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Introduction to CMG’s

Modelling Workflows

Builder & IMEX, V.2015.10

Tutorial

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS ..........................................................................................................................1

CREATING A “BLACK OIL” MODEL USING BUILDER ..............................................................................3

Starting CMG Launcher 3
Opening Builder 3
Importing a Rescue File (Structural and Property Data) 4
Assigning Permeability to the Model (J and K Directions) 6
Creating PVT Data Using Correlations 9
Creating Relative Permeability Data 11
Creating Initial Conditions 13
Adding Well Trajectories and Perforations 14
Viewing Trajectory and Perforations in 3D 16
Adding Historical Production Data to the Model 17
Creating Average Monthly Production / Injection Recurrent Well Data 20
Creating Field Production History (*.fhf) for History Match 21
Input/Output information 21
Writing Out Restart Information to a Restart File 22
Running the IMEX Dataset and Reviewing the Results 23
Production Data in Results Graph 24
Pressure Data in Results Graph 26

HISTORY MATCH OF PRESSURE AND PRODUCTION ........................................................................... 29

Changing Rock Compressibility to Match Pressure Behavior 29
Reviewing the Simulation Results using Results Graph 30
Changing Relative Permeability Curves to Match Production 32
Reviewing the Simulation Results using Results Graph 33

SCENARIOS OF PREDICTION.............................................................................................................. 36

BASE CASE ....................................................................................................................................... 36

Adding Dates for Prediction 36
Adding New Well Constraints for the Producer Wells 37
Using a Restart File 41
Running the File in IMEX 42
Analysis of Results in Result Graph 42

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Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows - Tutorial

WATER INJECTION ........................................................................................................................... 46

Analysis in Results 3D and Results Graph 46
Conversion of Producer Wells into Water Injectors 47
Well Constraints, Water Injector 48
Shut-in the Converted Wells (wl16 and wl5) 49
Running the Model 52
Analysis of Results in Result Graph 52

GAS INJECTION ................................................................................................................................ 56

Analysis in Results 3D and Results Graph 56
Conversion of Producer Wells into Gas Injector 57
Well constraints, GAS INJECTOR 58
Shut-in the Converted Well (wl12) 58
Running the Model 59
Analysis of Results in Result Graph and Results 3D 59

HORIZONTAL WELLS ......................................................................................................................... 63

Definition of New Locations Using Results 3D 63
Adding a New Horizontal Well in Builder 65

USE OF TRIGGERS ............................................................................................................................. 72

CONING EFFECT IN A WELL MODEL ................................................................................................... 75

Extracting a Sub model 75
Refinement around the Well 78

HYDRAULIC FRACTURES ................................................................................................................... 82

Modify Reservoir Permeability 84
Addition of Hydraulic Fracture 92

EXTRA EXERCISE ............................................................................................................................... 96

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Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows - Tutorial

Open Builder by double clicking on the appropriate icon in the Launcher. Single Porosity 2. Once a history match is obtained. Select the new file icon . Note: The Simulation Start date cannot be changed in Builder but ! can be edited in a Text Editor Figure 1: Reservoir settings in builder 3 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . this tutorial will also go through the procedure of performing a history match. Choose: 1. a few prediction scenarios will modelled. or by going through the Start menu and selecting Programs/CMG/Launcher. SI Units. Opening Builder 2. IMEX Simulator. 3. 4.Creating a “Black Oil” Model Using Builder The first exercise will go through the steps of creating a black oil IMEX dataset using builder. In addition to getting familiar with CMG software. Start the CMG Launcher by using the icon on your desktop. Click OK twice. Starting date 1993-01-01 5.Tutorial . Starting CMG Launcher 1.

. select EXERCISE_3_RESCUE. Click on the Add to Selected List button to add the property from the rescue file into the Builder model. Pinchout Array.bin. Typically a rescue file includes the grid.bin extension. Click OK in the dialogue box related to the description of RESCUE model and accept the Grid creation options by default as shown in the following figure. then Import from another file… a RESCUE model. Select a property (for example Porosity) from the RESCUE file and the corresponding CMG property. porosity and permeability). Click OK. Repeat this for the three other properties available in the RESCUE file: NULL Blocks.g. etc. top left).Importing a Rescue File (Structural and Property Data) 6. and Permeability I (md). Click on File (on the menu bar. A rescue file can be generated with any geological commercial software (E. Figure 2: Importing RESCUE grid 9. 4 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . GOCAD. 7. 8. faults and properties (E. A new window will appear with the original properties defined in the RESCUE file (left window) and a list of properties to match the CMG software (right window). The RESCUE file is in a binary format and will have a .Tutorial .g. PETREL. Select the RESCUE file from the DATA REQUIRED folder.).

Hold down the Ctrl key and the left mouse button and move the mouse toward the bottom of the screen to zoom in or move the mouse to the top of the screen to zoom out. Figure 3: Panel for selection of properties from RESCUE file 10. If a mouse has a scroll wheel.Tutorial . Click on the Rotate (3D View) button (from the toolbar) to rotate the display by holding down the left mouse button and using the cursor to move the model. 11. 5 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . A new grid with properties will be displayed. this can also be used to zoom in and out by scrolling the wheel forward (zoom out) or backward (zoom in). Change the view from IJ-2D Areal to 3D View in the upper left corner.

There are several options available when building a grid from simple box models (Cartesian) to complex corner point grids. Click on the Specify Property button (top middle of the screen) to open the General Property Specification spreadsheet as shown below. 13. If time allows.Tutorial . the grid top and thickness data for the reservoir may be given as an aerial contour map. a full geological model complete with grid and properties may not always be available. A sample map file has been provided in the Required Data Folder. Assigning Permeability to the Model (J and K Directions) 12. Frequently. Change display control to Probe mode by clicking on this toolbar button on the top tool bar. which can be done using Builder. Figure 4: 3D View of the imported grid and distribution of porosity Note: Depending on the purpose of the simulation and resources available. the instructor will demonstrate the steps of how a map file can be used to create and populate a grid. A map can be used to size and properly orient the simulation grid as well as populate the properties in the grid blocks. Therefore a grid will need to be manually generated. 6 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .

Press OK in the Specify property window. Figure 5: General Property Specification Spreadsheet 14. Next enter 0. In the window that appears select * in the EQUALSI dropdown. 18. and then Save As. You should now have the green check mark for Reservoir section. In the Properties Window that appears select Probe Display and check the box for Block Dimensions. To display the dimensions of some grid cells in the models. Click OK. right click on the main screen and select Properties. 16. 20. 19. Units will be applied automatically. Click OK to populate the grid with these new properties. In the Specify Property window. Analyze different cross sections IK-2D X-Sec to display the properties distribution. Press the OK button. 7 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 20. Next the Block / Corner Value Calculation window will pop up.1). from the Go to Property dropdown menu. Similarly for Permeability K. Double click on Rock Compressibility in the tree view menu and input 7. select Permeability J. Click File.000 kPa in the Reference Pressure (PRPOR) box and click OK. right click in the Whole grid Cell and select EQUALSI. This would be a good point to save the data set you are working on.DAT under your STUDENT SOLUTION/HISTORY MATCH folder. Save the file as IMEX_TUTORIAL. layer thickness and become familiar with the model.Tutorial . 17.1 in the second field (this applies a Kv/Kh ratio of 0. Right click in the Whole Grid box and select EQUALSI then click OK to the window that appears. 15.25E-6 1/kPa in the Rock Compressibility (CPOR) box.

Select the property of Grid Top and using the plane slider select different cross sections of the model in 2-D views. Clicking on a grid cell will now display its dimensions.Tutorial . Figure 6: Builder properties (probe display option) 21. Figure 7: Cross section and block cell properties 8 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .

select Stock tank oil gravity (API) as the type of gravity value to use and enter 18 in the data entry window. For the Oil Density at STC. For Bubble Point Pressure Calculation. Click OK. and then press the OK button. Generate data up to the maximum pressure of 35.000 kPa.Creating PVT Data Using Correlations 22. Click on the Components tab in the tree view and double click on MODEL.Tutorial . 9 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 9: Creating a quick model 24. Figure 8: Components tab in the tree view 23. enter 101 kPa and leave the rest of the options at their default values.000 kPa. Enter 50 (°C implied) in the Reservoir Temperature box. Check on Launch Dialog to Create a Quick BLACKOIL Model Using Correlations. 25. select the Value provided option and enter 9.70 in the data entry window. In the Reference Pressure for Water properties box. Change the Gas Density box at STC to display Gas Gravity (Air=1) and type 0.

it is also possible to enter directly or edit values in the PVT Table. However. For this example. and dragging the points to the desired location. Figure 10: Parameters for a quick black-oil model 26. These values can also be updated by using your mouse to select points on the plots associated with the PVT Region. Uncheck the Include Oil compressibility in PVT table box to use constant oil compressibility.Tutorial . 27. 10 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . the data shown in this table was generated using the information entered in the Quick black oil model window. Double click on PVT Region: 1 in the tree view and select the PVT Table tab to view the BLACKOIL PVT data. Please note that the IMEX PVT Regions window has to be open while using your mouse to change the points on the plot.

Press the Tools button (on the Relative Permeability Tables tab) and select Generate Tables Using Correlations. Click the Rock-Fluid button in the left-hand side menu.Tutorial . Click on Apply and OK. 32. Click on the button and select New Rock Type. Go to the General tab and input the value of 5e-06 1/kPa for the Undersaturated Co (CO). Double click on Rock Fluid Types in the tree view. 11 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 29. A window will open. 31. The Component section should have a green check mark now. Creating Relative Permeability Data 30. Figure 11: IMEX PVT table with the values generated using the quick black-oil model 28.

8 KRGCL 0.relative permeability 0. Save the file at this time. Press Apply and then OK.4 SOIRG 0.60 Sw Figure 12: Plots for RockType 1 12 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .4 SORW 0.2 SWCRIT 0.48 krw vs Sw krow vs Sw 0. You cannot be in the Rock-Fluid section to save. Enter the following parameters for the analytical relative permeability curves generation. A graph containing the relative permeability curves will appear.32 0. 35.36 0.44 0.2 KRWIRO 0. SWCON 0.28 0.00 0.8 KROGCG 0.2 SGCON 0.2 SOIRW 0.33.Tutorial .0 Exponent for Krgcl 4.2 Exponent for Krw 2.05 KROCW 0.52 0.05 SGCRIT 0.2 SORG 0. 0.0 34.64 kr . Press OK again to get out of the Rock Types window.0 Exponent for Krog 4.0 Exponent for Krow 4.20 0.80 0. The Rock Fluid section should have a green check mark.16 0.

000 (kPa implied) in Constant Bubble Point Pressure (PB) box 40.750 (m implied) in the Water-Oil Contact (DWOC) box 9.Creating Initial Conditions 36. 38.605 (m implied) in the Reference Depth (REFDEPTH) box 1. Initial Conditions interface should look like this: Figure 13: Initial conditions interface 13 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Select Water.Tutorial . Oil as the initial fluid in the reservoir to perform a Gravity-Capillary Equilibrium Calculation.000 (kPa implied) in the Reference Pressure (REFPRES) box 1. Leave the other boxes blank. 39. Click the Initial Conditions button on the tree view of Builder. 37. Double click on Initial Conditions. Type in the following values in the available fields: 20.

Step 1 of 3" window will pop up. 41. and press Next (Step 1 of 3). Step 1 of 3 14 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .wdb". 44. The "Import well trajectory wizard. 45. 46.Tutorial . Choose "Table Format" and "m" for X. You need to choose the Trajectory File Type and appropriate Units for it (3 Steps Wizard). and then OK. Adding Well Trajectories and Perforations Once we have created the static model. Open. 43. 42. Figure 14: Trajectory properties window. we will now incorporate the trajectory and perforation information into the model. Click Apply. Go to the Builder main menu and select Well  Well Trajectories  Well Trajectories…. then browse for the file "IMEX_TRAJECTORIES. At this point it is advisable to save the data again by selecting File from the top menu and clicking Save. MD. You should now be back in the main Builder window with all tabs showing a green checkmark in the tree view. except for the Wells & Recurrent tab. Y and Z.

52. 50. uncheck Automatic data point reduction and check the box Clear all existing trajectories. 49. Now go back to the top menu and select Well. Leave the combine perforation data within 5 days and press Open. Make sure all wells are selected.47. Step 2 of 3 48. Click Finish to complete Step 3 of 3.Tutorial . Well Trajectories and click on Trajectory Perforation Intervals…. 15 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . then press Next (Step 2 of 3). A window will open (Figure 16). 51. Press Apply and then OK. the window will be like the one shown in Figure 16. This completes the trajectories and perforation of the wells in the model. Figure 15: Trajectory properties window. Click on Read File and change the File unit selection option to SI. The following window will open. If this is done correctly.perf located in the DATA REQUIRED folder. and then browse for the IMEX_PERFORATIONS.

Change the 2-D view to 3D view in the upper left hand corner.Tutorial . Figure 16: Trajectory perforations window after reading perforation file Viewing Trajectory and Perforations in 3D We can view the trajectories and perforations in 3D by increasing the transparency of the grid 53. The reservoir should now be completely transparent and the well trajectories and perforations should be visible. Right-click anywhere on the screen and select 3D settings. Select Apply All. 54. Change transparency setting from 0 to 0. 16 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .6.

58. In our case.Tutorial . 56. Press the Next button. Go to the main Builder menu and select Well  Import Production/Injection Data (this is the wizard used to import production/injection data into the well & recurrent data for the simulator and it also defines the status of each well). Figure 17: Trajectory and perforations after increasing transparency 55. Change the transparency back to 0 in order to see the grid Adding Historical Production Data to the Model The last item we want to do is to add historical rate data so that we can set up a history match run. STEP 2: Follow the instructions and highlight the first line containing the production data (top window) and well name (lower window) (as shown in the following figure). 57. Press Next.prd from the DATA REQUIRED folder. 17 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . STEP 1: First step of this wizard is to provide the type and name of the production file. we will use General and select the file named IMEX_PROD_HISTORY.

Date/Time. Figure 18: Step 2 of the production data wizard 59. click Next to go to STEP 4. STEP 3: If the delimiters look good and separate the columns correctly. and then click Next to go to the next step. choose Well/Group name. Leave other cells under each identifier as default as they pop up. Oil Produced.Tutorial . STEP 4: Go through Columns 1 to 5 and in the identifier row. 60. Water Produced and Gas Produced for each column respectively. Figure 19: Assigning identifiers to each column 18 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .

Tutorial . Also change the option for grid output limit to Do not limit grid output.61. Figure 21: Setting stop date for simulation 19 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . In this section the primary constraint can be selected for the wells. This is because we want to be able to see grid output every month. Figure 20: Assigning primary constraint to wells 63. Change the primary constraint from oil to liquid by highlighting the list of wells and right click to select the liquid constraint. In the Simulation Dates window that appears set the stop date to be 2010-02-01. 62. STEP 5: This step indicates which well production data has been picked up and which one has not. Click Finish. The primary constraint controls the amount of oil or liquid that will be produced during the simulation based on the production history. 64.

Figure 22: Average production/injection data plot 20 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 65. On the main Builder menu. bi-annually. select Well  Average Production/Injection Data. It is not needed for the tutorial as the data is already set on a monthly basis and we want to keep it monthly.Creating Average Monthly Production / Injection Recurrent Well Data If averaging of production-injection data needs to be done.Tutorial . 66. it can be done as described below. The pop-up menu will allow you to change the average interval from this point on to monthly. move your mouse and right click on the x-axis. etc. yearly. Next.

Click OK to close the window. This can be resolved by removing the Alters added on date at 2010-02-01. Once again.fhf) for the production data. Press OK. For a well variable. Go to the I/O Control and double click on the Simulation Results Output. under OUTSRF table.Tutorial . Go to the top menu again and select Well > Create Field History File…. then provide a file name (IMEX_PRODUCTION_HISTORY.fhf) for History Match The next thing we want to do is to create a field history file so that we can make a comparison between the simulation run and the actual field history file. If everything is correct. Select Reset all intervals to every month and press the OK button. all of the tabs in the tree view should have a green checkmark. The Dates under Wells & Recurrent tab may still have a yellow exclamation mark. Input/Output information 69. click Close on the Simulations Dates window that pops up. 70. 67. 68. 21 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . They can be deleted in the Well Events window. Creating Field Production History (*. The Simulation Results File Writing window will open. select Well values for all layers at reservoir and surface conditions (LAYER ALL DOWNHOLE). Please Save the file one more time. Figure 23: Changing frequency of writing and items in the result file 71.

Choose the option to Combine Graphics and Restart. Click OK to close the window. 22 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 24: Restart Window 79.Writing Out Restart Information to a Restart File 72. Save the file. 73. which is 1993-01-01. Check the Maximum number of restart records stored (REWIND) option and set the value to 3. Press OK.Tutorial . Press the button and select the first simulation date. Double click on Restart. 78. 76. Set the Writing Frequency Option to Every TIME or DATE Keywords. Check on Enable Restart Writing. Click on the I/O Control tab in the tree view. 77. 80. 74.mrf will be larger in size but we will have fewer files created. 75. The .

We now have a completed dataset so we can exit Builder and drag and drop the IMEX_TUTORIAL. then drag and drop it onto the IMEX icon and release the mouse. 82. Select the option to Run Immediately and click OK. When finished. If there are no errors. Running the IMEX Dataset and Reviewing the Results 81.DAT file onto the IMEX icon to run it. You will be able to make prediction runs without having to rerun the historical data portion as a result of using the Restart Run feature.DAT in your launcher. A new window will pop up. an MS-DOS window will open up and show you the progress of the run. the MS-DOS window will be terminated and you will be able to see a brief summary of results. Figure 25: Simulation log file (when runs immediately) 23 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . If all the steps done before were accurate. you should be able to run the dataset using IMEX. First locate the file IMEX_TUTORIAL.Tutorial .

Click on the Add Curve icon . 84. Select the IMEX_PROD_HISTORY . Production Data in Results Graph 83.irf file to display data from. Click on the Open button. Select the menu item File. Select the Page Layout tab and change the number of plots per page to 3.fhf file that we created in the Creating Field Production History section of the tutorial. Click on the Properties icon . then Open Field History. Click on Apply. 24 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .irf onto the Results Graph icon. 85. Select curve parameter Oil Rate SC.We can now look at the simulation run and compare it with the historical data and see how the reservoir would perform. then click on the Add Curves icon to display the list of properties. Select the IMEX_TUTORIAL. Drag and drop IMEX_TUTORIAL. 86. Figure 26: Window for display settings Click on the icon to add a new plot.Tutorial . Choose wl1 for the Origin and then Click OK. 87.

but this time select the property of Water Cut SC-%. Add one more curve per plot using the icon . but this time the source will be the historical data stored on the IMEX_PROD_HISTORY. 89. Select the property of Gas Rate SC for the well wl1. You should now see a set of plots similar to: 25 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .fhf file. Figure 27: Window in Results Graph to add curves 91.88. Click OK. 90. Make sure the property to plot is the same.Tutorial . Repeat the steps to add one more plot.

select the All Producers option and OK to generate the plots. 95. you can use the Repeat Plots button . Click on the icon to add one independent plot to compare the simulated reservoir pressure and the historical measured data. Figure 28: Plot of simulation data versus historical data 92. Click on the icon to add a new property curve on the new plot. In the Repeat Plots window. In this case under Origin Type select Sector (Region) and from the Parameter dropdown menu select Ave Press POVO SCTR.ses Pressure Data in Results Graph 96. You should now have a series of plots showing the historical data and simulator calculation for all the producer wells.Tutorial . 97. 94. In order to display this group of plots for all the producer wells. In the window that will pop up select No in order to create a stand-alone plot. Save the session file as IMEX_TUTORIAL_PLOTS_HM. 26 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 93.

Figure 29: Window in Results Graph to plot simulated reservoir pressure 98.fhf file. Click on the icon to add the historical pressure behavior using the IMEX_RESERVOIR_PRESSURE_HISTORY. then browse for the file IMEX_RESERVOIR_PRESSURE_HISTORY. Change the origin Type to Sector (Region). From the File menu select Open Field History.Tutorial .fhf under your DATA REQUIRED folder. 99. 27 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Click OK. This file contains the historical data and will be used to compare it with the simulated data.

Save the session file one more time. simulated data for reservoir pressure 101. You should now see a plot similar to: Figure 31: Plot historical data vs. 28 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 30: Window in Results Graph to plot historical reservoir pressure 100.Tutorial .

Save the file as IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR1.DAT Cr=10e-06 1/psi (1.25e-07 1/kPa) IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR3.History Match of Pressure and Production Changing Rock Compressibility to Match Pressure Behavior In order to match the reservoir pressure we can change the rock compressibility.Tutorial .45e-06 1/kPa) IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR2.9e-06 1/kPa) IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR1. In the list below there is a selection of values that can be used to approximate the simulation results to the real data values. Open the IMEX TUTORIAL.DAT Table 1: Selected Values for History Matching Reservoir Pressure 1. Figure 32: Window in TextPad to modify rock compressibility 29 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .9e-6 1/kPa.DAT Cr=5e-06 1/psi (7. Change the rock compressibility (CPOR) value to 2. as this is one of the parameters that have an important effect. Use the values listed in Table 1 to create one data set per value: Rock Compressibility Data set Cr=20e-06 1/psi (2.DAT file in TextPad and search for CPOR. By reducing the value of rock compressibility the reservoir pressure will decrease.DAT under your HISTORY MATCH folder.

ses in Results Graph and under the Reservoir Pressure plot go to File menu. This time submit your jobs in the Scheduler using 1 processor. Figure 33: Interface to submit a job Reviewing the Simulation Results using Results Graph 4. Select the file IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR1. Add one curve by using the icon to compare the effect in this parameter.irf files. Sector. 30 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . select Open CMG Simulation Results and add the 3 new *. Using the file IMEX_TUTORIAL_PLOTS_HM. submit/run the datasets by dragging and dropping the *.dat files onto the IMEX icon. 3.Tutorial . Repeat the same steps to create the two additional files listed on Table 1. Using the CMG Launcher.irf and the Origin Type. 5. 2.

irf files).Tutorial . Figure 35: Reservoir pressure behavior for different rock compressibility 31 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Repeat the previous steps to add two more curves with the previously generated results (*. Figure 34: Window in Results Graph to add a curve for reservoir pressure 6.

It is an iterative process and it is not expected that a perfect match will be obtained in the course. 7. Therefore. case 3 had the best match with the historical data. As it can be observed. best case for reservoir pressure HM 9. Gas Rate SC and Water Cut SC%. In the same session file go to the Repeat Group1 in order to display the production rates per well and add the IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR3.irf file to the properties of Oil Rate SC. but for the rest of parameters the effect was minimal. The next step is to change the relative permeability curves in order to improve the production. 32 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .Tutorial . 8. the only parameter that improved in relation to the real data trend was the water cut. Changing Relative Permeability Curves to Match Production History Matching is a technique that takes a long time to get a perfect match. real data. You should observe a group of plots similar to this: Figure 36: Simulated production vs. Based on the pressure behaviour. Therefore we will use the compressibility value for this case for subsequent simulations.

Go to the Rock Fluid section and double click on Rock Fluid Types. click on Apply button and OK. Reviewing the Simulation Results using Results Graph 33 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Change the value of the end- point for the Oil curve.2 to 0. It is advisable to try changing the relative permeability perms and updating Results Graph in order to observe the difference that was made. Open the IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR3. 10. Save the file.the best possible match you will obtain in the limited time will be considered as acceptable. KROCW and KROGCG from 0. click on the Tools button and select Generate Tables Using Correlations.4. 13. Close the Builder and go to the CMG launcher to run the model by dragging and dropping the IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR3_KRS. Figure 37: Modification of the Relative Permeability curves to match production 12.Tutorial .DAT file onto the IMEX icon.DAT. 11.DAT file in Builder and save the file as IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR3_KRS.

Gas Rate SC and Water Cut-%.Tutorial . Due to limited time. 17. There is an improvement in the production rates after modification of the relative permeability curve. some of them require more work. but this time select the IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR3_KRS.irf file.14. Try more parameters of the relative permeability curves and see the effect on the history match. In the Results Graph file IMEX_TUTORIAL_PLOTS_HM. the final history match will be provided by the instructor (IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_MATCHED. See the rest of the wells and check the history match. 15. In the Repeat Group_1 for well wl1 add a new curve for each plot. Oil Rate SC. Figure 38: Effect of relative permeability curves on production 16.ses go to the File menu and select Open CMG Results to open the IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_CR3_KRS. plot the simulation 34 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .DAT).irf. Run this file in IMEX.

Tutorial . Figure 39: Final History Match for the model 35 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .irf) in Results Graph and add the historical data (FHF file).results (IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_MATCHED.

Go to the Wells & Recurrent section. Figure 40: Adding a range of dates for predictions 36 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . a base case and two different scenarios of injection will be considered: water injection and gas injection. Base Case This scenario considers the prediction under primary depletion with the same number of production wells and constraints based on the stage of history. 2. In order to provide extra support into the reservoir. Click on the “Add a Range of Dates” button and using the small calendar icon related to “To” input the new date related to the end of prediction. The results will be compared to quantify the benefit in terms of the recovery factor. the oil production is declining with time as a result of lack of pressure support in the reservoir. Save the file IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE.Tutorial . For this tutorial. Adding Dates for Prediction 3. Double click on Dates. 2020/01/01. Click OK.DAT in the Prediction folder.DAT).Scenarios of Prediction As previously observed from the historical data. This scenario will be used as a reference to compare the effect of additional predictions under secondary recovery. the injection of fluids will be performed by converting some producer wells into injectors. Open the history matched file using Builder (IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_MATCHED. 1. 4.

Press OK.Tutorial . expand the Wells section and double click on the wl1 name to display Well Events. 2010/02/01 to define new constraints for the prediction. Leave the Well Bottom Hole Pressure BHP as a main constraint (200 KPa) and include a MONITOR as a second constraint to prevent unnecessary results when the well is producing below the limit of 3 m3/day of oil production. 37 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 6. Go to the constraints tab and check the Constraint Definition box. Select all the producer wells. 9. select 2010/02/01 and check the Create new dates for selected Wells box. Click on the Apply button. Right click and select Copy Events Using Filter in order to copy the same constraints to the rest of the producer wells. Figure 41: Defining constraints for prediction 7. Go to the Dates tab. Under the Well & Recurrent section. Click on the Search & Add button. Remove the first constraint related to the liquid production by using the button. Click on the Calendar button and input the first date of prediction. Scroll down to the end of the list of events in the 2010/02/01 well and highlight the events previously generated (PRODUCER and constraints). 8.Adding New Well Constraints for the Producer Wells 5.

Figure 42: Copying constraints for all the producer wells

10. Review the producer wells and make sure all of these are using the same constraints for
the prediction, 2010/02/01. Click OK to close the Well Events window and Save your
file.
11. In order to generate realistic predictions for the wells, it will be required to use the Well
Bottom Hole Pressure values (BHP) calculated by the simulator at the end of the stage
of history.
12. Go to the CMG launcher and open the IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_MATCHED.irf by
dragging and dropping the file onto the Results Graph icon. Plot the property of Well
Bottom-hole Pressure for all the wells.

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Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows - Tutorial

Figure 43: Plotting the calculated values of BHP.

13. In the Results Graph go to the Tools menu and select the option to Export Directly to
Excel.

Figure 44: Plot of calculated values of BHP

39
Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows - Tutorial

14. From the generated Excel file Copy the last value of Well Bottom Hole Pressure for
well wl1 which is related to the conditions of production at the end of the stage of history.
Save the Excel file.

Figure 45: Tabulated values of BHP in Excel

15. In Builder expand the Wells section under Wells & Recurrent and double click on the
wl1 name to open the Well Events section, scroll down to find the constraints for
2010/02/01 and paste the value of BHP obtained from the Excel file for well wl1.

Figure 46: Assigning calculated values of BHP from the stage of history

16. In order to copy the value of Bottom Hole Pressure for the rest of the wells, we can sort
them by date. Scroll down to the end of the list to modify the well constraint for the first

40
Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows - Tutorial

Click on the I/O Control and double click on Restart. Check the Restart from… box. 18.DAT one more time. Figure 48: Restart file and time step selection 20. 19. 2010/02/01.irf). Uncheck the Enable Restart Writing box. Paste the values of BHP from Excel to Builder for each of the wells. 41 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Select 2010/01/01 from the restart date options. Save the file IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE.Tutorial . date of prediction. Figure 47: Well constraints sorted by date Using a Restart File 17. Browse for the restart file generated during the stage of history match (IMEX_TUTORIAL_HM_MATCHED.

Gas Rate SC and Water Cut-%.irf) in the Results Graph and create 3 plots per well in order to display Oil Rate SC. Analysis of Results in Result Graph 22.Running the File in IMEX 21. In the CMG launcher run the file by dragging and dropping the *. Add the historical data (IMEX_PRODUCTION_HISTORY. Figure 49: Submitting the job immediately window.Tutorial . Open the results (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE. 42 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .dat file into the IMEX icon. Run immediately using 4 processors.FHF).

Tutorial . Figure 50: Prediction Results 23. Figure 51: Repeat plots window 43 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Repeat the plots for the rest of producer wells using the Repeat Plots button .

Origin (Entire Field) Curve 3: File (IMEX_PRODUCTION_HISTORY. 25. Parameters (Oil Rate SC). Oil Recovery Factor SCTR ).irf). Origin Type (Sector). Origins (Field) 44 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .irf). Parameters (Ave Pres POVO SCTR).Tutorial . Parameters (Oil Prod Rate SCTR.fhf). Origin Type (GROUP). Plot 1: Oil Rate SC and Recovery Factor Curve 1 and 2: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE. Origin (Entire Field) Curve 2: File (IMEX_RESERVOIR_PRESSURE_HISTORY. Add two independent plots to the session: the first one displaying the Oil Rate SC (Sector) and Oil Recovery factor (Sector) and the second one indicating Average Pressure for the entire field (Sector).fhf). Origins (Default-Field-PRO) Figure 52: Field production results for the base case Plot 2: Average Pressure in the Reservoir Curve 1: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE.24. Analyze the behavior of the wells and make sure the prediction rates look reasonable. Parameter (Ave Pres POVO SCTR ). Origin Type (SECTOR). Origin Type (SECTOR).

Figure 53: Reservoir pressure results for the base case 26. 45 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .Tutorial .ses. Save the session file as imex_tutorial_pred.

100 2.300 0.900 1.irf file in Results 3D.000 0.20 2.90 0.500 1.Water Injection Observations of the pressure behavior within the time period show evidence that this parameter declines by more than 60% of its original value.800 0.000 2.000 -900 -800 -700 -600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 Figure 54: Water saturation at the end of history.400 Z/Y: 1. Analysis in Results 3D and Results Graph We can use the Results 3D/Graph to display different properties that can be useful to take decisions for the stage of prediction. Therefore.00 -1.00 1. Open the IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE.40 2. based on the position of the water oil contact.00 meters 2.irf -1.00 145. 4.10 0.600 1.00 960.100 0.800 1.30 2.500 1.600 0.80 1.50 0.200 File: imex_tutorial_hm_matched. 2010-02-01.00:1 Axis Units: m wl16 1.400 1. Display the property of Water Saturation at the end of the stage of history.700 0. w16 cross section. 2.60 1.70 1.00 290. The previous analysis indicates that. the decline of pressure and oil production reduction are related. 46 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .300 1.300 Date: 4/1/2014 Scale: 1:7480 1.00 480. For more analysis you can go back to the Results Graph and see the property of Water Cut per well in order to have an idea of the amount of water produced by this well. one of the candidate wells for conversion from the producer to the injector is wl16.Tutorial .700 1.000 -900 -800 -700 -600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 User: oscarm 1.900 0. Navigate on different JK cross section in order to identify possible candidates for water injection. 1. Water Saturation 2010-02-01 I layer: 39 1. we need to provide extra support in the reservoir in order to increase the reservoir pressure and hence oil production in the wells.00 feet 0.200 2.200 0. Since pressure represents the main source of energy for production wells. 3.

Figure 55: Production behavior for w16 The criteria for the second candidate for injection will be based on those with less oil production rates and location. in order to mimic this change. which can be an advantage from the pressure distribution perspective. if the original well is a producer the new well should be an injector. this well is located on the other side of the reservoir. The base case results indicate that one of the wells with less oil production is wl5. 47 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .Tutorial . In other words. Conversion of Producer Wells into Water Injectors In a simulation we are unable to switch the same well from production to injection and vice versa. perforations and characteristics but with the opposite functionality. However. we need to create a new well in the same location with the same trajectory. additionally.

Under Type. Click on next button. check the Constraint definition box. select wl16 and wl5. define INJECTOR MOBWEIGHT. 9. Accept the options by default for step 2 and check the boxes to Copy Geometry and Trajectory in steps 3 and 4. Water Injector 11. Go to the CMG launcher and open in Builder the dataset related to the base case option (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE. 12. and then click on the Apply button. Under Wells & Recurrent double click on the well name wl16_inj to open the well Events section. 5.DAT ). 8. and choose the Copy Well option. Click on Yes to Apply the Changes. In step 5 under New Well Date select 2010/03/01. Go to the Wells and recurrent section. 6. Two new wells have been created to switch from production to injection. Go to the Constraints tab.Tutorial . BHP MAX=20000Kpa.DAT under the Prediction folder 7. 10. Figure 56: Converted from producers to injectors wells 5 and 16 Well Constraints. 13. Go to the Injected Fluid tab and select WATER. CONT REPEAT Figure 57: Constraints for the w16 injector 14. From the options available input: OPERATE. From the list of producers. Save the file as IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER. 48 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .

select the events (INJECTOR. injected fluid). name the group “FIELD” as the top-level group. 18. Under Dates. we need to attach the injector wells to a group. Click on Apply and OK. Shut-in the Converted Wells (wl16 and wl5) 17. To do this. To do this. The window must look like in the following figure. 2010/02/01. In the Wells & Recurrent tree view. The Create New Group dialog window pops up. 15. Click on the Calendar button and input the date 2010- 03-01. double click on the well name wl16 and go to the last event. Click OK and OK again to close the Well Event window. check the Status box and select SHUTIN from the drop down menu. In the window that will pop-up. constraints. right click and select the option Copy Events Using Filter…. 16. 20. In order to perform injection using different wells in the reservoir. Now we need to copy the specified events for well wl5_inj. It will be required to shut-in wells wl5 and wl16 during the prediction as these wells have been already converted into injectors. Repeat the previous steps to shut-in the wl5 well.Tutorial . 49 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 58: Shut-in the converted well w16 19. Click on Search & Add. right click on the Groups (0) and select New. select wl5_inj under the Wells tab. select 2010-03-01. In the Definition tab. Select the Options tab.

Figure 60: Creation of group of injection 50 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Click on the Add New Group button and create a new group with the name “G_INJ”.Tutorial . Figure 59: Creation of a parent group 21. Make sure FIELD is the parent group as shown in the following figure. Click OK.

check the GCONI group injection box and select GTARGET (Under type) from the available options and a water constant rate (STW surface water rate) of 4000 m3/day.22. Figure 61: Attaching injector wells into the group 23.Tutorial . In the Wells & Recurrent tree view. Select “wl5_inj” and “wl16_inj” and click OK. This option will be used to inject a maximum water rate per group. and double click on the G_INJ to open the Group Events dialog window. this option is useful especially when a fixed amount of water is available for the entire reservoir. Then click on the Attach Wells… button to open the Well-Group Attachment dialog. Go to the Injection tab. expand the groups attached to FIELD. Press Apply. Figure 62: Group constraints definition 51 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .

Analysis of Results in Result Graph 27. Figure 63: Adding results for the water injection scenario 52 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . In the CMG launcher. run the model by dragging and dropping the IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER. 26. Repeat the same steps for Gas Rate and Water Cut-%. Go to the Repeat Group 1.Tutorial . Running the Model 25. Fig. For the wl1 well. 28.irf). Submit the job to the Local scheduler.DAT file onto the IMEX icon. In the Apportionment tab check the box for water injection.ses that was generated for the base case. add an extra curve by using the button for Oil Rate SC to compare the new scenario results. but this time select the IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER. Fig.24. Save the model and close Builder.irf. Leave the default apportionment method as Instantaneous Potential. 58. 59. In Results Graph open the session file imex_tutorial_pred. Go to the File menu  Open CMG simulation results to open the results for the water injection case (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER. 29. This will distribute the injection between the wells based on the potential for each well.

You can also plot the amount of water injected with the injector group Ginj. 53 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Create additional curves for Oil Rate SC. Oil Recovery Factor and Reservoir Pressure using the IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER.Tutorial . Origins (Entire Field). Figure 64: Comparison between base and water injection cases 30.irf file in order to compare the increment in oil production due to the effect of water injection. Parameters (Oil Recovery Factor). select: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER. Origins (Entire Field). Origin Type (Sector). Origin Type (Sector). For Oil Rate.irf). select: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER. Parameters (Oil Prod Rate SCTR). For Recovery Factor.irf).

production For Reservoir Pressure. 54 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Origins (Entire Field).irf). Figure 65: Comparison between base and water injection cases. Parameters (Ave Pres POVO). select: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER. Origin Type (Sector).Tutorial .

Tutorial . production 31. Figure 66: Comparison between base and water injection cases. Save the session file. 55 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .

2010-02-01. we can tentatively inject gas in the gas cap in order to increase the pressure. Open the IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE. Display the same property for the rest of the layers in the model. 3. Figure 67: Ternary property in results 3D 4. Analysis in Results 3D and Results Graph We can use Results 3D/Graph to display different properties that can be useful to take decisions for the stage of prediction. 1. In the areal map we can observe a region of gas in the top of the structure (K layer 1). As the saturation pressure was reached during the historical period. Display the property of ternary (gas. wl12 and w19.Gas Injection Another possibility to increase the reservoir pressure is by injecting gas instead of water. 2. oil and water) for the end of the stage of history. Some well locations have been covered by this gas.irf file in results 3D. 56 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .Tutorial .

57 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 10. 7. From this it can be concluded that wl12 should be converted into a gas injector. Go to the CMG launcher and open in Builder the dataset related to the base case option (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE. Click on the Next button.ses) and compare the results among the wells. Figure 68: Production results for the candidate well to conversion Conversion of Producer Wells into Gas Injector 6. From the list of producers. 11. 9. Go to the Wells and recurrent section and click Copy Well. Save the file IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_GAS.DAT. 5. 8.Tutorial .DAT ). In step 5 under New Well Date select 2010/03/01. A new well has been created to switch from production to injection. select wl12. Use the results of gas production obtained in Results Graph (imex_tutorial_pred. Accept the options by default for step 2 and check the boxes to Copy Geometry and Trajectory in steps 3 and 4.

000Kpa. wl12 15. and then click on the Apply button. To do this. Click OK. Under Wells & Recurrent double click on the well wl12_inj to open the well Events section. It will be required to shut-in the producer well wl12 during the prediction as this well has been already converted into gas injector. 58 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 69: Conversion of wl12 from producer to injector Well constraints. Shut-in the Converted Well (wl12) 16. 2010/02/01. check the Constraint Definition box. double click on the well wl12 and go to the last event. STG surface gas rate=400. From the options available select for the first constraint: OPERATE. define INJECTOR MOBWEIGHT. 13. 14. BHP MAX=20. Go to the Injected Fluids tab and select and change from WATER to GAS. CONT REPEAT Figure 70: Figure 67: Well constraints for the new converted well.000 m3/day. GAS INJECTOR 12. Under Type. Go to the Constraints tab.Tutorial . CONT REPEAT For the second constraint: OPERATE.

Origin Type (Sector). For Oil Rate. Click Apply and OK.irf).Tutorial . Go to the Repeat Group 1. Save the model and close Builder.DAT file into the IMEX icon. Analysis of Results in Result Graph and Results 3D 20. 19. select: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_GAS. 59 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Parameters (Oil Prod Rate SCTR). Repeat the same steps for Gas Rate and Water Cut- %. open CMG Simulation Results to open the results for the water injection case (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_GAS. Origin Type (Sector).irf. 22. For the wl1 well. 21.irf). In Results Graph open the session file imex_tutorial_pred. run the model by dragging and dropping the IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_GAS. add an extra curve by using the button for Oil Rate SC to compare the new scenario results. select: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_GAS. Origins (Entire Field) For Recovery Factor.irf). oil production. Running the Model 18. In the CMG launcher. Similarly compare the results per field. but this time select the IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_GAS. Origins (Entire Field). Go to the File menu. Select the Options tab. check the Status box and change the condition from OPEN to SHUTIN. 17.ses. Parameters (Oil Recovery Factor). 23. oil recovery factor and reservoir pressure.

To open the results in Results 3D.irf. 26. select Cumulative Gas SC. 28.Tutorial . Well Bubbles tab and check on Show Bubble Plots. the scenario with water injection generates better results in terms of recovery factor. Figure 71: Comparison of the three different scenarios of prediction 24. 27. IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_GAS. Right click the mouse and choose Properties. drag and drop the IRF (indexed Results File). 29. now the question is why. we will use the bubble plots to view gas production from all the wells. Based on the previous outcomes. 25. we are going to analyze parameters such as saturations at the end of the prediction. onto the Results 3D Icon in Launcher. then in property window list. We can use bubble plots to view the fluid production or injection volume from each well. Change the Bubble Size to be about 25% and change the color of the bubble to green by selecting Bubble line and color. Click Apply All 60 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . In this exercise. Change the Property being shown to Ternary. In order to understand the results.

the gas production increases and most of the injected gas is produced by the wells (Fig.Tutorial .67). 2020/01/01. This scenario is due to the flat condition in the structure and open production intervals in the top layers. Play the time-stepping and view the saturations and bubble plots for all the wells at the end of the prediction. Figure 72: Saturations distributions and bubble plots for gas injection 31.30. As a consequence. Plot in Results Graph for the scenario of gas injection gas injected versus gas produced. 61 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 32. reducing the effect of pressure support (see the reservoir pressure comparison in Results Graph). It can be observed that the gas injection scenario generates an extended gas cap in the reservoir.

Tutorial . gas produced 62 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .Figure 73: Comparison between gas injected vs.

In the centre of the panel and select Add Independent Variables 7. Go to the Menu bar. This zone should also be away from high water saturation areas. select View and then New View. A new variable named “Hydrocarbon Pore Volume” will have been created and ready for display. Under Select Property.Horizontal Wells Based on the above results. Repeat for Porosity and Oil Saturation. Open the water injection scenario in results 3D by dragging and dropping the IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER. We can select such a location by visualizing the hydrocarbon pore volume and the permeability together in Results 3D 1. select New and change the name to Hydrocarbon Pore volume. Select the right view and click on Tools from the menu at the top and select Formula Manager. Definition of New Locations Using Results 3D Our goal is to determine new well locations. add a multiplication operator (*) operator to do the multiplication. in order to maximize the recovery factor. Select OK. Select the left view and change the property shown to Permeability I. Repeat the same process for Porosity-Effective Ref and Oil saturation – Synchronize. 4. select Modified Block Volume. 10.Tutorial . 3. We want to select a high oil saturation zone with good porosity and permeability for the new well location. 63 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Then insert the first variable which is Modified Block volume into formula by highlighting the variable and press Insert Selected into Formula. 2.IRF. 8. 6. You should now see the image of the reservoir in the 2-D aerial view. it was concluded that the water injection option is more attractive from the point of view of oil recovery factor. under the formula screen. Click on OK. In the Menu bar go to Window and select Tile Vertically option. Now we will analyze the possibility of developing the field by adding new wells. 5. In the window. At the bottom of the panel. 9.

64 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 13. Using the plane slider. in this case is I=21. 12. Go to View in the Menu bar and select Synchronize Views. J=5. The northern section of the model seems to meet all these criteria as shown in Figure 68. Choose again the left view. Select all options to synchronize except Property. 14. go to the Plot Type selection list and select Contour Fill. select Plane 17 (K layer=17). In the tool bar on top. J where the new well will be located. Figure 74: Hydrocarbon Pore Volume Formula 11. Go to View in the Menu bar and select Properties under Grid and uncheck Show Grid for a better view. Click OK. Click on the area of interest in order to display the location I.Tutorial . Repeat the same steps for the rest of the properties.

The window should look like the following figure. 65 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 16. In this window. In the Wells & Recurrent tree view. Open IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER.Tutorial .DAT in Builder and start by saving the file as IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER_ADD_WELLS. Change the Definition date to 2010-03-01.DAT under the Prediction folder. The Create New Well window pops up. Figure 75: Definition of new locations based on permeability and hydrocarbon pore volume Adding a New Horizontal Well in Builder 15. Name the well wl20 and select the Type as PRODUCER. right click on Wells (13) and click on New… to create a new well.

In order to assign an appropriate group of constraints for the new well.Tutorial . As can be observed in Figure . Figure 76: Definition of new well in Builder 17. we need to look at other producer wells located in the same area. BHP=5794Kpa Figure 77: Location of neighbor wells 66 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . so we will use the same Bottom Hole Pressure values for prediction. Wl9 is located in the same area of the new proposed well.

18. Select the OPERATE BHP Bottom Hole Pressure as the primary constraint: MIN: 5794 kPa. In Builder. Using the plane slider display layer K=17 and change the property display to Permeability I. CONT REPEAT. in the Constraints tab. 19. There should be a red dot next to this well indicating that there is a data problem. Click OK to exit from the Create New Well panel. Also enter a MONITOR constraint of STO surface oil rate of MIN 3 m3/day and select SHUTIN as the action. check the Constraint Definition box. Right click on this well and select Validate to display any errors or warning messages. Well wl20 should appear on the Wells & Recurrent tree view. 20. 67 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Click OK to close the window. Figure 78: Validation of the new well 21.Tutorial . The message should indicate that there are no valid perforations defined for this well. 22.

26.Tutorial . Move the Well Completion Data (PERF) panel to the side so that the model grid can be viewed. Figure 80: Advanced options for horizontal wells 25. Click on the Perforations tab and click the Begin button to add perfs with the mouse. Click OK. Click on the + sign next to wl20 and double click on 2010-03-01 PERF to open the Well Completion Data (PERF) window. 68 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 79: Areal view used for the location of the new well 23. Check the Perforate All Intermediate Blocks box. Then click on the tool button for Advanced options to select perforate all intermediate blocks between mouse clicks. 24.

27.Tutorial . Move to K Plane 17. Change from areal view to IK-2D cross section and click on the perforation date 2010-03-01 of well wl20 to display the horizontal section. Go to the general tab and change the well direction to I axis. Click Stop to end the perforations. Figure 81: Creating a horizontal trajectory in Builder 28. Click Apply and OK to exit. 69 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Click on grid blocks 21 5 17 and 28 5 17 to create horizontal perforations.

Origin Type (Sector). Origins (Entire Field) 70 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . select: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER_ADD_WELLS.Tutorial . Figure 82: Cross section view. Parameters (Oil Recovery Factor). Origin Type (Sector). For Oil Rate. horizontal trajectory 29. Save the file one more time. Parameters (Oil Prod Rate SCTR). Origins (Entire Field) For Recovery Factor.irf). select: File (IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER_ADD_WELLS.irf). Run the file with IMEX and compare the results of Field oil production rate and recovery factor using the session file.

Figure 83: Comparison of different production scenarios including additional wells 71 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .Tutorial .

Tutorial . a way to monitor this maximum production. Since most of this water comes from the injector wells. 3. 9. 72 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Select STW-RP: Stock Tank Water – Rate of Production under When dropdown menu and define the trigger value higher than > 2. Type the following inside Actions box: SHUTIN 'wl5_inj' SHUTIN 'wl16_inj' 10.dat ". Click on the Wells & Recurrent section in the tree view and double‐click on the Triggers (0) option. Click File in the main Builder menu and select Save As. We are going to use the Trigger feature to shut-in the injector wells (16 and 5) when the water production increases above 2. Open " IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER_ADD_WELLS. 1.500 m3/day and open the same injector wells if the reservoir pressure decreases below 7. 7. in our simulations.Use of Triggers If we have a limitation in our facilities to handle a maximum of 2. Input the following Trigger Name: WATER_RATE 6.500 kPa.dat " model using Builder 2. 5.500 m3/day 8. The well management Trigger interface should include the following information. IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_WATER_ADD_WELLS_TRIGGER.500 kPa. we also need to monitor reservoir pressure in order to avoid a reduction in pressure below 7. Under Options input a value of 10 for the Maximum number of times that the actions specified with the trigger can be taken. 4. Name this file ". Select the Date 2010-03-01 for the trigger definition date.500 m3/day of produced water then we need. Select Field under Apply On dropdown menu.

right click on the trigger date and select New Child. The second part of the trigger is related with the reservoir pressure. 13. 12. The Management Trigger window will pop up again and Under Trigger Name input: RESERVOIR_PRESSURE. Select PAVE: Pore-volume Weighted Pressure under When dropdown menu and define the trigger value less than < 7. a nested trigger will be used. 73 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 17. 14. Type the following inside Actions box: OPEN 'wl5_inj' OPEN 'wl16_inj' 18. Under Options input a value of 10 for the Maximum number of times that the actions specified with the trigger can be taken. 11. Figure 84: Well management for triggers.500 kPa. The well management Trigger interface should include the following information. 16. Select Sector under Apply On dropdown menu. Under Triggers. To do this. 15. Click on Apply and OK.Tutorial .

Water Prod Rate SCTR --. Click on Apply and OK. Figure 17: Well management for triggers. 20. 19.Tutorial . Save and run the file in IMEX.Entire Field) and reservoir pressure (Sector – Ave Pres POVO SCTR – Entire Field) to see the effect of the trigger. 21. A similar plot should be observed 74 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . In Results Graph display the Field Production Water Rate (Sector --.

which can include refinements around the well. You can also access this from the icon in the top menu.DAT in Builder. Open IMEX_TUTORIAL_PRED_BASE. While in the IJ-2D Areal view. Leave the editing option as default and click OK. 75 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 1. Extracting a Sub model In this section. we will extract a sub-model around wl10 well in order to study the effect of water coning. Coning Effect in a Well Model In some reservoirs it is required to model local effects such as water or gas coning. Grid Editing Options will pop up. Figure 18: Combined effect of two triggers in simulation results. These studies require the construction of radial well models or the extraction of some sub-models. right click on the model and select Edit Grid….Tutorial . 2.

3. 76 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .Tutorial . (J=15 to J=19) and (K=1 to K=20). In the pop-up window click Yes to recalculate tolerances. In order to extract a sub-model. then Edit grid and Extract Sub- model… Click OK to accept the selection (I=9 to I=13). select the two grid blocks around well wl10 as shown in the figure below: Figure 87: Selection of cells around well wl10 to extract a sub-model 4. Using the mouse. Click on Apply and OK. Go to the Perforations tab and remove perforations in layers 1 to 16 and 18 to 20 by using the button . In the Initial Conditions section change the Water Oil Contact to 1650m. 1995-03-01. you will be required to change the position of the water oil contact and perforations. expand the Wells section and double click on the perforation date wl10. Leave perforations in layer 17. 5. 7. In order to reproduce the effect of water coning. 6. go to Reservoir. Under Wells & Recurrent.

Press Apply and OK. STL surface liquid rate = 150m3/day. CONT REPEAT. 9. Remove the events from 1995-04-01 to 2010-02-01. Click on Constraints and remove the original one. Define a new constraint for the well: OPERATE. 12. Figure 19: Removing perforations in the well 8. 11. Go to the Options tab and under status change the condition to OPEN. Go to the I/O control and remove the restart file by unchecking the Restart box. Click on Apply button. highlight the events.Tutorial . 77 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Double click on the well name wl10 to open the Well Events window. by highlighting the constraint and using the button . To do this. right click and select Delete Events Selected in the List and click Yes to apply the changes. Click OK. related to BHP=200 kPa. 10.

Save the file under your Additional Exercises folder as IMEX_TUTORIAL_SUBMODEL. 16. In Refinement Wizard select A Range of Fundamental Layers and input K=15 to K=18. Close Builder and run the model using IMEX. Figure 89: Removing restart file 13. go to ReservoirEdit gridRefine Blocks. select the one grid blocks around the wl10 well as shown in the figure below. Refinement around the Well 14.DAT. 15. Using the mouse. 19. Leave the editing option as default and click OK.Tutorial . 17. Grid Editing Options will pop up. 78 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Click Next. To access the option to refine cells. Click on the icon in the top menu. Open in Builder the file IMEX_TUTORIAL_SUBMODEL. Figure 20: Selection of cells around the well to perform refinement 18.DAT and save it as IMEX_TUTORIAL_SUBMODEL_REF.DAT.

Save the file one more time. Select the Probe Mode to exit the Edit Grid mode. Figure 91: Selection of number of layers to refine 20. 22. Then select Cartesian as the Type of Refinement and click Next. Run the file using the scheduler and 1 processor 79 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 92: Definition of number of refinements in horizontal and vertical directions 21. Specify the number of block divisions in each direction as the following figure. Click Finish.Tutorial .

Then select the property Water Saturation and compare two models for distribution of water saturation around the wl10 well.irf file onto Results 3D to look at the results. To open a new window. Choose the JK-2D view and move the slider to Plane 3.irf in Results 3D from FileOpen… 24. 25. click on Window  New Window. Figure 94: Coning effect using a refined model 80 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 21: Synchronization options 26. and then click on Window  Tile Vertically. You can add two more windows to compare the results of both simulations at a different date.Tutorial .23. Select WindowTile Vertically to see both models side by side for easier comparison. Drag and drop the corresponding . Select View  Synchronize views… and check all the options. Do this twice. Also open IMEX_TUTORIAL_SUBMODEL. 27.

Distance Plot In Results Graph. Click File > Open CMG Simulation Results and select the file “IMEX_TUTORIAL_SUBMODEL_REF. 6. Click on the “Add Curve” icon and then select OK. we can plot the water saturation along the length of the well in order to see the difference made by adding refinements. 7. Open IMEX_TUTORIAL_SUBMODEL. Choose Water Saturation as the Property and select the date 2010-01-01.irf in Results Graph. Click OK to create both water saturation curves. 4. 1. 5. 81 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . 2.Tutorial . Change the Data file at the top of the window to the other file you have open and click on “Add Curve” again. Add a new plot and then go to Edit > Curve > Add Property Versus Distance Plot.” 3.irf.Extra Exercise – Water Saturation vs.

In the Well events section. Figure 22: Selection of wells to delete using events filter 5. Click OK 82 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . we will remove the production rate constraints and operate the wells with a constant bottom-hole pressure. we will reduce the permeability of the reservoir by a factor of 10. This is commonly done when predicting performance in new fields where no production has yet occurred. select all the wells in the list. 4.-Wells tab. In the 1.Search conditions select ALTER and click on Search & Add button. To see this comparison. –Dates tab select All.Hydraulic Fractures We want to see how much production could be achieved if the reservoir was much tighter. 1. Click on Tools > Delete Events using filter.. Open the IMEX_TUTORIAL. click on the ALTER event on 1993-02-01 for wl1. Click on Wells & Recurrent then double click on Wells (11).Tutorial .dat file in Builder. In the 2. To have an accurate comparison between the differing permeability cases. 3. 2. We will also examine the effect of adding a hydraulic fracture to a well in the tight reservoir. In the 3.

Save this file as IMEX_TUTORIAL_CONS_BHP. On the 2. 1993-01-01. Make sure the well constraints are the same in the rest of the wells. 9. keep checked the dates for all the wells. In the new window that will appear.Wells tab. In the 1. wl1.Dates tab. click on constraints for the well. Change the value of the first constraint (STL) to be 150 m3/day and for the second one (BHP) change the value to 1000 kPa. Click on OK. Set the Action to be CONT REPEAT for both constraints: Figure 97: Definition of new constraints for tight reservoir 7.Tutorial .. Copy these two constraints for the rest of producer wells by using the button Tools > Copy Events using filter.DAT in the Additional Exercises folder and run this file. 83 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . remove the previous selection by using the Clear List button). (In case it is needed. 8. Figure 96: Selection of wells to delete CONSTRAINTS using events filter 6.. click on Search & Add button.

The reason that we assign the permeability to a custom property first is so that we can keep the original perm definition and so we don’t run into problems of circular dependency.Modify Reservoir Permeability To modify the reservoir permeability we will assign the current permeability array to a custom property and then use a formula to apply a modification.Tutorial . 11. 13. Click on Insert Selected into Formula button. Find the property Permeability I and click on OK button Figure 98: Selection of property of permeability You will notice that the variable X0 has been assigned to the property Permeability I. Load IMEX_TUTORIAL_CONS_BHP. 84 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . In the new window that will appear Click on the New button to create a new formula. 10.DAT into Builder. Under Formula Name input “PERM_ORIG” and click on Add Independent Variables button. Click on Tools menu and select the Formula Manager option. This will be the formula to assign permeability to the custom property. 12.

85 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 100: Formula for Porosity 15. Select the property of Porosity and insert into the formula definition. Create a second custom property and name it CMGLCUSTOM_POR. 16. Name the Property CMGLCUSTOM_PERM. Figure 99: Assigning the original Permeability to a temporary custom property 14. Repeat the previous steps to generate an additional formula and name it “Por_Orig”. Click Apply and OK to close the Formula Manager window.Tutorial . 17. Open the Specify Property window and from the “Go to Property” dropdown select Add New Custom Property.

Tutorial .18. Click OK again and then perform the same task for the custom property CMGLCustom_POR and choose the formula Por_Orig. In the window that appears select Formula. Figure 102: Formula Manager-Selection Mode 20. Figure 101: Using Formulas to assign a property 19. The Formula Manager window will appear where you should select the Perm_Orig Formula and click OK. 86 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Right click on the Whole Grid Cell for the CMGLCUSTOM_PERM property and select Formula.

First create a new formula called “Perm_mod” 24. Click on Apply. 23.Tutorial . Add the property CMGLCustom_Perm and multiply this property (X0) by a value of 0. There should now be two custom properties where there values are equal to the original property arrays. 22. Click on Apply button and OK to the message related to the formula and the property. Select the property of CMGLCUSTOM_Por and multiply this by a factor of 0. You should see the following information.21. 87 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Repeat the previous steps to generate an additional formula and name it “Por_mod”.1. Click OK in the next two windows that appear. This will reduce the original permeability by a factor of ten. Click OK in the General Property Specification window.1 (use the calculator buttons). Re-open the Formula Manager window by going to Tools>Formula Manager. Figure 103: Formula to change permeability 25.

Figure 105: Use of the formula to recalculate property 28. Save the file as IMEX_TUTORIAL_CONS_BHP_TIGHT. 88 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Click on Specify Property button and go to the property of Permeability I and under Whole Grid cell right click and select Formula.Tutorial . Figure 104: Formula to change porosity 26. Click OK to the message that will appear. Click on the Formula button and select the formula Perm_Mod.DAT. 27.

31. Click OK in the General Property Specification window and OK to the message relating to circular dependency. Figure 106: Selection of formula NAME from formula manager. Under the General Property Specification the panel should looks like this. In the Block/Corner Value Calculation window that will appear. be sure to uncheck the boxes relating to the two custom properties 89 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Repeat the previous steps to recalculate the property of porosity based on the formula named Por_mod. 30. 29. Click on OK to accept the formula to recalculate the property of permeability.Tutorial . Figure 107: Properties of porosity and permeability based on formulas 32.

33. Go to the Launcher and run the file using IMEX. 34.Tutorial . 90 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Figure 108: Uncheck the Custom Properties This will ensure that the custom properties will not be recalculated. This is to guarantee that we always save our original permeability and porosity data. Plot the oil production rates per well. It can be observed that the production per well is low as typically happens in tight reservoirs.

Tutorial .Figure 109: Production profile per well for tight reservoir. 91 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows .

Select General Correlation as the Non-Darcy Flow Option. click on the Non-Darcy Option tab at the top of the wizard.485e9  N1: 1.5 92 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . The low production rate in the hypothetical reservoir of lower permeability can be remedied by implementing hydraulic fractures in some wells.021  N2: 0  Forch_max: 10.Tutorial .dat 36. The Hydraulically Fractured Wells wizard performs Local Grid Refinement to bring the grid-block size close to the actual fracture width. Open the dataset IMEX_TUTORIAL_CONS_BHP_TIGHT. to model the fracture more explicitly than using something like skin factor. Under Wells & Recurrent select the option Hydraulic Fracturing. 35. The following values will be applied for each phase:  Alpha: 1.Addition of Hydraulic Fracture We will examine how much of an increase in production rates can be seen if a well is hydraulically fractured. In the new window that will appear. Figure 110: Hydraulic Fractures wizard 37.000  Forchheimer Number Weighting Factor: 0.

Figure 111: Non-Darcy flow options for hydraulically fractured wells

38. Click on the Templates tab and select to create a new template. Enter in the
following Properties:
 Fracture width: 0.005m
 Intrinsic Permeability: 60000 mD
 Orientation: J –Direction.
 Number of refinements in the I direction: 5
 Number of refinements in the J direction: 5
 Number of refinements in the K direction: 1
 Half Length: 250m
 Number of layers above perforation: 1
 Number of layers below perforation: 1

Figure 112: Creating a new fracture Template

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Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows - Tutorial

Figure 113: Creating a new fracture Template

39. Click the Apply button and navigate to the Fractures tab.
40. Select the date 1993-06-15 for well ‘wl5’ and then select New Planar Fracture Stage.

Figure 114: Adding a new planar stage

41. Select Planar Template for the Fracture Template. Click Apply and then close the
“Hydraulically Fractured Wells” window.
42. In the tree view under Numerical double click on Numerical Controls. Adjust the
following settings:

DTWELL: 1e-4
DTMIN: 1e-6

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Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows - Tutorial

NCUTS: 7
43. You can zoom in to see the refinement for the fracture and how the Permeability and
Forchheimer Equation Beta Correction properties have been modified for the grid
blocks corresponding to the fracture.

Figure 115: Properties associated to the new fracture in Builder.

44. Save the file as IMEX_TUTORIAL_CONS_BHP_TIGHT_hf.DAT then run the file in
IMEX.
45. Compare in Results Graph, oil production rate for the well wl5 with the case with no
hydraulic fractures.

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Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows - Tutorial

Compare your scenarios per well and per field in terms of the oil recovery factor. 5. Drill new horizontal wells and define an estimate of the maximum number of new wells for this reservoir. 2. Using the Horizontal Wells case as a base case. Figure 116: Effect of hydraulic fractures in well wl5. implement a development plan for the reservoir. Extend the prediction period until 2027-01-01. Create conclusions of your different scenarios of prediction. Convert one or two wells from producers to injectors in 2010-03-01. 6. 3. Extra Exercise 1. 4. 96 Introduction to CMG’s Modelling Workflows . Try different injection rates. 7.Tutorial . Use groups to control the injection rate.