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Complex Analysis: Problems with solutions

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Complex Analysis
Problems with solutions

Juan Carlos Ponce Campuzano

Copyright
c 2016 Juan Carlos Ponce Campuzano

P UBLISHED BY J UAN C ARLOS P ONCE C AMPUZANO

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
4.0 International License.

License at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

First e-book version, August 2015

Contents

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1 Complex Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.1 Basic algebraic and geometric properties 7
1.2 Modulus 13
1.3 Exponential and Polar Form, Complex roots 16

2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1 Basic notions 21
2.2 Limits, Continuity and Differentiation 35
2.3 Analytic functions 39
2.3.1 Harmonic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3 Complex Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.1 Contour integrals 49
3.2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 55
3.3 Improper integrals 71

4 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.1 Taylor and Laurent series 75
4.2 Classification of singularities 85

4.3 Applications of residues 91
4.3.1 Improper integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Foreword

This text constitutes a collection of problems for using as an additional learning resource
for those who are taking an introductory course in complex analysis. The problems are
numbered and allocated in four chapters corresponding to different subject areas: Complex
Numbers, Functions, Complex Integrals and Series. The majority of problems are provided
with answers, detailed procedures and hints (sometimes incomplete solutions).

Of course, no project such as this can be free from errors and incompleteness. I will
be grateful to everyone who points out any typos, incorrect solutions, or sends any other
suggestion for improving this manuscript.

Contact: j.ponce@uq.edu.au
2016

.

Verifythat   √ √  (a) 2 − i − i 1 − 2i = −2i (b) (2 − 3i) (−2 + i) = −1 + 8i Solution.1 Basic algebraic and geometric properties 1.  2. Solution. We have 5i 5i i i 1 = = 2 = = (1 − i)(2 − i)(3 − i) (1 − i)(5 − 5i) (1 − i) −2i 2  . and (2 − 3i) (−2 + i) = −4 + 2i + 6i − 3i2 = −4 + 3 + 8i = −1 + 8i. Complex Numbers 1. Reduce the quantity 5i (1 − i)(2 − i)(3 − i) to a real number. We have √   √  √ √ 2 − i − i 1 − 2i = 2 − i − i + 2 = −2i. 1.

z3 ∈ C. Proof.  4. (b) Im(iz) = Re(z).8 Chapter 1. show that (z1 z2 )z3 = z1 (z2 z3 ) for all z1 . 2. 2−i (b) (1 − 2i)4 . (z1 z2 )z3 = z1 (z2 z3 )  5. Then Re(iz) = Re(−y + xi) = −y = − Im(z) and Im(iz) = Im(−y + xi) = x = Re(z). Then (z1 z2 )z3 = ((x1 + y1 i)(x2 + y2 i))(x3 + y3 i) = ((x1 x2 − y1 y2 ) + i(x2 y1 + x1 y2 ))(x3 + y3 i) = (x1 x2 x3 − x3 y1 y2 − x2 y1 y3 − x1 y2 y3 ) + i(x2 x3 y1 + x1 x3 y2 + x1 x2 y3 − y1 y2 y3 ) and z1 (z2 z3 ) = (x1 + y1 i)((x2 + y2 i))(x3 + y3 i)) = (x1 + y1 i)((x2 x3 − y2 y3 ) + i(x2 y3 + x3 y2 )) = (x1 x2 x3 − x3 y1 y2 − x2 y1 y3 − x1 y2 y3 ) + i(x2 x3 y1 + x1 x3 y2 + x1 x2 y3 − y1 y2 y3 ) Therefore. . Let z = x + yi with x = Re(z) and y = Im(z). Proof. (b) −7 + 24i. z2 . Show that (a) Re(iz) = − Im(z). Complex Numbers 3. Let zk = xk + iyk for k = 1. That is. Verify the associative law for multiplication of complex numbers. Compute 2+i (a) . 3. Answer: (a) (3 + 4i)/5.

m=0 2m m=0 2m + 1 .1 Basic algebraic and geometric properties 9 6. Let zk = xk + yk i for k = 1. Solution. Proof. Then z1 z2 = (x1 + y1 i)(x2 + y2 i) = (x1 x2 − y1 y2 ) + i(x2 y1 + x1 y2 ) and hence   x1 x2 − y1 y2 x2 y1 + x1 y2 f (z1 z2 ) = . + ab + b 0 1 n−1 n n   n n−k k =∑ a b k=0 k to expand √ (a) (1 + √3i)2011 . z2 ∈ C. (b) (1 + 3i)−2011 . k=0 k k=0 k Since ik = (−1)m for k = 2m even and ik = (−1)m i for k = 2m + 1 odd.. 2..  7. By binomial theorem. f (z1 z2 ) = f (z1 ) f (z2 ). √ 2011   2011 m (1 + 3i) = ∑ 3 (−1)m 0≤2m≤2011 2m √   2011 +i ∑ 3m 3(−1)m 0≤2m+1≤2011 2m + 1 1005  1005  √   2011 m 2011 = ∑ (−3) + i ∑ (−3)m 3. √ 2011 2011 2011 √ k 2011 2011 k/2 k     (1 + 3i) = ∑ ( 3i) = ∑ 3 i. −x2 y1 − x1 y2 x1 x2 − y1 y2 On the other hand.      x1 y1 x2 y2 x1 x2 − y1 y2 x2 y1 + x1 y2 f (z1 ) f (z2 ) = = . Use binomial theorem         n n n n n−1 n n−1 n n (a + b) = a + a b + . Let f be the map sending each complex number   x y z = x + yi → − −y x Show that f (z1 z2 ) = f (z1 ) f (z2 ) for all z1 . −y1 x1 −y2 x2 −x2 y1 − x1 y2 x1 x2 − y1 y2 Therefore.1.

10 Chapter 1.1: . Graph the following regions in the complex plane: (a) {z : Re z ≥ 2 Im z}. 4 m=0 2m + 1  8. Solution. Complex Numbers Similarly. (b) {z : π/2 < Arg z ≤ 3π/4}. (c) {z : |z − 4i + 2| > 2}. 2011 √ !2011 √  1 1 − 3i (1 + 3i)−2011 = √ = 1 + 3i 4 1 2011 2011 √   = 2011 ∑ (− 3i)k 4 k=0 k 1 1005 2011   = 2011 ∑ (−3)m 4 m=0 2m i 1005 2011 √   − 2011 ∑ (−3)m 3. (a) Figure 1.

1 Basic algebraic and geometric properties 11 (b) Figure 1.3: .2: (c) Figure 1.1.

Show that there exists a real number r such that z1 = rz2 . z = if and only if |z| = 3. z 9 Hence.  x22 + y22 . Thus z1 z2 = x1 x2 − y1 y2 + (x1 y2 + y1 x2 )i Since z1 z2 is real and non-zero. Thus z+z = 0 x + iy + z + iy = 0 x − iy + x + iy = 0 2x = 0 x = 0 Hence. Proof. z + z if and only if Re z = 0. z1 6= 0. z = z if and only if Im z = 0. (a) Let z = z + iy.12 Chapter 1. Find all complex solutions of the following equations: (a) z = z. since z2 6= 0. y1 . Complex Numbers 9. Thus. and x1 x2 − y1 y2 6= 0 and x1 y2 + y1 x2 = 0. 9 (c) z = .  z 10. z Solution. (b) z + z = 0. we have the result. Thus z = z x + iy = x + iy x − iy = x + iy −iy = iy y = 0 Hence. y2 ∈ R. with z1 z2 real and non-zero. Suppose that z1 and z2 are complex numbers. (c) In this part we have 9 z= ⇐⇒ zz = 9 ⇐⇒ |z|2 = 9 ⇐⇒ |z| = 3. Let z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 with x1 . z2 6= 0. then z1 x1 + iy1 x2 + iy2 = · z2 x2 − iy2 x2 + iy2 x1 x2 − y1 y2 + (x1 y2 + y1 x2 )i = x22 + y22 x1 x2 − y1 y2 = . x22 + y22 x1 x2 − y1 y2 By setting r = . (b) Let z = z + iy. x2 .

 . √ √  (b) Is 3 ∈ Q 2 ? √ √ √  Proof. Since b 6= 0. Since Q ⊂ R and R is a field. Proof. q ∈ Q . 6 ∈ Q. We have |z1 − z2 |2 + |z1 + z2 |2 = (z1 − z2 )(z1 − z2 ) + (z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 ) = (z1 − z2 )(z1 − z2 ) + (z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 ) = ((z1 z1 + z2 z2 ) − (z1 z2 + z2 z1 )) + ((z1 z1 + z2 z2 ) + (z1 z2 + z2 z1 )) = 2(z1 z1 + z2 z2 ) = 2(|z1 |2 + |z2 |2 ). Note that b 6= 0. Thus we have √ √ 3−b 2 = a √ √ 3 − 2 2 3b + 2b2 = a2 √ 2 6b = 3 − a2 . 2b √ √ √  That is. 3 ∈ /Q 2  1. (a) Let p + q 2. Show that |z1 − z2 |2 + |z1 + z2 |2 = 2(|z1 |2 + |z2 |2 ) for all z1 .2 Modulus 13 √ √  n √ o 11. 1. which is a contradiction. Therefore.2 Modulus 1. √  (a) Show that Q 2 is a field. we have the following: Closure under (+):  √   √  √ √  p + q 2 + r + s 2 = (p + r) + (q + s) 2 ∈ Q 2 Closure under (·):  √   √  √ √  p + q 2 · r + s 2 = (pr + 2sq) + (rq + ps) 2 ∈ Q 2 √ √ √  (b) Suppose that 3 = a+b 2 ∈ Q 2 . √ 3 − a2 6= . r + s 2 ∈ Q 2 . z2 ∈ C. The set Q adjoin 2 is defined by Q 2 = p + q 2 : p.

14 Chapter 1. the curve is the line x + y = 0. √ | Re z| + | Im z| ≤ 2|z|. Solution. Verify that 2|z| ≥ | Re z| + | Im z|. Solution. Complex Numbers √ 2. (a) {Im(z) = −1} = {y = −1} is the horizontal line passing through the point −i. and then | Re z|2 + 2| Re z|| Im z| + | Im z|2 ≤ 2(| Re z|2 + | Im z|2 ). Thus 2| Re z|| Im z| ≤ | Re z|2 + | Im z|2 . (c) Since 2|z| = |z − 2| ⇔ 2|x + yi| = |(x − 2) + yi| ⇔ 4|x + yi|2 = |(x − 2) + yi|2 ⇔ 4(x2 + y2 ) = (x − 2)2 + y2 ⇔ 3x2 + 4x + 3y2 = 4 2 2   16 ⇔ x+ + y2 = 3 9 . (b) Since |z − 1| = |z + i| ⇔ |(x − 1) + yi| = |x + (y + 1)i| ⇔ |(x − 1) + yi|2 = |x + (y + 1)i|2 ⇔ (x − 1)2 + y2 = x2 + (y + 1)2 ⇔ x + y = 0.  3. (c) 2|z| = |z − 2|. Hint: Reduce this inequality to (|x| − |y|)2 ≥ 0. and therefore. (b) |z − 1| = |z + i|. Note that 0 ≤ (| Re z| + | Im z|)2 = | Re z|2 − 2| Re z|| Im z| + | Im z|2 . Sketch the curves in the complex plane given by (a) Im(z) = −1. Let z = x + yi. That is (| Re z| + | Im z|)2 ≤ 2(| Re z|2 + | Im z|2 ) = 2|z|2 .

.

.

2 .

4 ⇔ .

.

z + .

.

= 3 3 the curve is the circle with centre at −2/3 and radius 4/3.  .

2 Modulus 15 4. Show that R4 − R .1.

4 .

4 .

z + iz .

≤ .

.

≤ R +R R2 + R + 1 .

z2 + z + 1 .

Hence . Proof. (R − 1)2 for all z satisfying |z| = R > 1. |z4 + iz| ≥ |z4 | − |iz| = |z|4 − |i||z| = R4 − R and |z2 + z + 1| ≤ |z2 | + |z| + |1| = |z|2 + |z| + 1 = R2 + R + 1 by triangle inequality. When |z| = R > 1.

4 .

4 .

. ≥ R −R .

z + iz .

.

.

z2 + z + 1 .

|z4 + iz| ≤ |z4 | + |iz| = |z|4 + |i||z| = R4 + R and . R2 + R + 1 On the other hand.

√ ! √ !.

.

.

−1 + 3i −1 − 3i .

|z2 + z + 1| = .

z − z− .

2 2 .

.

.

.

√ .

.

√ .

.

−1 + 3i .

.

.

.

−1 − 3i .

.

= .

z − .

.

z − .

2 2 .

.

.

.

.

.

−1 + √3i .

.

−1 − √3i .

.

.

! .

.

! ≥ |z| − .

|z| − .

.

.

2 2

.

.

.

.

.

= (R − 1)(R − 1) = (R − 1)2 Therefore. .

4 .

4 .

z + iz .

.

.

≤ R +R . .

z2 + z + 1 .

Show that | Log(z)| ≤ |ln |z|| + π (1. Proof.1) for all z 6= 0. Since Log(z) = ln |z| + i Arg(z) for −π < Arg(z) ≤ π. (R − 1)2  5. | Log(z)| = | ln |z| + i Arg(z)| ≤ |ln |z|| + |i Arg(z)| ≤ |ln |z|| + π.  .

1−i i (b) all the 3rd roots of −8i. Find the principal argument and exponential form of i (a) z = . Complex roots 1. √1+i (b) z = 3 + i. − 3−i (c) 1337 iπ 1337    i+1 √ = exp 2 4 1337πi = exp  4 π  = exp 167 · 2πi + i 4 π 1+i = exp i = √ . i + 1 1337   (c) √ 2 Solution. (a) i 1−i i2 + (1 − i)2 + = 1−i i (1 − i)i −1 − 2i 1 − i = · 1−i 1−i −1 + i − 2i − 2 = 2 −3 − i 3 i = =− − 2 2 2 (b) We have that   −iπ 3 −8i = 2 exp 2 Thus the cube roots are       −iπ iπ 7iπ 2 exp . Express the following in the form x + iy. Complex Numbers 1. 6 2 6 That is √ √ 3 − i. y ∈ R: i 1−i (a) + . . 2. 16 Chapter 1. (c) z = 2 − i. 4 2  2.3 Exponential and Polar Form. 2 exp and 2 exp . with x.

1. (a) The roots are √ √ 6 √ 3 z = 6 −9 = 9eπi = 3eπi/6 e2mπi/6 (m = 0. 4. 3. 2e3πi/4 . − + i. Solution. 2. − i. Find the four roots of the polynomial z4 + 16 and use these to factor z4 + 16 into two quadratic polynomials with real coefficients. Complex roots 17 Answer: √ (a) Arg(z) = π/4 and z = ( 2/2) exp(πi/4). 3.3 Exponential and Polar Form. 1.1. 2e5πi/4 . Solution. 2 2 2 2  4. 3. 2. − 3i. 1) √ ! √ √ ! √ 2 2 2 2 = −1 + + i. The four roots of z4 + 16 are given by √ √4 √4 4 −16 = 16eπi = 16eπi/4 e2mπi/4 = 2eπi/4 . −1 − − i. (b) z2 + 2z + (1 − i) = 0. 3i. We see that these roots appear in conjugate pairs: 2eπi/4 = 2e7πi/4 and 2e3πi/4 = 2e5πi/4 . (b) Arg(z) = π/6 and z = 2 exp(πi/6). This gives the way to factor z4 + 16 into two quadratic polynomials of real coeffi- cients: z4 + 16 = (z − 2eπi/4 )(z − 2e3πi/4 )(z − 2e5πi/4 )(z − 2e7πi/4 )    = (z − 2eπi/4 )(z − 2e7πi/4 ) (z − 2e3πi/4 )(z − 2e5πi/4 ) = (z2 − 2 Re(2eπi/4 )z + 4)(z2 − 2 Re(2e3πi/4 )z + 4) √ √ = (z2 − 2 2z + 4)(z2 + 2 2z + 4)  . 5) √ √ √ √ 35/6 3 3 √3 35/6 3 3 35/6 3 3 √ 3 35/6 3 3 = + i. − − i. 2e7πi/4 for m = 0. Find all the complex roots of the equations: (a) z6 = −9. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (b) The roots are √ p −2 +4 − 4(1 − i) z= = −1 + i p 2 = −1 + eπi/2 = −1 + eπi/4 e2mπi/2 (m = 0. √ (c) Arg(z) = − tan−1 (1/2) and z = 5 exp(− tan−1 (1/2)i).

18 Chapter 1. √ √ (1 + 3i)−2011 = 2−2013 (1 − 3i). By Problem 7 in section 1. Do the following: (a) Use exponential √ 2011form to compute i. m=0 2m + 1 Solution.1. (1 + √3i) . Similarly. Since √ ! √   1 3 πi 1 + 3i = 2 + i = 2 exp . m m=0 m=0  . m=0 2m m=0 2m + 1 It follows that 1005   1005   2011 2011 ∑ 2m (−3) = ∑ 2m + 1 (−3)m = 22010. (1 + 3i)−2011 . (b) Prove that 1005   2011 ∑ 2m (−3)m = 22010 m=0 and 1005   2011 ∑ (−3)m = 22010 . we have √ √ 22010 (1 + 3i) = (1 + 3i)2011 1005  1005  √   2011 m 2011 = ∑ (−3) + i ∑ (−3)m 3. 2 2 3 we have √ 2011     2011 2011πi 2011 2011πi (1 + 3i) =2 exp =2 exp 3 3   πi = 22011 exp 670πi + 3   √ ! πi 1 3 = 22011 exp = 22011 + i 3 2 2 √ = 22010 (1 + 3i). Complex Numbers 5. ii.

3 Exponential and Polar Form. . where 0 < θ < 2π. if z 6= 1 1 −  n + 1. |CA| = b. 2 sin(θ /2)  7. To derive the second identity. write z = eiθ in the first one. then z 6= 1. Hint: Place C at the origin. z if z = 1. Establish the identity 1 − zn+1 1 + z + z2 + · · · + zn = (z 6= 1) 1−z and then use it to derive Lagrange’s trigonometric identity: (2n+1)θ 1 sin 2 1 + cos θ + cos 2θ · · · + cos nθ = + (0 < θ < 2π). Use complex numbers to prove the Law of Cosine: Let ∆ABC be a triangle with |BC| = a. 2 2 sin θ2 Hint: As for the first identity. B at z1 and A at z2 . then (1 − z)(1 + z + · · · + zn ) = 1 + z + · · · + zn − (z + z2 + · · · + zn+1 ) = 1 − zn+1 Thus   1 − zn+1 1 + z + z2 + · · · + zn = . we obtain 1 sin[(n + 12 )θ ] 1 + cos θ + cos 2θ · · · + cos nθ = + 2 2 sin(θ /2) and cos(θ /2) − cos[(n + 12 )θ ] sin θ + sin 2θ · · · + sin nθ = . Prove that z1 z2 + z2 z1 = 2|z1 z2 | cos θ . |AB| = c and ∠BCA = θ . If z 6= 1. Proof. Taking z = eiθ .1. Thus iθ 2iθ niθ 1 − e(n+1)θ 1 − e(n+1)θ 1+e +e +···+e = = −eiθ /2 eiθ /2 − e−iθ /2  1 − eiθ −e−iθ /2 (1 − e(n+1)θ ) = 2i sin(θ /2)  1  i e−iθ /2 −e (n+ 2 )iθ = 2 sin(θ /2) 1 sin[(n + 12 )θ ] cos(θ /2) − cos[(n + 12 )θ ] = + +i 2 2 sin(θ /2) 2 sin(θ /2) Equating real and imaginary parts. write S = 1 + z + z2 + · · · + zn and consider the difference S − zS. Complex roots 19 6. Then a2 + b2 − 2ab cos θ = c2 .

Then z1 z2 + z2 z1 = r1 eiθ1 r2 eiθ2 + r2 eiθ2 r1 eiθ1 = (r1 eiθ1 )(r2 e−iθ2 ) + (r2 eiθ2 )(r1 e−iθ1 ) = r1 r2 ei(θ1 −θ2 ) + r1 r2 ei(θ2 −θ1 ) = 2r1 r2 cos(θ1 − θ2 ) = 2|z1 ||z2 | cos θ = 2ab cos θ . So a2 + b2 − c2 = |z1 |2 + |z2 |2 − |z2 − z1 |2 = (z1 z1 + z2 z2 ) − (z2 − z1 )(z2 − z1 ) = (z1 z1 + z2 z2 ) − (z2 − z1 )(z2 − z1 ) = (z1 z1 + z2 z2 ) − (z1 z1 + z2 z2 − z1 z2 − z2 z1 ) = z1 z2 + z2 z1 . Therefore. B = z1 and A = z2 . Then a = |z1 |. b = |z2 | and c = |z2 − z1 |.20 Chapter 1. we let C = 0. Let z1 = r1 eiθ1 and z2 = r2 eiθ2 . we have a2 + b2 − c2 = z1 z2 + z2 z1 = 2ab cos θ and hence a2 + b2 − 2ab cos θ = c2 . Following the hint.  . Complex Numbers Proof.

. 2. (b) f (z) = z3 − z = (x + yi)3 − (x + yi) = (x3 + 3x2 yi − 3xy2 − y3 i) − (x + yi) = (x3 − 3xy2 − x) + i(3x2 y − y3 − y). 1 (c) f (z) = . y) = Im( f (z)): (a) f (z) = z3 + z + 1 (b) f (z) = z3 − z. Write the following functions f (z) in the forms f (z) = u(x. Solution. y) under Carte- sian coordinates with u(x. y) + iv(x.1 Basic notions 1. y) = Re( f (z)) and v(x. i−z (d) f (z) = exp(z2 ). (a) f (z) = (x + iy)3 + (x + iy) + 1 = (x + iy)(x2 − y2 + 2ixy) + x + iy + 1 = x3 − xy2 + 2ix2 y + ix2 y − iy3 − 2xy2 + x + iy + 1 = x3 − 3xy2 + x + 1 + i(3x2 y − y3 + y). Functions 2.

22 Chapter 2. (b) p(z) = 0 if and only if p(z) = 0. Prove that (a) p(z) = p(z). a1 . if z0 is a root of p(z) = 0. Suppose that f (z) = x2 − y2 − 2y + i(2x − 2xy). (c) the roots of p(z) = 0 appear in conjugate pairs. Therefore. then p(z) = p(z) = 0 and hence p(z) = 0. then p(z) = 0 and hence p(z) = p(z) = 0. + an zn for a0 . Suppose p(z) is a polynomial with real coefficients.. If p(z) = 0. if p(z) = 0. Then p(z) = a0 + a1 z + · · · + an zn = a0 + a1 z + · · · + an zn = a0 + (a1 )z + · · · + (an )zn = a0 + a1 z + · · · + an zn = p(z).. so is z0 .  . We have f (z) = x2 − y2 − 2y + i(2x − 2xy) = x2 − y2 + i2x − i2xy − 2y = (x − iy)2 + i(2x + 2iy) = z2 + 2iz.. on the other hand.. Proof. Let p(z) = a0 + a1 z + .  3. Use the expressions z+z z−z x= and y = 2 2i to write f (z) in terms of z and simplify the result. Functions (c) 1 1 f (z) = = i − z −x + (1 − y)i −x − (1 − y)i = 2 x + (1 − y)2 x 1−y =− 2 2 −i 2 x + (1 − y) x + (1 − y)2 (d) f (z) = exp(z2 ) = exp((x + yi)2 ) = exp((x2 − y2 ) + 2xyi) 2 −y2 = ex (cos(2xy) + i sin(2xy)) x2 −y2 2 −y2 =e cos(2xy) − iex sin(2xy)  2.. where z = x + iy.. Solution. . i. By the above. p(z0 ) = 0 if and only if p(z0 ) = 0.e. an ∈ R. z0 is a root of p(z) = 0 if and only if z0 is.

Solution. Let z T (z) = .1 Basic notions 23 4. z+1 Find the inverse image of the disk |z| < 1/2 under T and sketch it. Let D = {|z| < 1/2}.2. The inverse image of D under T is 1 T −1 (D) = {z ∈ C : T (z) ∈ D} = {|T (z)| < }  .

.

 2 .

z .

1 = z : .

.

.

< = {2|z| < |z + 1|}. z + 1.

2 Let z = x + yi. Then 2|z| < |z + 1| ⇔ 4(x2 + y2 ) < (x + 1)2 + y2 ⇔ 3x2 − 2x + 3y2 < 1 1 2   4 ⇔ x− + y2 < 3 9 .

.

.

1.

2 ⇔ .

.

z − .

.

< 3 3 So  .

.

 −1 .

1 .

.

2 T (D) = z : .

z − .

< .

bounded.  Solution.  5. It is not closed since the only sets that are both open and closed in C are 0/ and C. (a) |z + 3| < 1. Sketch the following sets in the complex plane C and determine whether they are open. It is connected since it is a convex set. Solution. y) = (x + 3)2 + y2 − 1 is a continuous function on R2 . {|z + 3| < 1} ⊂ {|z| < 4} and hence it is bounded. Briefly state your reason. Since |z| = |z + 3 − 3| ≤ |z + 3| + | − 3| = |z + 3| + 3 < 4 for all |z + 3| < 1. or neither. closed. 3 3 is the disk with centre at 1/3 and radius 2/3. . (b) We have {| Im(z)| ≥ 1} = {|y| ≥ 1} = {y ≥ 1} ∪ {y ≤ −1}. the set is open. (a) Since {|z + 3| < 1} = {(x + 3)2 + y2 − 1 < 0} and f (x. (b) | Im(z)| ≥ 1. connected. (c) 1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2.

So the set is connected. Show that | sin z|2 = (sin x)2 + (sinh y)2 for all complex numbers z = x + yi. p4 }. we let p1 = −3/2.24 Chapter 2. {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2} ⊂ {|z| < 5} and hence it is bounded. The set is not connected. Then pm+1 ∈ {y ≤ −1}. pn = q and pk ∈ {| Im(z)| ≥ 1} for all 0 ≤ k ≤ n.. The set is connected. Functions Since f (x. It is not open since the only sets that are both open and closed in C are 0/ and C. p2 = −3 + 3i/2. | sin(z)|2 = | sin(x + yi)|2 = | sin(x) cos(yi) + cos(x) sin(yi)|2 = | sin(x) cosh(y) − i cos(x) sinh(y)|2 = sin2 x cosh2 y + cos2 x sinh2 y = sin2 x(1 + sinh2 y) + cos2 x sinh2 y = sin2 x + (cos2 x + sin2 x) sinh2 y = (sin x)2 + (sinh y)2 . Since |z| = |z + 3 − 3| ≤ |z + 3| + | − 3| < 5 for all |z + 3| < 2. All these points lie on the circle {|z + 3| = 3/2} and hence lie in {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2}. It follows that there is a point p ∈ pm pm+1 such that Im(p) = 0. (c) Since −2 ∈ {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2} and {|z + 2| < r} 6⊂ {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2} for all r > 0. −1 is a point lying on its complement {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2}c = {|z + 3| ≥ 2} ∪ {|z + 3| < 1} and {|z + 1| < r} 6⊂ {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2}c for all r > 0. {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2} is neither open nor closed. n→∞ n→∞ the set is unbounded. p2 . ppk ⊂ {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2} for at least one pk ∈ {p1 . p3 = −9/2 and p4 = −3 − 3i/2.  . {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2} is not open. It is easy to check that for every point p ∈ {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2}.  6. y) = y is continuous on R2 . Otherwise.  Solution. Let 0 ≤ m ≤ n be the largest integer such that pm ∈ {y ≥ 1}. To see this. both {y ≥ 1} and {y ≤ −1} are closed and hence {| Im(z)| ≥ 1} is closed. In summary. Since zn = n + 2i ∈ {| Im(z)| ≥ 1} for all n ∈ Z and p lim |zn | = lim n2 + 4 = ∞. let p = 2i and q = −2i. Hence {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2}c is not open and {1 ≤ |z + 3| < 2} is not closed. ∪ pn−1 pn with p0 = p. So Im(pm ) ≥ 1 > 0 and Im(pm+1 ) ≤ −1 < 0. Similarly. Therefore the set is not connected.. Proof. p3 . There is a polygonal path p0 p1 ∪ p1 p2 ∪ . This is a contradiction since pm pm+1 ⊂ {| Im(z)| ≥ 1} but p 6∈ {| Im(z)| ≥ 1}.

where x = Re(z) and y = Im(z). Since i(e−iz1 − eiz1 ) i(e−iz2 − eiz2 ) tan z1 + tan z2 = + iz eiz1 + e−iz1 e 2 + e−iz2 (e−iz 1 iz iz − e )(e + e ) + (e 1 2 −iz 2 −iz2 − eiz2 )(eiz1 + e−iz1 ) =i (eiz1 + e−iz1 )(eiz2 + e−iz2 ) ei(z1 +z2 ) − e−i(z1 +z2 ) = −2i (eiz1 + e−iz1 )(eiz2 + e−iz2 ) and i(e−iz1 − eiz1 )   −iz i(e 2 − eiz2 )   1 − (tan z1 )(tan z2 ) = 1 − eiz1 + e−iz1 eiz2 + e−iz2 (e−iz1 + eiz1 )(e−iz2 + eiz2 ) + (e−iz1 − e−iz1 )(e−iz2 − eiz2 ) = (e−iz1 + eiz1 )(e−iz2 + eiz2 ) ei(z1 +z2 ) + e−i(z1 +z2 ) =2 . 1 − (tan z1 )(tan z2 ) e 1 2 + e−i(z1 +z2 ) . | cos(z)|2 = | cos(x + yi)|2 = | cos(x) cos(yi) − sin(x) sin(yi)|2 = | cos(x) cosh(y) − i sin(x) sinh(y)|2 = cos2 x cosh2 y + sin2 x sinh2 y = cos2 x(1 + sinh2 y) + sin2 x sinh2 y = cos2 x + (cos2 x + sin2 x) sinh2 y = (cos x)2 + (sinh y)2  8.2. (eiz1 + e−iz1 )(eiz2 + e−iz2 ) we have tan z1 + tan z2 ei(z1 +z2 ) − e−i(z1 +z2 ) = −i i(z +z ) = tan(z1 + z2 ). Proof. Show that | cos(z)|2 = (cos x)2 + (sinh y)2 for all z ∈ C. Show that tan z1 + tan z2 tan(z1 + z2 ) = 1 − (tan z1 )(tan z2 ) for all complex numbers z1 and z2 satisfying z1 .1 Basic notions 25 7. z1 + z2 6= nπ + π/2 for any integer n. z2 . Proof.

1 − (tan z1 )(tan z2 ) We assume that F(z1 . i. Let tan z1 + tan z2 F(z1 . Functions Alternatively. Find all the complex roots of the equation cos z = 3. And we know that f (z) = 0 for z real. g(z) ≡ 0 in its domain. by the uniqueness of analytic functions. Therefore. Therefore. f (z) ≡ 0 in its domain. Therefore. z2 ) = 0 for all z1 ∈ C and z2 ∈ C in its domain. it comes down to solve the equation eiz + e−iz = 6. The roots of w2 − 6w + 1 = 0 are w = 3 ± 2 2. z2 ). Then g(z) is analytic in its domain C\({nπ + π/2} ∪ {nπ + π/2 − z2 }). Calculate sin +i . Solution. Then f (z) is analytic in its domain C\({nπ + π/2} ∪ {nπ + π/2 − z1 }).e. z2 ) = 0 for all z1 . z2 ) = tan(z1 + z2 ) − . z2 .  9. Hence F(z1 . w + w−1 = 6 ⇔ w2 − 6w + 1 = 0 √ if we let w = eiz .. So F(z1 . we can argue as follows if we assume that the identity holds for z1 and z2 real. And we have proved that g(z) = 0 for z real. Since cos z = (eiz + e−iz )/2. 4 Solution. z2 ) = 0 for all z1 ∈ R and z2 ∈ C in its domain.  π  10. z). z2 ∈ R with z1 . by the uniqueness of analytic functions.26 Chapter 2. we let g(z) = F(z. Fixing z2 ∈ C. Fixing z1 ∈ R. π  1 sin + i = (ei(π/4+i) − e−i(π/4+i) ) 4 2i 1 = (e−1 eπi/4 − ee−πi/4 ) 2i 1  −1 π π π π  = e (cos + i sin ) − e(cos − i sin ) 2i √  4 4 4 4  √   2 1 2 1 = e+ + e− i 4 e 4 e  . the solutions for cos z = 3 are √ √ √ iz = log(3 ± 2 2) ⇔ z = −i(ln(3 ± 2 2) + 2nπi) = 2nπ − i ln(3 ± 2 2) for n integers. we let f (z) = F(z1 . z1 + z2 6= nπ + π/2.

 √ 13. Solution. √ 1 1 πi πi 3 i f (−i) = exp( Log(−i)) = exp( (− )) = exp(− ) = − 3 3 2 6 2 2  (b) Show that f (z1 ) f (z2 ) = λ f (z1 z2 ) √ √ −1 + 3i −1 − 3i for all z1 . π  1 cos + i = (ei(π/3+i) + e−i(π/3+i) ) 3 2 1 −1 πi/3 = (e e + ee−πi/3 ) 2 1  −1 π π π π  = e (cos + i sin ) + e(cos − i sin ) 2 3 3 3 3   √   1 1 3i 1 = e+ − e− 4 e 4 e  12. Let f (z) be the principal branch of 3 z. (a) Find f (−i). Compute cos +i . 3 Solution. where λ = 1.2. Find ii and its principal value. z2 6= 0. We have ii = ei log i = ei(2nπi+πi/2) = e−2nπ−π/2 for n integers and its principal value given by ii = ei Log i = ei(πi/2) = e−π/2 . or .1 Basic notions 27 π  11. 2 2 . Solution.

 1 √  if n = 3k λ= −1+ 3i 2 if n = 3k + 1  −1−√3i  2 if n = 3k + 2 where k ∈ Z. λ = exp(2nπ). e2π or e−2π . Since f (z1 ) f (z2 ) = exp(−i Log z1 − i Log z2 + i Log(z1 z2 )) f (z1 z2 ) = exp(−i(Log z1 + Log z2 − Log(z1 z2 ))) = exp(−i(i Arg z1 + i Arg z2 − i Arg(z1 z2 ))) = exp(Arg z1 + Arg z2 − Arg(z1 z2 )) = exp(2nπ) for some integer n. where λ = 1. Let f (z) be the principal branch of z−i . And since −π < Arg(z1 ) ≤ π. Therefore. 1 or e2π .  . −π < Arg(z2 ) ≤ π and −π < Arg(z1 z2 ) ≤ π.  (b) Show that f (z1 ) f (z2 ) = λ f (z1 z2 ) for all z1 .28 Chapter 2. So n = −1. we conclude that −3π < Arg z1 + Arg z2 − Arg(z1 z2 ) < 3π and hence −3 < 2n < 3. 0 or 1 and λ = e−2π . λ = exp(2nπi/3). f (i) = i−i = exp(−i Log(i)) = exp(−i(πi/2)) = eπ/2 . Functions Proof. z2 6= 0. Solution. Since f (z1 ) f (z2 ) 1 1 1 = exp( Log z1 + Log z2 − Log(z1 z2 )) f (z1 z2 ) 3 3 3 1 = exp( (Log z1 + Log z2 − Log(z1 z2 ))) 3 i 2nπi = exp( (Arg z1 + Arg z2 − Arg(z1 z2 ))) = exp( ) 3 3 for some integer n.  14. Proof. (a) Find f (i).

Thus.2. Notice also that we can take d to be any nonzero complex number.3) 3 ai + b 3 f (i) = then = . 2c .2 we get d 6= 0.2. e. (ii) 1 and (iii) no fixed points in C. Hence the transformation we are looking for is z + 2i f (z) = . iz − 1  16. a = 1. Determine the Möbius transformation mapping 0 to 2. cz2 + (d − a)z − b = 0. cz + d If T (z) = z. Solution. 2i to 0. z+i Remark: Other formulations are possible for different choices of the constant d. then the expression 2. From 2.5) Now. (2. (b) Give examples of Möbius transformations having (i) 2. Consider the function az + b f (z) = . (a) Let the Möbius transformation be az + b T (z) = . and from 2. (2. cz + d cz2 + dz = az + b.5 is a quadratic equation with one or two solutions. can have at most 2 fixed points in C.g.4) 2 ci + d 2 From 2.2) d f (−2) = 0 then −2ia + b = 0 (2.4 we have c = 1. iz − 2 f (z) = .1 Basic notions 29 15. apart from the identity. (2. Let us take d = i. if c 6= 0. Proof. Let T be a mapping from C to C. That is −(d − a) + [(d − a)2 + 4bc]1/2 . and i to 3/2. (a) Show that any Möbius transformation. then az + b = z.1) cz + d Then b f (0) = 2 then =2 (2. from expression 2. A fixed point of T is a point z satisfying T (z) = z.3. we have b = 2i.

It has no solution. (ii) Now. is the following z T (z) = . which is excluded. (a) Using the definition of sin z. a function with one fixed point. 2 (iii) Finally. And. we have T (z) = z + 1. d That is the identity. if d = a and b = 0. we have eiz − e−iz e−iz − eiz  −iz e − eiz e − e−iz   iz  sin z = = = = 2i −2i −2i 2i = sin z (b) Recall that for z = x + iy. Functions If c = 0. Notice that in the last case we have d = a and b = c = 0. if c 6= 0 and (d − a)2 + 4bc 6= 0. Thus ez − e−z ez − e−z   cosh z = = = cosh z 2 2  . This equation has one solution b/(d − a).  17. show that: (a) sin z = sin z. then a = d 6= 0. if d = a and b 6= 0. Since ad − bc 6= 0. we will have 2 fixed points. (b) (i) From part (a). Thus we have az T (z) = = z. For z ∈ C. finally. with no fixed points. the function 1 T (z) = z is an example with two fixed points: −1 and 1. if d 6= a. Hence.30 Chapter 2. it has infinitely many solutions. expression 2. we have that ez = ex−iy = ex e−iy = ex eiy = ez . (b) cosh z = cosh z.5 becomes (d − a)z = b. Proof.

6). Solution.2. we have that log [exp (4i)] = 4i.1 Basic notions 31 18. substituting in (2. (b) zi = i. (b) Method one: We know that zi = exp (i log z). for n = 0. with n ∈ Z. we have that r = 1 and Θ = π2 . 2 Method two: Consider the following identity log [exp (i log z)] = log i (2. hπ i z = exp + 2nπ (n ∈ Z). then we have  π  exp i + 2nπ = exp [i(ln |z| + i arg(z))] 2 = exp [− arg(z) + i ln |z|] = exp [− arg(z)] · exp [i ln |z|] Thus π arg(z) = 2kπ (k ∈ Z) and ln |z| = + 2nπ (n ∈ Z) 2 Hence. Thus z = exp (log z) = exp (4i) = cos 4 + i sin 4 Notice that. we obtain i log z + 2n1 πi = log i (n1 ∈ Z) Thus log z = −i log i − 2n1 π (n1 ∈ Z) From the polar form of i. if z = exp (4i).6) Thus log [exp (i log z)] = i log z + 2n1 πi (n1 ∈ Z) Hence. (a) We have that exp (log z) = z. Thus exp (i log z) = i Since i = exp (i (π/2 + 2nπ)). then we have log (exp (4i)) = 4i + 2nπi (n ∈ Z) In particular. Find all solutions z ∈ C of of the following (express your answers in the form x + iy): (a) log z = 4i. Thus π  log i = ln 1 + i + 2n2 π (n2 ∈ Z) 2 So π h i π log z = −i ln 1 + i + 2n2 π − 2n1 π = + 2π(n2 − n1 ) 2 2 .

32 Chapter 2.7).7) 2 1−z Solution. zi = i when hπ i z = exp + 2nπ (n ∈ Z) 2  19. Show that   −1 1 1+z tanh z = log . 2 1−z  20. Solution. Functions with n1 . Using the formula (2. then sinh w ew − e−w e2w − 1 z = tanh w = = w = cosh w e + e−w e2w + 1 Thus z(e2w + 1) = e2w − 1 z+1 e2w = 1 −z  z+1 2w log e = log 1−z   1 z+1 w = log 2 1−z Hence   −1 1 z+1 tanh z = log . (2. we have   −1 1 1+i tanh (i) = log 2 1−i 1 = log (i) 2 . we have π log z = + 2nπ (n ∈ Z) 2 Therefore. n2 ∈ Z. Method one: Applying the inverse hyperbolic function in both sides we have z = tanh−1 z = tanh−1 (i). Find all solutions of the equation tanh z = i and express them in the form x + iy. If w = tanh−1 z. Since n2 − n1 ∈ Z.

4  . substituting in (2. using the formula   −1 i i+z tan z = log 2 i−z we obtain   −1 i i−1 tan (−1) = log 2 1+i i = log (i) 2 i h π i = i + 2nπ (n ∈ Z) 2 2 π  = − + nπ (n ∈ Z).8) Now. 2 2 Therefore 1 h π i π  z = tanh−1 (i) = i + 2nπ = i + nπ 2 2 4 for n ∈ Z. (2. we have π  iz = − + nπ (n ∈ Z). Method two: We know that sinh z −i sin(iz) tanh z = = = −i tan(iz). cosh z cos(iz) Thus. 4 Thus.1 Basic notions 33 Using the definition of log for i with r = 1 and Θ = π/2 we have that π  π  log (i) = ln 1 + i + 2nπ = i + 2nπ (n ∈ Z).8).2. tanh z = i ⇐⇒ −i tan(iz) = i ⇐⇒ tan(iz) = −1. 4 Hence π  z=i + nπ (n ∈ Z). Applying the inverse trigonometric function in both sides we have iz = tan−1 (iz) = tan−1 (−1).

(b) (i) The answer is ’yes’. we have Bε (z) ∩ Ωc1 6= 0/ and Bε (z) ∩ Ωc2 6= 0. we have that Bε (z) ∩ (Ω1 ∪ Ω2 ) 6= 0/ (2. for every ε > 0. / or both. Thus. Since Ω1 and Ω2 are closed. That is z ∈ ∂ Ω1 ∪ ∂ Ω2 .  .10) From expression (2. closed sets in C. This means that z ∈ ∂ Ω1 or z ∈ ∂ Ω2 (or both). Ω1 ∪ Ω2 = Ω2 is open. Functions 21.9). Ω2 = B1 (0). / Hence Bε (z) ∩ Ω1 6= 0/ and Bε (z) ∩ Ωc1 6= 0. Let Ω1 and Ω2 be nonempty. Ω2 = B2 (0). Therefore Ω1 ∪ Ω2 is closed. / or both.10). In this case. (a) We need to prove that ∂ (Ω1 ∪ Ω2 ) ⊆ Ω1 ∪ Ω2 . But. Ω1 = B1 (0). For example. / (2.9) and Bε (z) ∩ (Ω1 ∪ Ω2 )c = Bε (z) ∩ (Ωc1 ∩ Ωc2 ) 6= 0. Ω1 = B1 (0). from expression (2. Let z ∈ ∂ (Ω1 ∪ Ω2 ). (a) Show that the set Ω1 ∪ Ω2 is closed. Proof. we have that z ∈ ∂ Ω1 ∪ ∂ Ω2 ⊆ Ω1 ∪ Ω2 .34 Chapter 2. Bε (z) ∩ Ω1 6= 0/ or Bε (z) ∩ Ω2 6= 0. (ii) The answer is ’no’. For example. / or Bε (z) ∩ Ω2 6= 0/ and Bε (z) ∩ Ωc2 6= 0. (b) If instead Ω2 is nonempty and open: (i) could Ω1 ∪ Ω2 still be closed? (ii) Need it be closed? Give proofs or examples/counterexamples.

(a) iz3 + 1 i(z3 + i3 ) lim = lim z→−i z2 + 1 z→−i z2 + 1 i(z + i)(z2 − iz + i2 ) = lim z→−i (z + i)(z − i) i(z − iz + i2 ) 2 = lim z→−i z−i limz→−i (z2 − iz + i2 ) =i limz→−i (z − i) limz→−i z2 − i limz→−i z + limz→−i i2 =i limz→−i z − limz→−i i i((−i) − i(−i) + i2 ) 3 2 = = −i − i 2 (b) 4 + z2 4 + z−2 lim = lim z→∞ (z − 1)2 z→0 (z−1 − 1)2 4z2 + 1 limz→0 (4z2 + 1) = lim = z→0 (1 − z)2 limz→0 (1 − z)2 4(limz→0 z)2 + limz→0 1 = =1 (limz→0 1 − limz→0 z)2 (c) Since Im(z) y lim = lim = −i Re(z)=0.z→0 z y→0 yi and Im(z) 0 lim = lim = 0 Im(z)=0. z→−i z + 1 4 + z2 (b) lim . 2. Compute the following limits if they exist: iz3 + 1 (a) lim 2 . Continuity and Differentiation 35 2.z→0 z x→0 x the limit does not exist.2 Limits. . z→∞ (z − 1)2 Im(z) (c) lim . Continuity and Differentiation 1.2 Limits. z→0 z Solution.

 . Proof. (a) 1 5  4z5 4 z 4 lim 5 = lim = lim = 4. z→∞ (cz + d)3 z→0 (c/z + d)3 z→0 (c + dz)3 c  3. Functions 2. Hence limit does z→0 not exist. lim z/z must be independent of direction of approach. and then at points of the form 0 + yi for y → 0. z→0 Hint: Consider what happens to the function at points of the form x + 0i for x → 0.36 Chapter 2. z→∞ (cz + d)3 c Solution.  ⇐⇒ z→0 z4 Therefore. z→∞ z − 42z 1 5 1 z→0 1 − 42z4 z→0   z − 42 z (b) Notice that −1 z4 1/z4  lim 2 ⇐⇒ lim z→∞ z + 42z z→0 1/z2 + 42/z  −1 1 ⇐⇒ lim z→0 z2 + 42z3 lim z2 + 42z3 = 0. if c 6= 0. y 6= 0. for z = 0 + yi. z x = =1→1 as x → 0. y 6= 0. z x On the other hand. x 6= 0. z→∞ z2 + 42z (c) (az + b)3 (a/z + b)3 (a + bz)3 a3 lim = lim = lim = 3. z −yi However. z yi = = −1 → −1 as y → 0. Show the following limits: 4z5 (a) lim 5 = 4. For z = x + 0i. z→∞ z − 42z z4 (b) lim 2 = ∞. lim = ∞. x 6= 0. Show that lim z/z does not exist. z→∞ z + 42z (az + b)3 a3 (c) lim = 3 .

(b) the complex derivative f 0 (0) does not exist. (u(x. so is | f (z)|. y0 ). y) and v(x. y))2 + (v(x. It follows that q | f (z)| = (u(x. y))2 is continuous at z0 since the compositions of continuous functions are continuous. y) + iv(x. Proof.2. y) are continuous at (x0 . Let f (z) = u(x. Proof. Continuity and Differentiation 37 4. At z = 0. y))2 is continuous at (x0 . Let ( z3 /z2 if z 6= 0 f (z) = 0 if z = 0 Show that (a) f (z) is continuous everywhere on C. Show that if f (z) is continuous at z0 .  5. Since both z3 and z2 are continuous on C∗ = C\{0} and z2 6= 0.2 Limits. y). y))2 + (v(x. Therefore. we have . Since f (z) is continuous at z0 = x0 + y0 i. u(x. y0 ) since the sums and products of continuous functions are continuous. f (z) = z3 /z2 is continuous on C∗ .

3.

.

z .

lim | f (z)| = lim .

.

2 .

.

If y = 0 and x → 0. if x = 0 and y → 0. if exists. So f is also continuous at 0 and hence continuous everywhere on C. z=yi→0 z3 x→0 (yi)3 So the limit limz→0 z3 /z3 and hence f 0 (0) do not exist. z=x→0 z3 x→0 x3 On the other hand. then z3 (−yi)3 lim = lim = −1. = lim |z| = 0 z→0 z→0 z z→0 and hence limz→0 f (z) = 0 = f (0). z→0 z−0 z→0 z Let z = x + yi.  . The complex derivative f 0 (0). is given by f (z) − f (0) z3 lim = lim 3 . then z3 x3 lim = lim = 1.

the complex derivative f 0 (z) does not exist for any z ∈ C. It suffices to show that C-R equations fail at every z 6= 0: ∂ z3     ∂ ∂ ∂ +i f (z) = +i ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y z2  3 ∂ z3   ∂ z = +i ∂ x z2 ∂ y z2  2 2z3 3iz2 2iz3    3z = − 3 +i − 2 − 3 z2 z z z 6z2 = 2 6= 0 z for z 6= 0. z→z0 g(z) − g(z0 ) limz→z0 (g(z) − g(z0 ))/(z − z0 ) g (z0 ) Finally. 2z + 1 2 (d) f (z) = e1/z (z 6= 0).  7. Answer.1. we have f (z) − f (z0 ) lim = f 0 (z0 ) z→z0 z − z0 and g(z) − g(z0 ) lim = g0 (z0 ). z+1 1 (c) f (z) = (z 6= − ). since f (z0 ) = g(z0 ) = 0. Show that f (z) in (2) is actually nowhere differentiable. Since f (z) and g(z) are differentiable at z0 . f (z) and g(z) are differentiable at z0 and g0 (z0 ) 6= 0. (b) f (z) = (1 − z2 )4 .. (b) −8(1 − z2 )3 z. i. Then f (z) f 0 (z0 ) lim = 0 z→z0 g(z) g (z0 ) [Refer to: problems 1c and 6 in section 3. 8. Find f 0 (z) when (a) f (z) = z2 − 4z + 2. Functions 6. z→z0 g(z) g (z0 )  . Proof. (a) 2z − 4. z→z0 z − z0 And since g0 (z0 ) 6= 0. Suppose that f (z0 ) = g(z0 ) = 0. and problem 12 in section 3.2] Proof.38 Chapter 2. f (z) f 0 (z0 ) lim = 0 . f (z) − f (z0 ) limz→z0 ( f (z) − f (z0 ))/(z − z0 ) f 0 (z0 ) lim = = 0 . (c) −1/(2z + 1)2 .e. (d) −e1/z /z2 . Prove the following version of complex L’Hospital: Let f (z) and g(z) be two complex functions defined on |z − z0 | < r for some r > 0.

both f (z) and f (z) satisfy Cauchy-Riemann equations in D.   ∂ ∂ +i f (z) = 0 ∂x ∂y at z0 . Explain why the function f (z) = 2z2 − 3 − zez + e−z is entire. their composition e−z is entire. their product −zez is entire. Show that if f (z) satisfies the Cauchy-Riemann equations at z0 . since both −z and ez are entire. f (z) is the sum of 2z3 − 3.   ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ +i ( f (z))n = ( f (z))n + i ( f (z))n ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂ ∂ = ( f (z))n−1 f (z) + i( f (z))n−1 f (z) ∂x ∂y   ∂ ∂ = ( f (z))n−1 +i f (z) = 0 ∂x ∂y at z0 . So both f (z) and f (z) are analytic in D. then f (z) is a constant on D. −zez and e−z and hence entire. Proof. Therefore. Let f (z) be an analytic function on a connected open set D. Since f (z) satisfies the Cauchy-Riemann equations at z0 . If c2 = 0. Proof. 2. such that c1 f (z) + c2 f (z) = 0 for all z ∈ D. Proof.  2. f (z) = −(c1 /c2 ) f (z).3 Analytic functions 1. Finally. Therefore. And since f (z) is analytic in D. If c2 6= 0. Then we have c1 f (z) = 0 and hence f (z) = 0 for all z ∈ D. since ez and −z are entire.  2. y) with u = Re( f ) and v = Im( f ). f (z) is anlaytic in D.  . y) + iv(x. If there are two constants c1 and c2 ∈ C. It follows that     ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ +i u= +i v=0 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y and hence ux = uy = vx = vy = 0 in D. Since every polynomial is entire.3 Analytic functions 39 9. so does ( f (z))n for every positive integer n. Therefore. where f (z) = u(x. not all zero. Hence   ∂ ∂ +i (u + vi) = 0 ∂x ∂y and   ∂ ∂ +i (u − vi) = 0 ∂x ∂y in D. u and v are constants on D and hence f (z) ≡ const. 2z2 − 3 is entire. c1 6= 0 since c1 and c2 cannot be both zero.

Proof. Show that f (z) is a polynomial of degree 1. y) + iv(x. z0 = nπ + π/2. Therefore. . Since u(x. g0 (z) ≡ 0. At every point z0 satisfying cos(z0 ) = 0. | exp(z3 + i) + exp(−iz2 )| ≤ | exp(z3 + i)| + | exp(−iz2 )| = exp(Re(z3 + i)) + exp(Re(−iz2 )) = exp(Re((x3 − 3xy2 ) + (3x2 y − y3 + 1)i)) + exp(Re(2xy − (x2 − y2 )i)) 3 −3xy2 = ex + e2xy .40 Chapter 2. Let g(z) = exp( f (z) − z). sin(z) is nowhere analytic. That is. Show that the function sin(z) is nowhere analytic on C. y) ≤ x. y) ≤ x for all z = x + yi. Then |g(z)| = exp(u(x. Functions 3. y) be an entire function satisfying v(x. Show that 3 −3xy2 | exp(z3 + i) + exp(−iz2 )| ≤ ex + e2xy where x = Re(z) and y = Im(z). Since   ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ +i sin(z) = sin(z) + i sin(z) ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z = cos(z) + i cos(z) ∂x ∂y = cos(z) + i cos(z)(−i) = 2 cos(z) sin(z) is not differentiable and hence not analytic at every point z satisfying cos(z) 6= 0. i. Let f (z) = u(x. sin(z) is not differ- entiable in |z − z0 | < r for all r > 0. y) − x). And since g(z) is entire. Proof.e. In conclusion.. where u(x.  6. ( f 0 (z) − 1) exp( f (z) − z) ≡ 0 and hence f 0 (z) = 1 for all z. Let f (z) = u(x. y) = Im( f (z)). y) ≥ x for all z = x + yi. So f (z) ≡ z + c for some constant c. y) be an entire function satisfying u(x. g(z) must be constant by Louville’s theorem. Proof. Hence sin(z) is not analytic at z0 = nπ + π/2 either.  5.  4. Therefore. Show that f (z) is a polynomial of degree at most one. y) + iv(x. y) = Re( f (z)) and v(x. |g(z)| ≤ 1 for all z. Note that |ez | = eRe(z) .

Also find the complex derivative f 0 (z) of f (z) if f (z) is entire. Hence the Cauchy-Riemann equations fail for f (z) and f (z) is not entire. Since   ∂ ∂ +i f = (2x − 2yi) + i(−2y − 2xi) = 4x − 4yi 6= 0. Therefore. z (b) f (z) = 2(3 ) (here 2z and 3z are taken to be the principle values of 2z and 3z . y) = Re( f (z)) = (1 + x2 + y2 )−1 and v(x.  7. Determine which of the following functions f (z) are entire and which are not? You must justify your answer. the quadratic equation y2 − 2w0 y + 1 = 0 has a complex root y0 . Let g(z) = 2z and h(z) = 23 . Let g(z) = exp(i f (z) + z).  8. Then ez0 + e−z0 y2 + 1 2w0 y0 cosh(z0 ) = = 0 = = w0 . And since g(z) is entire.2. y) ≤ 0 and |g(z)| ≤ 1 for all z. So f (z) ≡ iz + c for some constant c. Show that the entire function cosh(z) takes every value in C infinitely many times. respectively. by convention) z Solution. Then |g(z)| = | exp((−v(x. . (i f 0 (z) + 1) exp(i f (z) + z) ≡ 0 and hence f 0 (z) = i for all z. y) = 0. g0 (z) ≡ 0. For every w0 ∈ C. Here z = x + yi with x = Re(z) and y = Im(z). 1 (a) f (z) = 1 + |z|2 Solution. y) + iu(x. ux = 2x(1 + x2 + y2 )−2 6= 0 = vy . g(z) must be constant by Louville’s theorem. Since both g(z) and h(z) are entire. That is. y0 6= 0 and there is z0 ∈ C such that ez0 = y0 . y)). Therefore. We cannot have y0 = 0 since 02 − 2w0 · 0 + 1 6= 0. y)) + (x + iy))| = exp(x − v(x. cosh(z0 + 2nπi) = w0 for all integers n. 2 2y0 2y0 And since cosh(z + 2πi) = cosh(z). x − v(x. There- fore. Since v(x. cosh(z) takes every value w0 infinitely many times. (c) f (z) = (x2 − y2 ) − 2xyi Solution. y) ≤ x.3 Analytic functions 41 Proof. Since u(x. Proof. ∂x ∂y the Cauchy-Riemann equations fail for f (z) and hence f (z) is not entire. f (z) = g(h(z)) is entire and z f 0 (z) = g0 (h(z))h0 (z) = 23 3z (ln 2)(ln 3) by chain rule.

Functions (d) f (z) = (x2 − y2 ) + 2xyi Solution. And f 0 (z) = fx = 2x + 2yi = 2z.42 Chapter 2. f (z) is analytic on C. ∂x ∂y the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold for f (z) everywhere. 9. And since fx and fy are continous. Let CR denote the upper half of the circle |z| = R for some R > 1. Since   ∂ ∂ +i f = (2x − 2yi) + i(2y + 2xi) = 0. Show that iz .

.

.

e .

1 .

z2 + z + 1 .

≤ (R − 1)2 .

.

Since y = Im(z) ≥ 0. Proof. And since . Let z = x + yi. |eiz | = |ei(x+yi) | = |e−y+xi | = e−y ≤ 1 for z ∈ CR . for all z lying on CR . For z ∈ CR . |z| = R and Im(z) ≥ 0.

√ ! √ !.

.

.

−1 + 3i −1 − 3i .

|z2 + z + 1| = .

z − z− .

2 2 .

.

.

.

√ .

.

√ .

.

−1 + 3i .

.

.

.

−1 − 3i .

.

= .

z − .

.

z − .

2 2 .

.

.

.

.

.

√ .

−1 + 3i .

.

! .

−1 − √3i .

.

.

! ≥ |z| − .

|z| − .

.

.

.

.

2 2 .

.

.

.

.

.

we obtain iz . = (R − 1)(R − 1) = (R − 1)2 .

.

.

.

e .

.

≤ 1 .

z2 + z + 1 .

.  10. (R − 1)2 for z ∈ CR . Let ( z2 /|z| if z 6= 0 f (z) = 0 if z = 0 Show that f (z) is continuous everywhere but nowhere analytic on C.

we just have to show that z2 lim f (z) = lim = f (0) = 0.2. f (z) is continuous on C∗ . z2 /|z| is continuous on C∗ . Since both z and |z| are continuous on C.3 Analytic functions 43 Proof. There- fore. To see that it is continuous at 0. z→0 z→0 |z| This follows from .

2.

.

z .

|z|2 lim .

.

.

.

0] = z : z = i . Im(z) ∈ (−∞. To show that f (z) is nowhere analytic. −1] ∪ (1. w ∈ (−∞. z→0 |z| z→0 |z| z→0 Therefore.  11. −1] ∪ [1. 0]. ∞)} . = lim = lim |z| = 0. f (z) is nowhere analytic. . it suffices to show that the Cauchy-Riemann equations fail for f (z) on C∗ . f (z) is continuous everywhere on C. ∞) w+1 w+1 so tan−1 (z) is analytic in C\ {z : Re(z) = 0. w−1 2 = 1− ∈ (−∞. 0] . The branch locus of tan−1 (z) is     i+z w−1 z: = w ∈ (−∞. Find where i i+z tan−1 (z) = Log 2 i−z is analytic? Solution. This follows from   2  ∂ ∂ z +i ∂x ∂y |z|  2z xz 2   2iz yz2  = − +i − − |z| |z|3 |z| |z|3 (4z − x − iy)z2 3z = = 6= 0 |z|3 |z| for z 6= 0. i−z w+1 For w ∈ (−∞. Consequently.

f (z) is nowhere analytic. Solution. ±1. Hence the function f (z) is defined on all C. but are nowhere analytic (here z = x + iy): (a) z 7→ 2xy + i(x2 + y2 ).12) Equation (2. Show where the function z 7→ x3 + i(1 − y)3 is: (a) analytic. . If f (z) were analytic then we will have ux = vy ⇒ −ey sin x = ey sin x ⇒ 2ey sin x = 0 ⇒ sin x = 0 and uy = −vx ⇒ ey cos x = −ey cos x ⇒ 2ey cos x = 0 ⇒ cos x = 0. However. Proof.11) and uy = −vx ⇒ 2x = −2x (2.12) is true only on the imaginary axis. .44 Chapter 2. (a) Notice that the real and imaginary components of the function f (z) = f (x + iy) = 2xy + i(x2 + y2 ) are well defined. equation (2. Show that the following functions are defined on all of C.  13.11) is true for all z ∈ C. Hence the function f (z) is defined on all C. (b) z 7→ ey eix . (b) Note that the real and imaginary components of the function f (z) = f (x + iy) = ey eix = ey cos x + iey sin x are well defined. On the other hand. Consequently. the roots of cos x are (2n − 1)π/2 but sin((2n − 1)π/2) = − cos(nπ) = −(−1)n 6= 0. If the function f (z) = f (z + iy) = x3 + i(1 − y)3 were analytic then we will have ux = vy ⇒ 3x2 = −3(1 − y)2 . On the one hand. but cos(nπ) = (−1)n 6= 0. Hence. . the Cauchy-Riemann equations are not satisfied anywhere. ±2. Functions 12. there is no point in C for which the functions f (z) is differentiable on a neighbourhood (since the Cauchy Riemann equations are necessary for differentiability) and therefore. we have that the roots of sin x are nπ (n = 0. (b) differentiable (here z = x + iy).). If f (z) were analytic then we will have ux = vy ⇒ 2y = 2y (2. .

uθ = 0. and. vθ are defined and continuous on the domain. Solution. in particular. y) = 3x2 y + 2x2 − y3 − 2y2 . This is defined on the whole domain. vr .  14. ur . (a) If u(x. with the Cauchy-Riemann equations being satisfied.3 Analytic functions 45 which is only satisfied at x = 0. (here z = x + iy = eiθ ): (a) z 7→ ln r + iθ . 1. domain {z : r > 0. Hence. and in each case give a conjugate harmonic function v (i. y) = 3x2 y + 2x2 − y3 − 2y2 . and state the derivative. vr = 0. Hence f is analytic on the whole domain. uy = 3x2 − 3x2 − 4y uxx = 6y + 4. −1}. r re z since z = reiθ . That is 1 rur = vθ ⇔ r· = 1. uθ . y) = ln(x2 + y2 ). 0 < θ < 2π}.3.e. v such that u + iv is analytic). y = 1. r The derivative is then   0 −iθ −iθ 1 1 1 f (z) = e (ur + ivr ) = e = iθ = .1 Harmonic functions 1. which holds everywhere. v. Verify that the following functions u are harmonic. on the other hand. Therefore the function f (z) is analytic there. it is not differentiable on any neighbourhood of any point. which is true on the whole domain. z −z Solution. Since the Cauchy-Riemann equations only hold at z = i. and uθ = −vr ⇔ 0 = 0. Verify that the following functions are analytic on their domain of definition. (a) We have ur = 1/r. and all its first- order partials exist everywhere. Hence u. 2. vθ = 1. Note also that the componentes of f (z). the function f (z) is only dif- ferentiable at z = i. 4z + 1 (b) z 7→ 3 . and therefore is nowhere analytic. then ux = 6xy + 4x. (b) The functions is a rational function and hence exists and is differentiable as long as the denominator does not vanish. (b) y(x. uy = −vx ⇒ 0 = 0. (a) u(x. uyy = −6y − 4 . (z3 − z)2 (z3 − z)2  2. with (z3 − z) · 4 − (4z + 1)(3z2 − 1) −(8z3 + 3z + 1) f 0 (z) = = . domain C \ {0.

the harmonic conjugate is v(x. vx = −uy . Thus x2 + y2 2x y Z v= dy = 2 arctan + g(x) x2 + y2 x So we have −2y vx = + g0 (x) x2 + y2 . By Cauchy-Riemann equations ux = vy . vx = −uy . y) = 3xy2 + 4xy − x3 . 3y2 + 4y + g0 (x) = −3x2 + 3y2 + 4y g0 (x) = −3x2 g(x) = −x3 Therefore. Thus vx = 3y2 + 4y + g0 (x) Since vx = −uy . y) = ln(x2 − y2 ). Similarly to the previous part. Hence. Functions Thus ∆u = uxx + uyy = 6y + 4 + (−6y − 4) = 0. u is harmonic. The harmonic conjugate of u will satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations and have continuos partials of all orders. then 2x 2y ux = . by Cauchy-Riemann equations ux = vy . 2x we have that vy = . uy = x2 + y2 x2 + y2 2(y2 − x2 ) 2(x2 − y2 ) uxx = . x2 + y2 x + y2 Hence. Thus Z v= (6xy + 4x)dy = 3xy2 + 4xy + g(x). (b) If u(x.46 Chapter 2. u is harmonic. uyy = (x2 + y2 )2 (x2 + y2 )2 Thus 2(y2 − x2 ) 2(x2 − y2 ) 2 ∆u = uxx + uyy = + 2 x + y2 = 0. we have that vy = 6xy + 4x.

Let C be an arbitrary real constant. U + c solves the Neumann problem. Denote the two components of the boundary of Λ by Γ1 = {w| Im w = 0} and Γ2 = {w| Im w = π}. However.3 Analytic functions 47 Since vx = −uy . it satisfies the conditions ( ∆U = 0. y) = 2 arctan x Notice that u is defined on C \ {0} and v is not defined if x = 0. d dU (U + c) = ∇(U + c) · n = ∇U · n = =g dn dn Then U + c also satisfies the boundary condition on Ω. Therefore. −2y −2y + g0 (x) = x2 + y2 x2 + y2 g0 (x) = 0 g(x) = c c ∈ R Hence the harmonic conjugate is y v(x. on ∂ Ω dn Considering U + c. Hence. So U + c satisfies Laplace’s equation in ∂ Ω. if U solves a Dirichlet problem.  2. . on ∂ Ω where α ∈ R.  3. On the other hand. U + c does not solve a Dirichlet problem. Show that U + c also solves this problem for any c ∈ R. U + c satisfies the second condition only when c = 0. Let Λ be the domain {w| Im w < π}. in Ω. dU  = g. If U solves a Neumann problem then U satisfies the following conditions  ∆U = 0. Does the same result hold for the corresponding Dirichlet problem? Proof. Let n be the external unit normal to Ω. Certainly. Suppose that U solves a Neumann problem for Laplace’s equation on a domain Ω. U = α. U + c satisfies Laplace’s equation for any c ∈ R. in Ω.2. we have ∆(U + c) = ∆U = 0. Furthermore.

48 Chapter 2. and satisfies the Dirichlet boundary conditions . Functions (a) Verify that the function w  T = Im +C cosh w π is harmonic on Λ.

.

T .

= 0. T .

= 1. .

.

T is unbounded on Λ. (a) Let w = u + iv. π v (b) If C = 0. on Γ2 we have that π v = π. Tvv = −C sinh u sin v Thus ∆T = Tuu + Tvv = C sinh u sin v + (−C sinh u sin v) = 0. we have 2 1 T (w0 ) = +C sinh µ 2 1 1 +Ceµ +Ce−µ  = 2 For a function µ sufficiently large |C| µ |T (w0 )| > e . the solution is and |T | < 1 on Λ. π π Then 1 Tu = C cosh u sin v. we have that v = 0 and so T = 0.  .e. then we have w  v T = Im +C cosh w = +C sinh u sin v. then T = + 0 = 1. Tv = +C sinh u cos v π Tuu = C sinh u sin v. Finally. Therefore. considering the point π π w0 = µ + i. T is harmonic on Λ. If C 6= 0. i. Hence. for what values of C does there exist an M > 0 such that |T (w)| ≤ M for all w ∈ Λ? Solution. Γ1 Γ2 (b) For what values (if any) of C is T a bounded function on Λ. Notice that on Γ1 . 2 which tends to ∞ as µ → ∞.

Evaluate the following integrals: Z 2 2 (a) t 2 + i dt. 3. (a) Z 2 2 Z 2 2 t + i dt = (t 4 + 2it 2 + i2 )dt 1 1 . Complex Integrals 3. Z0∞ (c) tezt dt when Re(z) < 0. 0 Solution. Z1π/4 (b) e−2it dt.1 Contour integrals 1.

2 t5 2it 3 .

26 14 = + − t .

.

= + i 5 3 1 5 3 (b) .

π/4 e−2it .

.

Z π/4 −2it e dt = − 0 2i .

0 1+i 1 i = = − 2i 2 2 .

50 Chapter 3. Complex Integrals (c) 1 ∞ Z ∞ Z tezt dt = td(ezt ) 0 z 0  1 Z ∞ zt .

∞ zt .

(a) Z Z Z Z zdz = zdz + zdz + zdz γ AB BC CA Z 1 = t(1 + i)d(t(1 + i)) 0 Z 1 + (1 − t)(1 + i) − 2td((1 − t)(1 + i) − 2t) 0 Z 1 + −2(1 − t)d(−2(1 − t)) 0 Z 1 Z 1 Z 1 = 2tdt + ((2i − 4) + 10t)dt + 4(t − 1)dt 0 0 0 = 1 + (2i − 4) + 5 − 2 = 2i (b) Z 2π Z 2π i + 2eit d(i + 2eit ) = 2i(−i + 2e−it )eit dt = 8πi. R 2. B = 1 + i and C = −2. 0 0  .2). Find the contour integral γ zdz for (a) γ is the triangle ABC oriented counterclockwise. and 1 lim |ezt | = lim et Re(z) = lim =0 t→∞ t→∞ t→∞ e−xt as x = Re(z) < 0. = te 0 − e dt z 0   1 zt 1 zt = lim te − lim e − 1 z t→∞ z t→∞ 1 = 2 z where lim tezt = lim ezt = 0 t→∞ t→∞ because t 1 lim |tezt | = lim tet Re(z) = lim = − lim =0 t→∞ t→∞ t→∞ e−xt t→∞ xe−xt by L’Hospital (see Problem 8 in section 2. (b) γ is the circle |z − i| = 2 oriented counterclockwise. Solution. where A = 0.

Compute the following contour integral Z zdz.1 Contour integrals 51 3. where z2 − 1 f (z) = z and the curve C is (a) the semicircle z = 2eiθ (0 ≤ θ ≤ π). (b) the semicircle z = 2eiθ (π ≤ θ ≤ 2π). oriented counter-clockwise. B = 1 and C = i. Solution. (a) Z π 2iθ 4e − 1 Z . (c) the circle z = 2eiθ (0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π). Z Z Z Z zdz = zdz + zdz + zdz L AB BC CA Z 1 Z 1 = tdt + (1 − t) + tid((1 − t) + ti) 0 0 Z 1 + (1 − t)id((1 − t)i) 0 Z 1 Z 1 Z 1 = tdt + (−1 + i) ((1 − t) − ti)dt − (1 − t)dt = i 0 0 0  4. Evaluate the contour integral Z f (z)dz C using the parametric representations for C. Solution.3. L where L is the boundary of the triangle ABC with A = 0.

π f (z)dz = d(2eiθ ) = (2e2iθ − i).

0 = −πi C 0 2eiθ (b) Z 2π 2iθ 4e − 1 Z .

2π f (z)dz = d(2eiθ ) = (2e2iθ − i).

.π = −πi C π 2eiθ (c) Adding (a) and (b). we have −2πi.

For (a).52 Chapter 3. . Solution. Redo previous Problem 4 using an antiderivative of f (z). Complex Integrals 5.

−2 ! z2 .

.

Z f (z)dz = .

For (b). . − lim Log(z) − Log(2) C 2 2 z→−2 Im(z)>0 = −(ln 2 + πi − ln 2) = −πi.

2 ! z2 .

.

Z f (z)dz = .

Let CR be the circle |z| = R (R > 1) oriented counterclockwise. 6. Show that Log(z2 ) . − Log(2) − lim Log(z) C 2 −2 z→−2 Im(z)<0 = −(ln 2 − (ln 2 − πi)) = −πi.

.

.

Z .

  .

π + ln R .

dz.

< 4π .

we have | Log(z2 )| ≤ . C R z2 R and then Log(z2 ) Z lim dz = 0. R→∞ CR z2 Proof.1) in Problem 5. Using expression (1.

ln |z2 |.

+ π = 2 ln R + π .

.

Therefore. for |z| = R > 1. Log(z2 ) .

.

.

Z .

  .

π + 2 ln R .

dz.

≤ 2πR .

R R And since   π + ln R 1 lim 4π = 4π lim =0 R→∞ R R→∞ R by L’Hospital (see Problem 8 in section 2. Log(z2 ) Z lim dz = 0.2). R→∞ CR z2  . C R z2 R2     π/2 + ln R π + ln R = 4π < 4π .

1 Contour integrals 53 7. Without evaluating the integral. show that .3.

Z .

.

dz .

9π .

C z2 + z + 1 .

≤ 16 .

.

where C is the arc of the circle |z| = 3 from z = 3 to z = 3i lying in the first quadrant. Proof. Since |z2 + z + 1| ≥ |z2 | − |z| − 1 = |z|2 − |z| − 1 = 5 for |z| = 3. .

.

.

1 .

1 .

z2 + z + 1 .

≤ 5 . .

.

. Therefore.

Z .

  .

dz .

6π 1 3π 9π .

.

≤ = < . .

C z2 + z + 1 .

centre 0. C1 defined by z(t) = −4 − 4it. 4 5 10 16  R 8. with 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 Thus Z Z Z Z Z f (z)dz = f (z)dz = f (z)dz + f (z)dz + f (z)dz (3. (b) the lower half of the circle with radius 4. Evaluate the integral C Re(z)dz for the following contours C from −4 to 4: (a) The line segments from −4 to −4 − 4i to 4 − 4i to 4. (d) What conclusions (if any) can you draw about the function f (z) = Re(z) from this? Solution. and finally iii. Then Z Z 1 Z 1 . C3 defined by z(t) = 4 − 4i(1 − t). (c) the upper half of the circle with radius 4. with 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. C2 defined by z(t) = −4(1 − 2t) − 4i. centre 0. for C1 we have that z0 (t) = −4i. (a) Notice that the contour C consists of three contours: i.1) C C1 +C2 +C3 C1 C2 C3 Rb f (z(t))z0 (t)dt. Recall also that C f (z)dz = a Now. R where f (z) = Re(z). with 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. followed by ii.

1 f (z)dz = (−4)(−4i)dt = 16i dt = 16it .

= 16i. .

C1 0 0 0 For C2 we have that z0 (t) = 8. then Z Z 1 f (z)dz = [−4(1 − 2t)] (8)dt C2 0 Z 1 = (64t − 32)dt 0 Z 1 Z 1 = 64 tdt − 32 dt 0 0 t 2 .

1 .

1 = 64 .

− 32t .

.

.

2 0 0 = 32 − 32 = 0 .

then Z Z 1 Z 1 .54 Chapter 3. Complex Integrals Finally for C3 we have that z0 (t) = 4i.

1 f (z)dz = (4)(4i)dt = 16i dt = 16it .

. = 16i.

C3 0 0 0 Therefore. Here we have z0 (t) = 4ieit . the contour C is defined by z(t) = 4eit = 4 cost + 4i sint. using expression 3.1. we obtain Z Re(z)dz = 32i C (b) In this case. Thus Z Z 2π Re(z)dz = (4 cost)(4ieit )dt C π Z 2π = 16i costeit dt π Z 2π Z 2π = 16i cos2 tdt − 16 cost sintdt π π . with π ≤ t ≤ 2π.

2π Z 2π 2 .

sin t .

= 8i [1 + cos(2t)]dt − 16 · 2 .

.

π π   .

.

2π sin(2t) .

= 8i t + .

− 0 = 8π i 2 .

Here we have z0 (t) = 4ie−it . in this case. with 0 ≤ t ≤ π. π (c) Finally. Thus Z Z π Re(z)dz = (−4 cost)(4ie−it )dt C 0 Z π = −16i coste−it dt 0 Z π Z π = −16i cos2 tdt + 16 cost sintdt 0 0 . the contour C is defined by z(t) = −4e−it = −4 cost + 4i sint.

π sin2 t .

.

Z π = −8i [1 + cos(2t)]dt + 16 · 2 .

.

0 0   .

.

π sin(2t) .

= −8i t + .

+ 0 = −8π i 2 .

The reason is that the function f (z) = Re(z) is not analytic on any domain containing any of the contours discussed in parts (a). In fact.  . this function is nowhere analytic. 0 (d) We have seen that the integral along each contour has a different value. (b) and (c).

< θ < . Therefore. then 1 Z dz = 0 C z+1 by Cauchy’s Theorem. C z −1 C z−1 C z+1 On the one hand. centre 0. r > 0. Here Log z is a branch of the logarithm chosen with the branch cut on the positive imaginary axis. C z negatively Z oriented. where C is the circle with radius 1/2.e. C Solution. since 1/(z + 1) is analytic on and inside C. For c) and d) you shouldZ also state why the integral is well defined (i. 2 (c) zez dz. where C is the lower half of the circle with radius 1. 3. (a) Notice that 2 1 1 = − .   π 5π Log z = ln r + iθ .2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 1. C z2 − 1 (b) Notice that the integrand f (z) = ez − 1/z is analytic on C. Evaluate the following integrals. centre 1.. independent of the path taken). positively oriented. f (z0 ) = 2πi C z−z0 dz. ZC (d) cosh zdz. On the other hand. 1 Z dz = 2πi C z−1 1 R f (z) by Cauchy integral formula. z −1  ZC  1 (b) ez + dz. justifying your procedures. 2dz (a) 2 . z2 − 1 z−1 z+1 Thus 2 1 1 Z Z Z 2 dz = dz − dz. 2 Z dz = 2πi.2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 55 3. That is. The function F(z) = ez − Log z serves as an antiderivative of f (z). 2 2 Thus .

−1 Z   1 .

1 1 ez − dz = (ez − Log z) .

. = − πi − e + 2πi = − e + πi.

C z .

e e 1 .

An antiderivative of f (z) is 2 ez F(z) = .56 Chapter 3. Complex Integrals 2 (c) Since the integrand f (z) = zez is analytic. 2 Thus . the integral is path independent.

i Z 2 ez2 .

1 1 zez dz = .

= − . .

C 2 .

Thus Z . the integral is path independent. 2e 2 0 (d) Since the integrand f (z) = cosh z is analytic. An antiderivative of f (z) is F(z) = sinh z.

2πi cosh zdz = sinh z.

. = sinh(2πi) − sinh(πi) = 0.

positively oriented. then . Let CR be the circle with radius R. positively oriented. centre 2. centre 0. if M is a nonnegative constant such that | f (z)| < M for all points z on C at which f (z) is defined. Recall that for a contour C of length L and a piecewise continuous f (z) on C. Show that z2 + 4z + 7 Z lim 2 2 dz = 0. Solution. R→∞ CR (z + 4)(z + 2z + 2) Use this fact to prove that z2 + 4z + 7 Z 2 2 dz = 0. C (z + 4)(z + 2z + 2) where C is the circle with radius 5. C πi  2.

Z .

.

.

.

f (z)dz.

< ML. .

C .

Now. consider the function z2 + 4z + 7 f (z) = 2 . we have that . (z + 4)(z2 + 2z + 2) For |z| large.

.

4 7.

.

1 + z + z2 .

.

1 | f (z)| = .

.

.

≈ 2 .

1 + z42 .

|z2 + 2z + 2| |z| .

.

Thus. for R large we have that 2 | f (z)| < R2 Since the length of CR is 2πR. then .2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 57 On the circle CR we have that |z| = R.3.

Z .

.

< ML = 2 2πR = 4π .

.

.

f (z)dz .

C R .

z2 = −2i. C  3. z3 = −1 + i. and z4 = −1 − i of the function z2 + 4z + 7 f (z) = (z2 + 4)(z2 + 2z + 2) are inside C and since f (z) is analytic on the annulus defined by C and CR with R > 7. then Z Z f (z)dz = f (z)dz. On the other hand. notice that he singularities z1 = 2i. Solution. 2πi C (z − z0 ) Considering the function f (z) = sin z. 2πi C (z − (−1)) 2πi C (z + 1) Since f (6) (z) = − sin z. C CR Thus Z Z lim f (z)dz = lim f (z)dz = 0. then sin z sin z 2πi 2π sin(1) Z Z 7 = 6+1 =− sin(−1) = i C (z + 1) C (z − (−1)) 6! 6!  . positively oriented. Recall the extension of the Cauchy integral formula: n! f (z) Z (n) f (z0 ) = n+1 dz. we have 6! sin z 6! sin z Z Z f (6) (−1) = 6+1 = 7 . C (z + 1) where C is the circle of radius 5. R→∞ C R→∞ CR Hence Z f (z)dz = 0. which is analytic on C. R2 R which tends to 0 as R → ∞. Evaluate sin z Z 7 dz. centre 0.

3i and −4 oriented counterclockwise. Compute Z 1 zi dz −1 where the integrand denote the principal branch zi = exp(i Log z) of zi and where the path of integration is any continuous curve from z = −1 to z = 1 that. C e dz = 0 since C Therefore. 0]. Let C be the boundary of the triangle with vertices at the points 0. Solution. Z Z Z Z Z (ez − z)dz = − zdz = − zdz − zdz − zdz C C p1 p2 p2 p3 p3 p1 Z 1 Z 1 =− (−3it)d(3it) − (−3i(1 − t) − 4t)d(3i(1 − t) − 4t) 0 0 Z 1 − (−4)(1 − t)d((−4)(1 − t)) 0 9 7 = − − − 12i + 8 = −12i 2 2 where p1 = 0. Note that zi+1 /(i + 1) is an anti-derivative of zi outside the branch locus (−∞. Compute the contour integral Z (ez − z)dz. Complex Integrals 4.  5.58 Chapter 3. By Cauchy Integral Theorem. lies below the real axis. except for its starting and ending points. So zi+1 . R Solution. C z is closed and ez is entire. p2 = 3i and p3 = −4.

.

zi+1 Z 1 .

i z dz = − lim −1 i + 1 .

1 Im(z)<0 z→−1 i + 1 1 exp((i + 1)(−πi)) = − i+1 i+1 1+e π 1 + eπ = = (1 − i) i+1 2  .

 7. Since 2nπ ∈ {|x| + |y| < 2} for n = 0 and |2nπ| > 4 for n 6= 0 and n ∈ Z. f (z) is analytic in {|x| + |y| ≥ 2. Apply Cauchy Integral Theorem to show that Z Z f (z)dz = f (z)dz C1 C2 when z+1 (a) f (z) = 2 . 0]}. R Solution. (b) f (z) is analytic in {z : sin(z/2) 6= 0} = {z 6= 2nπ : n ∈ Z}. f (z) is analytic in {|x| + |y| ≥ 2. C1 f (z)dz = C2 f (z)dz if f (z) is analytic on and between C1 and C2 . sin(z/2) sin(z) (c) f (z) = 2 .  . Hence it is enough to show that f (z) is analytic in {|z| ≤ 1}. Since ±i ∈ {|x| + |y| < 2}. Hence it is enough to show that f (z) is analytic in {|x| + |y| ≥ 2. (c) f (z) is analytic in {z 6= −1. By Cauchy Integral Theorem. Apply Cauchy Integral Theorem to show that Z f (z)dz = 0 C when C is the unit circle |z| = 1. |z| ≤ 4}. Since |x − 3i| > 1 for all x real.2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 59 6. Since |nπ + π/2| > 1 for all integers n. (b) f (z) is analytic in {z : cos z = 0} = {z = nπ + π/2. (a) f (z) is analytic in {z 6= −2. Let C1 denote the positively oriented boundary of the curve given by |x| + |y| = 2 and C2 be the positively oriented circle |z| = 4. in either direction. f (z) is analytic in {|x| + |y| ≥ 2.3. z + 6z + 5 R R Solution. x ∈ (−∞. By Cauchy Integral Theorem. |z| ≤ 4}. |z| ≤ 4}. 0] and hence Log(z + 3i) is analytic in C\{z : z = x − 3i. −5}. |z| ≤ 4}. f (z) is analytic in {|z| ≤ 1}. n ∈ Z}. −3} and hence analytic in {|z| ≤ 1}. (c) f (z) = Log(z + 3i). (c) Log(z) is analytic in C\(−∞. z +1 z+2 (b) f (z) = . |z|=1 f (z)dz = 0 if f (z) is analytic on and inside the circle |z| = 1. f (z) is analytic in {|z| ≤ 1}. and when z3 (a) f (z) = 2 . (a) f (z) is analytic in {z 6= ±i}. Since −1 ∈ {|x| + |y| < 2} for n = 0 and | − 5| > 4. z + 5z + 6 (b) f (z) = etan z .

C z+1 (b) By Cauchy Integral Theorem. Complex Integrals 8. . Let C denote the positively oriented boundary of the square whose sides lie along Z x = ±2 and y = ±2. By Cauchy Integral Formula. cosh z cosh z cosh z Z Z Z 2 dz = 2 dz + 2 dz C z +z |z|=r z + z |z+1|=r z + z for r = 1/2.60 Chapter 3. (a) By Cauchy Integral Formula. zdz Z = 2πi(−1) = −2πi. C z − π/2 Solution. Evaluate each of these integrals the lines zdz (a) . ZC z + z tan(z/2) (c) dz. ZC z + 1 cosh z (b) 2 dz.

cosh z cosh(z) .

.

Z 2 dz = 2πi = 2πi |z|=r z + z z + 1 .

z=0 and .

cosh z cosh z .

.

Z 2 dz = 2πi = −2πi cosh(−1). |z+1|=r z + z z .

z +4 1 (b) g(z) = 2 . Find the value of the integral g(z) around the circle |z − i| = 2 oriented counterclock- wise when 1 (a) g(z) = 2 . tan(z/2) Z dz = 2πi tan(π/4) = 2πi C z − π/2 by Cauchy Integral Formula. C z +z (c) Note that tan(z/2) is analytic in {z 6= (2n + 1)π : n ∈ Z} and hence analytic inside C.  9. z(z + 4) . Therefore.z=−1 Hence cosh z Z 2 dz = 2πi(1 − cosh(−1)).

Since . (a) Since −2i 6∈ {|z − i| ≤ 2} and 2i ∈ {|z − i| ≤ 2}.3. Z Z Z g(z)dz = g(z)dz + g(z)dz |z−i|=2 |z|=r |z−2i|=r for r < 1/2. (z + 2i)−1 Z Z π g(z)dz = dz = 2πi(2i + 2i)−1 = |z−i|=2 |z−i|=2 z − 2i 2 by Cauchy Integral Formula.2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 61 Solution. (b) By Cauchy Integral Theorem.

1 .

.

Z πi g(z)dz = 2πi 2 = |z|=r z + 4 z=0 .

2 and .

1 Z .

πi g(z)dz = 2πi .

=− |z−2i|=r z(z + 2i) z=2i .

both oriented counterclockwise: 1 (a) . (a) dz (2 − z)−1 Z Z 2 = dz = 2πi(2 − 0)−1 = πi |z|=1 2z − z |z|=1 z (b) sinh z (sinh z)(2 − z)−2 Z Z 2 2 dz = dz |z|=1 (2z − z ) |z|=1 z2 . Z πi g(z)dz = |z−i|=2 4  10. 4 by Cauchy Integral Formula. 2z − z2 sinh z (b) . Compute the integrals of the following functions along the curves C1 = {|z| = 1} and C2 = {|z − 2| = 1}. (2z − z2 )2 Solution.

−2 0 .

.

πi = 2πi((sinh z)(2 − z) ) .

= z=0 2  .

If z0 lies inside C. Show that if f is analytic inside and on a simple closed curve C and z0 is not on C. Complex Integrals 11. then f (m) (z) f (z) Z Z n dz = m+n dz = 0 C (z − z0 ) C (z − z0 ) by Cauchy Integral Theorem. then f (m) (z) Z (m) (n−1) . If z0 lies outside C.62 Chapter 3. then f (m) (z) f (z) Z Z (n − 1)! n dz = (m + n − 1)! m+n dz C (z − z0 ) C (z − z0 ) for all positive integers m and n. Proof. since f (m) z/(z −z0 )n and f (z)/(z −z0 )m+n are analytic on and inside C.

= f (m+n−1) (z0 ) .

Since . Proof. Let f (z) be an entire function. Show that f (z) is a constant if | f (z)| ≤ ln(|z| + 1) for all z ∈ C. For every z0 ∈ C. Therefore. we have 1 f (z) Z 0 f (z0 ) = 2 dz 2πi |z−z0 |=R (z − z0 ) for all R > 0. C (z − z0 ) C (z − z0 )  12. (n − 1)! n dz = ( f (z)) z=z0 C (z − z0 ) and f (z) Z (m + n − 1)! m+n dz = f (m+n−1) (z0 ) C (z − z 0 ) by Cauchy Integral Formula. f (m) (z) f (z) Z Z (n − 1)! n dz = (m + n − 1)! m+n dz.

.

.

f (z) .

ln(|z| + 1) ln(R + |z0 | + 1) .

(z − z0 )2 .

≤ ≤ .

.

R2 R2 for |z − z0 | = R. .

.

0 .

1 Z f (z) .

ln(R + |z0 |) + 1 | f (z0 )| = .

.

2 dz.

.

section 2. we conclude that | f 0 (z0 )| = 0 and hence f 0 (z0 ) = 0 for every z0 ∈ C. 2πi |z−z 0 |=R (z − z0 ) R And since ln(R + |z0 | + 1) 1 lim = lim = 0. f (z) is a constant. ≤ . R→∞ R R→∞ R + |z0 | + 1 by L’Hospital (see Problem 8. Therefore.2).  .

where N is a positive integer. | cos z|2 = (cos x)2 + (sinh y)2 ≥ (cos x)2 = (cos(Nπ))2 = 1 When y = ±Nπ. |y| ≤ Nπ}. Therefore. Show that dz Z lim =0 N→∞ CN z3 cos z Proof. | cos z|2 = (cos x)2 + (sinh y)2 ≥ (sinh y)2 = (sinh(Nπ))2 > 1 Therefore.3.2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 63 13. When z = x + yi ∈ CN . We also have |z| ≥ Nπ when z ∈ CN . | cos z| ≥ 1 when z ∈ CN . either x = ±Nπ or y = ±Nπ. Let CN be the boundary of the square {|x| ≤ Nπ. . When x = ±Nπ.

.

.

1 .

1 .

z3 cos z .

≤ N 3 π 3 .

.

and .

Z .

dz .

≤ 1 8Nπ 8 .

.

Z .

C z3 cos z .

N 3 π 3 C |dz| = N 3 π 3 = N 2 π 2 .

3] . N N Since 8 lim =0 N→∞ N 2 π 2 we conclude dz Z lim =0 N→∞ CN z3 cos z  14. Let CN be the boundary of the square n π πo |x| ≤ Nπ + . |y| ≤ Nπ + 2 2 oriented counterclockwise. N→∞ CN z2 sin z [Refer to: problem 6 in section 4. where N is a positive integer. Show that dz Z lim = 0.

either x = ±(Nπ + π/2) or y = ±(Nπ + π/2). When x = ±(Nπ + π/2). . Complex Integrals Proof. | sin z| ≥ 1 when z ∈ CN . | sin z|2 = (sin x)2 + (sinh y)2 ≥ (sin x)2 = (sin(Nπ + π/2))2 = 1 When y = ±(Nπ + π/2). We also have |z| ≥ Nπ + π/2 when z ∈ CN . Therefore. Consequently. When z = x + yi ∈ CN . | sin z|2 = (sin x)2 + (sinh y)2 ≥ (sinh y)2 = (sinh(Nπ + π/2))2 ≥ (sinh(3π/2))2 > 1.64 Chapter 3.

.

.

1 .

1 .

z2 sin z .

≤ (N + 1/2)2 π 2 .

.

and .

Z .

dz 1 8(N + 1/2)π 8 .

.

Z .

C z2 sin z .

. (N + 1/2)2 π 2 C |dz| = (N + 1/2)2 π 2 = (N + 1/2)π .

.

Otherwise. suppose that z2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1 = 0 for some |z| ≥ 2. Then 1 1 1 1 + + 2 + 2011 = 0 z z z . Cz where C is the circle |z| = 2 oriented counter-clockwise.≤ N N And since 8 lim =0 N→∞ (N + 1/2)π we conclude dz Z lim =0 N→∞ CN z2 sin z  15. First. we show that all roots of z2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1 = 0 lie inside |z| < 2. Solution. Compute the contour integral z2011 Z 2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1 dz.

3.2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 65 and hence .

.

.

1 1 1 .

.

1 1 1 1 = .

− − 2 − 2011 .

≤ .

Therefore. + 2 + 2011 . It follows that z2011 z2011 Z Z 2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1 dz = 2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1 dz Cz |z|=R z for all R > 2 by CIT. 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 2011 ≤ + + 2011 < 1. |z| |z| |z| 2 4 2 This is a contradiction. z z z |z| |z| |z| When |z| ≥ 2. We have z2011 1 z2009 − z + 1 = 1 − + . z2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1 z z(z2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1) Since 2009 − z + 1 R2009 + R + 1 . all roots of z2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1 = 0 lie inside |z| < 2.

.

.

.

z .

.

≤ .

z(z2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1) .

z2009 − z + 1 2π(R2009 + R + 1) . R(R2011 − R2010 − R2009 − 1) for |z| = R.

Z .

.

.

.

dz .

≤ .

|z|=R z(z2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1) .

R→∞ |z|=R z(z And we have dz Z Z dz = 0 and = 2πi. Cz  . z2011 Z 2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1 dz = −2πi. R2011 − R2010 − R2009 − 1 and hence z2009 − z + 1 Z lim 2011 + z2010 + z2009 + 1) dz = 0. |z|=R |z|=R z Therefore.

Calculate z2008 Z 2009 + z + 1 dz Cz where C is the circle |z| = 2 oriented counter-clockwise. . Otherwise. Complex Integrals 16. Solution. First. z2009 + z + 1 = 0 for some |z| ≥ 2. we prove that all zeroes of z2009 + z + 1 lie inside the circle |z| = 2.66 Chapter 3. Then 1 1 z2009 + z + 1 = 0 ⇒ 1 + + =0 z2008 z2009 On the other hand.

.

.

.

1 + 1 1 .

≥ 1− 1 − 1 ≥ 1− 1 − 1 > 0 .

2008 + 2009 .

z z .

z +z+1 z z(z + z + 1) For |z| = R > 2. We observe that z2008 1 z+1 2009 − = − 2009 . Contradiction. So all zeroes of z2009 + z + 1 lie inside the circle |z| = 2 and hence z2008 /(z2009 + z + 1) is analytic in |z| ≥ 2. Therefore. |z|2008 |z|2009 22008 22009 for |z| ≥ 2. z2008 z2008 Z Z 2009 + z + 1 dz = 2009 + z + 1 dz |z|=2 z |z|=R z for all R > 2 by Cauchy Integral Theorem. .

.

.

z+1 .

R+1 .

z(z2009 + z + 1) .

≤ R(R2009 − R − 1) .

.

and hence .

Z .

.

z+1 .

2π(R + 1) .

|z|=R z2009 + z + 1 .

dz . ≤ R2009 − R − 1 .

.

R→∞ |z|=R z2009 + z + 1 Therefore. It follows that z+1 Z lim dz = 0. z2008 z2008 Z Z 2009 + z + 1 dz = lim 2009 + z + 1 dz |z|=2 z |z|=R z R→∞ dz Z = lim = 2πi. R→∞ |z|=R z  .

Therefore.2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 67 17. 1 1 Z dz = 2πi lim√ √ √ C z2 − 8z + 1 z=4− 15 (z − 4 − 15)(z − 4 + 15)  . Let C be the circle |z| = 1 oriented counter-clockwise. The function 1 1 = √ √ z2 − 8z + 1 (z − 4 − 15)(z − 4 + 15) √ has a singularity in |z| < 1 at z = 4 − 15.3. (a) Compute 1 Z dz C z2 − 8z + 1 (b) Use or not use part (a) to compute 1 Z π dθ 0 4 − cos θ Solution.

1 .

πi = 2πi √ .

√ =− √ z − 4 − 15 z=4− 15 .

−π 2 − (cos x + sin x) . 15 That is. 1 Z π π dθ = √ 0 4 − cos θ 15  18. Compute the integral dx Z π . 1 deiθ Z Z π 2 dz = 2iθ − 8eiθ + 1 C z − 8z + 1 −π e eiθ Z π =i 2iθ − 8eiθ + 1 dθ −π e 1 Z π =i iθ −iθ − 8 dθ −π e + e i π 1 Z =− dθ 2 −π 4 − cos θ 1 Z π = −i dθ 0 4 − cos θ Therefore.

= f (z1 + z2 + . . Then dz = ieix dx. .68 Chapter 3. k=1 Therefore. dx = −idz/z and hence dx dx Z π Z π = −π 2 − (cos x + sin x) −π 2 − (eix + e−ix )/2 − (eix − e−ix )/(2i) −idz Z = |z|=1 2z − (z2 + 1)/2 − (z2 − 1)/(2i) dz Z = (i − 1) |z|=1 z2 − 2(1 + i)z + i dz Z = (i − 1) |z|=1 (z − z1 )(z − z2 ) 2πi(i − 1) √ = = 2π z2 − z1 √ √ √ √ where z1 = (1 + 2/2) + (1 + 2/2)i and z2 = (1 − 2/2) + (1 − 2/2)i. . Show that f (z) is a polynomial of degree at most 1. Let z = eix . . + zn) = f ∑ xk k=1 k=1 for all complex numbers z1 . Proof. Complex Integrals Solution. . = zn = z/n: z nf = f (z) n . . .  19. ! n n ∑ f (zk ) = f (z1) + f (z2) + . Let f (z) be an entire function satisfying | f (z1 + z2 )| ≤ | f (z1 )| + | f (z2 )| for all complex numbers z1 and z2 . . z2 . + f (zn) = f (z1 + z2 + . zn . . . Particularly. . We have n n ∑ f (zk ) = f (z1) + f (z2) + ∑ f (zk ) k=1 k=3 n = f (z1 + z2 ) + ∑ f (zk ) k=3 n = f (z1 + z2 ) + f (z3 ) + ∑ f (zk ) k=4 n = f (z1 + z2 + z3 ) + ∑ f (zk ) k=4 ! n = . this holds for z1 = z2 = . + zn ) = f ∑ xk . . . .

Then . Let M be the maximum of | f (z)| for |z| = 1.3.2 Cauchy Integral Theorem and Cauchy Integral Formula 69 for all z ∈ C and all positive integer n.

 z .

| f (z)| = n .

f .

≤ nM .

.

1 f (z) Z f 00 (z0 ) = 3 dz πi |z|=n (z − z0 ) for |z0 | < n. Since . n for all z satisfying |z| = n. By Cauchy Integral Formula.

.

.

f (z) .

| f (z)| nM .

(z − z0 )3 .

= |z − z0 |3 ≤ (n − |z0 |)3 .

.

for |z| = n and |z0 | < n. 2 .

Z .

.

1 f (z) .

. ≤ 2n M .

.

dz .

πi |z|=n (z − z0 )3 .

 20. Show that f (z) ≡ az2 for some constant a satisfying |a| ≤ 1. we have 3! f (z) Z 000 f (z0 ) = 4 dz 2πi |z−z0 |=R (z − z0 ) for all R > 0. Proof. f 0 (z) ≡ a is a constant and f (z) = az + b is a polynomial of degree at most 1. (n − |z0 |)3 And since 2n2 M 2M/n lim = lim = 0. For every z0 ∈ C. Let f (z) be an entire function satisfying that | f (z)| ≤ |z|2 for all z. Since . n→∞ (n − |z0 |)3 n→∞ (1 − |z0 |/n)3 we conclude that f 00 (z0 ) = 0 for all z0 . Therefore.

f (z) .

|z|2 (R + |z0 |)2 .

.

.

(z − z0 )4 .

≤ R4 ≤ .

.

R4 for |z − z0 | = R. .

6(R + |z0 |)2 .

.

000 .

3! Z f (z) | f (z0 )| = .

.

dz 4 .

.

R→∞ R3 R→∞ R R .≤ . 2πi |z−z 0 |=R (z − z0 ) R3 And since 6(R + |z0 |)2 |z0 | 2   6 lim = lim 1+ = 0.

f 000 (z) ≡ 0. In conclusion. 1/ f (z) is analytic in |z| ≥ R. So |az2 | ≤ |z|2 and hence |a| ≤ 1. Hence b = 0. Hence dz dz Z Z = |z|=R f (z) |z|=r f (z) for all r ≥ R by Cauchy Integral Theorem. b and c. Take z = 0 and we obtain |c| ≤ 0. |az2 + bz + c| ≤ |z|2 for all z. f 00 (z) ≡ 2a. |z|=R f (z) [Refer to: problem 5 in section 4. Since | f (z)| ≥ |an ||z|n − |an−1 ||z|n−1 − · · · − |a0 | we have . Take z = 0 again and we obtain |b| ≤ 0. Complex Integrals we conclude that | f 000 (z0 )| = 0 and hence f 000 (z0 ) = 0 for every z0 ∈ C.70 Chapter 3. f (z) = az2 with a satisfying |a| ≤ 1. Since | f (z)| ≤ |z|2 . f 0 (z) ≡ 2az + b and f (z) ≡ az2 + bz + c for some constants a. |az2 + bz| ≤ |z|2 and hence |az + b| ≤ |z| for all z. where an 6= 0 and n = deg f .3] Proof. Let f (z) = a0 + a1 z + · · · + an zn . Let f (z) be a complex polynomial of degree at least 2 and R be a positive number such that f (z) 6= 0 for all |z| ≥ R. Therefore. Show that dz Z = 0. Therefore. Hence c = 0. Since f (z) 6= 0 for |z| ≥ R.  21.

.

.

1 .

1 .

f (z) .

≤ |an |rn − |an−1 |rn−1 − · · · − |a0 | .

.

It follows that . for |z| = r sufficiently large.

Z .

.

dz .

.

2πr .

|z|=r f (z) .

≤ |an |rn − |an−1 |rn−1 − · · · − |a0 | .

2πr lim r→∞ |an |r n − |an−1 |r n−1 − · · · − |a0 | 2π = lim =0 r→∞ n|an |r n−1 − (n − 1)|an−1 |r n−1 − · · · − |a1 | by L’Hospital. Hence dz dz Z Z = lim = 0. And since n ≥ 2. |z|=R f (z) r→∞ |z|=r f (z)  .

3 Improper integrals 71 3. zdz 2πi exp(πi/3) Z = |z−eπi/3 |=1/2 z3 + 1 (exp(πi/3) + 1)(exp(πi/3) − exp(−πi/3)) 2π exp(πi/3) = √ . Consider the contour integral of z/(z3 + 1) along LR = [0. . By Cauchy Integral Formula. CR = {z = Reit : 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π/3} and MR = {te2πi/3 : 0 ≤ t ≤ R}. Compute the integral xdx Z ∞ . zdz zdz zdz zdz Z Z Z Z 3 + 3 − 3 = LR z + 1 CR z + 1 MR z + 1 |z−eπi/3 |=1/2 z3 + 1 By Cauchy Integral Formula. 3. (exp(πi/3) + 1) 3 For z lying on CR . R]. 0 x3 + 1 Solution.3 Improper integrals 1.

.

.

z .

R .

z3 + 1 .

≤ R3 − 1 .

.

and hence .

Z .

.

zdz .

2πR .

C z3 + 1 .

≤ 3(R3 − 1) .

.

0 x3 + 1 3 3  . R It follows that zdz Z lim =0 R→∞ CR z3 + 1 And Z R zdz xdx Z 3 = exp(4πi/3) MR z + 1 0 x3 + 1 Therefore. we have xdx 2π exp(πi/3) Z ∞ (1 − exp(4πi/3)) = √ 0 x3 + 1 (exp(πi/3) + 1) 3 and hence xdx 2π Z ∞ = √ .

Since cos x/(x4 + 1) is even. R] and CR = {|z| = R. 0 x4 + 1 2 −∞ x4 + 1 Actually. By Cauchy Integral Theorem. Complex Integrals 2. √ √ eiz 2πiei( 2+i 2)/2 Z dz = 4 |z−eπi/4 |=1/2 z + 1 (eπi/4 − e3πi/4 )(eπi/4 − e−πi/4 )(eπi/4 − e−3πi/4 ) √ √ π(1 − i) exp((− 2 + i 2)/2) = √ 2 2 and similarly. √ √ eiz π(1 + i) exp((− 2 − i 2)/2) Z 4 dz = √ |z−e3πi/4 |=1/2 z + 1 2 2 Therefore. y = Im(z) ≥ 0 and hence |eiz | = e−y ≤ 1. Im(z) ≥ 0}. LR z + 1 CR z + 1 2 For z lying on CR .72 Chapter 3. √ Z eiz Z eiz πe− 2/2 √ √ 4 dz + 4 dz = √ (cos( 2/2) + sin( 2/2)). Hence . Compute the integral cos x Z ∞ dx. we have eiz eiz Z Z 4 dz + 4 dz LR z + 1 CR z + 1 eiz eiz Z Z = 4 dz + 4 dz |z−eπi/4 |=1/2 z + 1 |z−e3πi/4 |=1/2 z + 1 By Cauchy Integral Formula. Consider the contour integral of eiz /(z4 + 1) along the path LR = [−R. we have cos x 1 eix Z ∞ Z ∞ 4 dx = 4 dx 0 x +1 2 −∞ x + 1 since eix = cos x + i sin x. oriented counterclockwise. cos x 1 cos x Z ∞ Z ∞ dx = dx. 0 x4 + 1 Solution.

iz .

.

e .

1 .

z4 + 1 .

≤ R4 − 1 .

.

and it follows that eiz .

Z .

.

.

πR .

C z4 + 1 .

≤ R4 − 1 dz .

.

R .

3 Improper integrals 73 Since πR lim = 0. R→∞ CR z + 1 Therefore. R→∞ R4 − 1 we conclude that eiz Z lim 4 dz = 0. 2 2 2 2  .3. cos x 1 ∞ eix Z ∞ Z dx = dx 0 x4 + 1 2 −∞ x4 + 1 1 eiz Z = lim dz 2 R→∞ LR z4 + 1 √ √ ! √ !! πe− 2/2 2 2 = √ cos + sin .

.

4. Find the Taylor series of the following functions and their radii of convergence: (a) z sinh(z2 ) at z = 0. (b) ez at z = 2. Since f (z) is entire. 2 2 ! 2 ez − e−z z sinh(z ) = z 2 ! z ∞ z2n ∞ z2n = 2 ∑ n! − ∑ (−1)n n! n=0 n=0 ∞ 1 − (−1)n z2n+1 = ∑ 2 n=0 n! ∞ z4m+3 = ∑ m=0 (2m + 1)! where we observe that (1 − (−1)n )/2 = 0 if n = 2m is even and 1 if n = 2m + 1 is odd. . (1 − z)2 Solution.1 Taylor and Laurent series 1. the radius of convergence is ∞. (a) Since ez = ∑∞ n n=0 z /n!. z2 + z (c) at z = −1. Series 4.

 2. (c) Let w = z + 1. Then (cos z)2 = (cos(z + π))2 = (cos w)2 2 e + e−iw  iw 1 = = (e2iw + e−2iw + 2) 2 4 1 ∞ n (2i) wn 1 ∞ (−2i)n wn 1 = ∑ + ∑ + 4 n=0 n! 4 n=0 n! 2 1 1 ∞ (2i)2n w2n 1 ∞ (−1)n 22n−1 w2n = + ∑ = +∑ 2 2 n=0 (2n)! 2 n=0 (2n)! ∞ (−1)n 22n−1 w2n ∞ (−1)n 22n−1 (z − π)2n = 1+ ∑ = 1+ ∑ n=1 (2n)! n=1 (2n)!  . Series (b) Let w = z − 2. z2 + z ∞ 3wn ∞ (n + 1)wn = 1 − ∑ n+1 ∑ 2n+1 . (1 − z)2 (2 − w)2 2 − w (2 − w)2 We have 3 3 1 3 ∞ wn ∞ 3wn − =− = − ∑ n = − ∑ n+1 2−w 2 1 − (w/2) 2 n=0 2 n=0 2 and  0  0 2 2 1 = = (2 − w)2 2−w 1 − (w/2) !0 ∞ wn nwn−1 ∞ = ∑ 2n = ∑ n n=0 n=0 2 ∞ (n + 1)wn = ∑ 2n+1 . the radius of convergence is ∞. Solution. n=0 Therefore. Then z = w + 2 and ∞ 2 ∞ wn e (z − 2)n ez = ew+2 = e2 ew = e2 ∑ = ∑ n! . Find the Taylor series of (cos z)2 at z = π. Let w = z − π. n=0 n! n=0 Since f (z) is entire. + (1 − z)2 n=0 2 n=0 ∞ (n − 2)(z + 1)n = ∑ .76 Chapter 4. the radius of convergence is 2. Then z2 + z w2 − w 3 2 = = 1 − + . n=1 2n+1 Since f (z) is analytic in |z + 1| < 2 and has a singularity at z = 1.

. Let f (z) be a function analytic at 0 and g(z) = f (z2 ).4. we must have g(m) (0) = 0 for m is odd. and 3−z calculate the radius of convergence. Notice that 1 1 = 3−z (3 − 4iz) − (z − 4i) 1 1 = · 3 − 4i z − 4i 1− 3 − 4i  z − 4i n ∞  . Find a power-series expansion of the function f (z) = about the point 4i. (z) = ∑∞ n Proof.e. Therefore. g(z) = f (z2 ) = ∑∞ 2n n=0 an z in |z| < r and hence ∞ g(m) (0) m ∞ ∑ m! z = ∑ anz2n m=0 n=0 And since the power series representation of an analytic function is unique.  1 4.1 Taylor and Laurent series 77 3. f√ n=0 an z in some disk |z| < r. Solution. Show that g(2n−1) (0) = 0 for all positive integers n. Since f (z) is analytic at 0. m = 2n − 1 for all positive integers n. i.

.

1 .

z − 4i .

= ∑ 3 − 4i for .

3 − 4i .

< 1 .

.

when n is odd In this case. when n is odd Thus ( sinh(0) = 0. Thus 1 ∞ (z − 4i)n = ∑ n+1 3−z n=0 (3 − 4i) with radius of convergence 5. when n is even.  5. g(n) (0) = cosh(0) = 1. and classify the singularity at 0. for |z − 4i| < |3 − 4i| < 5. Solution. For g(z) = sinh z we know that ( (n) sinh z. Find a Laurent-series expansion of the function f (z) = z−1 sinh(z−1 ) about the point 0. when n is even. 3 − 4i n=0 That is. the Maclaurin series for g(z) = sinh z is: z3 z5 z+ + +··· 3! 5! . g (z) = cosh z.

Notice that f has an isolated singularity at z = 0. in fact. in fact. So for ε sufficiently small. Thus for |z| < min{ε. expanding numer- ator and denominator in Taylor series we have z3 z5 z7 z− + − +··· f (z) = 3! 5! 7! z6 z12 z18 − + − ··· 2! 4! 6! z2 z4 z6  z 1− + − +··· 3! 5! 7! = 6 2z6 2z12   z − 1− + −··· 2! 4! 6! z2 z4 z6 −2 1 − + − +··· = · 3! 5! 7! z5 2z 6 2z12 1− + −··· 4! 6! z2 z4 z6   −2 1 = 1− + − +··· · z5 3! 5! 7! 2z6 2z12 1− + −··· 4! 6! Let 2 2z6 2z12 g(z) = − + −··· 4! 6! 8! Thus we have z2 z4 z6   −2 1 f (z) = 5 1− + − +··· · (4. 1}. Solution.78 Chapter 4. Thus. g(0) = 1/12. which means that z = 0 is an isolated singularity and is. then |g(z)| < 1. Series The Laurent series for g(z−1 ) = sinh z−1 is: 1 1 1 + 3 + 5 +··· z 3!z 5!z Thus Laurent series for f (z) = z−1 g(z−1 ) = z−1 sinh z−1 is 1 1 1 2 + 4 + 6 +··· z 3!z 5!z Notice that f (z) = z−1 sinh z−1 is analytic for z 6= 0. an essential singularity. if |z| < ε. Consider the function sin z f (z) = .1) z 3! 5! 7! 1 − z6 g(z) where g(z) is analytic and nonzero at z = 0. we can expand 1 1 − z6 g(z) . cos(z3 ) − 1 Classify the singularity at z = 0 and calculate the residue.  6.

Prove that the coefficients cn in the expansion ∞ 1 = ∑ cnzn 1 − z − z2 n=0 satisfy the recurrence relation c0 = c1 = 1. What is the radius of convergence of the series? What would be a good name for the cn ’s? ∞ Solution. cn = cn−1 + cn−2 for n ≥ 2. c1 − c0 = 0. Let S = ∑ cnzn for z such that the series converges.1 Taylor and Laurent series 79 in a geometric series. n=0 Thus ∞ ∞ zS = ∑ cnzn+1 = ∑ cn−1zn n=0 n=1 and ∞ ∞ z2 S = ∑ cnzn+2 = ∑ cn−2zn n=0 n=2 Then we have ∞ ∞ ∞ 2 n S − zS − z S = ∑ cnz − ∑ cn−1 z − ∑ cn−2 zn n n=0 n=1 n=2 ∞ ∞ ∞ = c0 + c1 z + ∑ cn z − c0 z − ∑ cn−1 z − ∑ cn−2 zn n n n=2 n=2 n=2 ∞ = c0 + (c1 − c0 )z + ∑ (cn − cn−1 − cn−2 )zn n=2 Now. we know that ∞ 1 = ∑ cnzn = S 1 − z − z2 n=0 then S − zS − z2 S = 1 Thus c0 = 1.  .  5! 60 7.4. Hence z2 z4 z6   −2 6 12 2  f (z) = 1− + − +··· 1 + z g(z) + z (g(z)) + · · · z5 3! 5! 7!   −2 2 2 2z 6 12 2  = + − + + · · · 1 + z g(z) + z (g(z)) + · · · z5 3!z3 5!z 7! −2 −1 So the residue of f at z = 0 is = . Therefore c0 = c1 = 1. and cn − cn−1 − cn−2 = 0 for n ≥ 2. and cn = cn−1 + cn−2 for n ≥ 2.

(d) 0 < |z + 1| < 1. 2(z + 2) 4 1 + (z/2) 4 n=0 2n Therefore. − + − n=2 n=0 . 3 3 1 3 ∞ (−1)n = = ∑ z + 1 z 1 + (1/z) z n=0 zn and 1 1 1 1 ∞ (−1)n zn − =− =− ∑ . We write f (z) as a sum of partial fractions: z+4 5 2 3 1 =− + 2+ − . ∞ 3 = 3 ∑ (−1)n zn z+1 n=0 and 1 1 1 1 ∞ (−1)n zn − =− =− ∑ . 5 2 ∞ 1 ∞ (−1)n zn f (z) = − + 2 + 3 ∑ (−1)n zn − ∑ 2z z n=0 4 n=0 2n ∞ 2 5 = − + ∑ (−1)n (3 − 2−n−2 )zn z2 2z n=0 For 1 < |z| < 2.80 Chapter 4. 5 2 3 ∞ (−1)n 1 ∞ (−1)n zn f (z) = − + 2 + ∑ − ∑ 2z z z n=0 zn 4 n=0 2n ∞ 3(−1)n 1 1 ∞ = ∑ zn+1 z2 2z ∑ (−1)n2−n−2zn. (b) 1 < |z| < 2. z2 (z2 + 3z + 2) 2z z z + 1 2(z + 2) For 0 < |z| < 1. 2(z + 2) 4 1 + (z/2) 4 n=0 2n Therefore. (c) |z| > 2. Series 8. Find the Laurent series of the function z+4 f (z) = z2 (z2 + 3z + 2) in (a) 0 < |z| < 1. Solution.

1 Taylor and Laurent series 81 For 2 < |z| < ∞. we let w = z + 1 and then z+4 5 2 3 1 = + + − . 5 2 3 ∞ (−1)n 1 ∞ (−1)n 2n f (z) = − + 2+ ∑ − ∑ 2z z z n=0 zn 2z n=0 zn ∞ (−1)n+1 (3 − 2n−2 ) = ∑ . 2(1 − w) 2 n=0  0 ! ∞ ∞ 2 2 (1 − w)2 = 1−w = ∑ 2wn = ∑ 2(n + 1)wn n=0 n=0 and 1 1 ∞ − = − ∑ (−1)n wn . z + 1 n=0 2 2  .4. 2(z + 2) 2z 1 + (2/z) 2z n=0 zn Therefore. z2 (z2 + 3z + 2) 2(1 − w) (1 − w)2 w 2(w + 1) For 0 < |w| < 1. 5 5 ∞ = ∑ wn . 2(w + 1) 2 n=0 Therefore. 3 3 1 3 ∞ (−1)n = = ∑ z + 1 z 1 + (1/z) z n=0 zn and 1 1 1 1 ∞ (−1)n 2n − =− =− ∑ . n=3 zn For 0 < |z + 1| < 1. ∞  9 (−1)n  3 f (z) = + ∑ 2n + − wn w n=0 2 2 ∞  9 (−1)n  3 = + ∑ 2n + − (z + 1)n .

z2 2 1 1 = 1 − − z2 − 3z + 2 1 − z/2 z 1 − 1/z ∞ −n n 1 ∞ −n = 1−2 ∑ 2 z − ∑ z n=0 z n=0 ∞ ∞ = −1 − ∑ 21−n zn − ∑ z−n n=1 n=1 . First. we write f (z) as a sum of partial fractions: z2 3z − 2 4 1 2 = 1+ = 1+ − z − 3z + 2 (z − 2)(z − 1) z−2 z−1 In 1 < |z| < 2.   1 1 1 f (z) = = z(1 + z2 ) z 1 − (−z2 ) 1 ∞ ∞ = ∑ (−1)n z2n = ∑ (−1)n z2n−1 z n=0 n=0 and for 1 < |z| < ∞. For 0 < |z| < 1. Series 9. ±i. Write the two Laurent series in powers of z that represent the function 1 f (z) = z(1 + z2 ) in certain domains and specify these domains. Since f (z) is analytic at z 6= 0.   1 1 1 f (z) = = z(1 + z2 ) z3 1 − (−z−2 ) 1 ∞ ∞ = 3 ∑ (−1)n z−2n = ∑ (−1)n z−2n−3 z n=0 n=0  10. Let z2 f (z) = 2 z − 3z + 2 Find the Laurent series of f (z) in each of the following domains: (a) 1 < |z| < 2 (b) 1 < |z − 3| < 2 Solution. Solution.82 Chapter 4. it is analytic in 0 < |z| < 1 and 1 < |z| < ∞.

First.4. z2 4 1 1 2 = 1+ − z −z−2 3(z − 2) 3 3 + (z − 2) 4 1 1 = 1+ − 3(z − 2) 9 1 + (z − 2)/3 4 1 ∞ = 1+ − ∑ (−1)n 3−n (z − 2)n 3(z − 2) 9 n=0 ∞ 8 4 = + + ∑ (−1)n+1 3−n−2 (z − 2)n 9 3(z − 2) n=1  . z2 2 1 1 1 2 = 1− − z −z−2 3 1 − z/2 3z 1 + 1/z 2 ∞ 1 ∞ = 1 − ∑ 2−n zn − ∑ (−1)n z−n 3 n=0 3z n=0 1 1 ∞ 1−n n 1 ∞ = − ∑ 2 z + ∑ (−1)n z−n 3 3 n=1 3 n=1 In 0 < |z − 2| < 1.1 Taylor and Laurent series 83 In 1 < |z − 3| < 2. Let z2 f (z) = z2 − z − 2 Find the Laurent series of f (z) in each of the following domains: (a) 1 < |z| < 2 (b) 0 < |z − 2| < 1 Solution. z2 4 1 2 = 1+ − z − 3z + 2 (z − 3) + 1 2 + (z − 3)     4 1 1 1 = 1+ − z − 3 1 + 1/(z − 3) 2 1 + (z − 3)/2 ∞ 4 −n 1 ∞ = 1+ ∑ z − 3 n=0 (−1)n (z − 3) − ∑ (−1)n2−n(z − 3)n 2 n=0 ∞ ∞ 1 = + 4 ∑ (−1)n+1 (z − 3)−n − ∑ (−1)n 2−n−1 (z − 3)n 2 n=1 n=1  11. we write f (z) as a sum of partial fractions: z2 z+2 4 1 2 = 1+ = 1+ − z −z−2 (z − 2)(z + 1) 3(z − 2) 3(z + 1) In 1 < |z| < 2.

f (z ) is√ 2 analytic in 0 < |z | < 2π. a0 = −1/2. a2 = 0 and a3 = −1/720.84 Chapter 4. 0 < |z| < 2π. Hence 1 1 z z3 f (z) = − + − + ∑ an zn z 2 12 720 n≥4 and 1 2 1 1 z2 z6 2 = f (z ) = − + − + ∑ an z2n . Since (ez − 1) f (z) = 1. Solution. z2 . ez − 1 z2 2 12 720 n≥4 Note that f (z) is analytic in {z : ez − 1 6= 0} = {z 6= 2nπi}. z. 2 6 24 120 n≥5 (n + 1)! Comparing the coefficients of 1. we have a−1 = 1. we have ! 1= a−1 + a0 z + a1 z2 + a2 z3 + a3 z4 + ∑ an−1 zn n≥5 ! z z2 z3 z4 zn 1+ + + + +∑ .. we obtain    a−1 = 1   a−1   a0 + =0 2      a0 a−1 a1 + + =0 2 6   a1 a0 a−1 a2 + + + =0   2 6 24     a3 + a2 + a1 + a0 + a−1 = 0    2 6 24 120 Solving it. i. z3 and z4 on both sides. Let f (z) = 1/(ez − 1). Find the Laurent series of 1 z 2 e −1 √ in z up to z6 and show the series converges in 0 < |z| < 2π.e. a1 = 1/12. So the series converges in 0 < |z| < 2π. So it is analytic √ in 2 0 < |z| < 2π. Therefore.  . Since ∞ zn ∞ zn ∞ zn ez − 1 = ∑ n! − 1 = ∑ n! = z ∑ (n + 1)! n=0 n=1 n=0 ez − 1 has a zero at 0 of multiplicity one and hence f (z) has pole at 0 of order 1. Series 12. So the Laurent series of f (z) is given by ∞ a−1 f (z) = ∑ an zn = + a0 + a1 z + a2 z2 + a3 z3 + ∑ an zn n=−1 z n≥4 in 0 < |z| < r for some r > 0.

• compute the residue of the function at each singularity. 1 (a) f (z) = (cos z)2 Solution. So 1 a−2 a−1 2 = 2 + + ∑ an wn .. • for each singularity. we obtain a−2 = 1 and a−1 = 0. 4. determine whether it is a pole. So the principal part of f (z) at z = nπ + π/2 is 1 (z − nπ − π/2)2 with residue 0.2 Classification of singularities 1.e. a removable singularity. do the following: • find all its singularities in C.  . • write the principal part of the function at each singularity. (sin w) w w n≥0 Since !2 ∞ (−1)n w2n+1 ∞ (sin w)2 = ∑ = w2 + ∑ bn wn n=0 (2n + 1)! n=4 we have ! ! ∞ a−2 a−1 2 1= 2 + + ∑ an wn w + ∑ bn w n . Let w = z−nπ −π/2. z = nπ +π/2. i. or an essential singularity. f (z) is singular at cos z = 0.2 Classification of singularities 85 4. f (z) has a pole of order 2 at z = nπ + π/2. w w n≥0 n=4 Comparing the coefficients of 1 and w on both sides. For each of the following complex functions. (cos z) (cos(w + nπ + π/2)) (sin w)2 Since sin w has a zero of multiplicity one at w = 0. Then 1 1 1 2 = 2 = .

Since e = ∑∞ n n=0 z /n!. z=0 z (2 · 1004 + 1)! 2009!  . f (z) has an essential singularity at z = 0 with principal part ∞   1 1 1 ∑ n! − (n + 3)! zn n=1 and residue 1 1 23 Res f (z) = − = . Since sin z 1 ∞ (−1)n z2n+1 = ∑ (2n + 1)! z2010 z2010 n=0 ∞ (−1)n z2n−2009 = ∑ (2n + 1)! n=0 1004 (−1)n z2n−2009 ∞ (−1)n z2n−2009 = ∑ + ∑ n=0 (2n + 1)! n=1005 (2n + 1)! f (z) has a pole of order 2009 at z = 0 with principal part 1004 (−1)n z2n−2009 ∑ (2n + 1)! n=0 and with residue sin z (−1)1004 1 Res 2010 = = .   ∞ 3 1 1 (1 − z ) exp = (1 − z3 ) ∑ n z n=0 n!z ∞ ∞ 1 1 =∑ n −∑ n−3 n=0 n!z n=0 n!z ∞ ∞ 3 3−n 1 1 z = − − ∑ n!zn ∑ n!zn−3 ∑ n! n=0 n=4 n=0 ∞ ∞ 3 3−n 1 1 z = 1+ ∑ n −∑ n −∑ n=1 n!z n=1 (n + 3)!z n=0 n! ∞   3 3−n 1 1 1 z =∑ − n + 1 − ∑ n=1 n! (n + 3)! z n=0 n! Therefore. z=0 1! 4! 24  sin z (c) f (z) = 2010 z Solution. Series   3 1 (b) f (z) = (1 − z ) exp z z Solution.86 Chapter 4.

Since 1 − z2 = (1 − z)(1 + z).4. Therefore.2 Classification of singularities 87 ez (d) f (z) = 1 − z2 Solution. f (z) has poles of order 1 at 1 and −1. ez ez .

.

.

e Res = = − z=1 1 − z2 (1 − z2 )0 .

z=1 2 and ez ez .

.

.

z=−1 1 − z2 (1 − z2 )0 . 1 Res = = .

   2 1 (e) f (z) = (1 − z ) exp z Solution.z=−1 2e And the principal parts of f (z) at z = 1 and z = −1 are e 1 − and 2(z − 1) 2e(z + 1) respectively. The function has a singularity at 0 where   ∞ 2 1 1 (1 − z ) exp = (1 − z2 ) ∑ n z n=0 (n!)z ∞ ∞ 1 1 =∑ n −∑ n−2 n=0 (n!)z n=0 (n!)z ∞ ∞ 1 1 2 1 = 1+ ∑ n − ∑ n−2 − (z + z + ) n=1 (n!)z n=3 (n!)z 2 ∞ ∞ 1 1 1 = −z2 − z + + ∑ − ∑ 2 n=1 (n!)zn n=1 (n + 2)!zn ∞   1 1 1 2 = −z − z + + ∑ − z−n 2 n=1 n! (n + 2)! So the principal part is ∞   1 1 ∑ n! − (n + 2)! z−n n=1 the function has an essential singularity at 0 and 1 1 5 Res f (z) = − = z=0 1! 3! 6  .

Series 1 (f) f (z) = (sin z)2 Solution.88 Chapter 4. The function has singularities at kπ for k ∈ Z. the function has a removable singularity at 0 and Res f (z) = 0 z=0  . At z = kπ. The function has a singularity at 0 where ! 1 − cos z 1 ∞ (−1)n z2n 1 ∞ (−1)n+1 z2n = 1 − ∑ = ∑ (2n)! z2 z2 n=0 (2n)! z2 n=1 ∞ (−1)n+1 z2n−2 = ∑ n=1 (2n)! So the principal part is 0. we let w = z − kπ and then !−1 1 1 ∞ (−1)n w2n+1 = = ∑ (sin z)2 (sin w)2 n=0 (2n + 1)! !−1 1 ∞ (−1)n w2n = 2 ∑ w n=0 (2n + 1)! !−1 1 ∞ (−1)n+1 w2n = 2 1− ∑ w n=1 (2n + 1)! !m 1 ∞ ∞ (−1)n+1 w2n = 2 ∑ ∑ w m=0 n=1 (2n + 1)! ! ∞ 1 = 2 1 + ∑ an wn w n=2 So the principal part at kπ is 1 (z − kπ)2 the function has a pole of order 2 at kπ and Res f (z) = 0 z=kπ  1 − cos z (g) f (z) = z2 Solution.

4. ! ! ez 1 ∞ zn ∞ n = ∑ n! ∑ (n + 1)z z(z − 1)2 z n=0 n=0 ! ∞ 1 n = 1 + ∑ an z z n=1 So the principal part at 0 is 1/z. we let w = z − kπ − π/2 and then  π  π cos w tan z = tan w + kπ + = tan w + =− 2 2 sin w Since sin w has a zero of multiplicity 1 at w = 0. The function has singularities at {cos z = 0} = {z = kπ + π/2 : k ∈ Z. At z = kπ + π/2. At z = 0. The function has two singularities at 0 and 1. tan z has a pole of order 1 at z = kπ + π/2. we let w = z − 1 and then ! ! ez e1+w e ∞ wn ∞ = = z(z − 1)2 (1 + w)w2 w2 ∑ ∑ (−1)nwn n=0 n! n=0 ! ! e wn∞ ∞ = 2 1+w+ ∑ 1 − w + ∑ (−1)n wn w n=2 n! n=2 ! ∞ e = 1 + ∑ an wn w2 n=2 So the principal part at 1 is e (z − 1)2 the function has a pole of order 2 at 1 and Res f (z) = 0 z=1  (i) f (z) = tan z Solution. the function has a pole of order 1 at 0 and Res f (z) = 1 z=0 At z = 1. Therefore  cos w  .2 Classification of singularities 89 ez (h) f (z) = z(z − 1)2 Solution.

cos w .

.

Res tan z = Res − =− = −1 z=kπ+π/2 w=0 sin w (sin w)0 .

w z − kπ − π/2  . w=0 and the principal part of tan z at z = kπ + π/2 is 1 1 − =− .

z=0 1! 3! 6  ez (k) f (z) = z2011 Solution.90 Chapter 4. Series   2 1 (j) f (z) = (1 − z ) sin z Solution. the principal part of f (z) at z = 0 is 2010 n−2011 z ∑ n! n=0 and f (z) has a pole of order 2011 and residue 1 Res f (z) = z=0 2010! at z = 0. The function has a singularity at 0 where (−1)n   ∞ 2 1 (1 − z ) sin = (1 − z2 ) ∑ 2n+1 z n=0 ((2n + 1)!)z ∞ (−1)n ∞ (−1)n = ∑ 2n+1 − ∑ 2n−1 n=0 ((2n + 1)!)z n=0 ((2n + 1)!)z ∞ (−1)n ∞ (−1)n = −z + ∑ 2n+1 − ∑ 2n−1 n=0 ((2n + 1)!)z n=1 (2n + 1)!)z (−1)n ∞ ∞ (−1)n+1 = −z + ∑ 2n+1 − ∑ 2n+1 n=0 ((2n + 1)!)z n=0 ((2n + 3)!)z ∞   1 1 = −z + ∑ (−1) n + z−2n−1 n=0 (2n + 1)! (2n + 3)! So the principal part is ∞   1 1 ∑ (−1) (2n + 1)! + (2n + 3)! z−2n−1.  . n n=0 Therefore. The function has a singularity at 0 where ez 1 ∞ zn = z2011 z2011 ∑ n! n=0 n−2011 2010 n−2011 ∞ z z ∞ zn−2011 = ∑ = ∑ + ∑ n! n=0 n! n=0 n! n=2011 Therefore. the function has an essential singularity at 0 and 1 1 7 Res f (z) = + = .

z2 − z3 z2 z n≥0 Hence ! a−2 a−1 ∞ (−1)n z2n (z2 − z3 ) + + ∑ an zn = cos z = 1 + ∑ . So the principal part of f (z) at z = 0 is 1 1 + z2 z with residue Res f (z) = 1. we obtain that a−2 = 1 and a−1 − a−2 = 0 and hence a−1 = a−2 = 1. z2 − z3 has a zero of multiplicity 1 and hence f (z) has a pole of order 1. z2 z n≥0 n=1 (2n)! Comparing the coefficients of 1 and z on both sides. Suppose that the Laurent series of f (z) at z = 0 is given by cos z a−2 a−1 = + + ∑ an zn . 4. z=0 At z = 1. The function has singularities at {z2 − z3 = 0} = {z = 0. Hence .3 Applications of residues 91 cos z (l) f (z) = z2 − z3 Solution. 1}. z2 − z3 has a zero of multiplicity 2 and hence f (z) has a pole of order 2. At z = 0.

cos z cos z .

.

Res 2 3 = 2 3 0 .

Observe that 8−z 8 − 2z + z 2 1 2 1 f (z) = = = + = − z(4 − z) z(4 − z) z (4 − z) z (z − 4) . centre 0. = − cos(1) z=1 z − z (z − z ) z=1 and the principal part of f (z) at z = 1 is cos(1) − . negatively oriented. z−1  4. C z(4 − z) where C is the circle of radius 7. Solution.3 Applications of residues 1. Calculate 8−z Z dz.

0 2 − cos θ 2 −π 2 − cos θ Let z = eiθ . Since 1/(2 − cos θ ) is even. Series The function f has two singularities on C. dθ 1 dθ Z π Z π = . −1/(z − 4) is analytic and then Res f (z) = 2 z=0 Similarly.92 Chapter 4. Hence dθ 1 dθ Z π Z π = 0 2 − cos θ 2 −π 2 − cos θ −idz Z = −1 |z|=1 2z(2 − (z + z )/2) dz Z =i 2 . dz 1 Z = 2πi Res√ |z|=1 z2 − 4z + 1 z=2− 3 z2 − 4z + 1 . |z|=1 z − 4z + 1 The function 1 1 2 = √ √ z − 4z + 1 (z − 2 − 3)(z − 2 + 3) √ has a singularity in |z| < 1 at z = 2 − 3. and considering that C is negatively oriented. 0 2 − cos θ Solution. Both are inside C. At z = 4. z = 0 and z = 4. Then cos θ = (z + z−1 )/2 and dθ = −iz−1 dz. Res f (z) = −1 z=4 From Cauchy’s residue theorem. since 2/z is analytic at z = 4. Therefore. Compute the integral dθ Z π . we have that   8−z Z dz = −2πi Res f (z) + Res f (z) C z(4 − z) z=0 z=4 = −2πi(2 − 1) = −2πi  2.

1 .

πi = 2πi 2 .

(z − 4z + 1)0 z=2− 3 . √ = − √ .

dθ Z π π =√ 0 2 − cos θ 3  . 3 Therefore.

f (z) has a pole of order one at 2nπi. So 1 1 Res = = (−1)n . b ∈ R such that a2 > b2 . dz 1 Z = 2πi ∑ Res |z|=2011 sin z |nπ|<2011 z=nπ sin z = 2πi ∑ (−1)n = 2πi. 0 a + b cos θ π Answer: √ a2 − b2 4. Let a. sin z 1 (b) 2z . It has a pole of order one at nπ since (sin z)0 |z=nπ = cos(nπ) = (−1)n 6= 0.3 Applications of residues 93 3. So . (a) f (z) = 1/ sin z is analytic in {z 6= nπ : n ∈ Z}. |n|≤640 (b) f (z) = 1/(e2z − ez ) is analytic in {e2z − ez 6= 0} = {ez 6= 1} = {z 6= 2nπi : n ∈ Z}. e − ez Solution. Evaluate the contour integral of the following functions around the circle |z| = 2011 oriented counterclockwise: 1 (a) .4. z=nπ sin z cos(nπ) Therefore. Calculate the integral dθ Z π . Since (e2z − ez )0 |z=2nπi = 1 6= 0.

1 1 .

Res 2z = .

= 1. z=2nπi e − ez 2e2z − ez .

dz 1 Z = 2πi ∑ Res |z|=2011 e2z − ez |2nπi|<2011 z=2nπi e2z − ez = 2πi ∑ 1 = 2πi ∑ 1 = 1282πi. |2nπi|<2011 |n|≤320  .z=2nπi Therefore.

|z|=R f (z) k=1 z=ak f (z) At each ak . (b) Use (a) and Cauchy Integral Theorem to prove that n 1 ∑ ∏ j6=k (ak − a j ) = 0 k=1 for all distinct complex numbers a1 . a2 . 1/ f (z) has a pole of order one and −1 1 ∏ j6=k (z − a j ) 1 Res = Res = .. (a) Prove that n dz 1 Z = 2πi ∑ |z|=R f (z) k=1 ∏ j6=k (ak − a j ) for R > |ak | (k = 1. |z|=R f (z) k=1 ∏ j6=k (ak − a j ) Since deg( f (z)) = n ≥ 2... 2.. Let f (z) = (z − a1 )(z − a2 ). . Therefore. k=1  6. n dz 1 Z = 2πi ∑ . an . dz Z =0 |z|=R f (z) by Problem 21 in Section 3. z=ak f (z) z=ak z − ak ∏ j6=k (ak − a j ) Therefore. . Series 5.2. a2 .. Use Cauchy Integral Theorem or Residue Theorem to show that N 1 dz 1 (−1)n Z = + 2 ∑ 2 2 2πi CN z2 sin z 6 n=1 n π and conclude that π2 ∞ (−1)n+1 1 1 1 =∑ 2 = 1− 2 + 2 − 2 +··· 12 n=1 n 2 3 4 .. n 1 ∑ ∏ j6=k (ak − a j ) = 0... By Residue theorem. . n). an .94 Chapter 4. n dz 1 Z = 2πi ∑ Res ... Proof..(z − an ) be a complex polynomial with n ≥ 2 distinct roots a1 .

The function f (z) = 1/(z2 sin z) has singularities at z = nπ for n ∈ Z. So n 1 dz 1 Z 2 = ∑ Res 2 2πi CN z sin z n=−N z=nπ z sin z by Residue Theorem. At z = nπ for a nonzero integer n.4. .3 Applications of residues 95 Solution.

.

2.

z .

6= 0 and (sin z)0 .

6= 0. .

1/(z2 sin z) has a pole of order 1 at nπ for n 6= 0. It follows that (−1)n . nπ nπ Therefore.

1 1 .

1 Res 2 = 2 .

= = z=nπ z sin z z (sin z)0 .

So 1 1 Res = . 6 n=−N n π n=1 n π .z=nπ n2 π 2 cos(nπ) n2 π 2 for n 6= 0. n 1 dz 1 Z 2 = ∑ Res 2 2πi CN z sin z n=−N z=nπ z sin z 1 n=−1 (−1)n n=N (−1)n = + ∑ 2 2 +∑ 2 2. we have    a−3 = 1  a−2 = 0   a  a−1 − −3 = 0 6 Solving the equation. a−2 = 0 and a−3 = 1. z3 z z n≥0 Then ! a−3 a−2 a−1 z2 sin z + 2 + + ∑ an zn z3 z z n≥0 ! ! z2 = 1 − + ∑ bn zn a−3 + a−2 z + a−1 z2 + ∑ an zn = 1. z2 sin z has a zero multiplicity 3 and hence 1/(z2 sin z) has a pole of order 3. z and z2 on both sides. At z = 0. we obtain a−1 = 1/6. Suppose that the Laurent series of f (z) at z = 0 is given by a−3 a−2 a−1 + 2 + + ∑ an zn . z=0 z2 sin z 6 Therefore. 3! n≥3 n≥3 Comparing the coefficients of 1.

Series We observe that (−1)n (−1)−n = n2 π 2 (−n)2 π 2 and hence we obtain N 1 dz 1 (−1)n Z = + 2 ∑ 2 2. By CIT or residue theorem. eix Z ∞  cos x Z ∞ 4 2 dx = Re 4 2 dx −∞ x + x + 1 −∞ x + x + 1 Actually. we have cos x eix Z ∞ Z ∞ 4 2 dx = 4 2 dx −∞ x + x + 1 −∞ x + x + 1 in this case since sin x/(x4 + x2 + 1) is odd. we have 1 dz Z lim =0 N→∞ 2πi CN z2 sin z Consequently.3. since eix = cos x + i sin x.2. oriented counterclockwise. Consider the contour integral of eiz /(z4 + z2 + 1) along the path LR = [−R.1 Improper integrals cos x Z ∞ 1. Im(z) ≥ 0}. 1 ∞ (−1)n +2 ∑ 2 2 = 0 6 n=1 n π That is. R] and CR = {|z| = R. 2πi CN z2 sin z 6 n=1 n π By Problem 14 in section 3. 12 n=1 n n=1  4. π2 ∞ (−1)n ∞ (−1)n+1 =−∑ 2 = ∑ n2 . Compute the integral dx −∞ x4 + x2 + 1 Solution. we have eiz eiz Z Z 4 2 dz + 4 2 dz LR z + z + 1 CR z + z + 1 n eiz = 2πi ∑ Res 4 2 z=zk z + z + 1 k=1 . 96 Chapter 4.

z2 . zn are the singularities of eiz /(z4 + z2 + 1) inside the region {|z| < R. all poles of eiz /(z4 + z2 + 1) have order one. Therefore. . z=eπi/3 z + z + 1 z=e2πi/3 z + z + 1 Since all zeros of z4 + z2 + 1 have multiplicity one. Two of them eπi/3 and e2πi/3 lie above the real axis. .3 Applications of residues 97 where z1 . Im(z) > 0}. . Therefore. We find the singularities of eiz /(z4 + z2 + 1) by solving z4 + z2 + 1 = 0: we observe that (z2 − 1)(z4 + z2 + 1) = z6 − 1. √ eiz eiz . . So the function has four singularities ±eπi/3 and ±e2πi/3 . eiz eiz Z Z 4 2 dz + 4 2 dz LR z + z + 1 CR z + z + 1 eiz eiz   = 2πi Res 4 2 + Res 4 2 .4.

.

exp((− 3 + i)/2) Res 4 2 = 4 2 .

= √ z=eπi/3 z + z + 1 (z + z + 1)0 .

z=eπi/3 3i − 3 and √ eiz eiz .

.

exp((− 3 − i)/2) Res 4 2 = 4 2 0 .

= √ . z=e2πi/3 z +z +1 (z + z + 1) z=e2πi/3 .

LR z + z + 1 CR z + z + 1 3 2 2 For z lying on CR . 3i + 3 Hence eiz eiz √      1 1 Z Z π 4 2 dz + 4 2 dz = 3 cos + 3 sin . Hence iz . y = Im(z) ≥ 0 and hence |eiz | = e−y ≤ 1.

.

.

e .

1 .

z4 + z2 + 1 .

≤ R4 − R2 − 1 .

.

and it follows that eiz .

Z .

.

.

πR .

C z4 + z2 + 1 .

≤ R4 − R2 − 1 dz .

.

R→∞ CR z + z + 1 . R Since πR lim = 0. R→∞ R4 − R2 − 1 we conclude that eiz Z lim 4 2 dz = 0.

−∞ x2 + 2x + 2 Solution. Series Therefore. Im(z) ≥ 0}. R] and CR = {|z| = R. eix Z ∞  sin x Z ∞ 2 2 dx = Im 2 2 dx −∞ x + 2x + 2 −∞ x + 2x + 2 Consider the contour integral of eiz /(z2 + 2z2 + 2) along the path LR = [−R. since eix = cos x + i sin x.98 Chapter 4. oriented counterclockwise. 3 2 2  2. cos x eix Z ∞ Z ∞ 4 2 dx = 4 2 dx −∞ x + x + 1 −∞ x + x + 1 eiz Z = lim dz R→∞ LR z4 + z2 + 1 π √      1 1 = 3 cos + 3 sin . Since eiz /(z2 + 2z + 2) has two isolated singularities at −1 ± i with −1 + i lying inside the curve LR ∪CR . Compute the integral sin x Z ∞ dx. we have eiz eiz Z Z 2 2 dz + 2 2 dz LR z + 2z + 2 CR z + 2z + 2 eiz = 2πi Res 2 z=−1+i z + 2z + 2 eiz .

.

= 2πi 2 .

(z + 2z + 2)0 .

For z lying on CR . Hence eiz .z=−1+i 2πi exp(−i − 1) π = = (cos(1) − i sin(1)) 2i e by Cauchy Integral Theorem or residue theorem. y = Im(z) ≥ 0 and hence |eiz | = e−y ≤ 1.

.

.

.

1 .

z2 + 2z2 + 2 .

≤ R2 − 2R2 − 2 .

.

and it follows that eiz .

Z .

.

.

πR .

C z2 + 2z + 2 .

≤ R2 − 2R2 − 2 dz .

.

R→∞ R2 − 2R2 − 2 . R Since πR lim = 0.

e  . eix Z  sin x Z ∞ ∞ 2 2 dx = Im 2 2 dx −∞ x + 2x + 2 −∞ x + 2x + 2 eiz  Z  = Im lim dz R→∞ LR z2 + 2z2 + 2 π = − sin(1).3 Applications of residues 99 we conclude that eiz Z lim 2 2 dz = 0. R→∞ CR z + 2z + 2 Therefore.4.

.

R. Visual Complex Analysis. T. Oxford University Press. R. New York: The Clarendon Press. Theory and problems of Complex variables. [2] Needham. 8th Edition. (2009). [3] Spiegel. . New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. (1997). M. W. Singapore: McGraw-Hill. Complex Variables and Applications. J. V. (1981). Bibliography [1] Brown. & Churchill.