 1% 4% 3% 1% 3% 2%
net balance % 11% -3% 2% 23% 20% 3% 16% 16% 19% 6% 0% 7% -13% 21% 26% 9% 14% 29% -1% 10% 12% 12% 12% 20% 7% 14% 24% 8% 12%
unweighted number of observations 5751 90 143 119 39 61 76 74 22 158 360 183 277 66 330 735 33 76 28 77 239 543 222 158 150 60 595 84 753

q9c. Equity capital - For each of the following types of financing, would you say that their availability has improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated for your enterprise over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 14% 4% 14% 20% 32% 9% 0% 23% 8% 11% 10% 18% 5% 0% 13% 10% 17% 19% 10% 0% 8% 22% 0% 12% 0% 22% 22% 32% 10%
remained unchanged % 68% 91% 78% 60% 65% 91% 55% 60% 74% 79% 77% 56% 73% 0% 59% 47% 67% 76% 83% 76% 78% 51% 74% 69% 87% 68% 63% 58% 70%
deteriorated % 6% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 3% 7% 7% 16% 0% 6% 9% 9% 0% 7% 12% 2% 9% 26% 3% 0% 0% 0% 7% 7%
not applicable % 10% 0% 8% 0% 3% 0% 23% 12% 17% 3% 6% 15% 3% 100% 16% 34% 4% 5% 0% 12% 9% 14% 0% 15% 0% 6% 15% 0% 12%
don't know % 2% 0% 0% 20% 0% 0% 22% 6% 0% 5% 1% 5% 2% 0% 5% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 3% 4% 0% 0% 13% 4% 0% 3% 1%
net balance % 7% 0% 14% 20% 32% 9% 0% 23% 8% 8% 3% 12% -11% 0% 8% 1% 8% 19% 3% -12% 6% 13% -26% 8% 0% 22% 22% 25% 3%
unweighted number of observations 990 17 34 4 27 14 4 26 9 51 169 72 62 2 39 17 44 20 11 9 71 30 3 25 8 31 18 62 111

q9d. Debt securities issued - For each of the following types of financing, would you say that their availability has improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated for your enterprise over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxemboMalta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 9% 0% 0% 0% 8% 100% n/a 0% 0% 0% 6% 9% 14% 0% 8% 13% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 16% 13% 14% 0% 100% 0% 23% 6%
remained unchanged % 61% 0% 25% 100% 70% 0% n/a 67% 0% 49% 70% 41% 53% 60% 60% 56% 52% 0% 0% 100% 100% 84% 87% 49% 100% 0% 100% 77% 58%
deteriorated % 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% n/a 0% 0% 0% 8% 0% 23% 0% 5% 16% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 23% 0% 0% 0% 0% 19%
not applicable % 16% 100% 75% 0% 22% 0% n/a 33% 0% 26% 15% 37% 8% 40% 27% 15% 48% 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 14% 0% 0% 0% 0% 16%
don't know % 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% n/a 0% 0% 26% 1% 12% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2%
net balance % -3% 0% 0% 0% 8% 100% n/a 0% 0% 0% -2% 9% -9% 0% 3% -2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 16% 13% -9% 0% 100% 0% 23% -13%
unweighted number of observations 298 1 3 1 10 1 0 10 0 7 47 10 61 3 18 30 2 1 1 4 2 6 10 8 4 1 6 8 43

q9f. Credit line, bank overdraft or credit cards overdraft - For each of the following types of financing, would you say that their availability has improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated for your enterprise over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 18% 15% 14% 31% 23% 19% 21% 21% 0% 7% 15% 17% 9% 29% 16% 18% 24% 29% 0% 7% 18% 13% 23% 26% 21% 26% 31% 17% 13%
remained unchanged % 67% 72% 76% 59% 60% 71% 69% 66% 0% 85% 65% 72% 60% 47% 69% 65% 64% 54% 0% 84% 66% 74% 62% 57% 66% 63% 59% 71% 73%
deteriorated % 9% 10% 7% 4% 9% 5% 3% 8% 0% 3% 15% 9% 26% 7% 5% 15% 5% 12% 0% 4% 10% 6% 9% 5% 4% 4% 6% 5% 6%
not applicable % 4% 4% 2% 4% 4% 4% 7% 2% 0% 1% 4% 2% 5% 15% 7% 1% 1% 3% 0% 5% 3% 4% 6% 11% 5% 5% 4% 4% 5%
don't know % 2% 0% 1% 1% 4% 0% 1% 2% 0% 3% 1% 1% 1% 2% 2% 1% 6% 2% 0% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 4% 2% 1% 4% 3%
net balance % 9% 5% 6% 28% 14% 13% 18% 13% 0% 4% 0% 8% -17% 23% 11% 3% 19% 18% 0% 3% 8% 7% 14% 21% 17% 22% 25% 12% 6%
unweighted number of observations 8828 291 243 296 140 71 232 275 33 329 714 697 181 168 355 813 82 129 52 79 448 686 304 267 283 120 581 236 723

q9g. Leasing or hire-purchase - For each of the following types of financing, would you say that their availability has improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated for your enterprise over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 19% 12% 13% 33% 27% 5% 20% 21% 17% 9% 18% 18% 7% 29% 27% 20% 28% 30% 20% 16% 21% 17% 19% 24% 18% 23% 27% 18% 16%
remained unchanged % 70% 80% 81% 60% 63% 52% 68% 68% 74% 85% 67% 76% 57% 50% 63% 67% 57% 58% 65% 54% 72% 70% 63% 51% 66% 72% 62% 75% 73%
deteriorated % 3% 5% 2% 2% 2% 9% 2% 1% 5% 2% 4% 2% 12% 2% 1% 7% 5% 8% 3% 0% 2% 1% 3% 3% 1% 2% 2% 1% 2%
not applicable % 6% 3% 3% 4% 2% 34% 9% 6% 4% 1% 8% 3% 22% 15% 7% 4% 3% 3% 13% 25% 2% 9% 14% 21% 10% 3% 7% 3% 5%
don't know % 2% 0% 1% 1% 5% 0% 2% 3% 0% 3% 2% 1% 2% 3% 2% 1% 7% 1% 0% 5% 3% 3% 1% 1% 5% 0% 2% 3% 4%
net balance % 16% 7% 12% 31% 25% -3% 18% 20% 13% 8% 14% 16% -5% 27% 26% 13% 22% 21% 18% 16% 19% 16% 15% 21% 17% 22% 25% 17% 14%
unweighted number of observations 7641 255 180 219 152 23 222 210 55 311 706 788 131 180 251 382 88 144 33 33 307 715 286 226 264 93 460 256 671

Q9h. Other loan - For each of the following types of financing, would you say that their availability has improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated for your enterprise over the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
improved % 14% 16% 10% 15% 10% 10% 11% 19% 9% 10% 14% 15% 10% 10% 21% 15% 3% 13% 11% 0% 22% 9% 14% 11% 4% 19% 18% 19% 10%
remained unchanged % 68% 72% 72% 64% 72% 74% 68% 70% 77% 82% 67% 68% 51% 68% 60% 69% 83% 66% 79% 73% 66% 74% 62% 64% 79% 62% 65% 65% 72%
deteriorated % 5% 4% 4% 7% 9% 8% 1% 0% 0% 4% 3% 6% 27% 10% 3% 10% 5% 4% 3% 6% 3% 6% 8% 2% 0% 0% 6% 4% 3%
not applicable % 10% 6% 10% 10% 7% 8% 18% 9% 10% 4% 13% 8% 12% 11% 12% 6% 6% 12% 7% 21% 6% 9% 15% 22% 13% 16% 10% 7% 12%
don't know % 2% 2% 3% 3% 2% 0% 2% 3% 3% 0% 3% 3% 0% 2% 3% 0% 3% 5% 0% 0% 3% 2% 1% 2% 4% 3% 1% 5% 3%
net balance % 8% 12% 5% 8% 0% 1% 10% 19% 9% 6% 11% 9% -16% 0% 18% 4% -2% 9% 8% -6% 19% 3% 7% 8% 4% 19% 12% 15% 8%
unweighted number of observations 3460 102 95 121 51 17 79 71 23 149 191 355 94 84 113 180 57 82 29 17 233 208 106 151 128 44 227 109 344

q10a. Level of interest rates - We will turn now to the terms and conditions of bank financing, such as bank loans, overdrafts and credit lines. Please indicate whether the following items increased, remained unchanged or decreased in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 12% 12% 12% 6% 8% 0% 9% 21% 25% 21% 6% 7% 26% 2% 24% 22% 13% 7% 7% 2% 13% 20% 12% 7% 6% 10% 13% 13% 11%
remained unchanged % 47% 61% 42% 32% 57% 53% 55% 51% 31% 61% 32% 57% 50% 66% 53% 45% 58% 69% 63% 78% 42% 58% 53% 50% 57% 32% 40% 57% 53%
decreased % 36% 26% 40% 60% 28% 47% 33% 27% 28% 13% 56% 34% 19% 23% 20% 30% 11% 11% 24% 21% 39% 14% 31% 34% 31% 50% 43% 20% 32%
dk/na % 4% 1% 6% 3% 7% 0% 4% 0% 16% 5% 5% 2% 6% 9% 3% 3% 18% 12% 6% 0% 6% 8% 5% 8% 6% 8% 4% 11% 4%
net balance % -24% -14% -28% -54% -21% -47% -24% -6% -3% 8% -50% -28% 7% -21% 4% -9% 2% -4% -17% -19% -26% 6% -19% -27% -26% -40% -30% -7% -21%
unweighted number of observations 4003 118 146 122 68 15 91 69 19 116 521 285 91 83 104 512 34 62 31 24 110 302 146 111 128 67 395 53 180

q10b. Level of the cost of financing other than interest rates, such as charges, fees, commisions -We will turn now to the terms and conditions of bank financing, such as bank loans, overdrafts and credit lines. Please indicate whether the following items increased, remained unchanged or decreased in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 33% 41% 37% 18% 11% 54% 2% 29% 9% 24% 44% 28% 45% 16% 40% 42% 18% 32% 32% 13% 24% 35% 38% 13% 19% 25% 31% 4% 28%
remained unchanged % 52% 52% 49% 51% 57% 38% 77% 52% 66% 71% 42% 64% 45% 62% 52% 46% 67% 56% 57% 78% 56% 50% 44% 58% 60% 42% 50% 69% 59%
decreased % 10% 4% 5% 29% 25% 0% 16% 8% 0% 2% 9% 6% 6% 13% 3% 10% 3% 7% 8% 4% 12% 11% 11% 23% 12% 24% 17% 5% 8%
dk/na % 4% 3% 10% 2% 7% 8% 5% 12% 25% 4% 5% 1% 3% 9% 5% 3% 12% 5% 3% 5% 8% 4% 8% 6% 9% 9% 2% 21% 5%
net balance % 23% 36% 32% -10% -14% 54% -14% 21% 9% 22% 35% 22% 39% 2% 37% 32% 15% 25% 24% 9% 11% 24% 28% -10% 7% 2% 14% -1% 20%
unweighted number of observations 4003 118 146 122 68 15 91 69 19 116 521 285 91 83 104 512 34 62 31 24 110 302 146 111 128 67 395 53 180

q10c. Available size of loan or credit line - We will turn now to the terms and conditions of bank financing, such as bank loans, overdrafts and credit lines. Please indicate whether the following items increased, remained unchanged or decreased in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 21% 16% 18% 29% 18% 16% 23% 23% 19% 10% 22% 19% 19% 25% 25% 21% 35% 14% 29% 12% 21% 17% 18% 31% 17% 33% 27% 20% 20%
remained unchanged % 66% 79% 69% 59% 62% 77% 71% 62% 55% 76% 63% 73% 54% 59% 55% 69% 50% 56% 68% 66% 62% 66% 68% 57% 72% 45% 60% 57% 62%
decreased % 8% 5% 7% 5% 5% 8% 2% 9% 14% 8% 9% 6% 24% 9% 17% 8% 5% 14% 3% 17% 9% 11% 6% 9% 3% 7% 9% 4% 11%
dk/na % 5% 0% 7% 7% 15% 0% 4% 6% 11% 5% 6% 3% 3% 8% 3% 2% 10% 16% 0% 4% 8% 7% 7% 3% 8% 16% 4% 20% 6%
net balance % 13% 11% 11% 24% 14% 8% 21% 14% 5% 2% 12% 13% -5% 16% 9% 12% 30% 0% 26% -5% 12% 6% 12% 22% 14% 26% 19% 16% 9%
unweighted number of observations 4003 118 146 122 68 15 91 69 19 116 521 285 91 83 104 512 34 62 31 24 110 302 146 111 128 67 395 53 180

q10d. Available maturity of the loan - We will turn now to the terms and conditions of bank financing, such as bank loans, overdrafts and credit lines. Please indicate whether the following items increased, remained unchanged or decreased in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 9% 8% 7% 12% 17% 18% 7% 13% 6% 8% 7% 5% 13% 5% 12% 11% 7% 5% 6% 8% 9% 8% 10% 16% 8% 24% 9% 16% 7%
remained unchanged % 80% 86% 81% 71% 68% 67% 86% 76% 69% 80% 78% 86% 61% 79% 72% 80% 83% 69% 78% 64% 75% 84% 76% 77% 80% 61% 83% 64% 70%
decreased % 6% 6% 5% 7% 0% 15% 2% 5% 5% 8% 8% 5% 21% 3% 8% 6% 0% 7% 0% 13% 8% 3% 3% 3% 3% 6% 4% 0% 6%
dk/na % 6% 0% 8% 11% 15% 0% 5% 7% 21% 4% 7% 4% 5% 13% 9% 3% 10% 19% 16% 15% 7% 5% 11% 4% 9% 10% 4% 20% 16%
net balance % 3% 2% 2% 5% 17% 3% 5% 8% 1% 1% -1% 0% -9% 2% 4% 5% 7% -2% 6% -5% 1% 4% 7% 12% 5% 19% 5% 16% 1%
unweighted number of observations 4003 118 146 122 68 15 91 69 19 116 521 285 91 83 104 512 34 62 31 24 110 302 146 111 128 67 395 53 180

q10e. Collateral requirements - We will turn now to the terms and conditions of bank financing, such as bank loans, overdrafts and credit lines. Please indicate whether the following items increased, remained unchanged or decreased in the past 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 21% 37% 17% 16% 9% 45% 7% 19% 19% 26% 34% 22% 40% 15% 17% 19% 14% 22% 21% 4% 21% 13% 16% 15% 16% 20% 13% 12% 18%
remained unchanged % 68% 59% 59% 73% 64% 44% 82% 73% 56% 65% 57% 70% 51% 71% 71% 71% 72% 62% 69% 78% 61% 79% 72% 71% 73% 69% 73% 67% 67%
decreased % 5% 4% 11% 5% 5% 11% 7% 3% 0% 4% 6% 4% 3% 7% 7% 4% 0% 0% 7% 0% 9% 2% 3% 5% 2% 6% 5% 4% 5%
dk/na % 6% 1% 13% 6% 21% 0% 3% 5% 25% 5% 4% 3% 5% 7% 5% 6% 14% 17% 4% 18% 8% 5% 8% 9% 9% 6% 9% 18% 10%
net balance % 16% 33% 7% 11% 5% 34% 0% 15% 19% 22% 27% 18% 37% 8% 10% 15% 14% 22% 15% 4% 12% 11% 13% 11% 15% 14% 8% 8% 13%
unweighted number of observations 4003 118 146 122 68 15 91 69 19 116 521 285 91 83 104 512 34 62 31 24 110 302 146 111 128 67 395 53 180

q10f. Other, for example, required guarantees, information requirements, procedures, time required for loan approval, loan covenants - We will turn now to the terms and conditions of bank financing, such as bank loans, overdrafts and credit lines. Please indicate whether the following items increased, remained unchanged or decrease
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
increased % 22% 30% 19% 14% 19% 62% 13% 10% 9% 34% 29% 22% 41% 16% 35% 19% 17% 21% 17% 8% 26% 13% 24% 20% 17% 30% 17% 9% 26%
remained unchanged % 64% 64% 67% 70% 59% 24% 71% 79% 60% 61% 57% 68% 45% 64% 52% 69% 59% 62% 80% 61% 55% 74% 60% 62% 70% 52% 66% 64% 58%
decreased % 6% 2% 5% 11% 13% 8% 5% 3% 0% 1% 8% 3% 6% 11% 8% 4% 4% 5% 3% 9% 10% 6% 2% 13% 4% 8% 8% 3% 5%
dk/na % 8% 4% 9% 5% 9% 7% 11% 8% 31% 4% 6% 7% 8% 9% 5% 9% 20% 11% 0% 22% 10% 7% 14% 6% 9% 9% 9% 24% 11%
net balance % 16% 28% 14% 3% 5% 55% 7% 8% 9% 33% 21% 19% 35% 5% 27% 15% 13% 16% 14% -1% 17% 6% 22% 7% 12% 22% 9% 6% 20%
unweighted number of observations 4003 118 146 122 68 15 91 69 19 116 521 285 91 83 104 512 34 62 31 24 110 302 146 111 128 67 395 53 180

q23a. Retained earnings or sale of assets (Internal funds) - Looking ahead, for each of the following types of financing available to your enterprise, could you please indicate whether you think their availability will improve, deteriorate or remain unchanged over the next 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
will improve % 26% 20% 25% 25% 32% 51% 22% 23% 19% 27% 22% 25% 26% 32% 44% 21% 9% 34% 11% 51% 36% 10% 20% 36% 24% 23% 36% 38% 30%
will remain unchanged % 61% 67% 60% 67% 59% 30% 68% 56% 69% 63% 61% 64% 33% 50% 46% 68% 65% 49% 76% 30% 52% 73% 66% 50% 60% 73% 53% 57% 57%
will deteriorate % 9% 11% 11% 3% 2% 12% 4% 0% 2% 8% 13% 9% 37% 9% 6% 9% 21% 11% 9% 10% 5% 10% 8% 8% 4% 4% 7% 3% 10%
not applicable % 2% 2% 1% 2% 2% 0% 5% 6% 0% 1% 1% 2% 1% 6% 3% 1% 2% 2% 0% 9% 4% 2% 3% 3% 2% 0% 3% 0% 2%
don't know % 2% 1% 3% 3% 5% 7% 2% 16% 10% 1% 3% 0% 3% 3% 1% 1% 3% 4% 4% 0% 2% 5% 2% 2% 10% 0% 1% 2% 2%
net balance % 17% 9% 14% 22% 29% 39% 19% 23% 17% 20% 9% 16% -10% 23% 38% 12% -13% 23% 3% 41% 31% 0% 12% 28% 21% 19% 30% 34% 19%
unweighted number of observations 4336 151 88 165 105 22 112 62 37 156 430 343 77 124 195 401 39 97 24 24 115 268 99 139 164 54 277 147 421

q23b. Bank loans (excluding overdraft and credit lines) - Looking ahead, for each of the following types of financing available to your enterprise, could you please indicate whether you think their availability will improve, deteriorate or remain unchanged over the next 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
will improve % 21% 14% 18% 36% 33% 36% 23% 23% 9% 18% 18% 17% 14% 38% 24% 23% 24% 31% 23% 18% 23% 17% 19% 31% 24% 23% 30% 18% 16%
will remain unchanged % 59% 67% 67% 51% 50% 44% 62% 58% 76% 68% 57% 64% 40% 46% 61% 61% 51% 53% 54% 65% 61% 57% 56% 45% 58% 57% 58% 68% 59%
will deteriorate % 14% 17% 10% 7% 4% 5% 5% 7% 7% 10% 20% 14% 36% 7% 7% 12% 9% 10% 16% 9% 10% 13% 17% 7% 5% 4% 7% 10% 16%
not applicable % 3% 1% 3% 2% 2% 14% 7% 7% 4% 2% 1% 3% 6% 5% 5% 1% 4% 2% 2% 7% 3% 4% 6% 14% 5% 6% 2% 2% 5%
don't know % 3% 0% 2% 3% 11% 2% 4% 4% 5% 1% 4% 2% 4% 4% 3% 2% 12% 4% 6% 1% 4% 8% 2% 3% 8% 9% 3% 3% 4%
net balance % 8% -3% 8% 29% 29% 31% 18% 15% 2% 8% -2% 3% -22% 31% 16% 11% 15% 21% 8% 10% 13% 3% 1% 25% 19% 19% 22% 8% 0%
unweighted number of observations 9170 266 279 269 172 72 252 152 46 306 952 733 334 231 302 980 90 141 52 60 350 654 333 200 242 138 784 174 606

q23c. Equity capital - Looking ahead, for each of the following types of financing available to your enterprise, could you please indicate whether you think their availability will improve, deteriorate or remain unchanged over the next 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
will improve % 19% 8% 13% 12% 31% 12% 0% 27% 14% 14% 17% 19% 12% 7% 20% 20% 22% 25% 12% 25% 16% 18% 19% 32% 27% 18% 5% 36% 13%
will remain unchanged % 66% 74% 75% 73% 60% 88% 47% 60% 86% 77% 72% 67% 60% 74% 68% 53% 62% 71% 79% 63% 75% 56% 62% 43% 60% 66% 83% 56% 64%
will deteriorate % 6% 16% 1% 5% 1% 0% 0% 2% 0% 1% 6% 4% 21% 0% 0% 11% 8% 0% 9% 0% 1% 9% 9% 4% 0% 3% 3% 3% 11%
not applicable % 6% 3% 12% 0% 3% 0% 42% 4% 0% 5% 3% 8% 4% 19% 8% 14% 3% 2% 0% 6% 5% 11% 4% 15% 13% 5% 7% 0% 10%
don't know % 3% 0% 0% 10% 6% 0% 12% 7% 0% 2% 3% 2% 3% 0% 5% 2% 5% 3% 0% 7% 3% 6% 6% 7% 0% 8% 2% 4% 2%
net balance % 13% -8% 12% 7% 29% 12% 0% 25% 14% 13% 11% 15% -8% 7% 20% 9% 15% 25% 4% 25% 15% 8% 10% 28% 27% 14% 2% 33% 2%
unweighted number of observations 2180 38 77 15 61 23 10 78 16 116 284 174 126 9 68 29 81 36 23 17 209 44 14 59 13 59 31 253 217

q23d. Trade credit - Looking ahead, for each of the following types of financing available to your enterprise, could you please indicate whether you think their availability will improve, deteriorate or remain unchanged over the next 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
will improve % 19% 11% 17% 35% 30% 23% 17% 17% 18% 11% 12% 15% 15% 35% 26% 20% 20% 23% 6% 18% 24% 19% 20% 22% 17% 23% 25% 17% 16%
will remain unchanged % 64% 67% 55% 55% 49% 48% 65% 69% 75% 80% 62% 67% 47% 50% 61% 67% 61% 57% 69% 73% 64% 64% 58% 64% 70% 54% 63% 75% 68%
will deteriorate % 11% 17% 17% 5% 6% 11% 1% 6% 4% 5% 17% 9% 34% 7% 9% 9% 7% 14% 18% 3% 6% 10% 14% 7% 8% 5% 7% 3% 11%
not applicable % 4% 2% 6% 2% 4% 17% 12% 1% 0% 1% 7% 8% 2% 7% 1% 2% 0% 1% 4% 6% 4% 2% 6% 5% 0% 11% 3% 1% 2%
don't know % 2% 2% 4% 3% 11% 1% 4% 7% 4% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 2% 1% 13% 5% 3% 1% 3% 5% 2% 3% 5% 7% 3% 4% 2%
net balance % 8% -7% -1% 30% 24% 13% 16% 10% 14% 6% -6% 7% -19% 28% 17% 11% 13% 9% -12% 15% 18% 9% 6% 14% 9% 18% 19% 14% 6%
unweighted number of observations 5751 90 143 119 39 61 76 74 22 158 360 183 277 66 330 735 33 76 28 77 239 543 222 158 150 60 595 84 753

q23e. Debt securities issued - Looking ahead, for each of the following types of financing available to your enterprise, could you please indicate whether you think their availability will improve, deteriorate or remain unchanged over the next 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
will improve % 8% 19% 11% 21% 17% 0% 0% 7% n/a 11% 9% 8% 8% 0% 15% 7% 0% 43% 0% 0% 14% 7% 11% 12% 0% 0% 7% 18% 5%
will remain unchanged % 66% 28% 62% 79% 42% 42% 100% 57% n/a 55% 80% 54% 56% 56% 61% 61% 0% 0% 34% 67% 86% 60% 73% 69% 58% 100% 75% 71% 67%
will deteriorate % 10% 0% 0% 0% 4% 24% 0% 0% n/a 0% 3% 9% 22% 15% 3% 14% 35% 0% 33% 0% 0% 14% 16% 9% 18% 0% 6% 0% 10%
not applicable % 12% 53% 17% 0% 15% 35% 0% 29% n/a 23% 6% 29% 8% 29% 18% 14% 38% 57% 0% 0% 0% 6% 0% 11% 23% 0% 7% 11% 16%
don't know % 4% 0% 11% 0% 22% 0% 0% 7% n/a 11% 2% 0% 6% 0% 3% 5% 27% 0% 34% 33% 0% 13% 0% 0% 0% 0% 6% 0% 2%
net balance % -1% 19% 11% 21% 13% -24% 0% 7% n/a 11% 6% -1% -14% -15% 13% -7% -35% 43% -33% 0% 14% -6% -5% 3% -18% 0% 1% 18% -5%
unweighted number of observations 525 4 7 4 23 3 3 15 0 8 76 12 100 7 32 45 3 2 3 5 9 14 15 19 5 2 13 22 74

q23i. Leasing or hire-purchase - Looking ahead, for each of the following types of financing available to your enterprise, could you please indicate whether you think their availability will improve, deteriorate or remain unchanged over the next 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
will improve % 18% 11% 12% 34% 26% 25% 20% 22% 21% 13% 18% 14% 17% 33% 31% 18% 25% 24% 11% 11% 26% 19% 18% 32% 20% 23% 24% 16% 14%
will remain unchanged % 71% 81% 77% 61% 60% 41% 64% 70% 72% 83% 67% 80% 49% 53% 62% 70% 61% 63% 68% 67% 68% 68% 65% 51% 64% 65% 65% 76% 75%
will deteriorate % 4% 5% 6% 3% 3% 9% 4% 2% 1% 2% 7% 3% 14% 3% 1% 6% 2% 5% 9% 0% 2% 5% 8% 4% 3% 4% 4% 2% 5%
not applicable % 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 18% 7% 2% 1% 1% 4% 2% 13% 6% 4% 3% 2% 3% 6% 21% 2% 3% 6% 11% 4% 4% 3% 2% 2%
don't know % 3% 0% 4% 2% 11% 7% 5% 4% 5% 1% 4% 1% 6% 5% 2% 4% 10% 6% 6% 0% 3% 5% 3% 2% 9% 4% 4% 4% 3%
net balance % 14% 6% 6% 31% 22% 17% 16% 20% 19% 11% 10% 12% 2% 29% 30% 12% 23% 19% 2% 11% 23% 14% 11% 28% 17% 19% 20% 14% 9%
unweighted number of observations 7641 255 180 219 152 23 222 210 55 311 706 788 131 180 251 382 88 144 33 33 307 715 286 226 264 93 460 256 671

q23j. Other loan, for example from family and friends, a related enterprise or shareholders, excluding trade credit - Looking ahead, for each of the following types of financing available to your enterprise, could you please indicate whether you think their availability will improve, deteriorate or remain unchanged over the next 6 months
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
will improve % 14% 12% 13% 14% 10% 13% 12% 8% 4% 10% 14% 12% 7% 15% 18% 17% 7% 21% 14% 0% 22% 11% 21% 20% 11% 4% 18% 17% 10%
will remain unchanged % 68% 68% 71% 71% 74% 75% 67% 72% 77% 73% 70% 72% 43% 63% 63% 62% 63% 61% 83% 73% 66% 68% 57% 54% 70% 63% 67% 68% 74%
will deteriorate % 8% 7% 4% 7% 5% 0% 3% 1% 0% 12% 10% 6% 39% 12% 5% 14% 13% 4% 3% 6% 4% 12% 9% 7% 2% 10% 7% 4% 6%
not applicable % 7% 9% 12% 4% 7% 8% 16% 9% 10% 3% 5% 7% 8% 10% 12% 5% 8% 10% 0% 21% 5% 3% 11% 15% 9% 16% 5% 6% 8%
don't know % 3% 4% 1% 5% 4% 5% 1% 9% 9% 2% 3% 3% 3% 0% 2% 1% 8% 4% 0% 0% 3% 5% 2% 3% 7% 7% 3% 5% 2%
net balance % 6% 4% 10% 7% 5% 13% 8% 7% 4% -2% 4% 6% -32% 3% 13% 3% -6% 17% 11% -6% 19% -1% 12% 13% 10% -5% 10% 13% 3%
unweighted number of observations 3460 102 95 121 51 17 79 71 23 149 191 355 94 84 113 180 57 82 29 17 233 208 106 151 128 44 227 109 344

q23g. Credit line, bank overdraft or credit cards overdraft - Looking ahead, for each of the following types of financing available to your enterprise, could you please indicate whether you think their availability will improve, deteriorate or remain unchanged over the next 6 months?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
will improve % 19% 12% 15% 39% 31% 32% 20% 26% 2% 12% 14% 15% 14% 31% 21% 22% 24% 26% 21% 23% 20% 17% 20% 35% 25% 22% 26% 19% 13%
will remain unchanged % 65% 71% 74% 51% 55% 62% 68% 64% 85% 83% 62% 70% 52% 55% 66% 62% 65% 57% 66% 63% 66% 61% 56% 50% 62% 63% 64% 70% 68%
will deteriorate % 12% 14% 9% 5% 5% 2% 5% 5% 2% 4% 19% 12% 29% 5% 6% 13% 4% 7% 9% 8% 10% 13% 19% 7% 3% 2% 7% 5% 13%
not applicable % 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 4% 1% 2% 1% 0% 1% 3% 7% 4% 0% 3% 4% 0% 6% 1% 1% 3% 4% 2% 3% 1% 3% 2%
don't know % 3% 1% 2% 4% 8% 2% 3% 3% 8% 1% 4% 1% 2% 2% 3% 2% 5% 6% 4% 0% 2% 8% 3% 5% 7% 9% 2% 3% 4%
net balance % 7% -2% 6% 34% 26% 30% 16% 21% 0% 8% -5% 3% -15% 26% 15% 9% 20% 19% 12% 15% 10% 4% 1% 28% 22% 20% 20% 14% 0%
unweighted number of observations 8828 291 243 296 140 71 232 275 33 329 714 697 181 168 355 813 82 129 52 79 448 686 304 267 283 120 581 236 723

q1a During the past 12 months have you introduced...? a new or significantly improved product or service to the market
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes % 33% 34% 29% 35% 36% 38% 40% 26% 41% 48% 27% 30% 36% 29% 37% 39% 32% 42% 39% 42% 32% 35% 42% 40% 35% 38% 29% 33% 32%
no % 65% 64% 67% 64% 63% 50% 57% 71% 59% 51% 72% 69% 58% 68% 62% 59% 60% 53% 60% 55% 64% 61% 52% 54% 61% 58% 69% 65% 66%
dk/na % 2% 2% 4% 1% 2% 12% 3% 3% 1% 1% 1% 2% 6% 3% 0% 2% 8% 5% 2% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 3% 4% 2% 2% 1%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q1b During the past 12 months have you introduced...? a new or significantly improved production process or method
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes % 22% 20% 23% 25% 29% 14% 21% 18% 25% 38% 29% 18% 21% 14% 21% 29% 18% 23% 30% 21% 20% 18% 31% 26% 21% 30% 21% 19% 18%
no % 69% 70% 69% 69% 61% 41% 60% 71% 64% 57% 65% 76% 60% 80% 73% 66% 65% 61% 63% 59% 73% 67% 57% 58% 61% 62% 74% 70% 74%
dk/na % 8% 10% 8% 6% 11% 44% 19% 10% 11% 5% 5% 6% 19% 6% 6% 5% 17% 16% 7% 20% 7% 14% 13% 15% 18% 8% 6% 11% 8%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q1c During the past 12 months have you introduced...? a new organisation of management
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes % 28% 26% 26% 19% 28% 41% 18% 26% 23% 25% 36% 27% 48% 11% 27% 35% 16% 20% 43% 16% 22% 14% 37% 36% 21% 16% 32% 27% 23%
no % 70% 74% 71% 80% 72% 56% 79% 70% 77% 74% 63% 71% 49% 86% 72% 64% 72% 77% 54% 80% 74% 84% 60% 59% 77% 80% 67% 69% 75%
dk/na % 2% 1% 3% 0% 0% 3% 3% 4% 0% 1% 1% 1% 3% 3% 1% 2% 13% 2% 3% 4% 3% 2% 4% 4% 2% 3% 1% 4% 2%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q1d During the past 12 months have you introduced...? a new way of selling your goods or services
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes % 25% 19% 24% 23% 27% 30% 20% 23% 28% 46% 27% 18% 35% 20% 32% 26% 20% 25% 32% 31% 23% 21% 36% 36% 24% 22% 31% 24% 24%
no % 73% 80% 72% 77% 72% 67% 78% 75% 70% 54% 71% 81% 63% 78% 68% 72% 74% 74% 66% 67% 74% 78% 61% 60% 75% 76% 67% 73% 75%
dk/na % 2% 1% 4% 1% 1% 4% 2% 2% 2% 0% 1% 2% 3% 3% 1% 2% 7% 1% 2% 1% 3% 2% 4% 4% 2% 2% 1% 2% 2%
unweighted number of observations % 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q16a. Over the past three years (2013-2015), how much did your enterprise grow on average per year in terms of employment regarding the number of full-time or full-time equivalent employees?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
over 20% per year % 9% 5% 10% 12% 15% 8% 9% 18% 10% 9% 6% 7% 13% 12% 12% 8% 6% 13% 2% 11% 13% 8% 9% 17% 9% 13% 8% 14% 9%
less than 20% per year % 36% 41% 36% 29% 32% 28% 29% 40% 32% 35% 31% 43% 29% 35% 42% 32% 29% 37% 42% 38% 38% 30% 33% 32% 35% 44% 31% 39% 42%
no growth % 39% 37% 35% 46% 39% 31% 46% 29% 41% 34% 41% 40% 36% 38% 32% 42% 44% 32% 42% 35% 32% 45% 43% 35% 40% 32% 41% 30% 33%
got smaller % 14% 16% 17% 12% 13% 29% 15% 10% 15% 22% 20% 9% 20% 15% 12% 17% 14% 13% 13% 15% 16% 14% 13% 13% 14% 9% 17% 12% 12%
not applicable % 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1%
don't know % 2% 1% 2% 1% 1% 4% 1% 3% 2% 0% 2% 1% 1% 0% 2% 2% 7% 5% 1% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 3% 2%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q16b. Over the past three years (2013-2015), how much did your enterprise grow on average per year in terms of turnover?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
over 20% per year % 14% 10% 14% 21% 19% 9% 15% 21% 18% 14% 9% 11% 11% 18% 22% 12% 10% 22% 11% 17% 18% 15% 15% 27% 15% 18% 13% 20% 17%
less than 20% per year % 45% 49% 45% 44% 44% 36% 46% 49% 47% 44% 42% 56% 39% 50% 49% 37% 40% 47% 56% 45% 47% 39% 45% 41% 49% 49% 42% 45% 47%
no growth % 23% 25% 20% 23% 22% 16% 23% 18% 20% 24% 23% 24% 18% 19% 14% 28% 23% 14% 17% 25% 19% 25% 26% 15% 20% 22% 22% 22% 20%
got smaller % 15% 14% 18% 10% 15% 37% 14% 7% 11% 18% 24% 8% 30% 12% 13% 21% 17% 11% 15% 13% 13% 16% 11% 13% 11% 10% 21% 8% 11%
not applicable % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1%
don't know % 2% 1% 3% 2% 0% 2% 2% 4% 4% 1% 2% 1% 1% 2% 1% 2% 9% 5% 2% 1% 2% 4% 2% 3% 4% 2% 2% 5% 4%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q17 Considering the turnover over the next two to three years (2016-2017), how much does your enterprise expect to grow per year?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
grow substantially - over 20% per year in terms of turnover % 10% 7% 8% 17% 15% 20% 7% 13% 6% 10% 6% 7% 12% 11% 9% 9% 10% 21% 6% 6% 14% 12% 11% 19% 10% 10% 9% 20% 12%
grow moderately - below 20% per year in terms of turnover % 54% 56% 53% 46% 60% 55% 57% 62% 47% 58% 42% 56% 37% 56% 68% 46% 46% 52% 58% 64% 60% 49% 46% 55% 60% 63% 67% 59% 58%
stay the same size % 26% 30% 28% 27% 16% 18% 23% 18% 38% 24% 39% 26% 26% 24% 16% 33% 25% 15% 30% 18% 22% 23% 36% 15% 18% 18% 14% 13% 21%
become smaller % 8% 6% 8% 8% 5% 5% 8% 4% 4% 6% 9% 8% 18% 6% 6% 8% 7% 7% 4% 9% 3% 11% 6% 7% 7% 5% 6% 4% 6%
dk/na % 3% 2% 2% 3% 4% 1% 4% 2% 4% 2% 4% 2% 8% 2% 2% 4% 12% 6% 2% 4% 1% 5% 2% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 3%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q19a. Do you feel confident talking about financing with banks and that you will obtain the desired results?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes % 67% 72% 82% 75% 62% 52% 69% 74% 57% 80% 70% 73% 30% 59% 63% 59% 43% 44% 86% 84% 71% 67% 77% 51% 69% 62% 65% 65% 71%
no % 21% 17% 11% 18% 17% 29% 8% 12% 19% 12% 23% 18% 53% 17% 27% 34% 23% 21% 7% 10% 18% 16% 16% 27% 8% 17% 23% 20% 17%
not applicable % 9% 9% 6% 5% 20% 19% 19% 12% 22% 6% 5% 7% 16% 22% 7% 4% 24% 32% 6% 6% 10% 15% 4% 20% 19% 19% 8% 9% 10%
don't know % 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 0% 5% 2% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 3% 3% 3% 11% 4% 1% 0% 1% 2% 2% 2% 3% 3% 4% 6% 2%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q19b. Do you feel confident talking about financing with equity investors/venture capital enterprises and that you will obtain the desired results?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
yes % 22% 26% 34% 22% 16% 28% 9% 33% 21% 30% 15% 28% 19% 18% 25% 11% 12% 20% 25% 49% 40% 25% 17% 14% 23% 12% 17% 19% 30%
no % 32% 24% 32% 48% 8% 13% 20% 11% 20% 46% 36% 29% 28% 11% 21% 64% 15% 12% 34% 28% 31% 12% 58% 25% 11% 11% 30% 24% 23%
not applicable % 40% 44% 31% 27% 74% 54% 66% 49% 58% 19% 43% 37% 48% 68% 49% 19% 58% 61% 35% 21% 27% 59% 20% 57% 60% 69% 44% 38% 41%
don't know % 6% 6% 3% 3% 3% 5% 6% 7% 2% 4% 6% 5% 5% 4% 4% 6% 15% 8% 6% 2% 2% 4% 5% 5% 6% 8% 8% 19% 6%
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279

q20 If you need external financing to realise your growth ambitions, what type of external financing would you prefer most?

EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
bank loan % 64% 62% 73% 67% 55% 59% 66% 46% 57% 67% 75% 67% 50% 48% 66% 72% 50% 56% 66% 76% 54% 61% 71% 45% 61% 64% 71% 45% 56%
loan from other sources % 16% 19% 13% 17% 19% 10% 17% 13% 17% 19% 9% 17% 18% 29% 13% 13% 16% 26% 20% 2% 19% 21% 15% 19% 22% 18% 14% 17% 14%
equity investment % 6% 7% 4% 2% 9% 11% 0% 24% 6% 8% 5% 6% 19% 2% 8% 3% 25% 3% 3% 12% 6% 4% 2% 5% 2% 11% 4% 25% 9%
other % 5% 4% 3% 3% 6% 7% 9% 9% 9% 2% 4% 4% 3% 9% 5% 2% 5% 9% 6% 4% 5% 5% 8% 14% 10% 4% 3% 6% 9%
dk/na % 8% 8% 6% 10% 11% 13% 8% 8% 11% 4% 7% 5% 9% 12% 7% 9% 4% 5% 5% 6% 15% 9% 5% 16% 5% 4% 8% 7% 12%
unweighted number of observations 10300 295 279 296 204 75 298 334 53 311 649 839 240 313 353 796 107 204 59 67 552 742 282 332 324 132 923 341 900

q21 If you need external financing to realise your growth ambitions, what amount of financing would you aim to obtain?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
< € 25,000 % 14% 10% 9% 19% 19% 2% 13% 4% 8% 8% 12% 13% 7% 19% 15% 15% 18% 12% 3% 5% 13% 15% 16% 11% 17% 9% 21% 13% 16%
€ 25,000 - 100,000 % 24% 21% 21% 25% 24% 22% 29% 15% 25% 22% 26% 22% 31% 26% 25% 28% 27% 24% 11% 30% 22% 26% 25% 33% 27% 26% 30% 15% 16%
€ 100,000 - 250,000 % 17% 18% 19% 25% 16% 10% 17% 16% 12% 17% 17% 18% 24% 17% 16% 18% 16% 23% 14% 20% 15% 19% 15% 18% 14% 19% 15% 13% 15%
€ 250,000 - 1,000,000 % 17% 20% 19% 17% 18% 21% 15% 15% 20% 23% 19% 18% 17% 10% 17% 19% 14% 15% 29% 20% 18% 19% 18% 17% 14% 19% 16% 14% 12%
> € 1,000,000 % 13% 17% 16% 8% 10% 17% 9% 13% 12% 22% 13% 16% 14% 7% 17% 12% 13% 10% 27% 15% 16% 12% 11% 9% 10% 16% 10% 13% 17%
dk/na % 14% 13% 17% 7% 13% 28% 17% 36% 23% 7% 12% 13% 6% 20% 11% 7% 12% 16% 16% 10% 15% 9% 15% 13% 17% 10% 9% 32% 24%
unweighted number of observations 10300 295 279 296 204 75 298 334 53 311 649 839 240 313 353 796 107 204 59 67 552 742 282 332 324 132 923 341 900

q22 What do you see as the most important limiting factor to get this financing?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech ReDenmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
insufficient collateral or guarantee % 15% 16% 18% 15% 14% 21% 11% 8% 21% 23% 17% 13% 11% 16% 13% 12% 22% 22% 10% 14% 15% 17% 12% 22% 12% 21% 25% 9% 11%
interest rates or price too high % 11% 4% 5% 15% 25% 29% 7% 8% 20% 6% 5% 5% 31% 9% 16% 14% 12% 21% 6% 18% 6% 12% 26% 22% 11% 10% 18% 3% 14%
reduced control over the enterprise % 3% 2% 3% 1% 0% 0% 2% 5% 6% 4% 5% 3% 1% 1% 7% 2% 3% 1% 4% 0% 9% 3% 0% 2% 2% 2% 1% 5% 6%
financing not available at all % 4% 3% 1% 3% 3% 10% 1% 6% 12% 2% 6% 3% 26% 6% 12% 6% 5% 4% 8% 6% 3% 3% 8% 2% 6% 3% 5% 4% 3%
too much paperwork is involved % 8% 6% 3% 6% 23% 10% 16% 2% 6% 1% 7% 7% 12% 5% 16% 5% 8% 7% 2% 8% 4% 14% 12% 15% 15% 20% 9% 1% 6%
there are no obstacles % 44% 55% 54% 55% 22% 17% 48% 47% 31% 55% 46% 57% 9% 48% 23% 51% 24% 32% 50% 41% 44% 40% 28% 23% 40% 33% 31% 55% 34%
other % 10% 8% 10% 3% 8% 7% 7% 8% 2% 7% 10% 8% 7% 11% 10% 8% 14% 8% 10% 10% 15% 8% 8% 9% 7% 7% 7% 9% 16%
dk/na % 5% 5% 5% 0% 6% 5% 7% 15% 3% 2% 6% 4% 2% 3% 4% 2% 11% 6% 12% 4% 4% 3% 6% 5% 6% 4% 4% 13% 10%
unweighted number of observations 8874 261 253 257 169 64 250 277 42 289 584 762 212 245 313 711 97 174 52 60 440 637 246 235 281 122 828 299 714

Q24. On a scale of 1-10, Please answer on a scale of 1-10, where 1 means not it is not at all important and 10 means it is extremely important, how important are each of the following factors for your enterprise’s financing in the future?
EU28 Austria BelgiumBulgariaCroatia Cyprus Czech Re Denmar Estonia Finland France German Greece HungaryIreland Italy Latvia LithuaniLuxembo Malta Netherl Poland PortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain Sweden United Kin
guarantees for loans mean 4.8 4.2 5.2 5.6 5.1 5.7 4.4 3.4 4.7 4.5 5.6 3.9 6.2 4.9 4.9 6.0 4.1 5.1 5.0 5.5 4.6 4.6 5.8 6.0 3.7 5.7 4.8 3.5 3.8
measures to facilitate equity investments mean 3.3 2.9 3.1 4.6 5.1 5.4 2.1 3.4 2.3 3.6 3.3 2.6 5.2 4.1 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.7 3.3 5.6 2.3 4.2 2.8 5.5 2.3 4.3 3.9 3.9 3.0
export credits or guarantees mean 2.5 2.9 2.6 3.9 3.7 3.5 2.1 1.9 3.5 2.4 2.2 1.8 3.9 3.1 2.4 3.0 2.4 3.0 2.4 3.1 2.3 2.6 3.7 3.3 2.0 3.7 2.8 2.1 2.2
tax incentives mean 6.0 6.2 5.5 6.3 6.9 6.7 4.4 3.6 6.4 5.7 5.9 5.3 8.6 7.1 5.5 7.3 6.5 7.0 5.7 7.9 5.1 6.8 7.3 7.2 4.9 7.1 5.8 4.4 5.4
business support services mean 4.9 4.6 4.9 5.9 5.5 5.7 4.7 3.4 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.3 6.1 5.4 5.3 5.8 5.3 5.9 4.8 5.9 4.4 5.0 6.0 6.5 4.2 5.6 5.2 3.8 4.4
making existing public measures easier to obtain mean 10.5 8.7 11.0 9.9 12.5 14.8 12.9 21.8 14.9 8.7 10.2 9.1 11.8 9.9 15.1 9.6 16.3 12.6 12.4 16.2 9.9 9.9 11.9 11.9 12.8 9.7 9.5 13.5 11.1
unweighted number of observations 15668 463 455 462 268 97 448 441 96 452 1311 1321 481 454 462 1413 186 275 91 96 733 1193 478 444 451 181 1203 434 1279