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The Dry operating weight is the Basic Weight plus crew and catering, or in other words the

takeoffweight minus payload and fuel (and ballast if any).
This means that DOI/DOW on an outbound charterflt differs from the homebound, if returncatering is
carried onboard the first flt. It also means that DOI/DOW varies with crew. You will find the actual
DOW/DOI in your AFM.
DOI is usually determined by finding the weight on the different wheels together with the wheel
distance from the AC most forward point (reference datum). Or in other words, you find the arm and
moment for the wheels. Now you can calculate the DOI. This is always done by the manufacturer,
although operators check it. Weights may vary quite a bit between AC of same type and age. Operators
have to make a mass/balance check when installing new eqipment in the AC.

Dry Operating Wt is the basic weight of the aircraft plus OPerational Items such as Crew, Crew Baggage,
flight equipment, pantry.
The DOI is the balance condition at the state of Dry operating weight.
Usually in terms of %MAC but indices can be used to make life easier.

Indices are calculated as follows :-

Dry Operating Index = [(Sta - Ref. Sta)/C]+ K

Sta = The station (in or m)where the C of G is calculated to be after adding all components.
Ref Sta = Reference Station/Axis around which all index values are calculated (in manufactures manual.
C= Constant used as a denominator to convert moment values into index values.(variable by carrier).
K = Constant used to avoid negative index figures. (variable by carrier).

Load Control - In Commercial Aviation

An aircraft is pretty similar to a coach, both have passenger seats and room for baggage.
However, unlike a coach we can’t just board an aircraft, fill it with fuel, baggage and cargo and
set off. Essentially the load control process allows for the maximisation of payload, all important
for generating revenue whilst ensuring that the aircraft still takes off, flies and lands safely.

Four Reasons Why Aircraft Need Loadsheets

1. An aircraft filled with passengers, baggage, cargo and fuel could be too heavy for the engines
to lift it off the ground.

2. The balance of the aircraft is crucial, and the location of the passengers, baggage, cargo and
fuel will affect the aircraft trim.

3. The undercarriage can only support a certain amount of weight on landing.

4. Loading too much weight into a particular part of the aircraft could cause damage to the
structure. Whilst this might not be evident straight away it could over a period of time shorten
the working life of the aircraft.

Basic Dry Operating Operating Zero Fuel Take-off Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Aircraft Weight * Fixed * equipment Basic Weight * * * * Crew * * * * Pantry * * * * Take-off Fuel * * Passengers * * Baggage * * Cargo & Mail * * Aircraft Weight All aircraft are individually weighed and commonly no two aircraft will have exactly the same weight. The empty aircraft weight is a starting point from which various components are added providing the load controller with a weight of the aircraft at each stage of loading. galley. Basic Weight A combination of the aircraft weight and all its fixed equipment provides the foundation necessary to calculate the four different stages of an aircrafts weight. Anything that is standard or fitted as an optional extra to the aircraft is part of this calculation. toilets including furnishings and emergency equipment such as oxygen masks and bottles. full oil tanks and unusable fuel. although others such as passenger weights will vary. . The table below shows the components that make up the five different aircraft weights. The empty weight of an aircraft is calculated to include its airframe and engines.Five Important Aircraft Weights It is necessary to understand that at different stages of loading an aircrafts weight will alter. The majority of these weights are fixed and do not change often i. Fixed Equipment Seats.e. the basic weight of the aircraft.

Take-Off Fuel This is a different figure to the block fuel uplifted on the ramp. These can be actual weights whereby all passengers and their hand baggage are physically weighed or. Passengers The total weight of all passengers carried including their hand baggage. Cargo & Mail The total and actual physical weight of all cargo and mail carried on board the aircraft. An aircraft will burn fuel as it starts engines and moves off stand taxing to the end of the runway. biscuits. standard weights that an air operator has established and documented in their air operator’s exposition. either actual weights calculated by physically weighing baggage or. Whilst individually these items have a negligible weight. In commercial load control the taxi fuel is usually a standard figure specified by the operator. when they are carried in bulk it will naturally add weight to the aircraft in turn affecting its trim.Crew Generally commercial aircraft have a standard operating crew compliment with standard crew weights used for load sheets. in situations where congestion or delays are incurred such as an aircraft operating out of London Heathrow. It would be unfeasible to weigh every item of pantry carried on board each flight therefore a standard weight is created accounting for required provisions per flight. The load controller must adjust the crew compliment as it will affect the weight and trim of the aircraft. Pantry Consisting of any food. and lining up for take-off. block fuel and take-off fuel figures could differ greatly. provisions or objects used for servicing passengers or crew. drink. Therefore the amount of fuel the aircraft had prior to engine start will differ to the amount in tanks before take-off. Baggage The total weight of all baggage carried on board the aircraft. As an example the Bombardier Q300 aircraft has a standard crew compliment of 2 pilots and 1 flight attendant. standard weights where an air operator has an established and documented method and calculation in their air operator’s exposition. this can alter for training or checking purposes when an additional pilot is carried on the jump seat or an extra flight attendant is in the cabin. . Whilst this might seem inconsequential. coffee pots and hot water. However. An example of items covered in the pantry could include tea. Subsequently take-off fuel is calculated by deducting the taxi fuel from the block fuel. The weight and location is recorded for trim purposes and absorbed into calculations for the operating weights of the aircraft.

Fuel is a crucial component of a load sheet with its weight and location affecting an aircrafts trim and overall weight. This recognises fuel as a consumable item with an aircraft on landing carrying less fuel than on take-off.  Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW)  Maximum take off weight (MTOW)  Maximum landing weight (MLDW) It is the load controller’s responsibility to determine the lowest maximum weight governing and restricting the load sheet by making the following simple calculations which ensures the aircrafts structure and airworthiness requirements are not exceeded:- . When operating conditions. However. An example would be a wet runway on take-off. These indicate the maximum weight at varying stages that an aircraft can be loaded to. essentially the aircraft would become restricted on take-off with a RTOW that would be lower than the MTOW. Take Off Fuel Block fuel minus the taxi fuel. including the weather are perfect these maximum weights are used. Block Fuel All fuel uploaded onto the aircraft before it has moved anywhere. Maximum Aircraft Weights Airlines have weight and balance manuals stipulating weights for their company aircraft that also include maximum aircraft weights.Standard Weights for Passengers. should the conditions deteriorate then these figures may be restricted. Crew and Baggage Learn more about standard-weights-for-passengers-crew-and-baggage Different Fuel Weights for Load Control There are a number of different fuel calculations used on a load sheet relating to the various stages of flight. Trip Fuel The actual fuel required from the take off to the landing. Taxi Fuel The amount of fuel an aircraft burns getting to the runway ready for take off.

cargo. Essentially if the load is within certain limitations it can be trimmed in flight by the horizontal stabiliser. Payload (Allowed Traffic Load) How much weight could be carried. This can be corrected by relocating the load through changing passenger seat allocations. albeit more common in turbo prop aircraft. Underload Deducting the total traffic load from the allowed traffic load provides an underload. Using either MZFW. mail to different holds. this indicates how much weight is still available to carry anything. How Much Can The Aircraft Carry? Total Traffic Load Total weight of all passengers. Centre of Gravity (CG) The central balance point of an aircraft. you will know if you have the weight available to accept them for carriage by looking at your underload. . baggage. frequent load control errors mean the aircraft is trimmed either too nose or too tail heavy. However.  If you have an extra passengers wishing to travel that requires a late manual change (LMC) to the load sheet. MTOW or MLDW the operating weight is subtracted providing the payload (allowed traffic load) which indicates how much additional weight can be loaded onto the aircraft. this includes furnishings and fixed equipment. Interestingly some aircraft have higher permitted weights for take-off than landing. Basic Index (BI) A fixed point on a numerical scale representing the central balance point of the aircraft.MZFW + Take-off fuel MTOW (Includes take-off fuel) MLDW + Trip Fuel After the above calculations have been made the lowest maximum weight will govern and restrict the load sheet. cargo and mail.Indexes Once the weights have been calculated on the loadsheet this information is then transferred to a balance chart to assess the aircrafts centre of gravity. Balancing The Aircraft . or reassigning the baggage.

the loader then records where the actual load and weight is distributed in the holds. this includes crew and catering.e. Some examples of special loads are:-  Live animals  Food stuffs  Human remains  Perishables Loading Instruction Report (LIR) or Load Plan (LP) The purpose of this document is for the load controller to allocate the load. Special Load Notification To Captain (NOTOC) A dangerous good or any other special load is not generally carried onboard a commercial aircraft unless a NOTOC has been completed. The LIR/LP is prepared by the load controller detailing where the planned load is to be located in the holds. and this is usually supported by an entry shown on the load sheet identifying its location. these are essentially standard and internationally accepted supporting documents to a loadsheet. . Supporting Paperwork For The Loadsheet Whilst the terms will vary slightly between airline operator and country. a hold is bulked out before it contains the entire planned load. weight and description.Dry Operating Index (DOI) The fixed point on a numerical scale representing the balance point of the empty aircraft. and the loader to confim where the actual load is located on the aircraft. The amended LIR/LP is communicated to the load controller enabling them to produce a loadsheet that accurately reflects the actual weights and locations of the load. Sometimes it is necessary for the LIR/LP to be changed by the loader i.