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Journal of Research in Biology

An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
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A Comparison of Fuel wood consumption and Woody biomass
accumulation in the tribal village ecosystem of Bolangir (Orissa)
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Sarada Prasad Mohapatra

A thorough study of fuel wood consumption and woody biomass
accumulation in the tribal dominated village ecosystem of Bolangir district of Orissa
Institution: was made to find out a relation between the two. The three village complex such as
S.C.S College, Puri
Chikalbahal, Kudasingha and Bhutyarbahal were taken in the study area where people
of Gond, Kondha and Sabar tribe inhabit and their main source of fuel wood
consumption is agricultural wastes, village trees and to some extent the near by forest
Corresponding author: as it is easily approachable. This project set out to add data to the debate by
Sarada Prasad Mohapatra comparing fuel wood consumption to woody biomass accumulation in the village
ecosystem. High, mean and low fuel wood consumption rates were found to be 552,
380 and 292 kg per person per year respectively. Woody biomass accumulation was
calculated at 1659.6 kg/ha/year. Under the highest consumption rate 0.33 ha of
Email: wooded land is needed to meet the fuel wood demand of one person. These figures and evidences from observing fuel wood collection undermine the notion that at least
in this region fuel wood consumption is a driver of deforestation. The paper concludes
by discussing forest management issues in the region and suggests areas for future

Web Address: Keywords: Fuel Wood, Village complex, Woody biomass, Bolangir, Deforestation.

Article Citation:
Sarada Prasad Mohapatra.
A Comparison of Fuel wood consumption and Woody biomass accumulation in the
tribal village ecosystem of Bolangir (Orissa).
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 62-67.

Received: 08 May 2011 /Accepted: 11May 2011 /Published: 28 May 2011

© Ficus Press.
This Open Access article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://, which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-
commercial, distribution, and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly

62-67 | JRB | 2011 | Vol 1 | No 2
Journal of Research in biology
Submit Your Manuscript
An International Open Access Online
Research Journal

INTRODUCTION household would consists of a husband and wife (or
In the later half of 20th century the narrative wives, as polygyny is practiced in the tribal areas),
of dry forest to woodland conversion consistently one or more grown sons and their families and any
included fuel wood collection and consumption as a younger unmarried children. The households
root cause. The idea that local people were sampled were not selected randomly. Because the
deforesting their lands in order to supply process of monitoring fuel wood consumption was
themselves with fuel wood gained a following over some what intrusive, It is chosen to monitor the
time (Mohapatra and Sahoo, 2009). Governmental consumption rates of families which were more
and nongovernmental organizations alike have willing to be cooperative.
reported concerns over fuel wood-caused The women were asked to show all of the
desertification and impending fuel wood crises. In places where they stored wood they used for fuel.
light of the lack of consensus this study sought to All of the wood was then weighed to the nearest
elucidate the relationship between fuel wood 0.01 kg using a hanging scale. Women were then
consumption and deforestation. Specifically fuel asked to agree to set any wood collected from the
wood consumption and forest regeneration rates fields during the week that I was monitoring their
were estimated with the goal of comparing the two fuel wood use and to not add it to the pile of
to develop an idea of how much land would be weighed wood or use it until I had weighed it.
necessary to meet fuel wood demands of inhabitants I then visited the households’ everyday
of the tribal village of Bolangir. during the week and weighed all fuel wood brought
Study area from the field by any of the women of the
The district of Bolangir (Orissa) is flanked household. Finally, all wood for all women of the
in the North West by Gandhamardhan hills, a name household was then reweighed at the end of the
of Ramayan fame, the north east by the rock week. Fuel wood consumed by the household for
infested Mahanadi. It lies between 20011’ 40” – 210 the week was then calculated by the following
05’ 08” northern latitude and 820 41’ 15” – 830 40’ formula:
22” east longitude. The district is situated in the
valley of rivers like Ang and Tel. It is in the Weight of wood Weight of wood Weight of wood
Beginning of + collected during = present at the end of
western highlands of Orissa state with an average Week week week
rain fall of about 1230 cm. and red sandy to red
loamy soil nature. Out of 6 million tribal people This value for fuel wood consumed was then
about 62 notified tribes are seen in Orissa used to estimate fuel wood consumption per person
(Mohapatra, 1993). The three villages i.e. by dividing the total household’s weekly
Chikalbahal, Kudasingha and Bhutiyarbahal are consumption rate and dividing by the number of
dominated by tribals like Kondha, Sabar, Gond, non-infants within the household.
Mahar etc. Bolangir is one of the drought affected Fuel wood supply
district of Orissa due to less rainfall. The three Fuel wood supply was calculated by
study villages are about 30 Km. away from the estimating biomass accumulation for the area. This
Bolangir town. The villagers mainly depend on the was done by establishing an inventory plot within
forest available nearer to village Chikalbahal for two hectares of former agricultural land that had
their livelihood. The total number of tribal people in been left fallow for two years. A systematic grid
these three villages are 687. The villagers depend design (Avery & Burkhart 1994) was established
on the trees available in the nearby forest for their within the fallow. Twenty 100m2 circular subplots
food to healthcare (Mohapatra and Sahoo 2008). (radius= 5.64 m) were situated within the 2 ha
inventory plot resulting in a total inventoried area
METHODOLOGY of 2000m2 or 5% of the 2 ha fallow. The foci of the
Fuel wood Consumption subplots were spaced at intervals of 33.33m from
Fuel wood consumption was estimated by north to south and 40m from east to west. A full
recording the fuel wood use of three different inventory of all trees with stems greater than 10 cm
households of three villages over the course of a diameter at breast height (dbh) within the inventory
week and this weekly measurement was made subplots were conducted. Species, dbh, total tree
twice. A household is here defined by the collection height, tree species and stem taper were recorded.
of women who share cooking responsibilities and After completion of the inventory, the three
the men and the children they feed. A typical most frequently encountered fuel wood species
63 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 62-67

(Fig-1 Map of study area along with road map) Study area
(Mangifera indica L, Madhuca longifolia var. These three species accounted for roughly 48% of
latifolia Gmel, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.) were all individuals in the inventory plot. The trees were
selected, and three individuals of each species were then sectioned and weighed in the field (wet
then felled (M. indica: M1, M2, M3; M. longifolia: weights).
MD1, MD2, MD3; D. melanoxylon: D1, D2, D3). Wood sample from the main stem at breast

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 62-67 64

height were then taken from each of the felled nine Weekly Household Fuel wood Consumption
trees. The volume was estimated by treating each as
a cylinder. Average diameter for each sample was

Fuel wood consumption (Kg)
taken as the average of two perpendicular diameters 120

of the sample. Average thickness reflects the 100
average of four measurements of the wood sample,
each 90 degrees from the previous. The samples 80

were brought back to laboratory and dried for two 60

weeks at 850 C. The samples were weighed and 40
allometric equations correlating volume with dry
weight by species were developed. An average dry 20

weight per unit volume (cc) across all species was 0

then calculated. CH1 KH1 BH1 CH2 KH2 BH2

This average dry weight per volume value
was then applied to the estimated standing volume (Figure- 2 Total weekly fuel wood consumption in
within the inventory subplots to establish a standing the village ecosystem)
biomass. The volumes the standing tree stems were
calculated assuming a conical shape of the bole species to be 0.62 g/cc. Based upon the estimates of
where the tree dbh is taken as the base of the cone. standing wood volume after two year fallow period,
This then gives an estimate of the mass the woody biomass accumulation rate of the sum of
accumulated for each inventory subplot over the the subplots were calculated to be 1659 kg/ha/year
two years. Yearly averages for each subplot were (Table-3).
calculated by dividing by two. This value was then
scaled up for reference. DISCUSSION
At the high level of consumption in which a
RESULTS person consumes 552.48 kg of fuel wood per year,
Fuel wood Consumption each villager would need to access to 0.33 ha of
Total weekly fuel wood consumption values fallow land to meet their fuel wood demand given
were presented in Fig-2. Estimated fuel wood the regeneration rate of 1659 kg/ha/year. At the
consumption per person per year based upon each average consumption rate of 380 kg/person/year,
household’s observed consumption is presented in each person needs access to about 0.23 ha of fallow
Table-1. The average amount of fuel wood land. Under the low estimate of 292 kg/person/year,
consumed per person per week is 7.43 kilograms 0.17 ha of fallow land could supply the fuel wood
while the average weight of fuel wood consumed demands of one person. Restated, one hectare of
per person annually is 380.64. Given the three land could support the consumption of roughly 4, 3
village’s population of 687, this data estimates that and 2 people under the low, mean and high
261,499 kilograms of fuel wood are consumed by estimates of fuel wood consumption respectively
the tribal of the three villages each year. (Table-4).
Forest regeneration Under the low and high estimates of fuel
The bulk densities of the nine trees selected wood consumption, a family of 12 would need
for allometric analysis are listed in Table-2. I access to a little over 3 and 4 ha of fallow
calculated the average bulk density of the three respectively. The villages as a whole would
Table 1 Per capita fuel wood consumption at the village complex
Household Fuel wood People in Fuel wood consumption Fuel wood consumption
consumption household (Kg/person/week) (Kg/person/year)
CH1 57.60 10 5.76 300.48
KH1 50.31 9 5.59 292.32
BH1 121.11 11 11.01 552.48
CH2 63.00 7 9.00 456.00
KH2 56.72 8 7.09 364.32
BH2 73.68 12 6.14 318.72
Mean 10 7.43 380.64
65 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 62-67
Table 2 Tree bulk densities sampled at the village complex
Wood Dry weight Average Average Volume of Dry density
sample (g) diameter (cm) thickness (cm) wood (cc) (g/cc)

M1 26.20 4.85 2.5 45.3 0.58
M2 78.75 7.40 3.5 149.5 0.53
M3 11.40 3.55 2.5 24.5 0.47
MD1 56.70 5.95 3.0 83.4 0.68
MD2 16.20 3.80 2.2 24.7 0.66
MD3 32.40 4.20 3.1 42.6 0.76
D1 68.20 7.55 2.5 111.9 0.61
D2 35.30 4.55 3.3 53.7 0.66
D3 30.00 4.40 3.0 45.2 0.66

Species Average little less than 8 ha of fallow land.
dry density (g/cc) With regard to notion that fuel wood
Mangifera indica L. 0.52 consumption leads to deforestation, observations of
fuel wood collection does not support the theory.
Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia Gmel. 0.69 All women observed during the course of study
Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. 0.64 collected fuel wood by breaking dead limbs and
felling snags. Further they reported that they do not
Average dry density of all species (g/cc) 0.62
fell live trees for fuel wood. This fuel wood
collection technique is corroborated to some degree
consume the equivalent of 183 ha of fallow to meet by Abbot and Homewood (1999) and explicitly by
its fuel demand under the low estimate; a little more Leach (1996).
than 345 ha would be needed by the villages under Future Research
high estimate. This land requirement range is not This study definitely opened a path for
unreasonable. Even under the high estimate, a future research on the following areas so that better
family of 20 could meet its fuel wood needs from a understanding of the fuel wood consumption and its
Table 3 Woody biomass accumulation in plots sample in the village ecosystem
Plot Total plot volume (m3) Estimated plot weight Growth rate (Kg-1)
A5 0.01 3.26 1.63
A6 0.02 6.05 3.02
A7 0.03 8.09 4.05
A8 0.04 11.16 5.57
A9 0.02 4.26 2.13
A10 0.05 12.14 6.08
A11 0.04 8.74 4.37
A12 0.16 38.68 19.35
A13 0.09 21.63 10.81
A14 0.03 6.46 3.23
A15 0.11 26.17 13.08
A16 0.01 3.34 1.67
A17 0.07 17.66 8.82
A18 0.04 9.86 4.93
A19 0.1 28.58 14.30
A20 0.19 46.48 23.24
A21 0.06 14.05 7.02
A22 0.03 6.31 3.15
A23 0.05 12.66 6.35
A24 0.19 46.28 23.14
Total growth rate for all sub-plots (0.1 ha) kg/year 165.96
Woody biomass accumulation estimate (kg/ha/year) 1659.60

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 62-67 66

Table 4 Sensitivity analysis of estimated fuel wood consumption at three levels of use

relation to the woody biomass could be established. REFERENCE
1. Focus should be on the rate of urban fuel wood Abbot J and Homewood K. 1999. A History of
consumption in addition to rural fuel wood change: causes of miombo woodland decline in a
consumption. protected area in Malawai. Journal of Applied
2. To gain a better understanding of the present Ecology 36:422-433.
status of forests and possible future trends, a
better base of knowledge regarding land use Avery TE and Burkhart HE. 1994. Forest
should be established. Measurements, 4th ed. McGraw Hill Inc. New York.
3. The composition and selection process of field
trees should be studied in greater depth. A Leach M. 1996. Misreading the African
broader inventory will give a clear picture of Landscape. Cambridge University Press,
the expression of farmer’s preference. Species Cambridge.
found in fields can also be compared to those
found in fallow and other land use inventories Mohapatra S. 1993. The tangled web tribal life
to determine their overall presence. and culture: Orissa Sahitya Academy Publication,
4. A detail focus should be on individual species. BBSR. 1-148.

CONCLUSION Mohapatra SP and Sahoo HP 2008. Some Less
The data support the notion that woody Known Folk Medicinal Plants of Tribal Village of
biomass accumulation is sufficient to meet fuel Bolangir, Orissa
wood demand in the village complex. At present, html.
women and children do not make special trips to
find and collect fuel wood. None of the women who Mohapatra SP and Sahoo HP 2009: The status
took part in this study felt that fuel wood supplies and use of tree biomass in the tribal village
were inadequate. ecosystem of Bolangir, Orissa: Advances in Plant
Although fuel wood is not perceived as Sciences 22(2):541-545.
scarce and does not result in deforestation, fuel
wood collection within this system may not be Mohapatra SP and Sahoo HP 2009. Fuel wood
wholly benevolent. The collection of dead woody burning and its effect on the environment with
biomass for fuel wood does remove nutrients from reference to tribal villages of Bolangir, Orissa,
the system Mohapatra and Sahoo (2009). So this India: Ecology, Environment and Conservation 15
paper gives an illustrative idea about the (3):513-516.
comparison of fuel wood consumption and woody
biomass accumulation in the tribal village

I would first like to thank my research guide
Dr. Hara Prasad Sahoo for his timely advice and a
lot of support. I sincerely appreciate the cooperation
of the tribal women of the study village of Bolangir
which they have shown during my visit and spot
verification of the fuel wood consumption.

67 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 62-67
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
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Fluctuation of protein level in Haemolymph, ovary and Hepatopancreas during
non-reproductive and reproductive Molt Cycle of Albunea symmista
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Kanagalakshmi K.
In Albunea symmista, an antagonistic relationship could be visualized
between molting and reproduction. Proteins necessary for the formation and
hardening of the exoskeleton and maturation of ovary .The biochemical link between
Institution: molting and reproductive cycle of Albunea symmista was established through the
Department of zoology, estimation of protein in haemolymph, ovary and hepatopancreas. The haemolymph
Presidency college,
protein level during non- reproductive molt cycle gradually raised from post molt to
Chennai, India.
early premolt (2.7± 0.2 to 6.3 ± 0.2 mg/ml)and it get decreased in the late premolt due
to water influx through new cuticle (6.3 ±0.2 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg/ml).However during
reproductive molt cycle , the protein content of haemolymph also gets decreased due
Corresponding author: to reproductive activities (3.9 ± 0.2 to 2.1 ±0.1 mg/ml).The ovarian protein level
Kanagalakshmi K. during non-reproductive molt cycle get gradually increased due to accumulation of
protein (74.8 ± 1.5 to 145.8 ± 1.7 µg/mg)During reproductive molt cycle fluctuation of
protein level occurs soon after spawning , where the ovary remains in the spent
condition (47 µg/mg) then after hatching, the ovary continues its maturation (47 to
74.9 ± 3.7 µg/mg).The protein content in the hepatopancreas shows fluctuation both
Email: during reproductive molt cycle (29.5 ± 1.9 to 148.2 ± 1.8 µg/mg) and non- reproductive molt cycle (144.8±1.0 to 125.1 ±5.2 µg/mg).

Phone Number:
Albunea symmista, molting, reproduction, haemolymph, ovary, hepatopan-
creas and protein.

Web Address: Article Citation:
Documents/RA0019.pdf. Kanagalakshmi K.
Fluctuation of protein level in Haemolymph, ovary and Hepatopancreas during non-
reproductive and reproductive Molt Cycle of Albunea symmista.
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 68-72

Received: 07 May 2011 /Accepted: 12 May 2011 /Published: 28 May 2011

© Ficus Press.
This Open Access article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://, which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-
commercial, distribution, and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly

68-72 | JRB | 2011 | Vol 1 | No 2
Journal of Research in biology
Submit Your Manuscript
An International Open Access Online
Research Journal

INTORDUCTION energy demanding physiological processes. Hence,
Proteins play vital role in both molting andthe total protein was estimated in haemolymph,
reproduction as it involves in the formation of ovary and hepatopancreas of Albunea symmista
cuticle and synthesis of yolk. Variation in the during different molt stages and ovarian stages.
amount of haemolymph protein involved in the Fluctuation of haemolymph protein during
formation of new cuticle during molting stages has molting and reproductive stages
been reported in the crayfish, Astacus astacus During non-reproductive molting stages,
(Domboriceanu,1932;Crowley,1963), in the crabs, oocyte maturation occurs. The level of protein
Journal of Research in Biology

Maia squainado (Drilhon,1935;Drach and shows a gradual increase of 2.7± 0.2 mg/ml in post
Teissier,1939) Cancer magster,Calinectus sapidus molt stages (A and B) to 6.3±0.2mg/ml in premolt
(Leone,1953) Carcinus maenus (D2) (P>0.05). However, the D3 and D4 stages
(Robertson,1960 ),lobsters Homarus vulgaris register a protein level of 4.3±0.1mg/ml which is
(Glynn,1968) and Homarus americanus (Barlow slightly lower than that of D2 stage (P>0.05). This
and Ridgway 1969). might be due to water influx through the soft new
It is also now well known that both cuticle during ecdysis. However, the protein level
epidermal cells and ovary depends on precursor was further reduce to 3.9± 0.1 mg/ml in post molt
molecule synthesized elsewhere in the somatic stage (P>0.05). The haemolymph shows further
organs for their final sequestration to form the newdecline in its protein level during reproductive molt
cuticle and storage yolk inside the ripe oocyte stage (Fig. 1).
respectively. The protein components transported During reproductive molt stages, the
through the haemolymph directly sequestrated into haemolymph protein level was higher in post molt
the growing oocyte for deposition as yolk. The lipidstages (A and B) (3.9± 0.1 mg/ml) when compared
constituents from the lipogenic tissue are to that of intermolt stages. Whereas, the protein
transported to the ovary as well as other organ level shows a significant decline during intermolt
including epidermis is mainly achieved by the two stage-C1 (2.1±0.1 mg/ml) (P>0.05). However, the
haemolymph lipoprotein such as lipoprotein I (LPI) protein level is further increased in intermolt stage-
and Lipoprotein II (LP II) (Chino and Kitazava, D2 (2.4±0.1 mg/ml). But, it shows a steady decline
1981; Champman, 1980; Lee and puppione, 1988) in the premolt (2.0 ± 0.1 mg/ml). This haemolymph
The hepatopancreas which is considered to be the protein shows an increase in protein level further
chief organ for protein synthesis consist of proximal
decrease during late premolt stages D3 and D4
and distal segment. The hepatopancreas serves as an (2.8± 0.2 mg/ml) (P>0.05) (Fig. 2).
extra ovarian source of yolk protein for Crustacea The haemolymph protein steadily increased during
(Byard, 1976). Developing oocyte also acquires the different ovarian stages from maturing to ripe
yolk protein by pinocytic mechanism from stages (2.5 ±0.5 to 4.8±1.0 mg/ml)
haemolymph (Zerbib, 1973). The protein is also Fluctuation of ovarian protein during molting
synthesized by the oocyte itself (Kessel, 1968). and reproductive stages
Apparently, an analysis of the biochemical The quantity of ovarian protein shows a
composition of the haemolymph as well as the gradual increased from (74.8 ± 1.5 to 145.8 ± 1.7
synthetic organs during molting and reproductive ug/mg) during non-reproductive molt. Further, a
stages would reveal their precise involvement in thesteady increase in the level of ovarian protein was
cuticle formation as well as vitellogenesis. also observed at the early intermoult-C1 (127.2 ±
15.7 ug/mg) as well as during premolt stages_D2,
MATERIALS AND METHODS D3 and D4 (145.8 ± 1.7ug/mg) (P>0.05) (Table 11).
The total protein was estimated by the After this, the protein value remains more or less
method of Lowery et al., (1951) in haemolymph constant in premolt and postmolt stages (Fig. 51,
and in tissues such as ovary and hepato pancreas. A Table 6). After successful spawning, the protein
standard graph was plotted using the absorbance level in the ovary remains more or less constant (47
values against each concentration. ug/mg) (P<0.05) in the intermolt (C1 and C2) and
early premolt (D0) until hatching. However, a
RESULT steady increase from 47 to 74.9 ± 3.7 ug/mg
Fluctuation of protein during Moulting and (P>0.05) in the protein level was observed after
Reproduction hatching (Fig. 1).
Molting and reproduction both are the The ovary shows an upward trend in the
69 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 68-72
Journal of Research in Biology

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

protein level from maturing to ripe stage (47.3 ± 3.5 shows fluctuation during reproductive molt cycle.
to 145.3 ± 1.3 ug/mg) (Fig. 2). The haemolymph protein level recorded a
Fluctuation of hepatopancreas protein during significant decline from postmolt to intermolt (3.9
molting and reproductive stages +_ 0.1 to 2.1 +_ 0.1 mg/ml). The protein shows an
The hepatopancreatic protein shows an increasing trend in D1 stage (3.2 +_ 0.2 mg/ml).
upward trend from 29.5 ± 1.9 in postmolt to 148.2 ± The gradual increase in the protein level from
1.8 ug/mg (P>0.05) in premolt during non- maturing to ripe stage (2.5 +_ 0.5 to 4.8 +_ 1.0 mg/
reproductive molt stage (Fig. 1). Non-reproductive ml) has suggested that the proteins in the
molt stages also shows a similar fluctuation in haemolymph is necessarily sequestered into the
protein level (144.8 ± 1.0 to 125.1 ± 5.2 ug/mg) ovary for its maturation.
(P>0.05) (Fig.2). The ovarian protein content shows gradual
increase during the non-reproductive molt cycle
DISCUSSION (74.8 +_ 1.5 to 145.8 +_ 1.7 ug/mg). The increase
In Albunea symmista, an antagonistic in protein content shows an accumulation of yolk
relationship could be visualized between molting protein into the oocyte for its maturation. In the
and reproduction. To investigate the role of reproductive molt, the protein level falls sharply
biomolecules in the process of molting and just after spawning, (145.8 +_ 1.7 to 47 ug/ml).
reproduction, total protein level of haemolymph, From C1 to D0 the ovary development does not
ovary and hepatopancreas was quantified. proceeds and the ovary remains in spent stage until
The haemolymph protein of Albunea hatching where the protein value remains static and
symmista shows a steady increase from postmolt the maturation of ovary does not coincides with the
(2.7 +_ 0.2 mg/ml) to premolt (6.3 +_ 0.2 mg/ml) development of oocyte in Albunea symmista unlike
during the non-reproductive molt. This is due to the that of Emerita asiatica. After hatching the protein
continuous supply of protein necessary for the level increases from 47 to 74.9 +_ 3.7ug/ml in the
synthesis of cuticle. Thereafter, the protein content ovary. The ovary doesn’t molt and the maturation in
slowly decreases in D2 and D4 (6.3 +_ 0.2 to 4.3 +_ this cycle. Therefore, the animal undergoes molt
0.1mg/ml). This might be due to the utilization of and the maturation of ovary continues in the
the protein for new cuticle formation. A sharp following molt cycle. The reproductive process
decline in protein content of haemolymph is mainly such as spawning and hatching do not occur during
due to water influx through the soft new cuticle this cycle and the ovary completes its maturation
which dilutes the haemolymph (Skinner, 1985; and remains ready for subsequent spawning. The
Chang, 1992). The haemolymph protein level also increase in the protein level from maturing to ripe
Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 68-72 70
stage (47.3 +_ 3.5 to 145.3 +_ 1.3 ug/mg) indicates REFERENCES
that the accumulation of protein in the oocyte Barlow J and Ridgway GJ. 1996. Changes in
occurs during the ovarian developmental stages. serum protein during the molt and reproductive
The protein content of the synthetic organ cycles of the American Lobster, Homarus
hepatopancreas shows a higher fluctuation both americanus. J Fish. Res. Biol., Canada. 26:2101-
during reproductive molt cycle (29.5 +_ 1.9 to 2109.
148.2 +_ 1.8 ug/mg) and in non-reproductive molt
cycle (144.8 +_ 1.0 to 125.1 +_ 5.2 ug/mg). Byard EH. 1976. The female specific protein and
Journal of Research in Biology

However it doesn’t show any correlation with ovary reproduction in the lobster, Homarus americanus.
and haemolymph protein. This is mainly due to that PhD. Thesis, Univ. of Western Ontario, London
hepatopancreas is not only involved in cuticle and Ontario. 107.
vitellogenin synthesis but also involved in synthesis
of other proteins which play a role in physiology of Chang ES. 1992. Endocrinology. In: Marine
this sand crab Albunea symmista. shrimp culture: Principles and practices. (A.W. fast
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and repeatedly also shows similar results B.V Amsterdam. 53-91.
(Subramoniam, 1977, 1979, Gunamalai, 2002). A
steady increase of haemolymph protein from Chapman MJ. 1980. Animal lipoproteins:
postmolt (A) (5.23 +_ 1.58 mg/ml) to premolt (D0’) chemistry, structure and comparative aspects. J.
(22.47 +_ 5.31 mg/ml) as well as a sharp dip in the Lipid. Res., 21: 789-853.
premolt stage D1 (22.47 +_ 5.31 to 16.88 +_ 4.83
mg/ml) were due to embryonic development and Chino H and Kitazawa K. 1981. Diacyl glycerol
hatching of the larvae. The protein level rises carrying lipoprotein of hemolymph of the locust
sharply to reach a peak value in D2 stage (25.42 +_ and some insects. J Lipid. Res., 22:1042-1052.
3.26 mg/ml). The protein level further get decreased
due to ecdysis in D3 & D4 stage (9.18 +_ 0.32 mg/ Crowley GJ. 1963. Studies in arthropod serology. I
ml). The protein content of both ovary and ovarian Change in haemolymph composition as related to
index rises spontaneously from C1 to D0 stage the ecdysial cycle. Wasmann. J. Biol., 21:177-191.
(8.18 +_ 2.83% to 15.75 +_ 1.44%) at the time of
hatching, the ovary almost completes its maturation Domboriceanu A. 1932. Composition chimique et
and ready for next spawning (Gunamalai, 2002). physic chemiques du ziquide cavitative chez les
A similar increase in protein content of crustace decapods (physiologic de la calcification).
haemolymph during postmolt (AB), intermolt (C), Archs. Roum. Path. Exp. Microbiol., 5L:239-309.
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Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 68-72 72
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Wild edible plant Diversity of Kotagiri Hills - a Part of Nilgiri Biosphere
Reserve, Southern India
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Sasi R, Rajendran A and
Maharajan M.

The present study documented indigenous knowledge on wild edible plant
resources from the tribe Irulas of Kotagiri at Nilgiri Hills. They are partially or fully
Department of Botany, dependent on the wildresources for their nutritional requirements. A total of 50 -
School of Life Sciences, plants were identified belonging to 31- families under 43 - genera. The present study
Bharathiar University, observed that the tribal communities of the study area fulfill their food deficiency by
Coimbatore- 641 046. supplementing wild food plants in their daily diet.

Corresponding author:
Rajendran A

Email: Keywords: Wild edible, Indigenous Knowledge, Irulas, Kotagiri, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

Article Citation:
Web Address:
Sasi R, Rajendran A and Maharajan M.
Documents/RA0022.pdf. Wild edible plant Diversity of Kotagiri Hills - a Part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve,
Southern India.
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 80-87

Received: 08 May 2011 /Accepted: 13 May 2011 /Published: 28 May 2011

© Ficus Press.
This Open Access article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://, which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-
commercial, distribution, and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly

80-87 | JRB | 2011 | Vol 1 | No 2
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Research Journal
Sasi et al.,2011

INTRODUCTION the frequent findings is them as rare plants,
Wild edible plants play a major role in including new records for region or country.
meeting the nutritional requirement of the tribal Moreover, it is perceptible that these large studies
population in remote parts of the country (Manju (Mohanan and Balakrishnan, 1991; Prasad and
Sundriyal and Sundriyal 2001). It is estimated that Balasubramanian, 1996; Paulsamy et al. 2005;
in India about 800 species are consumed as wild Prasad et al., 2003; Rajasekaran et al. 2005;
edible plants (Singh and Arora 1978). The Paulsamy et al.2009; Paulsamy et al. 2010) have
documentation of indigenous knowledge on the abandoned quantitative aspects in the importance of
utilization of local plant resources by different these plants.
ethnic groups or communities is one of the main Kotagiri - Study area
objective of ethnobotanical research [48].But much Kotagiri (Kota- giri; Mountain of the Kotas),
of the informations on wild edible plants are still part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, is the oldest and
lacking due to the lack of logical validation. the third largest hill station in Nilgiris It is situated
Wild edible plants not only provide food at an elevation of around 1793 m above sea level
quantity but also make significant contribution to and located at 11.43°N and 76.88°E. The average
the population nutrition throughout the year rainfall is about 62 in. per annum and it is well
(Grivetti and Ogle Britta, 2000; Ogle Britta, 2001; distributed throughout the year. It possesses a
Ogle Britta et al., 2001; Ogle Britta et al., 2003). natural charm and an agreeable climate among the
The potential of traditional vegetables may help to hill stations of Nilgiris (Fig-1).
meet the increasing demands of the growing Irulas - People of the darkness
population. Increased use of traditional vegetables Irulas have been derived from the word
can contribute to enhance people’s health and “Irul” (Darkness), the dwellers of the jungle hence
standard living as well as the economic and social the name “People of the darkness”. They are the
status of the food producers themselves (Nirmala Dravidian inhabitants and one among the Thirty six
Joshi, 2007). Nutrients derived from plants are (36) sub- communities in Tamilnadu and found
important to human health and complement other mainly in the Southern and Eastern slopes of the
food sources (Abdoellah and Marten, 1986; Sims Nilgiri hills. According to the anthropologists, these
and Peterkin, 1987). Selection of a particular people belong to the Negrito stocks, the ancestors
species for inclusion in the diet is location specific of these people are supposed to have come to India
and influenced by the activities of plant material from Africa (Jerome Jayanth, 2001). The principle
(Manju Sundriyal and Sundriyal, 2001). languages of the Irulas are Tamil and Telugu. Irulas
India is considered as one of the Mega are an example of a culture that has preserved a
Diversity Centre in the world having wide variety highly diverse area ecosystem that sustains their life
of plants and rich in ethnic diversity. The climatic -style (Narasimhan, 2003; Ragupathy S and
and ecological diversity create a foundation for very Mahadevan, 1997).
rich plant diversity Studies on wild edible plants
have been carried out by various workers in India METHODOLOGY
(Kaul et al, 1982; Nagar, 1985; Sebastian & The present ethnobotanical field surveys
Bhandari, 1990; Bora & Pande, 1996; Girach et al, were conducted during May- August 2010 with the
1998; ; Islami & Jha, 2001; Sharma & Singh, 2001; help of knowledgeable local people (Fig- 2). For
Lalramnghinglova, 2002; Patole & Jain, 2002; authentication and proper verification of the plant
Pundir & Singh, 2002; Chakraborty, 2003; Krishna they disclosed, some of the women were taken to
Prasad et al, 2003 Kumer, 2003; Kulkarni et al, the field and collected from the natural habitat. The
2003; Maya Devi, 2003; Nandanakunjidam, 2003; voucher specimens for each species were collected
Narasimhan, 2003; Prasad et al, 2003). and identified with the help of “Flora of The
The ethnic population of Nilgiris has a very Presidency of Madras” (Gamble JS, 1935) and
long tradition of close relationship with the wild “Flora of Tamil Nadu” (Henry et al., 1989; Henry
plants. The indigenous knowledge is positively et al., 1987; Nagar M, 1985). Herbarium specimens
associated with the uses of plants in the isolated were prepared as per the prescribed methodology
village and not in the village with less dependence (Jain and Rao, 1977). The voucher specimens are
on forest resources. In general, wild edible plants of deposited in the Department of Botany, Bharathiar
the Nilgiri Hills have been largely neglected, University Herbarium (BUH), Coimbatore, Tamil
despite its nutritional importance has indicated by Nadu.
81 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 80-87
Sasi et al.,2011

Table- 1 List of Wild Edible Plants used by the Irula tribe of Kotagiri Hills
Botanical Name Family Habit Part(s) Mode of Dietary Form
used Preparation
Acalypha indica L. Euphorbiaceae H Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. Liliaceae H Leaves Raw
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Amaranthaceae H Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable
Br. ex DC.
Amaranthus caudatus L. Amaranthaceae H Twigs Cooked Leafy vegetable
Amaranthus lividus L. Amaranthaceae H Twigs Cooked Leafy vegetable
Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae H Twigs Cooked Leafy vegetable
Amaranthus tricolor L. Amaranthaceae H Twigs Cooked Leafy vegetable

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Basellaceae Cl Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable
Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae T Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) Liliaceae Cl Tuber Cooked Vegetable
Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Acanthaceae H Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable
Berberis tinctoria Lesch. Berberidaceae S Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Canna indica L. Cannaceae S Rhizome Cooked Vegetable
Capsicum frutescens L. Solanaceae H Fruit Raw/Cooked Vegetable
Cardiospermum halicacabum Sapindaceae Cl Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Apiaceae H Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. Cucurbitaceae Cl Leaves & Cooked/ Raw Leafy vegetable
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Araceae H Periole Cooked Vegetable
Schott. &Tuber
Commelina benghalensis L. Commelinaceae H Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable

Dioscorea alata L. Dioscoreaceae Cl Tuber Cooked Used as vegetable
Dioscorea bulbifera L. Dioscoreaceae Cl Tuber Cooked Used as vegetable
Dioscorea pentaphylla L. Dioscoreaceae Cl Tuber Cooked Used as vegetable
Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. Caryophyllaceae H Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable
ex Roem.
Elaeagnus kologa Schlecht. Elaeagnaceae St Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit

Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Elaeocarpaceae T Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Eryngium foetidum L. Apiaceae H Leaves Cooked Spice flavour
Euphorbia hirta L. Euphorbiaceae H Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Ficus racemosa L. Moraceae T Fruit Raw/ Cooked Vegetable
Grewia hirsuta Vahl. Tiliaceae T Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae S Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 80-87 82
Sasi et al.,2011

Maesa indica (Roxb.) DC. Myrsinaceae S Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Opuntia dillenii (Ker- Gawl.) Cactaceae S Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae H Leaves & Cooked Leafy vegetable
Oxalis latifolia H.B.K. Oxalidaceae H Leaves, Cooked Leafy vegetable
Passiflora edulis Sims. Passifloraceae Cl Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Passiflora foetida L. Passifloraceae Cl Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Passiflora mollissima Passifloraceae Cl Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
(H.B.K.) Bailey
Phoenix loureiroi Kunth. Arecaceae T Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Phyllanthus emblica L. Euphorbiaceae T Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Physalis peruviana L. Solanaceae H Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Cl Fruit Raw/Cooked Spice flavour
Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae H Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable
Rubus ellipticus Smith. Rosaceae S Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Rubus rugosus Smith. Rosaceae S Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae H Leaves, Raw/Cooked Leafy vegetable
Solanum torvum Sw. Solanaceae S Fruit Raw/Cooked Consumed as fruit
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Myrtaceae T Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Talinum triangulare Wild. Portulacaceae H Leaves Cooked Leafy vegetable
Vaccinium leschenaultii Wight Vaccinaceae T Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit
Zizyphus oenoplia (L.) Mill. Rhamnaceae St Fruit Raw Consumed as fruit

Note: H- Herbs; S- Shrubs; T- Trees; Cl- Climbers; St- Stragglers

Fig.-1 India: Location Map of Kotagiri, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats

83 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 80-87
Sasi et al.,2011

Atchley, 1986; Neog and Mohan, 1994; Samant and
Dhar, 1997). Traditionally wild edible species have
been meeting the protein, carbohydrates, fat,
vitamin and mineral requirements of the local
residents to a greater extent (Sebastian and
Bhandari, 1990). The present study is evident that
the large sections of tribal communities are a
dependent on a variety of plants to meet their
Plants used frequently such as Amaranthus
spp., Centella asiatica, Colocasia esculenta,
Dioscorea bulbifera etc. that are and can easily be
propagated and maintained in the backyards of
houses, so that it can be used readily. The dietary
Fig. - 2: Survey carried out to the local people
forms of these wild edibles are mostly the leafy
vegetables, fruits and tubers. The nutritional value
Enumeration: of traditional leafy vegetables is higher (Nordeide et
The identified plants are arranged alphabetically al., 1996; Orech et al., 2007; Sundriyal and
with family names in parenthesis, followed by the Sundriyal, 2001) than several common vegetables.
Habit, Part(s) used, Mode of utilization and Dietary They also contain antioxidants which offer
form (Table- 1). protection against many chronic diseases like Heart
disease and certain type of cancers (Saxena, 1999).
RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Regular consumption of fruit is associated with
Out of 31- families identified, the most reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease
widely utilized species belonged to Amaranthaceae (especially coronary heart disease), stroke,
(5), Solanaceae (4), Euphorbiaceae (4), Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the
Passifloraceae (3). Out of 50 plants documented, 17 functional declines associated with aging (Liu,
- plant parts were used as leafy vegetables. They 2003). Tubers contain carbohydrates in the form of
were either eaten raw (mainly fruits) or cooked as starch but they are easily digestable when compared
vegetables. In the present study, about 50- wild to those of grains, cereals and pulses. They also
edible plants have been enumerated, among them supply minerals, vitamins and fibers etc. (Rajendran
21 are herbs, 7 shrubs, 11 climbers, 2 stragglers and and Manian, 2009).
9 trees (Fig- 3).
Wild edible plants were gathered in the form CONCLUSION:
of fruits, leaves, roots, tubers, flowers etc. and these The present study observed that in recent
plants still share a good proportion of tribal dishes years there has been a greater change in the tribal
all over world (Anonymous, 1970- 1988; Duke and culture and now a large portion of people practices
agriculture. But the use of wild edible plant is still
continued when they are available. It was found that
the tribal women are well experienced and often the
major players in utilizing wild traditional food
plants. The present study also noted that the oral
transmission of traditional knowledge is declining,
so that there is an urgent need to document the
Indigenous knowledge for serving future
generations. Consequently, the ethnobotanical
research is more important to encourage the people
to preserve their valuable Indigenous knowledge,
for sustainable utilization and conservation for
future generation.

Fig.-3: Utilization of Wild Edible plants

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 80-87 84
Sasi et al.,2011

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87 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 80-87
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Flora of sacred groves and its ethno- botanical importance in Cuddalore
district of Tamil Nadu, India.
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Swamynathan B and
Ramamoorthy D. Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests (TDEF) are found along the Coromandel coast
of peninsular India and their historical distribution ranges from Vishakapatnam in
North to Ramanathapuram in South. These forests are now fragmented and reduced
to a number of scattered ‘sacred groves’. TDEFs have been reported to harbor plants
Institution: of high medicinal values. These forests currently face threats in terms of human
Department of Ecology and disturbance and are reported to be shrinking in its extant.
Environmental Sciences, This study is carried out to review the current status of medicinal plants,
Pondicherry University, understanding of threats and suggesting pragmatic conservation measures.
Kalapet, Puducherry One hectare plots (100 m × 100 m) were established in two sites namely Kothattai and
605 014, India. Sendrakillai to study the species richness and its ethno botanical importance. All trees
(≥ 5 cm dbh), lianas (≥ 1 cm dbh), shrub and herb were sampled. A total of 40 species
were found to have medicinal value of which 50% were trees, 37.5% were lianas, 10%
were herbs and 2.5% were shrubs. The result reveals that, these fragmented forests
harbor a wide species of medicinal plants which highlights the need for prioritizing the
Corresponding author: medicinal plants conservation.
Swamynathan B

Email: Keywords: Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest, Sacred groves, Medicinal plants.

Web Address: Article Citation:
Documents/RA0018.pdf. Swamynathan B and Ramamoorthy D.
Flora of sacred groves (Tropical dry evergreen forest) and its ethno botanical
importance on the coromandel coast of peninsular India.
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 88-92.

Received: 07 May 2011 /Accepted: 11 May 2011 /Published: 01 Jun 2011

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INTRODUCTION: established in two sites namely Kothattai and
Tropical forests represent more than 40% of Sendrakillai. Both the sites Kothattai and
forests in the world covering large areas in Africa, Sendrakillai are located in Chidambaram Taluk of
Australia, Central and South America, India and the Cuddalore district. ((11°43′ N and 79°49′ E). In
South-East Asia (Murphy and Lugo 1986). In India two 1-ha (100 m x 100 m) plots were subdivided
Tropical dry evergreen forests are found along the into 10 m x 10 m subplots for studying vegetation
Coastal plains of Tamilnadu and Andrapradesh and structure . During the inventory all trees (≥ 5 cm
their distribution basically ranges from dbh) and lianas (≥ 1 cm dbh) were recorded. The
Ramanathapuram in the south to Vishakaptanam in plant specimen were collected from the sites and
the north (Meher-Homji, 1974). identified by referring the local flora. For ethno
The tropical dry evergreen forests are unique botany study, regular field trips were made to the
biotic communities and geographically restricted to study area and the information was collected from
Jamaica (Kelly et al., 1988), Thailand the age group of 30 to 60, mainly from people who
(Bunyavejchewin, 1999), Sri Lanka ((Meher- depended on the sacred grove through Observation,
Homji, 1974)) and the Coromandel coast of India personal and targeted interviews and group
(Parthasarathy and Karthikeyan, 1997).The dry discussion.
tropical dry evergreen forests along the Coromandel
coast of peninsular India occur as small patches of RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
relatively dense forests and conserved on religious The present ethno medical field survey
values and beliefs as ‘sacred groves’. In the tropics, indicated that 40 medicinal plant species belonging
sacred groves play a vital role in traditional to a total of 29 families are present in scared groves
biodiversity conservation (Wassie and Teketay, which are being used by the local people (Table 1).
2006). In the recent past, this ecosystem has been Based on the habit classification of the 40 species,
highly disturbed by various human activities, and is maximum 50 % of species were trees, 37.5 % of
facing local population extinctions. species were lianas, 10 % of species were herb and
Human beings have found remedies within 2.5 % were shrub. Among the family, Capparaceae
their habitat, and have adopted different strategies was the dominant family (Table 2) and plants like
depending upon the climatic, phyto-geographic and Memecylon umbellatum, Garcinia spicata, Olax
faunal characteristics, as well as upon the peculiar scandens and Atalantia monophylla are frequently
culture and socio-structural typologies (Nichter M used for medicinal purpose and dominant species in
1992). Most of such information is passed on to the the sacred groves (Figure 1 to Figure 4.)
following generations by traditional healers
through oral communication and discipleship
practice (Rastogi RP, Dhawan BN 1982).
Moreover, the World Health Organization (WHO)
has reported that about 80% of the world
population relies on traditional medicine to cure
ailments [Said O et al 2002]. At present in India,
the majority of the remaining tropical dry
evergreen forests occur in the form of small
fragments of ‘sacred groves’ or ‘temple forests’, Figure 1. Memecylon Figure 2. Garcina spicata
preserved due to local belief that resource umbellatum Burm.f (Wight & Arn.)J,D. Hook
extraction from these groves would bring upon
them the wrath of the presiding deity (Parthasarathy
and Karthikayen, 1997).But little attention has been
given to their traditional expertise to incorporate
their knowledge in modern medicine. This study is
an attempt to identify and document the use of
traditional medicine among the local fragmented
sacred grove.

METHODS: Figure 3. Olax scandens Figure 4. Atalantia
One hectare plots (100 m × 100 m) were Roxb monophylla (L.) Correa
89 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 88-92
Swamynathan et al.,2011

Table 1. List of Species having ethno botanical importance in Tropical dry evergreen forest sites.
Sl. Species Name Family Life Parts Uses
No form Used
1 Acalypha indica L. Euphorbiaceae Herb Leaves Skin Disease, Purgative
2 Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae Herb Leaves Poisonous bites and Gum bleeding.
3 Albizia amara (Roxb.) Mimosaceae Tree Leaves Leaf paste is used for cleaning the hair
4 Allophylus serratus (Roxb.) Sapindaceae Tree Leaves Leaf paste is applied for fracture.
5 Asparagus racemosus Liliaceae Liana Root Root paste is a soothing tonic that acts
Willd mainly on the digestive.
6 Atalantia monophylla (L.) Rutaceae Tree Fruit Mature fresh fruit juice is used to
Correa strengthen the body.
7 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Meliaceae Tree Leaves Ripe fruit is used to control the body
and temperature and leaves are used to cure
Fruit digestive problem.
8 Cansjera rheedii Gmel. Opiliaceae Liana Leaves Powder of leaves is internally used for
poisonous bite.
9 Canthium dicoccum Rubiaceae Tree Root Used in treating skin infection
(Gaertn.) Teijsm and Bin.
10 Capparis brevispina DC. Capparaceae Liana Root Paste used in tooth ache and infected
11 Capparis rotundifolia Capparaceae Liana Root Root paste applied for head ach
12 Capparis zeylanica L. Capparaceae Liana Fruit Ripen fruits are used for diabetes
and problems.
13 Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae Liana Fruit Ripen fruits are used to cure mouth ulcers
and digestive problem.
14 Cissus quandrangularis L. Vitaceae Liana Whole The plant juice is given as body enhancer.
15 Cissus vitigenia L. Vitaceae Liana Root Root paste was applied on Swellings.

16 Coccinia grandis (L.) Cucurbitaceae Liana Root Root paste was applied on forehead to
Voigt and relief head ache.
17 Combretum albidum G. Combretaceae Liana Bark Bark is used for skin disease treatments.
18 Cordia obliqua Willd. Boraginaceae Tree Bark Powdered fruits are used as a remedy for
and stomach problems.
19 Cynodon dactylon( L.) Poaceae Herb Whole The plant juice is used as blood purifier.
20 Diospyros ebenum Koen. Ebenaceae Tree Leaves The leaves and root paste are used for
and digestive problems
21 Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Ebenaceae Tree Leaves The leaves juice is used to strengthens the
Bakh.var. buxifolia(Rottb.) liver.
22 Eugenia bracteata (Willd.) Myrtaceae Tree Root Root Paste is used for mumps treatment.
Roxb. ex DC.
23 Ficus benghalensis L. Moraceae Tree Latex Latex and bark are used for dysentery,
and diabetes.

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 88-92 90
Swamynathan et al.,2011

24 Ficus microcarpa L.f Moraceae Tree fruit Fruits mix with pepper and
applied on wounds and Itches.
25 Garcinia spicata (Wight & Clusiaceae Tree Root Root Paste applied for pains and
Arn.) J.D. Hook. swellings.
26 Glycosmis pentaphylla Rutaceae Tree Root Root paste used for snake bite
(Retz.) DC. treatment.
27 Gmelina asiatica L. Verbenaceae Liana Fruit Fruit-paste and root paste were
and applied on head for cooling.
28 Grewia rhamnifolia Heyne Tiliaceae Liana Fruit Fruit juice taken orally in case of
ex Roth stomach ache and digestion problems.
29 Jasminum angustifolium Oleaceae Liana Leaves The leaves juice taken for Rabies.
(L.) Willd.
30 Lannea coromandelica Anacardiaceae Tree Leaf Leaf juice taken orally for ulcers.
(Houtt.) Merr. and
31 Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae Shrub Leaves Skin infection treatment.
32 Lepisanthes tetraphylla Sapindaceae Tree Fruit Traditional people eat the fruit.
(Vahl) Radlk.
33 Leucas aspera (Wild.)Link Lamiaceae Herb Root Plant past is applied for headache.
34 Mallotus rhamnifolius Euphorbiaceae Tree Leaves Leaves are used for muscle pain
35 Memecylon umbellatum Melastomataceae Tree Leaves The leaves are used to help immunity.
Burm. f.
36 Olax scandens Roxb. Olacaceae Liana Stem The decoction of Stem is used for the
treatment of kidney diseases.
37 Pterospermum canescens Sterculiaceae Tree Leaves Leaf paste is applied on the affected
Roxb. portion in the treatment of fracture.
38 Syzygium cumini (L.) Myrtaceae Tree Fruit Fruits are traditionally used for the
Skeels treatment of diabetes.
39 Ventilago madaraspatana Rhamnaceae Liana Leaves Paste is applied for skin diseases and
Gaertner the Juice is a remedy for body pains
40 Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Rhamnaceae Tree Fruit Traditional people eat the fruit for
Miller getting relief from stomach pain.
The study of sacred groves in relation to its majestic given high priority in local self governance body as
mythological as well as cultural tradition; is vital as well as amongst policy makers since it’s the artery
it provides the need of the locality and the local of rural landscape.
people. The increasing threats against the sacred
groves like site encroachment, human habitation, REFERENCE:
building structures like temple, temple visitors, Bunyavejchewin S. 1999. Structure and dynamics
grazing, resource removal and biological invasion in seasonal dry evergreen forest in northeastern
have to be addressed at this moment. Sacred grove Thailand Journal of Vegetation Science 10:787-
still poses a great heritage of diverse gene pool of 792.
many forest species having socio-religious
attachment and possessing medicinal values Khumbongmayum AD, Khan ML and Tripathi
(Khumbongmayum, 2004). RS. 2004. Sacred grove of Manipur – idel centres
for biodiversity conservation, Current sciences. 87
CONCLUSION: (4):430.
Sacred grove has a remarkable impact on the
‘habitat-species –culture-human well being’ Meher-Homji VM. 1974. On the origin of the
relationship and various communities in India tropical dry evergreen forest of south Indian
follow nature worship based on the premise that all International journal of Ecology and Environmental
creations of nature have to be protected. The legal Sciences 1:19-39.
status and management of sacred grove should be
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Table2. Family wise list of Species having ethno Said O, Khalil K, Fulder S and Azaizeh. 2002.
botanical importance in Tropical dry evergreen forest Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in
sites. Israel, the Golan Heights and the West Bank region.
Sl. Family No. of Species Journal of Ethno pharmacology 83:251-265.
1. Amatanthaceae 1 Wassie A and Teketay D. 2006. Soil seed banks in
2. Anacardiaceae 1 church forests of northern Ethiopia: implications for
3. Apocynaceae 1 the conservation of woody plants. Flora 201:32-43.
4. Boraginaceae 1
5. Capparaceae 3
6. Clusiaceae 1
7. Combretaceae 1
8. Cucurbitaceae 1
9. Ebenaceae 2
10 Euphorbiaceae 2
11 Lamiaceae 1
12 Liliaceae 1
13 Melastomataceae 1
14 Meliaceae 1
15 Mimosaceae 1
16 Moraceae 2
17 Myrtaceae 2
18 Olacaceae 1
19 Oleaceae 1
20 Opiliaceae 1
21 Poaceae 1
22 Rhamnaceae 2
23 Rubiaceae 1
24 Rutaceae 2
25 Sapindaceae 2
26 Sterculiaceae 1
27 Tiliaceae 1
28 Verbenaceae 2
29 Vitaceae 2

Murphy PG and Lugo AE. 1986. Ecology of
tropical dry forest. Annual Review of Ecology
Systematic 17:67-88.

Nichter M. 1992. Anthropological Approaches to
the Study of Ethnomedicine. Amsterdam. Gordon
and Breach.

Parthasarathy N and Karthikeyan R. 1997. Plant
biodiversity inventory and conservation of two
tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel
Coast, south Indian Biodiversity and Conservation.

Rastogi RP and Dhawan BN. 1982. Research on
medicinal plants at the Central Drug Research
Institute, Lucknow (India). Indian Journal of
Medicinal Research 76(Suppl):27-45.

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 88-92 91
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Status, abundance and threats to waterbirds of the Great Vedaranyam Swamp,
Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary (Ramsar Site), South-east coast of India.
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Manikannan R1,
Asokan S2 Totally 46 waterbird species were identified at the Great Vedaranyam Swamp
Mohamed Samsoor Ali A3 of the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary during October 2007 - March 2010. It
and Madhuramozhi G4
included waterbird species representing 11 families and 5 orders comprising of winter
migrants (30 species), residents (9 species) and seasonal migrants (7 species). The
Department of Zoology birds were classified into five categories in terms of abundance, namely, common
and Wildlife Biology, (33%), very rare (30%), very common (15%), rare (11%) and occasional (11%). The
A.V.C. College highest number of species was observed during November–February (46 species) and
(Autonomous), lowest during July (5 species). The highest bird number was recorded in January 2010
Mannampandal - 609305, (3,582 individuals). The commonest species is Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber
Mayiladuthurai, (1,254 individuals). The major threats and a few management suggestions have been
Tamil Nadu, India made on the improvements to the conservation of Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the
Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary.
New No. 12, Old No. 3/10,
New Street, Kollapuram
609608, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Zoology, Keywords:
ADM College
Waterbirds, Point Calimere, Winter migrants, Flamingos.
(Autonomous) for Women

Corresponding author:
Manikannan R Article Citation:
Manikannan R, Asokan S Mohamed Samsoor Ali A and Madhuramozhi G.
Status, abundance and threats to waterbirds of the Great Vedaranyam Swamp, Point
Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary (Ramsar Site), South-east coast of India.
Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 93-100
Email: Dates:
Received: 24 May 2011 /Accepted: 26 May 2011 /Published: 01 Jun 2011

© Ficus Publishers.
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93-100 | JRB | 2011 | Vol 1 | No 2
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INTRODUCTION (Islam and Rahmani, 2004). For this and other
There are about 242 wetland bird species reasons, Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary also
and 67 wetlands support bird species among the been proposed for inclusion as a Ramsar Site (19th
1,300 species of birds recorded in the Indian August 2002) by the Wetlands International.
subcontinent (Grimmett et al. 1999, Manakadan Almost all the previous available
and Pittie 2002). Of these, 125 are migrants, among information on the waterbirds of the Point Calimere
which 102 species are winter migrants, 10 summer Wildlife Sanctuary is based on the short term study
migrants and 3 passage migrants. Approximately, and seasonal surveys (Sugathan, 1985; Sampath and
12% of Asian birds are globally threatened (Arun Krishnamurthy, 1989; Perennou and Santharam,
Kumar et al., 2003). Wetland birds comprise about 1990; Sampath, 1991; Balachandran and Natarajan,
10% of the globally threatened species and 20% of 1992; Kazmierczak et al., 1992; Balachandran and
Asian threatened species. About 34 of the wetland Hussain, 1994; Balachandran, 1995; Manakadan,
birds are globally threatened species, 34 are 1995). Only few studies have covered the ecology
critically endangered and one conservation of the waterbirds in the study area very long back
dependent (Manakadan and Pittie, 2002). But the (Sampath, 1989; Manakadan, 1992). This article
recent studies have shown that the population of the provides a four-year systematic overview of status,
wetland birds is declining (Hussain, 1991; abundance and threats to waterbirds of Great
Balachandran, 1993; Arun Kumar et al., 2003) and Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point Calimere Wildlife
many wetlands are in jeopardy. This phenomenon is Sanctuary.
an indication of many environmental changes and Study area
possibly the degradation of the wetlands, as the The Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point
birds are among the first indicators of dangers Calimere district (10°18‟N, 79°51‟E) is situated in
ahead for an individual wetland or for a wetland the state of Tamil Nadu in Nagapattinam district
type or a region as a whole. (Fig. 1). The Great Vedaranyam Swamp stretches
The Ministry of Environment and Forests for about 48 km from east to west, parallel to Palk
has identified about 2,175 wetlands in India Strait separated from it by a sand-bank. There is a
covering about 4.1 million ha (Alfred and Nandi, gradual north-south slope. Five fresh water
2000), of which 93 are major wetland sites and 19 channels empty into this part of the swamp. The
are Ramsar sites, the Wetlands of International swamp contains water only during the monsoon and
Importance (Asian Waterbird Census, 2001). Many in the summer the water gets dried up gradually and
of these wetlands are wintering grounds for in the park summer a small pool of water can only
migratory birds. There are 465 Important Bird be seen. The entire swamp belt is about 30 km long
Areas in India (Islam and Rahmani, 2004). Many of and 9 km wide. It is screened from the Bay of
them are wetlands and host important migrant and Bengal and Palk Strait by narrow strips of sand
resident waterbirds. banks with many openings. The most important
The east coast of India, especially the Tamil openings to the sea from the swamp are
Nadu region is important to waterbirds as many “Manavaykal” and “Sellakkani” mouths. Sea water
important wetlands such as Point Calimere swamps, enters to the eastern half of the swamp mostly
Pichavaram and Muthepet mangroves, etc. are through these openings. This swamp represents a
situated here. These wetlands are especially mixed ecosystem, influenced by both fresh water
important in the context that they serve as wintering and seawater. Two industrial salt companies
areas for birds as appreciable number of many bird Chemplast (Chemical and Plastics Limited) and
species annually migrate from Arctic Siberia to DCW (Dharangadhra Chemical Works) and a
wintering grounds in India, an-route passage to number of small and large salt units that produce
Australia (Sampath and Krishnamurthy, 1990). The edible salt and industrial salt operate in this area.
Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point Calimere The climate of the area is monsoonal, but it is not
Wildlife Sanctuary is one of the most important typical of monsoonal climates due to its
wintering areas for waterbirds in southern India asymmetrical rainfall regimes. The main
(Sampath, 1989; Manakadan, 1992; Balachandran, contribution to the rainfall is from the north-east
1993, 1998). The Point Calimere Wildlife monsoon (October–December) and the average
Sanctuary is identified as an Important Bird Area rainfall ranges from 1000–1500mm. The highest
(IBA) site of India proposed by BirdLife temperature (34°C) is recorded in May and the
International and Bombay Natural History Society lowest (22°C) in December. Relative humidity
94 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 93-100
Manikannan et al.,2011

of about 15 km. The sampling stations were
determined based on ecological settings, inlet and
outlet of sea water, location of pumping station,
vegetation and human activities in the area. The
sampling station is about one to two kilometers
apart from each other.
Station 1: The station 1 starts near shoreline and
ends to Pump House 1. The water occurs
throughout year and during rainy season the sea
water entered this area. Small patches of vegetation
such as Suaeda monica and Salicornia brachita
were recorded. Human activities here include
mainly those of prawn and fish collections.
Station 2: The station 2 starts near the Rettai
Theevu and end near the shoreline. It is about one
kilometer away from station 1. A mound of
Prosopis juliflora exists in one place and small
patches of Suaeda monica occur throughout this
area. The human activities here include those of
prawn and fish collections and boat operations.
During heavy rainy season, the fresh water enters
this area from the Manavaaikal river. The sea water
also intrudes this station during heavy rain.
Station 3: The station 3 starts near Neduntheevu
and ends at the Kalaiman Salt Company. The
Prosopis juliflora occurs in one place and a sparse
distribution of Suaeda monica occurs in this area.
Figure 1. Map of India and Tamil Nadu showing study
During heavy rainy season, the fresh water enters
this area from the Manavaaikal river.
Abbreviations used: R = Resident, with or without
remains high throughout the year due to coastal breeding records. WM = Winter Migrant, species
influence. Strong winds are prevalent during certain that breeds in the Palaearctic region/Himalaya
months, especially in June and July. during spring and that winters in the Indian
subcontinent. SM = Seasonal Migrant, an „Indian
MATERIALS AND METHODS species‟ that occurs seasonally in the Point
The waterbird abundance was estimated by Calimere. VC = Very Common, sightings possible
direct count method as described by Nagarajan and on almost all days in a season/year. C = Common,
Thiyagesan (1996). Observations were made twice sightings of about once a week in a year/season. O
a month in the early morning and late evening = Occasional, about one sighting fortnight/month in
during October 2007−March 2010. For watching, a year/season. Ra = Rare, fewer than five sightings
counting and identifying birds, wide-range per year or three sightings a season. VRa = Very
binoculars, spotting scope and telescopes were Rare, record based on only one or two sighting
used. The birds were identified by studying their during this study.
characteristic features in accordance with the
identification keys evolved by Ali (1969), King et RESULTS
al., (1978), Sonobe and Usui (2000) and Grimmett A total of 46 waterbird species belonging to
et al., (2001). The threats to waterbirds were 11 families and 5 orders were recorded in the Great
identified through direct observation, interview Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point Calimere Wildlife
with key informants and secondary sources. Sanctuary during the study. At Station 1, the
In the present study, three sampling stations highest number of species gathering (46 species)
were marked by spatial transect (5000m x 400m) of occurred in November and December 2008 and
the Great Vedaranyam Swamps covering a distance January and February 2009 and 2010 and the lowest

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 93-100 95
Manikannan et al.,2011

number of species (15 species) in July 2009. At Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres, Red-necked
Station 2, maximum number of 42 species were Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus, Black-winged Stilt
recorded during December 2007, 2008 and 2009 Himantopus himantopus, Red-wattled Lapwing
and January of 2008, 2009 and 2010 and minimum Vanellus indicus, Heuglin‟s Gull Larus heuglini and
numbers of 5 species were observed during July Pallas‟s Gull Larus ichthyaetus.
2008. At Station 3, highest number of species were Birds such as Little Egret Egretta garzetta,
recorded (39 species) in December 2007, 2008 and Grey Heron Ardea cinerea, Large Egret
2009 and January of 2008, 2009 and 2010 and Casmerodius albus, Indian Pond-Heron Ardeola
lowest number (5 species) in July 2008 (Fig.2). Of grayii, Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Little
the overall total of 46 species recorded, 30 (65%) Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius, Common
species were winter migrants, 9 (20%) were Greenshank Tringa nebularia, Brown-headed Gull
residents and 7 (15%) were seasonal migrants. The Larus brunnicephalus¸ Black-headed Gull Larus
birds were divided into five categories in terms of ridibundus, Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica
abundance, namely, common (33%), very rare and Caspian Tern Sterna caspia were present in all
(30%), very common (15%), rare (11%) and months with peak numbers in December and
occasional (11%). January.
Accounts of 46 species of waterbirds There is lot of variations in avifauna data
recorded from the Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the generated on this swamps. The population of
Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary are given in waterbirds increased from November to January
Tables 1. The most dominant species was Greater (Fig. 3). At Station 1, a peak of waterbird
Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber (maximum count population was observed during January 2010, with
1,254 individuals) followed by Northern Pintail a maximum of 3,582 individuals and a minimum of
Anas acuta, Little Stint Calidris minuta, Brown- 101 individuals during July 2009. At Station 2, the
headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus and Caspian minimum and maximum bird population ranged
Tern Sterna caspia. The Greater Flamingo is very from 11 individuals (during July 2008) to 2,244
common seasonal migrant to the Point Calimere individuals (during January 2009). At Station 3, the
Wildlife Sanctuary and is seen large congregation highest number of population was recorded (2,033
during monsoon season, but some birds could be individuals) during January 2010 and lowest
found almost throughout the year. population during June and July 2008 (8
For some species, there were only few individuals) (Fig. 3).
records (<10 individuals), namely, Western Reef-
Egret Egretta gularis, Black-Headed Ibis DISCUSSION
Threskiornis melanocephalus, Northern Shoveller The Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point
Anas clypeata, Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola, Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary serves as the foraging
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula, ground for fresh, brackish or saline water-preferring
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus, Eurasian Curlew bird species comprising residents, seasonal
Numenius arquata, Terek Sandpiper Xenus migrants and winter migrants from the Palaearctic
cinereus, Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos, region. This area is primarily important during

Figure 2: Monthly fluctuations in the number of bird Figure 3: Monthly fluctuations of waterbird
species at the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary during population in the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary
2007-2010. during 2007-2010.
96 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 93-100
Manikannan et al.,2011
Table 1. Number and status of waterbirds observed at three stations of Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary
during October 2007- March 2010. NR – Not Recorded.
Scientific name English name Max. no. Max. no. Max. no. Status
at Station 1 at Station 2 at Station 3
Pelecanus philippensis Spot-billed Pelican 52 66 23 RC
Phalacrocorax niger Little Cormorant 14 NR 16 R Ra
Egretta garzetta Little Egret 63 41 34 R VC
Egretta gularis Western Reef-Egret 3 4 9 SM O
Ardea cinerea Grey Heron 22 7 8 RO
Casmerodius albus Large Egret 59 47 31 R VC
Mesophoyx intermedia Median Egret 24 13 17 RC
Ardeola grayii Indian Pond-Heron 11 6 6 RC
Mycteria leucocephala Painted Stork 94 88 42 R VC
Platalea leucorodia Eurasian Spoonbill 18 21 14 SM O
Threskiornis melanocephalus Black-Headed Ibis 4 NR 4 SM VRa
Phoenicopterus ruber Greater Flamingo 1254 841 569 SM VC
Phoenicopterus minor Lesser Flamingo 117 63 NR SM Ra
Anas acuta Northern Pintail 468 369 311 WM VC
Anas querquedula Garganey 132 126 114 WM C
Anas crecca Common Teal 110 87 71 WM C
Anas clypeata Northern Shoveller 9 7 3 WM O
Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover 5 4 4 WM VRa
Charadrius hiaticula Common Ringed Plover 8 5 5 WM VRa
Charadrius dubius Little Ringed Plover 36 29 31 SM C
Charadrius alexandrinus Kentish Plover 18 2 11 SM C
Charadrius mongolus Lesser Sand Plover 33 17 25 WM C
Limosa limosa Black-tailed Godwit 96 61 50 WM C
Limosa lapponica Bar-tailed Godwit 89 52 42 WM C
Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel 4 NR NR WM VRa
Numenius arquata Eurasian Curlew 6 3 9 WM Ra
Tringa totamus Common Redshank 32 18 13 WM C
Tringa stagnatilis Marsh Sandpiper 19 11 11 WM O
Tringa nebularia Common Greenshank 16 8 NR WM Ra
Xenus cinereus Terek Sandpiper 6 4 6 WM VRa
Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper 6 4 9 WM VRa
Calidris ferruginea Curlew Sandpiper 88 39 41 WM C
Arenaria interpres Ruddy Turnstone 9 4 NR WM VRa
Calidris minuta Little Stint 274 154 165 WM VC
Phalaropus lobatus Red-necked Phalarope 8 3 NR WM VRa
Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt 9 6 8 WM VRa
Vanellus indicus Red-wattled Lapwing 4 NR NR R VRa
Larus heuglini Heuglin‟s Gull 5 NR 5 WM VRa
Larus ichthyaetus Pallas‟s Gull 4 5 NR WM VRa
Larus brunnicephalus Brown-headed Gull 163 84 133 WM C
Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull 13 6 7 WM VRa
Gelochelidon nilotica Gull-billed Tern 123 48 96 WM C
Sterna caspia Caspian Tern 147 87 117 WM VC
Sterna hirundo Common Tern 11 6 8 WM VRa
Sterna albifrons Little Tern 132 77 87 WM C
Chlidonias hybridus Whiskered Tern 18 8 6 WM Ra

November to January/early February after which it monsoon) onwards a considerable number of
gets flooded during the north-east monsoon rains, waterbirds reach this wetland. The peak winter
when it attracts large number of species includes population of the migratory bird‟s viz., waders,
waders, flamingos, ducks, sandpipers, gulls and flamingos, ducks, sandpipers, gulls and terns has
terns. Every year from October (onset of north-east been during December–January. The basic

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 93-100 97
Manikannan et al.,2011

requirements of the migratory waterbirds at their Major threats
wintering sites are adequate food supply and safety, There is an intensive illegal hunting of Little
which are fulfilled by this wetland. Most of the Stints and Curlew Sandpipers by professional bird
migratory waterbirds leave the wetland by late trappers who depend on birds for their livelihood.
April or early May. The gregarious Little Stint and Curlew Sandpiper
Unfortunately, when compared to previous are particularly vulnerable to clap-traps, as they
reports, the waterbirds richness and abundance was forage on mudflats with shallow water, i.e. in areas
seriously declined due to various ecological and that are ideal for the use of this type of trap.
anthropogenic pressures in the study area. Earlier, There is a serious problem caused by salt
Manakadan (1992) has recorded 54 waterbird production. Local people manufacture salt here for
species and Ramsar Site Report (2002) has over a century. More serious concerns are two
indicated that 119 waterbirds visit the Point factories in the region that manufactured marine
Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary. According to chemicals. For a decade, the factories have been
Nagarajan and Thiyagesan (2006), the Greater pumping on vast volume of sea water into the
Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber population which swamps. The salt is concentrated through
usually consisted of around 20,000 individuals evaporation in holding pans covering thousands of
declined from 3,351 in 1986 to 1,254 in the present acres drastically increasing the salinity of the water
study. Balachandran (2006) stated that until the and affecting the fragile food chain. The result in
1990s, Point Calimere was the most important site decreasing food is believed to major causes in birds
for waders, supporting hundreds of thousands of decline.
birds throughout the migration season and now This ecologically vital ecosystem is under
degraded as a result of human interference, and a constant threat due to ever -increasing
decline of over 70% has been noted in the wader anthropogenic pressures. The rich prawn and fish
populations. resources of the Great Vedaranyam Swamps
In the 1980s, the Point Calimere supported attracted powerful business interests. Intensive
>10,000 Lesser Sand Plover, >15,000 Black- fishing activities and the use of mechanized boats
winged Stilt, >50,000 Black-tailed Godwit, affect the bird fauna. The most sensitive species
>200,000 Little Stint and >150,000 Curlew appear to be ducks, waders and other long distance
Sandpipers (Balachandran 2006), but these have migrants, which feed, in large flocks on the ground
now become scarce (<500 during the present study or water level. Disturbances can be energetically
period, 2007–2010). Compared to previous reports costly due to lost feeding time and increased escape
from Tamil Nadu Forest Department Census activities.
Records (unpubl. data), the abundance of many Climate change or dramatic decline of
waterbird species are now becoming very rare and rainfall is thought to be causing more frequent
uncommon and declining year after year. A droughts resulting in reduced water levels and the
considerable number of Pied Avocets Recurvirostra drying out of many wetlands in Central Asia. This
avosetta, Crab Plover Dromas ardeola, Eurasian phenomenon may be a great threat to the survival of
Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus, Sanderling the migratory birds.
Calidris alba, Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus, Management implications
Ruff Philomachus pugnax, Pacific Reef Egret The area is required to be stopped
Egretta sacra, Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva appropriately to check the illegal hunting to prevent
and River Tern Sterna aurantia were reported further population loss of birds. We have to
earlier, but have not been sighted since 2007. strengthen enforcement of existing restrictions on
However, the occurrence of 46 waterbird the hunting of migratory birds.
species during the study period is, perhaps, an To give strict guidelines to the salt
indication of the fact that the Great Vedaranyam companies to stop the salt production at least during
Swamp of the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary the migratory seasons of birds.
may not only become a favourable habitat for Changes in the wintering population of birds
waterbirds but may also bocome into an ideal place at Great Vedaranyam Swamps are studied in
for birdwatchers, naturalists, tourists, and relation to various causes of decline, to address
researchers, since the waterbirds are of great remedial measures in a global conservation
importance for their esthetic, sporting, and strategy.
economic values. Measurement of water chemistry should be
98 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 93-100
Manikannan et al.,2011

done on a regular basis to allow long-term Natural History Society 91(3):453-454.
monitoring of changes in nutrient levels and other
parameters Balachandran S. 1998. Bird migration studies in
Anthropogenic factors are the root causes for India. Final Report (1980–1992). Phase I:
wetland degradation and habitat destruction of Population structure and movement of Indian
waterbirds. Therefore, conservation education and avifauna (1980–1986), Phase II: Bird migration
awareness programmes are essential for local (1987–1992). Final Report. Bombay Natural
farmers, students, fishing community and visitors to History Society, Mumbai.
the lake. Publication of factsheets, checklists and
pocket guide about biodiversity of Point Calimere Balachandran S. 2006. The decline in wader
Swamp will help to widen the local knowledge populations along the east coast of India with
among conservationists. special reference to Point Calimere, south-east
India. In: Waterbirds around the World. Boere,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT G.C., C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud (Eds.). The
We sincerely acknowledge the Department Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 296–301.
of Forests, Nagapattinam and Chief Conservator of
Forests for providing overall support during the Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T. 1999. Pocket
fieldwork. Authors are grateful to the Management, Guide to the Birds of Indian Subcontinent. Oxford
Principal and HOD and other staff of Zoology, University Press, New Delhi.
A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal,
India for providing necessary facilities. Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T. 2001. Birds
of the Indian Subcontinent. (Revised reprint 2001).
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100 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 93-100
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Floristic diversity along an altitudinal gradient of Mannavan Shola forest in
Southern Western Ghats of Kerala.
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Binu Thomas1,
Chandrashekara UM2 and
Rajendran A1. The present study was carried to assess the variability in the species
diversity using appropriate quantities and statistical analysis along the altitudinal
Institution: gradients in the Mannavan shola forest in Kerala. The analysis of species diversity
1. Department of Botany, revealed that, the maximum species diversity greater in the low altitudinal gradient
School of Life Sciences, followed by middile. The dominant species are Hydnocarpus alpina, Isonandra
Bharathiar University, stocksii, Gomphandra coriaceae and Mastixia arborea in Altitude-I (1900 msl), Litsea
Coimbatore 641 046. wightiana, Ilex wightian and Turpinia nepalensis are dominant in both Altitude-II
(2100 msl) and Altitude-III(2300msl). Persea macrantha, Phoebe lanceolata,
Tamil Nadu. Cinnamomum sulphuratum, Syzygium densiflorum, Turpinia nepalensis, Litsea
2. Kerala Forest Research wightiana, Neolitsea scrobiculata and Cinnamomum species are common to all
Institute Sub Centre, altitudinal gradients. The value of similarity index reveals that the middle (2100msl)
Chandakunnu P.O. and higher altitudes (2300msl) have more number of similar species (51%) than lower
Nilambur- 679 342. (1900msl) and middle (42%), lower and higher (28%) altitudinal gradients respectively.
The shola forests are of unique that harbours 20 % of listed tree species, which are
endemic to the Southern Western Ghats of Kerala.
Corresponding author:
Binu Thomas

Email: Mannavan Shola forest, Altitudinal gradients analysis, Southern Western
Ghats of Kerala.

Web Address: Article Citation: Binu Thomas, Chandrashekara UM and Rajendran A.
Documents/RA0025.pdf. Floristic diversity along an altitudinal gradient of Mannavan Shola forest in Southern
Western Ghats of Kerala.
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 101-109

Received: 11 May 2011 /Accepted: 13 May 2011 /Published: 04 Jun 2011

© Ficus Press.
This Open Access article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://, which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-
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Thomas et al.,2011

INTRODUCTION Trimble GEOXT 2005 (TerrasynTM software) was
The shola forest which occurs in the used to segregate the study area into three
southern peninsular India at altitudes beyond 1700- altitudinal ranges with 200 m increment i.e., from
1800 m is also designated as tropical montane rain 1900, 2100, and 2300 msl respectively. Above the
forests (Butt Davy, 1938). The shola ecosystem is 2500 m altitude the area is covered with vast
characterized by distinct vegetation patches stretches of grasslands associated with small shola
associated with vast expanses of grass lands, the patches. Among the three permanent plots, two of
tree cover of the forest type is often much restricted them have 1 ha in size and third one has 0.5 ha in
in its distribution , often confined to sheltered size respectively. Each 1 ha plot was in turn
ravines, troughs and other depressions of the ghat subdivided into 100 quardrats, each of 10×10 m in
( Blasco,1971). The community structure of shola size. All mature trees (gbh > 30.1 cm), saplings
forests varies with altitudinal gradients. The shola (gbh- 10.1cm to 30.0 cm) and tree seedlings (girth <
forests are characterized by having stunted 10.0 cm, height < 1.0 m) were tagged. The plant
evergreen trees with dense, round or umbrella species were identified by consulting floras like,
shaped crowns consisting of entire and coriacious Flora of the presidency of Madras (Gamble and
leaves. Moreover, trees are clothed and festooned Fischer, 1915-1936) and Field key to the trees and
with rich mass of epiphytes (Champion, 1936; lianas of the evergreen forests of the Western Ghats
Blasco, 1971). (Pascal and Ramesh, 1987).
Floristic information on the shola vegetation Vegetation Analysis
type are found in earlier works like Wight (1838- Three distinct altitudinal gradients were
53), Hooker (1872-97), Gamble and Fischer (1915- selected at Mannavan Shola forest (Anamudi Shola
36) and other regional and local floras. Perhaps the National Park) with 200 m intervals (1900, 2100
floristic account on the high altitude forests of and 2300 msl). The floristic diversity in each
Kerala is available in publications of Shetty and altitudinal gradients with number and occurrence of
Vivekananthan (1968) and Sebastine and all trees in each quadrat were measured. Girth at
Vivekananthan (1967). From the point of view of breast height (gbh at 1.37 m above groud) of all
biodiversity, shola forests regarded as unique due to trees and saplings were also recorded. For trees
rich flora and fauna, particularly rare and endemic with large buttresses the girth was measured above
elements (Blasco, 1970, Jose et al., 1994). the buttressed part.
The variation in species diversity can be The vegetation data were analysed for
linked to several ecological gradients (Grime, 1979; relative density, relative frequency and relative
Palmer, 1992; Huston & De Angelis, 1994). dominance (Phillips, 1959) and the sum of the
Altitudinal gradient is well known to be one of the values for these parameters were represented by
decisive factors in the spatial patterns of floristic Importance Value Index (IVI) for various species
diversity (Szaro, 1989; Lieberman, et al., 1996; (Curtis, 1959).
Zimmerman et al., 1999; Brown 2001; Lomolino, Relative density =
Study Area and Climate
The Mannavan shola forest (77° 12¢ 8" E Frequency =
and 10° 12¢ 8" N). Comes under Marayoor Forest
Range of Wild life Division (Munnar, Idukki
District, and Kerala). This shola forest is nearly 370
ha in size with an average elevation of 1950 m. The Relative frequency =
mean annual temperature is about 20° C and mean
× 100
annual precipitation is 2000 mm-3000 mm. The soil
is red, sandy loam, oxysol, acid (pH = 4.2) with 4.6 Relative dominance =
% to 14 % Organic carbon content.
× 100
Important Value Index (IVI) = Relative density + Relative
Field surveys were undertaken from frequency + Relative dominance
September 2007- April 2008, to assess and Species diversity was calculated using a formula
document the floristic diversity of the Mannavan given by Shannon and Wiener (1963) as;
Shola forest (Anamudi shola National Park). A
102 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 101-109
Thomas et al.,2011

8.44, 7.90 and 6.94 respectively. Cryptocarya
ln (ni/N)}
lawsonii, Phoebe lanceolata, Glochidion
neilgherrense, Celtis philippensis etc., had RIVI
Where, ‘H’ is Shannon index of general diversity,
less than one percent each.
‘ni’ is the importance value index of species ‘i’ and
Largest FRD (Frequency of distribution) of
‘N’ is importance value index in the community.
20.35 % was observed in Lauraceae followed by
Sorensons’s similarity Index (Mishra, 1989) was
20.18 % in Flacourtiaceae and 11.75 % in
calculated for comparing the vegetation of each
Icacinaceae. Largest RBA (Relative basal area) of
altitudinal gradients of a given shola forest.
29.23 % was noticed in Lauraceae followed by
Similarity Index = 2C/A+B
17.46 %, 16.59 % and 12.36 % in Flacourtiaceae,
Where,’C’ is the total number of common species
Sapotaceae and Myrtaceae respectively. Largest RF
of plot I and plot II, ‘A’ is the total number of
(Relative frequency) of 33.65 % was noticed in
species in plot I and ‘B’ is the total number of
Lauraceae followed by 16.47 %, 12.89% and
species in plot II.
10.98% in Flacourtiaceae, Myrtaceae and
Sapotaceae. All other families had RF of less than 5
% each. RIVI was largest in Lauraceae (32.45)
Altitude-1 (1900 msl)
followed by Flacourtiaceae (18.36), Sapotaceae
There were a total of 554 individuals of
(13.11) and Myrtaceae (10.71). All other families
mature trees belonging to 40 species, 34 genera and
had RIVI less than 5 each.
21 families distributed in quadrats studied (1 ha-1)
Altitude-II (2100 msl)
in Altitude I. Hydnocarpus alpina had the largest
There were, a total density of the vegetation
density of 115 ha-1 and relative density of 21.14 %
of mature trees and was identified as 552
followed by Isonandra stocksii, Gomphandra
individuals belonging to 31 species, 21genera and
coriaceae and Mastixia arborea had density 64 ha-1,
15 families with quardrats studied studied (ha-1) in
63 ha-1, 59 ha-1 and relative densities of 11.76 %,
Altitude II. Litsea wightiana had the largest density
11.58 % and 10.85 % respectively. All other species
of 125 ha-1 and relative density 22.64 %. All other
had relative density less than 10 percent.
species had relative density less than 10 percent.
Total basal area of all species was 50.5735
Total basal area of all species was 46.8099
m2 ha-1 at altitude I. Largest basal area of 8.8301
m2 ha-1 at altitude II. Largest basal area of 9.7020 m2
m2ha-1 and relative basal area of 17.46 % were in
ha-1 and relative basal area of 20.73 % were in case
case of Hydnocarpus alpina. This was followed by
of Ilex wightiana. This was followed by Syzygium
Isonandra stocksii which had basal area of 8.3948
densiflorum, Syzygium malabaricum, Alseodaphne
m2 ha-1 and relative basal area of 16.59 percent.
semicarpifolia and Cinnamomum sulphuratum had
Syzygium densiflorum which had basal area of
basal areas of 4.1051 m2 ha-1, 3.9861 m2 ha-1,
3.8499 m2ha-1 and relative basal area of 10.75
2.7508 m2 ha-1and 2.6998 m2 ha-1 and relative basal
percent. Cinnmomum sulphuratum, Persea
areas of 8.77, 8.52, 5.88 and 5.77 percent
macrantha and Actinodaphne bourdillonii had
respectively. All other species had relative basal
relative basal area greater than 5 % each. Species
area less than 5 percent. Species like Actinodaphne
like Elaeocarpus serratus, Cryptocarya lawsonii,
bourdillonii, Celtis tetrandra, Cinnamomum
Litsea wightiana, Phoebe lanceolata, Glochidion
malabaricum, Vaccinium leschnaultii etc., had
neilgherrense, Celtis philippensis etc., had relative
relative basal area less than 1% each. Litsea
basal area less than 1% each. Hydnocarpus alpina
wightiana had the maximum percentage of
had the maximum percentage of frequency of
frequency of 15.69 followed by Alseodaphne
16.48, followed by Isonandra stocksii with
semicarpifolia with percentage frequency of 9.31.
percentage of frequency of 10.97. Syzygium
Species like Turpinia nepalensis, Neolitsea
densiflorum ,Cinnmomum sulphuratum, Persea
scrobiculata, Beilschmiedia wightii, Syzygium
macrantha and Actinodaphne bourdillonii had RF
malabaricum and Ilex wightiana had RF greater
( Relative frequency) greater than 5 % each.
than 5% each. All other species had RF less than 5
Relative importance value (RIVI) was largest
% each.
(18.35) in case of Hydnocarpus alpina. Species like
Relative Importance Value (RIVI) was
Isonandra stocksii, Syzygium densiflorum,
largest (15.59) in case of Litsea wightiana, Ilex
Cinnmomum sulphuratum, Persea macrantha and
wightiana, Alseodaphne semicarpifolia and
Actinodaphne bourdillonii had RIVI of 13.11, 8.53,

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 101-109 103
Thomas et al.,2011

Turpinia nepalensis had RIVI of 10.72, 8.20 and maximum percentage frequency of 15.79 followed
7.11 respectively. Isonandra lanceolata, Syzygium by Ilex wightiana and Litsea wightiana with RF of
montanum, Myrisine wightiana, Isonandra stocksii 11.70 % each. Syzygium malabaricum,
etc., had RIVI less than one each. Rhododendron neilgiricum, Cinnmomum
Largest FRD (Frequency of distribution) of sulphuratum and Daphiniphyllum neilgherrense had
64.85% was observed in Lauraceae followed by RF greater than 5 percent. All other species had RF
10.02 % in Staphylaceae and 8.01 % in Myrtaceae. less than 5 % each. RIVI was largest (15.36) in case
Largest RBA of 48.07 was noticed in Lauraceae of Ilex wightiana followed by Turpinia nepalensis,
followed by 20.73 % and 18.67 % in Aquifoliaceae Syzygium malabaricum and Litsea wightiana had
and Myrtaceae respectively. Largest RFof 61.53% RIVI of 14.69, 13.16 and 9.44 respectively.
was noticed in Lauraceae followed by 10.06 %, Elaeocarpus recurvatus, Persea macrantha,
8.58 % and 5.64 % in Myrtaceae, Staphylaceae and Isonandra lanceolata, Vibrunum coriaceum had
Aquifoliaceae. All other families had RF of less RIVI less than one each.
than 5% each. RIVI was largest in Lauraceae Largest FRD of 20.36 % was observed in
(58.01). Followed by Myrtaceae(12.16), Lauraceae followed by 19.46 %, 14.03 % and 12.67
Aquifoliaceae(10.72) and Staphylaceae (7.11). All % in Staphylaceae, Myrtaceae and Aquifoliaceae.
other families had RIVI less than 5 each. All other families had FRD less than 10 percent.
Altitude-III (2300 msl) Largest RBA 27.32 % was noticed in Myrtaceae
There were a total density of the vegetation followed by 22.00 %, 14.26 % and 9.91 % in
of mature trees and was identified as 234 Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae and Staphylaceae
individuals belonging to 24 species, 21genera and respectively. All other families had RBA less than 5
13 families with quardrats studied (0.5 ha-1) in percent each. RIVI was largest in Myrtaceae
Altitude III. Turpinia nepalensis had the largest (55.46), followed by Lauraceae (54.12),
density of 43 ha-0.5 and relative density of 18.38 %. Aquifoliaceae (46.09), Staphylaceae (44.08),
Foillowed by Ilex wightiana and Litsea wightiana Ericaceae (19.73), Euphorbiaceae (15.85) and
had densities of 29 ha-0.5 and 28 ha-0.5, and relative Oleaceae (13.19). All other families had RIVI less
densities of 12.39 % and 11.97 % respectively. All than10 percent.
other species had relative density less than 10 Relationship between altitudinal gradients and
percent. mature tree species distribution
Total basal area of all species was 22.5360 The number of species with respect to each
m2 ha-0.5 at altitude III. Largest basal area of 4.9583 altitudinal gradient shows that the maximum
m2 ha-0.5 and relative basal area of 22.00 % were in number of species were found in 1900 msl (40
case of Ilex wightiana, this was followed by species belonging to 34 genera and 21 families)
Syzygium malabaricum which had basal area of followed by 2100 msl (31 species belonging to 21
4.8044 m2 ha-0.5 and relative basal area of 21.32 genera and 15 families) and 2300 msl (24 species,
percent. Turpinia nepalensis which had basal area 14 genera and 13 families). The reduction in species
of 2.2338 m2 ha-0.5 and relative basal area of 9.91 in higher altitudinal gradients could be attributed to
percent. All other species had relative basal area ecophysiological constraints such as pattern of
less than 2 percent. Turpinia nepalensis had the temperature, size of the forest cover, short period of

Number of species





0.01 0.06 0.11 0.16 0.21 0.26 0.31 0.36 0.41 0.46 0.51 0.56 0.61 0.66 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.91

Area (in ha-1)

1900 MSL 2100 MSL 2300 MSL

Fig.1 Relationship between altitudinal gradient with respect to species area curve
104 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 101-109
Thomas et al.,2011

Table: 1 Common species and their Density, Basal area and IVI with respect to altitudinal gradients
1900 msl 2100 msl 2300 msl
Si No. Name of sps. D BA IVI D BA IVI D BA IVI
1 c. sulphuratum 12 2.058 25.32 14 2.699 11.74 9 1.97 17.88
2 L. wightiana 1 0.203 2.204 125 3.945 46.76 28 1.049 28.30
3 N. scrobiculata 1 0.12 0.634 32 1.60 16.3 2 0.12 2.57
4 P. macrantha 17 2.74 23.69 19 2.30 12.7 2 0.02 2.15
5 P. lanceolata 5 0.101 2.074 27 2.128 14.34 1 0.08 1.048
6 S. densiflorum 11 3.84 25.610 10 4.105 13.03 9 1.021 12.45
7 T. nepalensis 6 0.215 3.937 55 1.306 21.33 43 2.23 40.7

growing season and other geographical barriers
(Chawla et al.,2008).
In 1900 msl, the maximum distribution of
species up to an area of 0.77 sq m ha -1 followed by
2100 msl, the distribution of species up to an area
of 0.63 sq m ha-1 and 0.25 sq m ha-0.5 in 2300 msl.
The species like Persea macrantha, Syzygium
densiflorum, Cinnmomum sulphuratum, Turpinia
nepalensis, Phoebe lanceolata, Litsea wightiana
and Neolitsea scrobiculata are common to all
altitudinal gradients. The values of similarity index
Fig: 2 Density rank analysis of Mature trees in shows that Altitude II (2100 msl) and Altitude III
Altitude I (1900 msl) (2300 msl) have more number of similar species (51
%) than Altitude I (1900 msl) and Altitude III (0.28
%) and Altitude I and Altitude II (42 %).
The lower species richness at the highest
altitudinal gradient might be due to the loss of
habitat diversity, extreme environmental conditions
and lack of adaptability of species to sustain life in
hostile climates ( Clowell and Hurtt ,1994)
Bhattarai and Vetaas,2003).
The AF (Abundance frequency) value shows
that 43 % mature trees shows regular type of
distribution followed by 12 % and 45 %, it was
random and contigenous pattern of distribution in
Fig: 3 Density rank analysis of Mature trees in Altitude I. The AF value of Altitude II shows that
Altitude II (2100 msl) 29 %, 20 % and 51 % of individuals and shows
regular, random and contigenous pattern of
distributions respectively, while in Altitude III 33
%, 12 % and 55 % of individuals were regular,
random and contigenous pattern of distributions
In Altitude I (1900 msl), the maximum
distribution of families up to an area of 0.45sq m.
Followed by 0.85 Sq m and 0.12 sq m in both
Altitude II and Altitude III respectively. The
maximum distribution of families was found in the
middle altitudinal gradient (2100 msl). The families
like Lauraceae (116 families’s ha-1), Flacourtiaceae
(115 families ha-1) and Icacinaceae (67 families
Fig: 4 Density rank analysis of Mature trees in ha_1) are dominant in 1900 msl. Followed by
Altitude III(2300)

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 101-109 105
Thomas et al.,2011

50 25
r = -0.99* r = -0.85*
40 20
Number of species

Number of family
30 15

20 10

10 5

0 0
1900 msl 2100 msl 2300 msl 1900 msl 2100 msl 2300 msl

Fig: 5 Distribution of number of tree species with Fig: 7 Distribution of number of families (trees) with
increasing altitude. increasing altitude.

40 Table: 2 Girth class distributions of mature trees along
35 r = -0.97* an altitudinal gradient.
Number of genus

25 Girth Classes 1900 msl 2100msl 2300msl
15 Class A 187 282 81
10 Class B 128 118 50
Class C 81 49 48
1900 msl 2100 msl 2300 msl Class D 78 36 28
Class E 48 22 11
Fig: 6 Distribution of number of genus (trees) with Class F 32 45 16
increasing altitude. Total No. of species 554 552 234

Lauraceae (356 families ha-1), Staphylaceae (55 individuals has been regenerated to mature tree
families ha-1) and Myrtaceae (44 families ha-1) in phase in 2100 msl than other extreme ends (1900
2100 msl and Lauraceae (45 families ha-0.5), msl-2300msl). While more representations (128
Staphylaceae (43 families ha-0.5) and Myrtaceae (28 individuals ha -1) by the individuals of ghirth class
families ha-0.5) in 2300 msl respectively. 60.1 to 90.0 cm in 1900 msl and maximum
Relationship between Girth class distribution of representations (45 individuals ha -0.5) by the
mature trees and altitudinal gradients individuals of girth class >180.1 cm in 2300 msl
The girth class distribution of mature tree respectively.
species with respect to each altitudinal gradients Relationship between altitudinal gradient and
shows that more representations (282 individuals ha endemic taxa
) by the individuals of girth class 30.1 to 60.0 cm A total of 19 species endemic to Western
in 2100 msl. This indicates that more number of Ghats of peninsular India. Which account for 21 %


Number of families















1900msl 2100msl 2300msl

Fig: 8 Relationship between altitudinal gradient with respect to the families (Tree species)
106 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 101-109
Thomas et al.,2011

Note: Class A (30.1-60.0), Class B (60.1-90.0), Class wigthiana, Syzygium densiflorum and Neolitsea
C (90.1-120.0) Class D (120.1-150.0), Class E (150.1- scrobiculata are common in 2100 and 2300 msl
180.0), Class F (Above180.1). respectively. Most of the species had narrow range
of distribution. This may due to variation in
ecophysiological conditions of different altitudinal
ranges, which favours different species composition
Gbh (in cm)

(Chawla et al., 2008).
150 Discussion and Conclusion
100 The shola forest was analysed by
50 establishing permanent sample plots (two 1 ha and
0 0.5 ha at three different altitudinal gradients such as
Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E Class F 1900, 2100 and 2300 msl respectively).The analysis
Girth classes
2100msl 2300msl of tree species diversity results, a total of 40 species
ha-1, 34 genera and 21 families in 1900 msl,
Fig: Girth class distribution pattern of mature trees followed by 31 species ha-1, 21genera and 15
with increasing altitude. families in 2100 msl and24 species ha-0.5, 21genera
and 13 families in 2300 msl respectively. The
of total tree species density in three different altitude increases as the distribution of species
altitudinal gradients at Mannavan shola forest of decreases.
Kerala.The more number of (12 individuals) of The shola forests are of unique ecosystem
endemic species were found in 1900 msl. The that harbours many tree species, which are endemic
endemic species like Rhododendron arboreum, to the Western Ghats of peninsular India. From the
Elaeocarpus recurvatus , Meliosma simplifolia and study are about 20 % of listed tree species were
Mahonia leschnaultii are distributed only in 2300 endemic to the Western Ghats. The plant diversity
msl , while the species like Cinnamomum of shola forests were evaluated by laying out
sulphuratum, Litsea wightiana, Syzygium permanent sample plots in Shola forests of Kerala
densiflorum and Neolitsea scrobiculata are (Chandrashekara et al., 1998) and rich species
common in all elevation gradients. Ilex diversity when compared to other forest types of
wightiana,Cinnamomum sulphuratum, Litsea Kerala (Chandrashekara and Jayaraman, 2002). The

Table: 3 List of endemic plant taxa from Mannavan Shola Forest (Anamudi Shola National Park) of Kerala.
SI No. Name of species Family 1900 msl 2100msl 2300msl
1 Actinodaphne bourdillonii Lauraceae √
2 Ardisia rhomboidea Myrsinaceae √ √
3 Beilschmiedia wightii Lauraceae √ √
4 Cinnamomum sulphuratum Lauraceae √ √ √
5 Elaeocarpus recurvatus Elaocarpaceae √
6 Glochidion neilgherrense Euphorbiaceae √
7 Ilex wightiana Aquifoliaceae √ √
8 Gomphandra coriacea Icacinaceae √ √
9 Lasianthus acuminatus Rubiaceae √ √
10 Ligustrum perrottettii Oleaceae √
11 Litsea floribunda Lauraceae √
12 Litsea wightiana Lauraceae √ √ √
13 Mahonia leschnaultii Berberidaceae √
14 Meliosma simplifolia Meliosmaceae √
15 Neolitsea scrobiculata Lauraceae √ √ √
16 Rhododendron arboreum Ericaceae √
17 Syzygium densiflorum Myrtaceae √ √ √
18 Ternstromemia japonica Theaceae √
19 Vaccinium leschnaultii Vacciniaceae √

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 101-109 107
Thomas et al.,2011

floristic, structural and edaphic attributes of the Champion HG. 1936. A preliminary survey of the
grassland-shola forests of Eravikulam in Peninsular forest types of India and Burma. Ind. For. Roc. 1:35
India by Jose et al (1994). Hence, the present study -38.
highlights the floristic diversity of Mannavan Shola
forest in Anamudi Shola National Park in the Chandrashekara UM and Jayaraman K. 2002.
Southern Western Ghats, Kerala. Stand structural diversity and dynamics in natural
The altitudinal gradient is one of ecological forests of Kerala. K.F.R.I. Res. Rep.No. 232.
factor, which can influence the rate of distribution
of tree species in tropical montane evergreen Chandrashekara UM, Menon ARR, Nair KKN,
forests. In addition to this, some of the factors like Sasidharan N and Swarupanandan K. 1998.
size of the forest cover, climate conditions, pattern Evaluating plant diversity in different forest types
of temperature, short period of growing season and of Kerala by laying out permanent sample plots.
other ecological factors may also affect the K.F.R.I. Res. Rep. No. 156.
distribution of species at different altitudinal
gradients. Various anthropogenic activities like road Chawla A, Raj kumar S, Singh KN, Brij
construction, Tourism, over-exploitation of Lalkand sigh RD. 2008. Plant species Diversity
medicinal plants posing a threat to the fragile along Altitudinal Gradient of Bhabha Valley in
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(R-551/KFRI/Estt/08) and also thanks to the Gamble JS and CE, Fischer C. 1915-1936. Flora
Professor and Head, Department of Botany, of the Presidency of Madras. 3 vols. Aldard and
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species Density: Historical and Prospective Views. Shannon CE and Wicher W. 1963. The
J. Ecol. 10:3-13. mathematical theory of Communication. University
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little known taxa from Anaimudi and surrounding
Palmer MW. 1992. Coexistence of species in regions. Devikolam, Kerala. A new variety of
Fractal land slopes. American Natur. 139:375-397. Leucas vestita Benth. Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10
Pascal JP and Ramesh BM. 1987. A Field key to
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Western Ghats (India). communities of Arizina and New Mexico.
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Phillips EA. 1959. Methods of vegetation study.
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Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 101-109 109
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

The effect of feeding with Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract(Amax) on ammonia and urea excretion
in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) larvae by bioenrichment of Daphnia magna
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Lashkarbolouki, Acipenser percicus larvae (mean weight:80mg) were fed enriched with
Hojatollah Jafaryan, Daphnia and Saccharomyces cerevisiae product (Amax) to ammonia and urea
Moein Faramarzi,
2 excretion in two conditions of starvation and satiation. Persian sturgeon larvae were
Ali Zabihi ,
1 fed by bioencapsulated Daphnia with Amax in three concentrations (50, 100 and 150
Hosein Adineh.
mg/l Amax) for four consecutive weeks also control larvae were fed by
Institution: nonbioencapsulated Daphnia. They were acclimatized to the laboratory conditions for
Department of Fishery, 10 days before starting of the experiment. Moreover, a 12 h dark: 12 h light
Gonbad University of photoperiod was provided. The amount of postprandial Ammonia and urea excreted
Agricultural Sciences and by Acipenser percicus larvae within 24 h was related to dose of Amax in broth. also
results showed when larvae were fed with 50,100,150mg/l Amax, has decreased
Natural Resources,
ammonia and urea excretion. Lower amount of ammonia(.093) and urea(.030)
Gonbad, Iran
excretion in satiation condition and urea(.016) excretion in starvation condition were
2 observed in treatment with 150 mg/l Amax (P < 0.05).but there is no significant
Department of Fishery, different about ammonia excretion in starvation between other treatments (P > 0.05).
Tehran University of Results indicate that use of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae product (Amax) can
Agricultural Sciences and reduce the amount of ammonia and urea excretion interestingly.
Natural Resources, Karaj,

Corresponding author: Keywords:
Lashkarbolouki M. Acipenser percicus ,daphnia,ammonia,urea,starvation,satiation.

Email: Article Citation:
Mohamad Lashkarbolouki, Hojatollah Jafaryan, Moein Faramarzi, Ali Zabihi,
Hosein Adineh.
The effect of feeding with Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract(Amax) on ammonia and
urea excretion in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) larvae by bioenrichment of
Daphnia magna
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 110-115
Web Address: Dates:
Documents/RA0042.pdf. Received: 04 Jun 2011 /Accepted: 09 Jun 2011 /Published: 13 Jun 2011

© Ficus Publishers.
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INTRODUCTION teleost fishes (Campbell and Anderson 1991; Wood
Over 50% of the nitrogen input into a marine 1993). In contrast, blood ammonia levels greater
fish culture system may be lost to the water as than 0×05 mM can be toxic to the central nervous
excretions (Gowen and Bradbury, 1987). Fish may system of most mammals (Meijer et al 1990).
excrete nitrogen in the form of ammonia, urea, Ammonia excretion is known to be affected
amines and amino acids( Wood, 1958; Porter et al., by factors such as species, body weight, water
1987). Marine teleosts are predominantly temperature, feeding and ration size (Jobling, 1981;
ammoniotelic, with 70 to 90% of nitrogen excretion Yager and Summerfelt, 1993) .Whilst postprandial
usually being in the form of ammonia(Brafield, nitrogenous excretion has been studied in a number
1985; Dosdat et al., 1996). Ammonia is toxic to fish of temperate fish species (Echevarria et al., 1993;
and is considered to be a major factor limiting fish Kikuchi, 1995), few studies have been carried out
biomass and stocking density in intensive culture to investigate the interactions between body weight,
systems (Cai and Summerfelt, 1992). which can water temperature and ration size on ammonia
lead to fish mortality (Skjoldal and Dundas, 1989). excretion. Recently, investigations of the
Rate of endogenous nitrogen excretion in advantages of microorganisms and fermented
fishes is an indicator of various environmental products as feed additives have been conducted to
and nutritional factors influencing the protein evaluate their effect on growth performance, body
metabolism, and thus gives an insight into the composition and ammonia production. These
nitrogen economy of fishes (Birkett, 1969; investigations were also stimulated by the fact that
Savitz, 1977). While Gerking (1955) measured broiler industries are faced with lower pollutants
the endogenous nitrogen excretion by feeding the mainly ammonia.Continuous feeding of
fishes a non protein diet (glucose), Kaushik microorganisms to animals provides a constant
(1980) and Roy and Das (1986) could demonstrate inoculation of the organism in the alimentary tract
that excretion following a short term starvation (Santoso et al., 1999).Fermented products were also
(total food deprivation) served as endogenous found to be beneficial in reducing fat accumulation
nitrogen excretion. The major proportion of (Tanaka et al., 1992) and ammonia production
ammonia excretion occurs through the gills, (Santoso et al., 1999). One of the fermented
whereas antennal and maxillary glands play a minor products which may have beneficial in its effects on
role (Binns and Peterson, 1969; Cameron and reducing ammonia production is the fermented
Batterton, 1978).In general, most teleosts are product from Saccharomyces cerevisiae(Amax).
vulnerable to elevated internal ammonia levels Inclusion of microorganisms or fermented products
(Person-Le Ruyet et al., 1995). However, under were also proven to reduce ammonia production
certain circumstances such as high ambient (Santoso et al., 1999). The mechanism by which the
ammonia or aerial exposure, ammonia excretion is culture and the fermented products reduceding
inhibited, and toxic ammonia becomes concentrated ammonia production was unknown. The aim of this
in blood and body tissues. Fishes are generally experiment was to determinate the amount of
known to tolerate relatively higher accumulation of ammonia and urea excretion at two condition of
ammonia than mammals (Saha and Ratha 1994). starvation and satiety in Acipenser percicus larvae
Some fish species have evolved various fed bioencapsulated daphnia with Saccharomyces
mechanisms to tolerate or avoid very high cerevisiae extract.
environmental and internal ammonia Species such
as the Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami), MATERIALS AND METHODS
toadfish (Batrachoididae) and air breathing Feeding trial
mudskipper (Heteropneustes fossilis) are capable of Ten-day old healthy larvae of Persian
converting ammonia to less toxic urea via the sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) with initial weight of
ornithine urea cycle, then excreting a part or all of 80±7 mg and total length of 22±5 mm were
their nitrogenous waste as urea (Saha and Ratha, obtained from Hatchery of Marjanii sturgeon
1994). center, Golestan, Iran. The Baker's yeast
In some fish, urea synthesis by uricolysis has (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) product under the
been identified as the ureogenic pathway is used to commercial title of Amax, were used for enriching
eliminate excess ammonia (Wright and Land, of daphnia. The Daphnia magna was cultured in
1998).Plasma total ammonia (NH3 + NH4+) earthly ponds at Marjani sturgeon center. Three
normally remains between 0.05 to 2 mM in most concentrations of yeast suspension (50, 100 and 150
111 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 110-115
Lashkarbolouki et al.,2011

mg/l Amax in suspension of broth) were provided. excess water, weighted and then placed into 12
Twelve fiberglass tanks (capacity of 50 liters) with individual experimental tanks at the end of the
three replicates for experimental treatment and experimental feeding for 6h. Similar activity were
control were used. The density of fish larvae in each done for satiation. For this purpose, One hundred
tank was 70 fishes. and twenty fish were captured immediately after
After 10 h. the bioencapsulated Daphnia feeding and weighted, then placed into 12 tanks for
magna was collected on a 120mm-pore-size sieve, 6h. Aeration and water flow were stopped during
washed with fresh water and was used as a live the experiment. During this period, water
food and vector to carry Amax to digestive system temperature was 19°C and the experiment was
of Acipenser persicus larvae. In experimental conducted at the natural photoperiod conditions
treatments of T1, T2 and T3 the Persian sturgeon with similar light intensity for all tanks. After
larvae were fed by bioencapsulated D. magna by experimental period,the water of each tanks were
50, 100 and 150 mg/l Amax. In control the fish sampled and sent to lab for analysis.
larvae were fed on unbioencapsulated D. magna. Statistical analysis
Each treatment was in triplicate. Sturgeon larvae All data were analyzed statistically using
were fed based on the 30% of their body weight for descriptive statistic and analysis of variance
six times a day at 2.00, 7.00, 12.00, 17.00 and 22.00 (ANOVA). Duncan’s multiple range test was used
with bioencapsulated Daphnia magna in to evaluate the mean differences among different
experimental treatments and unbioencapsulated treatments at the 0.05 significant levels.
Daphnia magna in control treatment respectively.
Each rearing tank was supplied with running RESULTS
fresh water which had been filtered through the The rates of ammonia excretion of the larvae
special cotton filter (flow rate: 1 L min-1). Water were relatively stable over time and showed no
quality parameters from every tank were monitored significant variation with the durations of
each week throughout the experiment. The water starvation. But the rate of urea excretion over the
temperature was 19.8± 0.6 °C, pH was 7.6-8.3 and starvation showed that control larvae secreted
water oxygen level was maintained above 7.5 mg l-1 higher urea compared with other treatment (P <
during the experiment by setting electrical air 0.05). Urea-N excretion decreased in both of
pump. . condition when larvae were fed by Saccharomyces
Experimental treatment cerevisiae extract( Amax). The higher rate of urea
Two ration levels were tested in the growth excretions were observed in control treatment (P <
experiment to characterize the amount of ammonia 0.05). Urea-nitrogen excretion accounted for
and urea excretion: starvation, and satiation. This between 30–50% of total ammonia-nitrogen
study carried out with three replicates for each excretion rates at each treatment Table 2. showed
treatment(control, 50, 100 and 150 mg/l Amax) and that Acipenser persicus larvae secreted higher
10 fish for each replicate. One hundred and twenty ammonia and urea in condition of satiation
Acipencer percicus larvae, which had been starved comparison with starvation. Generally fish larvae
for12h(9:00 to 21:00), were captured, blotted of are able to secrete ammonia towards urea increasly.

Table1. Amount of ammonia and urea excretion at two conditions of satiety and starvation
control 50 mg/l Amax 100mg/l Amax 150mg/l Amax
Ammonia excretion
mg/g/day (satiety) .109± 0015.a .095± 0001.b .095± 0041.b .093± 0044.b

Urea excretion
mg/g/day (satiety) .079± 018.a .055± 0007.ab .050± 0022.ab .030.± 0296b

Ammonia excretion
mg/g/day (starvation) .041 0018.±a .043 ± 0026.a .043± 0004.a .044± 0007.a

Urea excretion
mg/g/day (starvation) .035± 001.a .030± 0003.ab .027± 0012.ab .016± 0160.b

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 110-115 112
Lashkarbolouki et al.,2011

DISCUSSION Whereas there are no premeditate on
The rates of postprandial, starvation ammonia and urea excretion by enrichment
ammonia and urea excretion of Acipenser persicus activity,this study showed enrichment of daphnia
larvae were reported in Table 1 . The methodology with Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract(Amax)
followed in this research was very similar to that probiotics can reduce ammonia and urea excretion
used by Thomas and Piedrahita (1998). As in their and also cause increase protein retention in
work, TAN and urea-N excretion rates measured Acipenser percicus larvae body notably.
did not discriminate between the fish and any
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Wood CM. 1993. Ammonia and urea metabolism
Skjoldal HR and Dundas I. 1989. The and excretion. In: Evans, D.H. (Ed.), The
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marine teleosts. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 36:1237
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115 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 110-115
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Effects of chicken slaughter wastes on growth and feeding parameters and
body composition of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Ali Zabihi,
Moein Faramarzi,
3 Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous rations containing various levels (0% or
Saeed Kiaalvandi,
4 control), 33%, 67% and 100% of fish meal) of poultry by-product meal (PBM) were fed
Farnaz Iranshahi.
to three replicate groups of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings with a mean
Institution: initial weight of 15.40±0.03 g. 50 fish per tank were tested for 10 weeks in 500 l
Department of Fishery, fibreglass tanks. Average weight gain of carp fingerlings fed the control were
Tehran University of significantly (P<0.05) higher (42.63±0.66) compared to fish fed 33%, 67% and 100%
Agricultural Sciences and PBM of fish meal (30.14±0.06, 25.91±0.48 and 19.77±0.07, respectively). Significant
Natural Resources, Karaj, variation in feed conversation ratios which varied between 1.71±0.02 and 2.81±0.03
Iran. for the control and 100% PBM, respectively, were obtained among the groups.
Department of Fishery, Similarly, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio decreased significantly
Gonbad University, Gonbad, (P<0.05) as the level of PBM increased. However, condition factor, dress out
Iran. percentage and the whole body composition didn’t exhibit any significant variation
Department of Fishery, among the test groups.
Gorgan University of
Agricultural Sciences and
Natural Resources, Gorgan,
Department of Fishery,
Shahid Bahonar University, Keywords:
Kerman, Iran. Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, poultry by-product meal, fish meal.

Corresponding author: Article Citation:
Ali Zabihi Ali Zabihi, Moein Faramarzi, Mohammad Lashkarbolouki, Saeed Kiaalvandi,
Farnaz Iranshahi.
Effects of chicken slaughter wastes on growth and feeding parameters and body
composition of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 122-128.
Email: Dates:
Received: 04 Jun 2011 /Accepted: 07 Jun 2011 /Published: 14 Jun 2011

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Fish meal is the major protein source in Ingredients used in the study were purchased from
aquaculture feeds. However, the supply of fish meal local market. According to information provided by
is not growing worldwide (Rumsey, 1994; Barlow, the manufacturer, PBM used consists of chicken
1997) and, it depends entirely on landings from the slaughter wastes including viscera, heads, legs and
capture fisheries. Fish meal production from Peru feather, and was produced by exposing to 150-200 °
and Chile, two countries producing about two-thirds C under a 2.5-atm pressure for ten hours. Both fish
of annual global production, fluctuates periodically meal and PBM were analyzed for proximate
by over 20% in El Nino years when ocean composition pirior to the formulation of diets
temperatures warm up and cause the fish stocks to (Table 1).
move offshore, out of reach of the fishery (Hardy, Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets
1996). Moreover, price of fish meal is often high. were formulated to evaluate nutritional value of
These necessitate replacing fish meal with cheaper PBM for carp fingerlings (Table 2). The control
protein sources (Shepherd, 1998). diet contained 30% of fish meal and 15.5% of soy
One of the alternative ingredients to fish bean meal as main protein sources. PBM was tested
meal is poultry by-product meal (PBM). PBM is at three inclusion levels (33%, 67% and 100%
made of ground, rendered, or clean parts of the replacement of fish meal) by reducing fish meal
carcass of slaughtered poultry. PBM has been tested levels. All diets contained the minimum
at varying success so far in coho salmon (Higss et requirement of all essential nutrients to satisfy the
al., 1979), chinook salmon (Fowler, 1991), rainbow needs of common carp (NRC, 1993). The diets
trout (Alexis et al., 1985; Gouveia, 1992; Steffens, were prepared by mixing the dry ingredients and
1994; Sevgili, 2002), tilapia (Sadiku and Jauncey, oil, followed by the addition of water until a stiff
1995; El-Sayed, 1998), sea bream (Nengas et al., dough was obtained. The moist diet was extruded
1999), European eel (Appelbaum et al., 1996), through a mincer with a 2 mm die. The resulting
channel catfish (Sadiku and Jauncey, 1995), pellets were then dried on the shelves at the room
Common carp, catla, rohu (Steffens, 1988; Hasan et temperature. The diets were stored in the plastic
al., 1993, Hasan and Das, 1993), sunshine bass bags under ambient conditions over the
(Webster et al., 2000) and Pacific white shrimp experimental period.
(Davis and Arnold, 2000). The feeding trial was conducted in outdoor
Fowler (1991) and Sevgili (2002) reported fibreglass tanks with holding capacity of 12,500 L.
PBM could replace about 50% of fish meal in the Each tank was supplied with a water flow of 10 l/
diets for chinook salmon and rainbow trout. Hasan min. Over the experimental period, water
and Amin (1997) found that processing techniques temperature (°C), dissolved oxygen (mg/l) and pH
greatly affected the nutritional quality of PBM for changed between, 26.1-27.5, 8.0-8.7 and 7.3-7.8,
Cirrhinus mrigala fry. They reported that respectively.
autoclaved and boiled PBM showed better growth Fish fry (initial mean weight 15.40±0.03)
performances than sundried and/or oven dried were randomly allocated at a stocking rate of 50
PBM. Dong et al. (1993) drew attention to the fish per tank with three replicate tanks for each
nutritional quality differences of PBM produced by experimental diet. All fish were fed two times daily
different manufacturers. at a fixed feeding rate of 4 % body weight per day
There is a lack of information on nutritional for ten weeks. Total biomass of the fish from each
quality of PBM produced in Iran for fish diets. This tank was weighed at biweekly intervals and feeding
study was planned to determine the level of PBM rates adjusted accordingly. At the beginning of the
that could be used to replace fish meal in practical trial, 25 fish, and at end of the trial, 5 fish per tank
diets for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were sampled to determine the whole body
fingerlings. composition. 5 fish per tank were also picked at the
Table 1. Proximate composition of fish meal and PBM (as is basis) used in trial diets

123 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 122-128
Zabihi et al.,2011

Table 2. Formulation and composition of the experimental diets (%)

Per kg premix: 4,000,000 IU vitamin A, 480,000 IU vitamin D3, 40,000 mg vitamin E, 2,400 mg vitamin K3,
4,000 mg vitamin B1, 6,000
mg vitamin B2, 40,000 mg niacin, 10,000 mg Ca-panthothenate, 4,000 mg vitamin B6, 10 mg vitamin B12, 100
mg D-biotin, 1,200 mg folic
acid, 40,000 mg vitamin C and 60,000 mg inositol.
Per kg premix: 23,750 mg Mn, 75,000 mg Zn, 5,000 mg Zn, 2,000 mg Co, 2,750 mg I, 100 mg Se, 200,000 mg
Gross energy based on 5.65, 4.1 and 9.5 kcal / g protein, carbohydrate and fat, respectively (Belal et al., 1995).

end of the study to determine condition factors and RESULTS
dress out percentage of the groups fed different The growth response and performance data
PBM levels. of carp juveniles fed diets containing various
Fish performance, including average weight inclusions of PBM are presented in Table 3.
gain (AWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific Weekly growth responses of carp juveniles over the
growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), experimental period are shown in Figure 1. The
condition factor (CF) and dress out percentage performance of carp juveniles differed significantly
(DOP) were determined as described by Metailler (P<0.05) in terms of final weight, AWG, FCR, SGR
(1987) and Goddard (1996). and PER. Growth responses were lower in groups
The protein content of the diets and the
whole body was determined by Kjeldalh, fat by
solvent extraction, ash by placing the samples in a
muffle furnace (550°C) for 12 h, fiber by placing
the samples remaining in a muffle furnace (550°C)
for 6 h after acid and alkali hydrolysis and moisture
by drying (105°C) until constant weight has been
attained. Nitrogen free extract was calculated by
substracting the protein, fat, fiber and ash from the
dry matter (Akyıldız, 1984).
Results were analysed by a one-way analysis
of variance and the treatment means compared by
Duncan’s multiple range tests. Significance was
tested at the P≤0.05 level.
Figure 1. Live weight variations in carp juveniles over
the experimental period.

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 122-128 124
Zabihi et al.,2011

fed diets with PBM compared to those fed the from European eel (Appelbaum et al., 1996), tilapia
control diet. The growth performance worsened in (El-Sayed, 1998), catla (Hasan et al., 1993), rohu
fish fed diet containing even lowest PBM level (Hasan and Das, 1993) and carp (Steffens, 1988)
(33%) and kept worsening as the level of PBM indicate that total replacement of fish meal with
increased. However, there were no significant PBM could be possible.
differences in CF and DOP among the groups In the present study, the diets containing
(Table 3). PBM even at lowest level significantly limited
Initial and final body compositions of fish weight gain, FCR, SGR and PER. The values
were presented in Table 4. There were no worsened as PBM level increased. These results are
significant differences in body composition among contradictory to ones mentioned in previous
the treatments. paragraph. Poor performance of this material may
be due to; i) limiting amino acid (histidine,
DISCUSSION methionnine+cystine, lysine and phenylalanine)
PBM seems to be a good source of dietary content (Tacon and Jackson, 1985; Nengas et al.,
protein for fish culture. Higss et al. (1979) found 1999; Sevgili, 2002), ii) feather, connective tissue
that defatted PBM and PBM mixed with hydrolysed and skin contents which are considered to be
feather meal could replace up to 33% and 75 % of difficult for fish to digest (Davies et al., 1989;
fish meal, respectively, in coho salmon diets. About Fowler, 1990; Hasan et al., 1997; Hardy, 2000;
50 % of fish meal was successfully replaced with Sevgili, 2002), iii) subjection of the product to high
PBM in chinook salmon and rainbow trout (Alexis temperature (150-200‫؛‬C) for a long time (10 hours)
et al., 1985; Fowler, 1991; Steffens, 1994; Sevgili, during the processing (Nengas et al., 1999; Sevgili,
2002). Moreover, Gouveia (1992) reported PBM 2002), iv) or combination of all. High temperature
mixed with hydrolysed feather meal could be used during the raw material processing leads to lysine,
without growth retardation at a level of 80 % of cystine+cystein losses and thus, digestibility of
total protein in trout diets. protein and amino acids is reduced (Opstvedt et al.,
Nengas et al. (1999) compared PBMs 1984; McCallum and Higgs, 1989). The reason of
produced via old (OTPBM) or high technology reduced growth performances of fingelings fed diets
(HTPBM) in sea bream diets and found that while with PBM was not their fat contents. Optimal
OTPBM reduced growth performances at high dietary fat levels have been suggested to be below
inclusion levels, HTPBM did not effect negatively 12% in the practical diets of cyprinids (Kaushik,
growth at a level of 100 % of fish meal. In Pacific 1995). In the present study, the highest fat level was
white shrimp and sunshine bass diets, 80 % and 100 9.78% which is in the range of the optimal levels.
% of fish meal replacement with PBM, Moreover, Gallagher and Degani (1988)
respectively, did not effect negatively weight gain successfully used 10% poultry oil as a replacement
and feed conversion ratio. The results obtained of fish oil for the diets of European eels.

Table 3. Growth, FCR, SGR, PER, CF and DOP of carp fry after 10 weeks

Values are means± SE for three replications. Figures in the same row with different superscripts are
significantly different (p<0.05).
AWG = Final weight (g)-Initial weight (g)
FCR = Total feed (g)/Total weight gain (g)
SGR = 100 (ln Wf – ln Wi)/time (days) where Wf is final weight, Wi is initial weight.
PER = Wet weight gain (g) / Protein fed (g)
CF = Final weight (g) / Fork length (cm) X 100
DOP = Viscera (g) / Whole weight (g) X 100
125 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 122-128
Zabihi et al.,2011

Table 4. The whole body composition analyses (on wet weight basis) of carp fed test diets

Body compositions of carp fry fed diets the diet of young eels. Archives of Polish Fisheries
containing various levels PBM were not 4:141-145.
significantly differed in the present study. These
findings are in agreement with the values reported Barlow S. 1997. Fish meal-supply limits demand.
by Hasan et al. (1993), Nengas et al. (1999) and Feed Tech., 1(1):34-35.
Sevgili (2002). The final body dry matter and lipid
levels are higher (Fowler, 1991; Gouveia, 1992; Belal IEH, Al-Owaifeir A and Al-Dosari M.
Hasan et al., 1993 and 1997; Weatherup and 1995. Replacing fish meal with chicken offal silage
McCracken, 1999) and ash is lower (Hasan and in commercial Oreochromis niloticus (L.) feed.
Amin, 1997; Nengas et al., 1999) than initial levels. Aquaculture Research 26:855-858.
However, final body protein level obtained in this
trial was slightly lower compared to initial value. Davis DA and Arnold CR. 2000. Replacement of
This is contradictory findings reported by Fowler fishmeal in practical diets for the Pacific white
(1991) Gouveia (1992) and Hasan and Amin shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture.,
(1993). 185:291-298.
Consequently, our results indicate that
growth of carp fingerlings was negatively effected Davies SJ, Williamson J, Robinson M and
with PBM levels. Dong et al. (1993) found Robert IB. 1989. Practical inclusion levels of
differences in proximate composition and protein common animal by-products in complete diets for
digestibility among the samples of PBM from tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters). Proc.
different manufacturers. In previous study (Sevgili, Third Int. Symp. on Feeding and Nutr. in Fish,
2002), however, PBM from the same manufacturer Toba, Japan. 326-332.
was used to replace fish meal in practical rainbow
trout diets. In this study, it was found that PBM Dong FM, Hardy RW, Haard NF, Borrows FI,
could be used up to 20 % of diet as a protein source. Rasco BA, Fairgrieve WT and Forster IP. 1993.
Unlike nutritional disadvantages of PBM compared Chemical composition and protein digestibility of
to fish meal, it is much cheaper and more easily poultry by-product meals for salmonid diets.
available than fish meal. Thus, the level of PBM Aquaculture 116:149-158.
that can be used in diets of carp fingerlings needs to
be further evaluated. El-Sayed AFM. 1998. Total replacement of fish
meal with animal protein sources in Nile tilapia,
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Original Research paper
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Assessment of the in vitro antibacterial activity of honey on some common
human pathogens
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Anyanwu CU.
The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro antibacterial activity
of bee honey on certain potentially pathogenic bacterial isolates. Different
concentrations (10.0, 20.0, 40.0, 60.0, 80.0 and 100.0%) of honey sample were
checked for their antibacterial activities, using disc diffusion assay, on some medically
Department of Microbiology important bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp.,
University of Nigeria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Proteus sp.
Nsukka, Nigeria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the honey sample were determined
on the selected bacteria using agar dilution technique. The sample of honey showed
pronounced bacterial inhibitory effect in vitro at honey concentrations of 40% and
above on the various tested bacteria. No growth inhibition effect was observed at
Corresponding author: 10% concentration of honey. The MIC for the tested bacteria ranged between 12.5
Anyanwu CU. and 25.0%. The MIC for Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus was 12.5% while for Proteus sp.,
the MIC was 25.0%. All the other tested bacterial isolates showed MIC value of 15%.
The study shows that honey, like antibiotics, has certain organisms sensitive to it, and
provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria and is also shown to have
Email: antibacterial action against a broad spectrum of bacteria, both gram- positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Phone No: Keywords:
2348037740104 Honey, antibacteria, antibiotics, minimum inhibitory concentration.

Article Citation:
Web Address: Anyanwu CU.
Documents/RA0028.pdf. Assessment of the in vitro antibacterial activity of honey on some common human
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 116-121.

Received: 17 May 2011 /Accepted: 26 May 2011 /Published: 14 Jun 2011

© Ficus Publishers.
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INTRODUCTION negative and is effective against methicillin
Honey is a thick sweet liquid made by bees resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), β-
from the nectar of flowers. Honey is essentially a hemolytic streptococci and vancomycin-resistant
highly concentrated water solution of two sugars, enterococci (VRE) as reported by Allen et al.
dextrose and levulose, with small amounts of at (2000) and Kingsley (2001).
least 22 other more complex sugars. Many other Clinical studies in several countries showed
substances also occur in honey, but the sugars are that there are differences in the spectrum of
by far the major components. The principal physical antimicrobial action of honey (Efem, 1988; Cooper
characteristics and behavior of honey are due to its and Molan, 1999; Obi et al., 1994). It would be
sugars, but the minor constituents – such as important to note the sensitivity in different places,
flavouring materials, pigments, acids, and minerals and for differing samples of honey. This should
– are largely responsible for the differences among serve as a guide to its clinical use.
individual honey types (Molan, 1992a). The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro
Honey produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) antimicrobial effect of bee honey collected in
is one of the oldest traditional medicines considered Nsukka, Nigeria on certain bacterial species
to be important in the treatment of various diseases involved in causing infections in humans compared
and ailments including gastrointestinal infection, with that of certain antibiotics that are commonly
respiratory ailment, wound infections and others. used in the treatment of infections.
Two millennia before bacteria were identified as the
cause of disease, physicians at the time were aware MATERIALS AND METHODS
that certain types of honey are the best therapy for Collection of samples of honey
particular ailments and infections. The honey sample used in this study was
The ability of honey to kill microorganisms collected from Nsukka town in Southeast, Nigeria.
has been attributed to its high osmotic effect, high Several samples were collected in sterile screw-cap
acidic nature, hydrogen peroxide concentration and containers and immediately transported to the
its phytochemical nature, which include its content laboratory for processing.
of tetracycline derivatives, peroxides, amylose, fatty Processing of samples
acids, phenols, ascorbic acid, terpenes, benzyl Each sample was first filtered with a sterile
alcohol and benzoic acid (Bogdanov, 1989; Molan, mesh to remove debris. The samples were checked
1992a). However, large variations in the in vitro for purity by streaking on blood agar plates, and
antibacterial activity of various types of honey have incubated overnight. Sample that showed
been reported and thus hampered its acceptance in uncontamination was stored at refrigeration
modern medicine (Kwakmann, 2008). The temperature of about 4oC until used. The honey
production and type of honey produced by sample was diluted with sterile distilled water to 10,
honeybees is dependent on the natural vegetative 20, 40, 60 and 80%, and the undiluted honey
flowers blooming in different seasons. Thus the (100.0%) referred to as net.
flowers from which bees gather nectar to produce Bacteria used
honey may contribute to the difference in the The bacterial species used in this study and
antimicrobial activities. Molan (1992a) had reported known to be potentially pathogenic to human were
that honey from certain species of Leptospermum obtained from the clinical laboratory of the
flora native to Australia and New Zealand contains Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria,
additional phytochemical components that further Nsukka, Nigeria. The bacterial species include
enhance its antibacterial activity. It has further been Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas
reported that physical property along with aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp.,
geographical distribution and different floral Enterobacter sp. and Proteus sp. Two reference
sources may play an important role in the strains, E. coli (ATCC 25922) and P. aeruginosa
antimicrobial activity of honey (Taormina et al., (ATCC 27853) were used for comparison.
2001). Antibacterial evaluation
Laboratory studies and clinical trials have The in vitro antibacterial evaluation of the
shown that honey is an effective broad-spectrum honey was carried out using the disc diffusion
antimicrobial agent. Honey has been reported to method of Bauer et al. (1966). In the disc diffusion
have inhibitory effect on several bacteria including approach, surface of nutrient agar (Lab M) plate
aerobes and anaerobes, Gram-positive and Gram- was uniformly inoculated in individual Petri dishes
117 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 116-121

with overnight stock culture of each of the bacterial namely, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 per 20 ml of the
species prepared in nutrient broth. The used bacteria mixture were used. These were equivalent to honey
were adjusted to 105 cfu/ml with sterile saline and concentrations (%, v/v) of 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and
inoculated onto the agar medium. Sterile Whatman 25.0, respectively. The MIC values were
No 1 filter paper discs (Whatman International Ltd., determined for the honey against the different
UK), 6 mm in diameter were used. The filter paper bacterial isolates, namely, Enterobacter sp.,
discs were soaked in the different honey dilutions or Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas
net honey, dried at room temperature, carefully and aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp.,
aseptically placed into the Petri dishes seeded with Klebsiella sp. and the control strains.
inocula. Standard antibiotic discs of Overnight broth culture of each bacterial strain
chloramphenicol and tetracycline were used on the in nutrient broth was prepared. The turbidity, which
inoculated plates for comparison. The antibiotic was visually compared with McFarland 0.5
discs used were commercially available discs. A standard which corresponds approximately to a
disc without honey impregnation was used as homogeneous cell suspension of 1.5 × 108 cfu/ml,
control. Plates were kept at 4oC for four hours to was adjusted to 104 cfu/ml. The test plates which
provide sufficient time for the test material to contained media mixed with honey were inoclated
diffuse into the medium and finally incubated at with the adjusted culture broth and incubated at
37oC for 24 hours. 37oC for 24 hrs. Agar plates without honey were
The diameter of the zone of inhibition similarly inoculated to serve as control. The lowest
produced around the discs was measured with concentration of honey that completely inhibited
transparent ruler as index of antibacterial activity of visible bacterial growth was taken as the minimum
honey or standard antibiotic. The size of the inhibitory concentration of the honey.
inhibition zone further represented a quantitative
measure of antibacterial activity of the test material. RESULTS
All experiments were performed in duplicate and The results of the in vitro antibacterial effects
the zone of inhibition was measured twice for each of honey against the different bacteria tested are
honey dilution and net preparation. shown in Table I. The results showed that honey
Determination of minimum inhibitory exhibited a fairly good antibacterial activity against
concentration (MIC) of honey both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
The MIC of the honey was determined using The honey showed greater antibacterial effect
the agar dilution technique (Gaill and Washington, against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
1995) which was done by mixing molten nutrient Salmonella sp., than the other tested bacteria.
agar with honey. Known volumes (ml) of honey, Proteus sp. was the most resistant isolate tested as
Table I. Antibacterial activity of different concentrations of honey

Chl – chloramphenicol; Tet - tetracycline

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 116-121 118

shown in this study as it showed the least zone of concentration of 10%. The honey showed the
inhibition of 18 mm at the highest concentration of strongest activity against E. coli and Salmonella sp.
honey, i.e., 100%. Clear zones of inhibition were This shows that the tested honey has antibacterial
produced by the net honey preparation on all the activity.
bacteria tested with the largest zones of inhibition Significant inhibition of growth of all the
observed for E. coli, and Salmonella sp. The tested bacteria was observed at 40% concentration
maximum inhibition zone of 24 mm was shown and above. Nzeako and Hamdi (2000) in their study
against E. coli and Salmonella sp. at net honey of six commercial honeys found that inhibition in
concentration of 100%. The 10% concentration of agar diffusion of S. aureus, E. coli and P.
honey did not show any inhibition of growth on any aeruginosa did not occur at honey concentrations
of the bacteria tested while 20% honey less than 40%. Al-Waili (2004) had shown that
concentration did not show any inhibition on growth of all the isolates used in a study was
Proteus sp. Meanwhile, honey concentration of completely inhibited by 30–100% honey
40% and above showed different levels of growth concentrations with the most sensitive microbes
inhibition on all the bacteria tested, including the being E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and H. influenzae. It
reference strains. However, the diameter of zone of has been suggested that the inhibition of bacterial
inhibition increases as the concentration of honey growth by honey probably resulted mainly from
increases. Table 1 also shows that the net honey intrinsic antimicrobial properties other than its high
(100%) produced greater diameters of zones of osmolarity and acidity (Molan, 1992a, 1992b).
inhibition against all the tested bacteria than the The antimicrobial activity of honey affects
standard antibiotics, while the honey at 80% both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as
showed zones of inhibition that are comparable to obtained in the present study. These results are in
the standard antibiotics. agreement with Wi11ix et al. (1992) and Bilal et al.
The results of the studies on the minimum (1998) who found that honey inhibited the growth
inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the honey on the of S. aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas sp., thus
test organisms are shown in Table 2. Results showing that honey exhibited a fairly good
showed that the MIC values for the honey ranged antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative
between 12.5 and 25.0% (v/v) with the least MIC and Gram-positive bacteria. Molan (1992a) reported
value of 12.5% demonstrated against Klebsiella sp. that the mode of action of honey has not yet been
and S. aureus, respectively, while the highest value fully elucidated, but osmolarity, acidity, hydrogen
of 25.0% (MIC) was against Proteus sp. Other peroxide generation and phytochemical components
bacterial isolates had MIC of 15.0%. are all considered as contributory factors.
Variations in the antibacterial activities of
DISCUSSION different honey varieties have been suggested by
The in vitro antibacterial activity of honey in Molan (1992a, 1992b) to be due to the amount of
this study showed that the honey was effective hydrogen peroxide and other additional
against several bacterial strains including E. coli, antibacterial components derived from the nectar
Salmonella sp., Klebsiella sp. and Staphylococcus source. Wahdan (1998) had shown that the kinds of
aureus at all concentrations tested except the least antimicrobial substances (inhibines) in honey
include not only hydrogen peroxide but many other
Table 2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of substances. Two important classes of these
honey on the test bacteria. inhibines are the flavonoids and the phenolic acids
(caffeic acid and ferulic acid). The antimicrobial
activity of bee honey has been attributed to several
properties of honey, including its osmotic effect, its
naturally low pH, and the production of hydrogen
peroxide, as also the presence of phenolic acids,
lysozyme, and flavanoids (Abd-El Aal et al., 2007).
The honey used in this study was effective
against E. coli, Salmonella sp., Klebsiella sp. and S.
aureus and these findings agree with several earlier
reports on antibacterial activity of honey from other
countries (Taormina et. al. 2001; Melissa et al.
119 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 116-121

2004). Furthermore, this study also showed that Basson NJ, Grobler SR. 2008. Antimicrobial
some organisms were more sensitive to honey while activity of two South African honeys produced
others were less sensitive. Similar phenomenon was from indigenous Leucospermum cordifolium and
observed in terms of MIC values of the honey used Erica species on selected microorganisms. BMC
as these values varied according to the bacterial Complem. Alt. Med., 8:41-44.
strains. It was revealed in this study that E. coli and
Salmonella sp were the most vulnerable organisms Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sheris JC, Turck M.
to the honey used as they both had the same highest 1966. Antibiotics susceptibility testing by
diametre of zone of inhibition of 24 mm, while standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin.
Proteus sp. and S. aureus appeared the least Pathol., 45:493-496.
sensitive with MIC value of 12.5%. Different MIC
values have been reported for similar organisms by Bilal AN, Molan PC, Sallal AK. 1998.
different authors. For example, Mulu et al. (2004) Antimicrobial activity of honey on selected
showed the MIC of honey for 90% of test microorganisms: A preliminary study. Biomed. Res.
organisms to be 6.25% while Pseudomonas (India). 9:51-54.
aeruginosa showed the highest MIC of 7.5%. On
the other hand, Basson and Grobler (2008) reported Bogdanov S. 1989. Characterization of
the MIC values of different South African honeys to antibacterial substance in honey. Lebensm Wiss.
range between 12.5% and 50%. These results Technol., 17(2):74-76.
showed that honey has variable antimicrobial
activity against different organisms studied. Ceyhan N, Ugur A. 2001. Investigation of in vitro
The discrepancy in the observed bacterial antimicrobial activity of honey, Rivista di Biologia
sensitivity of several bacteria to honey can be due 94:363-371.
to several reasons. One possibility might be related
to the differences in susceptibility of each species of Cooper R, Molan PC. 1999. The use of honey as
microorganism to the antibacterial activity of honey an antiseptic in managing Pseudomonas infection.
used. Similar observations have been reported by J. Wound Care1 8(4):161-164.
other authors (Nzeako and Hamdi 2000; Ceyhan
and Ugur 2001; Taormina et al. 2001). Efem F. 1988. Clinical observations on the wound
In conclusion, the honey used in the present healing properties of honey. Br. J. Surg. 75:679-
study has been shown to exhibit antibacterial 681.
activity when tested in vitro. The honey has been
shown to prevent the growth of a wide range of Gaill W, Washington JA. 1995. Antimicrobial
potential human pathogens and therefore has a susceptibility test : dilution and disk diffusion
broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity. methods. Mnual of Clinical Microbiology. 6th Edn.,
Abd-El Aal AM, El-Hadidy MR, El-Mashad NB, Kingsley A. 2001. The use of honey in the
El-Sebaie AH. 2007. Antimicrobial effect of bee treatment of infected wound. Br. J. Nurs., 10 (22
honey in comparison to antibiotics on organisms Suppl.): S13–6, S18 and S20.
isolated from infected burns. Ann. Burns Fire
Disas., XX(2):83-88. Kwakman PH. 2008. Medical-grade honey kills
antibiotic-resistant bacteria in vitro and eradicates
Allen KL, Hutchinson G, Molan PC. 2000. The skin colonization. Clin Infect Dis., 46:1677-82.
potential for using honey to treat wounds infected
with MRSA and VRE. First World Healing Melissa AM, Olga IPZ, Randy WW. 2004.
Congress, Melbourne, Australia, September, 10-13. Growth inhibition of food borne pathogens and
food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys.
Al-Waili NS. 2004. Investigating the antimicrobial Inter. J. Fd Microbiol., 97:1-8.
activity of natural honey and its effects on the
pathogenic bacterial infections of surgical wounds Molan PC. 1992a. The antibacterial activity of
and conjunctiva. Journ. Med. Food 7(2):210-222. honey. 1. The nature of the antibacterial activity.

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Bee World 73:5-28.

Molan PC. 1992b. The Antibacterial Activity of
Honey.2. Variation in the potency of the
antibacterial activity. Bee World 73:59-76.

Mulu A, Tessema B, Derbie F. 2004. In vitro
assessment of the antimicrobial potential of honey
on common human pathogens. Ethiop. J. Health
Dev., 18(2):107-111.

Nzeako BC, Hamdi J. 2000. Antimicrobial
potential of honey on some microbial isolates, Med.
Sci., 2:75-79.

Obi CL, Ugoji EO, Edun SA, Lawal SF, Anyiwo
CE. 1994. The antibacterial effect of honey on
diarrhea causing bacterial agents isolated in Lagos,
Nigeria. Afr. J.Med. Sci., 23:257-260.

Taormina PJ, Niemira BA, Bauchat LR. 2001.
Inhibitory activity of honey against foodborne
pathogens as influenced by the presence of
hydrogen peroxide and level of antioxidant power.
Inter. J. Fd Microbiol., 69:217-225.

Wahdan HAL. 1998. Causes of the antimicrobial
activity of honey. Infection 26(1):26-31.

Willix DJ, Molan PC, Harfoot CG. 1992. A
comparison of the sensitivity of wound-infecting
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121 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 116-121
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An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Comparative Study of Fungal Diversity in the Agricultural soil and Non-
agricultural soil of Bhadravathi taluk, Shimoga district, Karnataka, India
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Naveenkumar KJ*,
Thippeswamy B1, Fungi play an important role in the maintenance and survival of tropical
Thirumalesh B.V1, forests. In the present study, both agricultural soil and non-agricultural soil samples
Pradeepa K 2and were studied for screening and detection of fungal diversity in these two samples.
Venkatesh2 Three different methods were subjected for the diversity analysis of fungi.
Among all the methods serial dilution method is better compared to the baiting
1 technique and war cup method. One gram of leaf litter soil sample was added into the
Dept. of P.G. Studies and
Research in Microbiology, 10 ml of sterile distilled water and mixed well. Then, PDA media was prepared and
Kuvempu University, poured into sterile petriplates and allowed to solidify. The serial dilutions were
Shankaraghatta-577 451, prepared and 0.1 ml of each dilution were transferred to sterile plates containing PDA
Shimoga (Dist.), Karnataka, media.
India. In non-agricultural soil, four samples were screened for fungal diversity. A
Dept. of P.G. Studies and total of 14 fungal genera were recorded in all the four samples. In agricultural soil,
Research in Biotechnology, four samples were screened for fungal diversity. A total of 12 fungal genera were
Kuvempu University, recorded in all the four samples. Umblebylu sample shows more fugal diversity than
Shankaraghatta-577 451, Kuvempu University Campus, Lakkavalli and Back water of Bhadra reservoir. In
Shimoga (Dist.), Karnataka, agricultural soil sample, maize field shows more fungal diversity than groundnut field,
India. paddy field and sugarcane field.
Dept. of P.G. Studies and
Research in Microbiology,
Kuvempu University,
Shankaraghatta-577 451,
Shimoga (Dist.), Karnataka, Agricultural soil, Non- agricultural soil (Leaf litter soil), Fungi.

Article Citation:
Corresponding author:
Naveenkumar KJ Naveenkumar KJ, Thippeswamy B, Thirumalesh BV and Pradeep K, Venkatesh.
Comparative study of Fungal Diversity in the Agricultural soil and Non-agricultural soil
in Bhadravathi taluk, Shimoga district, Karnataka, India.
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 129-134
Email: Dates:
Received: 19 May 2011 /Accepted: 26 May 2011 /Published: 17 Jun 2011

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Naveenkumar et al.,2011

INTRODUCTION soil (leaf litter soil) in Bhadravathi taluk, Shimoga
Fungi play an important role in the district; Karnataka. Fungi play a major role in
maintenance and survival of tropical forests. In fertility and promoting plant health. The present
some cases, microbes may influence ecosystem work was undertaken with the following objectives,
process indirectly by altering the diversity of other Screening and detection of fungal diversity in the
microorganisms. In ecosystem compartment agricultural and non- agricultural soil samples in
models, dead materials still attached to the living different regions and Comparison of the diversity of
plants are distinguished from litter as ‘standing fungi from leaf litter soil and agricultural soil
dead’ (Anu Kalia and R.P. Gupta, 2005). Litter (Jonasson et al., 2005).
decomposition is relevant to many aspects of
ecology. Traditionally, ecologists have taught the MATERIALS AND METHODS
concept of tropic levels and food chains from the Sample Collection
plant-herbivore-carnivore-parasite sequence but a Leaf litter soil sample was collected from
marked feature of the contemporary teaching is its different forest regions of Bhadravathi taluk,
increased awareness of the production of the Shimoga district, Karnataka. During the month of
primary resource that passes through the January and February2008-2010. Four forest leaf
decomposer channel. As far as practical aspects are litter soil samples were collected from the different
concerned, improvement in the farming practices regions of Bhadravathi taluk, Shimoga district,
and other operations have brought significant Karnataka (Table-1) and another four samples were
effects over the quality and quantity of the collected from agricultural soil (Table-2).
agricultural crop debris. (Gonzalez and Timothy, Screening and Detection of Fungi
2001). In traditional farming, virtually the whole of For screening and detection of Fungi, three
the plant production was returned to the soil. Loss methods were used. They are Serial dilution
of nitrogen by accelerated mineralization may be method, Baiting technique, and Direct soil plating
compensated by aircraft application of urea as is method / War cup soil plate method (Aneja, 2001).
practiced in some commercial forests. Thus, Isolation of fungi by serial dilution method
production systems that sustain soil organic matter One gram of leaf litter soil sample was
levels reduce the rate of organic matter oxidation by added into the 10 ml of sterile distilled water and
leaving crop residues on the soil surfaces, which mixed well. Then, PDA media was prepared and
help to maintain soil productivity (Ian and Colin,
2005). Crop residues, green manure crops and Table: 1 Non-agricultural soil sample collected during
weeds are added to the arable soils by farmers each the year 2008-2010
year in the season. These residues play an Sl. Non-agricultural
important role in maintaining soil fertility, affecting Places
No. soil
both the physical structure of the soil and its 1 Sample-1 Kuvempu University
nutrient status. In addition, the study of crop Campus
residue and decomposition has been promising to 2 Sample-2 Umblebylu
the biocontrol of plant pathogens found on the crop 3 Sample-3 Lakkavalli
debris and in the soil (Marie et al., 2000). The
decomposition of plant litter can be described with 4 Sample-4 Back water of Bhadra
a few equations, which indicate that organic matter reservoir
is ultimately broken down to CO2 and water. Table: 2 Agricultural soil sample collected during the
Different types of microorganisms are involved in year 2008-2010
the breakdown of farm crop litter. Majority of the
fungal species that play a large part in the plant Sl.
Agricultural soil Places
litter decomposition are saprophytic in nature. On No.
litter derived directly or indirectly from plants, Kuvempu University
fungi are able to grow whenever they posses the 1 Ground nut field
necessary enzyme systems and environmental 2 Maize field Umblebylu
conditions (Christian et al., 2005; Sari Hill et al.,
2006). 3 Paddy field Lakkavalli
The main objective of the present work is to Back water of Bhadra
4 Sugarcane field
investigate Fungal diversity of Non- agricultural reservoir
130 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 129-134
Naveenkumar et al.,2011

poured into sterile petriplates and allowed to staining with lanctophenol cotton blue and observe
solidify. The serial dilutions 10-2, 10-4 and 10-6 under compound microscope for the conidia,
were prepared, 0.1 ml of each dilution of 10-2, 10-4 conidiophores and arrangement of spores (Aneja,
and 10-6 to sterile plate containing PDA media. 2001; Barnett, 1975; Booth, 1971; Domsch and
Plates were incubated at 28°C for 5-7 days (Aneja, Games, 1980; Sigurd Fundar, 1961; Subramanian,
2001). 1983).
Isolation of Fungi by Baiting technique
100 gm of litter soil was taken and placed in RESULTS
a petriplate. Soil was added with distilled water. In non-agricultural soil (Leaf litter soil), four
The potato or carrot was cut into small pieces. samples were screened the fungal diversity were
Pieces of potato and carrot were surface sterilized detected. A total of 14 fungal genera were recorded
by 0.1% sodium hypochloride. Sterilized potato in all the four samples. In Umblebylu sample (S2)
pieces were placed on the petridish. Plates were important fungal genera like Mucor sp., Penicillium
incubated at 28ºC for 2 to 3 weeks (Aneja, 2001). sp., Cladosporium sp., Alatospora sp., Aspergillus
Isolation of Fungi by Direct soil plate method / flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp.,
War cup soil plate method Chaetomium sp. and Fusarium sp. were recorded.
Leaf litter soil was collected in sterilized In Kuvempu University Campus sample (S1)
polythene bag. 0.15 g of soil was added to two important fungal genera like Mucor sp., Rhzopus
sterile plates with the help of a sterilized cooled sp., Gliocladium sp., Verticillium sp., Aspergillus
loop or transfer needle. 15-20 ml of melted, cooled flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp.,
(45°C) sabouraud agar media was added, Chaetomium sp. and Thamatephorus sp. were
supplemented with streptopenicillin and rose recorded. In Lakkavalli sample (S3) important
Bengal, to each soil inoculated petriplate. Dispense fungal genera viz., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp.,
the soil particles through out the medium by gentle Cladosporium sp., Rhizopus sp., Trichosporiella
rotation of the petridishes and allowed the plates to sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger,
solidify. Plates were incubated at 25°C in an Trichoderma sp., Thamatephorus sp., Chaetomium
inverted position for 15 days. sp., Verticillium sp. and Helminthosporium sp. were
Fungal morphology was studied recorded. In Back water of Bhadra reservoir sample
macroscopically by observing colony features (S4) important fungal genera like Mucor sp.,
(colour and surfaces) and microscopically by Penicillium sp., Alatospora sp., Rhizopus sp.,
Table: 3 Fungal diversity in the non-agricultural soil samples (litter soil)
Sl. Serial dilution method War cup method Baiting technique method
No. S1 S2 S3 S4 S1 S2 S3 S4 S1 S2 S3 S4
1 Mucor sp. + + + + - - - - - - - -
2 Penicillium sp. + - + + - - - - - - - -
3 Cladosporium sp. + - + - - - - - - - - -
4 Alatospora sp. + - - + - - - - - - - -
5 Rhzopus sp. - + + + + + + + + + + +
6 Trichosporiella sp. - - + + - - - - - - - -
7 Gliocladium sp. - + - + - - - - - - - -
8 Verticillium sp. - + - + - - - - - - - -
9 Aspergillus flavus + + + + - - - - - - - -
10 Aspergillus niger + + + + + - + + - - - -
11 Trichoderma sp. + - + + - - - - - - - -
12 Thanatephorus sp. - - + - - - - - - - - -
13 Chaetomium sp. + - + - - - - - - - - -
14 Fusarium sp. + + - + - - - - - - - -
15 Coccidioites - - - - - - - - + + - -
16 Haplobasidium sp. - - - - + - - - - - - -
17 Helminthosporium - - - - + - + - - - - -

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 129-134 131
Naveenkumar et al.,2011

Trichosporiella sp., Gliocladium sp., Verticillium
sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger,
Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Rhizomucor sp. and
Alternaria sp. were recorded (Table-3).
In agricultural soil, four samples were
screened and detected the fungal diversity. A total
of 12 fungal genera were recorded in all the four
samples. In groundnut field sample (S1), important
fungal genera like Mucor sp., Helminthosporium Coccidioides immitis Cryptococcus sp.
sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger,
Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Trichoderma sp. and
Fusarium sp. were recorded. In maize field sample
(S2), important fungal genera viz., Mucor sp.,
Dermatophora sp., Rhizomucor sp., Cryptococcus
sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus niger, Verticillium
sp., Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. were recorded
(Shobha et al., 1999). In paddy field sample (S3),
important fungal genera like Mucor sp.,
Helminthosporium sp., Aspergillus flavus,
Aspergillus niger, Verticillium sp. and Trichoderma Fusarium sp. Penicillium sp.
sp. were recorded. In sugarcane field sample (S4), diversity was found in non-agricultural soil than
important fungal genera like Mucor sp., agricultural soil. Umblebylu sample shows more
Rhizomucor sp., Cryptococcus sp., Alternaria sp., fungal diversity than Kuvempu University Campus,
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Verticillium Lakkavalli and Back water of Bhadra reservoir. In
sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Trichoderma sp. agricultural soil sample, maize field shows more
and Fusarium sp. were recorded (Table-4). fungal diversity than groundnut field, paddy field
In the present study, both agricultural soil and sugarcane field (Shobha et al., 1999).
and non-agricultural soil (Leaf litter soil) samples
were studied for screening and detection of fungal DISCUSSION
diversity in these two samples. More fungal Fungi are the major decomposers present in

Table: 4 Fungal diversity in the Agricultural soil samples
Baiting technique
Sl. Serial dilution method War cup method
Organisms method
S1 S2 S3 S4 S1 S2 S3 S4 S1 S2 S3 S4
1 Mucor sp. + + + + + + + + - - - -

2 Dermatophora sp. - + - - - - - - - - - -
3 Rhizomucor sp. - + - + - - - - - - - -
4 Helminthosporium sp. + - + - - - - - - - - -
5 Cryptococcus sp. - + - + - - - - - - - -
6 Alternaria sp. - + - + - - - - + + - +
7 Aspergillus flavus + - + + - - - - - - - -
8 Aspergillus niger + + + + - - - - - - - -
9 Verticillium sp. - + + + - - - - - - - -
10 Rhizopus sp. + + - + + + + + + + + +
11 Penicillium sp. + - + + + - + - - - - -
12 Trichoderma sp. + - + + - + - - - - - -
13 Fusarium sp. + + - + - - - - - + + -

132 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 129-134
Naveenkumar et al.,2011

paddy field and sugarcane field. The maize field
shows more Fungal diversity because, the soil
fertility is very rich in maize field. In maize crops,
the deposition of waste is very rich than compared
to groundnut field, paddy field and sugarcane field.
In this study, impact of maize litter amendment on
the functional diversity of fungal communities of
agricultural soils from a Bhadravathi taluk was
Gliocladium sp. Trichosporiella sp. studied. The soils amended with maize litter, either
placed on soil surface or mixed into the soil
(Shobha et al., 1999).

Fungal conservation has become essential as
some of them have become extinct and many are
facing threats. Fungal conservation involves the
conservation of site, ecological niches and habitat.
Trichoderma sp. Alternaria sp.
Fungi play significant role in the daily life of
human beings besides their utilization in industry,
the Leaf litter soil and Agricultural soil. They agriculture, medicine, food industry, natural cycling
secrete the extracellular enzymes, which break and many other ways. Fungal biotechnology has
down potential food sources. Soil microorganisms become an integral part of the human welfare. In
such as bacteria and fungi, play major role in soil this study, non-agricultural soil has more fungal
fertility and promoting health (Gonzalez and diversity than agricultural soil. Biodiversity of fungi
Timothy, 2001; Lizhang, 2006). They have is an important aspect to be deal with most
examined and compared the various methods used scientific accuracy and accountability. One third of
to study the fungal diversity in soil. Three different fungal diversity of the globe exists in India. Out of
methods subjected for fungi. Among all the 1.5 million of fungi only 5% are identified and
methods serial dilution method is better compared remaining 95% need to be identified.
to the baiting technique and war cup method
(Jennifer et al., 2004). In the present study, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
comparison of diversity of fungi from leaf litter soil The authors wish to acknowledge the
and agricultural soil were carried out. More Fungal constant encouragement, supports and facilities
diversity was found in non-agricultural soil (Leaf provided by Department of Microbiology,
litter Soil) than agricultural soil. Umblebylu sample Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga,
shows more fungal diversity than Kuvempu India for successful completion of this work.
University Campus, Lakkavalli and Back water of
Bhadra reservoir. Umblebyle region shows more REFERENCES
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formation. In other regions like, Kuvempu 1-40.
University Campus, Lakkavalli and Back water of
Bhadra reservoir is a thin forest and very little Aneja KR. 2001. Experiments in Microbiology,
amount of litter decomposition. An increase in Plant Pathology and Biotechnology. New age
organic matter of the soil through addition of leaf international publishers Vol.4:157-162.
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soil fertility, the rate of decomposition of organic Barnett HL. 1975. Illustrated genera of imperfect
matter influences the rate of nutrients (Das et al., fungi Vol. II:1-225.
In agricultural soil sample, maize field Booth C. 1971. Illustrated the genus Fusarium.
shows more fungal diversity than groundnut field, Common Wealth Mycological Institute 1-237.

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1129-1137. 532.
Lizhang. 2006. Bacterial diversity of Australian
Das DK, Chaturvedi OP, Mandal MP and exotic pine forest soil and leaf litter. Thesis, Griffith
Kumar R. 2007. Reclamation of degraded soil University, Australia 156-185.
through tree plantation-litter and fertility changes.
Journal of Indian forester Vol. 133:647-654. Marie-Madeleine Couteaux, Pierre Bottner and
Bjorn Berg. 2000. Litter decomposition, climate
Doomsch KH and Games W. 1980. Compendium and litter quality. JSTOR 4(2):25-32.
of soil fungi. Academic Press 1:1-858.
Sari Hill, Sari Stark, Maija Salemaa and John
Gonzalez Grizelle and Timothy R. Seastrdt. Derome. 2006. Plant litter and its relevance in soil
2001. Soil fauna and plant litter decomposition in cycling. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa
tropical and subalpine forests. Journal of Ecology Research Unit, Vantaa. 1-5.
Shobha Sharma, Andrea Rangger, Margit von
Ian C, Anderson and Colin P, Campbell. 2005. Lutzow and Heribert Insam. 1999. Functional
Diversity of fungi in organic soils under a diversity of soil bacterial communities increases
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and Environmental microbiology Vol72 (11):1129- Ecology 3(1):13-17
Sigurd Funder. 1961. Practical mycology manual
Jennifer L. Kirk, Lee A. Beaudette, Miranda for identification of fungi. A.W. Broggers
Hart, Petter Moutoglis, John M. Klironomos, Boktrykkari A/S, Norway 1-120.
Hung Lee and Jack T. Trevor’s. 2004. Methods
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134 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 129-134
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Fuel wood burning and its effect on the environment with
Reference to tribal villages of Bolangir, Orissa, India
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Sarada Prasad Mohapatra

Studies on air pollution due to burning of fuel wood for cooking purpose is
alarming day by day in the tribal villages of Bolangir Dist. of Orissa. About 85
Lecturer in Botany, S.C.S household are selected for the study, which burn about 254 tonnes of fuel wood
College, Puri annually. A negative correlation exists between annual income and fire wood
consumption of household. Due to heavy use of firewood the health status of women
and children are degrading day by day and they are more vulnerable to serious
diseases like asthma, skin cancer and other respiratory diseases.

Corresponding author:
Sarada Prasad Mohapatra

Email: Keywords: Air pollution, TSP (Total suspended particle), per capita fuel consumption.

Article Citation:
Web Address: Sarada Prasad Mohapatra
Documents/RA0034.pdf. Fuel wood burning and its effect on the environment with Reference to tribal villages
of Bolangir, Orissa, India.
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 135-139

Received: 21 May 2011 /Accepted: 26 May 2011 /Published: 23 June 2011

© Ficus Publishers.
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INTRODUCTION asked, invariably the heads of the family sought
Indian tribal villages mainly depends on non their wives help to answer such questions. In some
commercial fuel such as fire wood, branches, crop instance, the wives or female in the household
residues etc for their cooking purpose due to the intervened and replied to other questions as well.
availability of fire wood in the near by forests. Due Randomly some household were requested to keep
to the heavy use of firewood for cooking the air aside the quantity of fuel wood required daily for
become polluted in the tribal areas causing a lot of cooking which was then weighed and the values
health hazards to the respondents. In the tribal noted on the schedule. The selective random
dominated villages of Bolangir, the problems of air weighing helped to verify and correct the fuel wood
pollution associated with burning of fuel wood for consumption figure. Care was taken to include
cooking have not been systematically studied. household from different caste groups, income
Consequently an attempt is made to examine the groups and farm sized holding. From the
fire wood consumption and air pollution in rural information collected particulars of the amount of
areas with reference to tribal areas. firewood and crop residue consumed for cooking
OBJECTIVE were grouped under village wise and income wise
The objectives of the present study are categories.
1. To measure the amounts of fuel wood, crop The direct burning (i.e direct combustion) of
residues and cattle dung used for cooking. fuel wood and crop residue for cooking emits
2. To estimate the amount of pollutants emitted pollutants (Moorthy, 1990). Based on emission
from the burning of these fuels. factors as reported by Joshi et al, the total amount
STUDY AREA of pollutants emitted by each village in the
Three tribal panchayats such as Chikalbahal, panchayats was calculated.
Kudasingha, Bhutiyarbahal were selected for study
consisting eleven villages. It comes under Bolangir RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
district of Orissa, out of the three panchayats, large Type and amount of fuels used for cooking:
forest area is seen in Chikalbahal and the total All the 85 households use firewood for
forest area is about 45 ha. cooking. Only two households buy firewood while
The total population of the panchayats are the rest collect firewood from the surrounding
approximately 2000, more than 65% of the total forest free of cost. Only one household uses crop
population belongs to tribal community. Out of 6 residue (0.12 ty-1) along with firewood for cooking,
million tribal, about 62 notified tribes are seen in hence it has not been included in Table 1 to 3.
Orissa (Mohapatra, 1993). Tribal like sangara, The household consumes 254tonne of
kondha, gond etc. dominates the villages of tribal firewood (Table-1) and 0.12tonne of crop residue
panchayats. Agriculture is the main stay of the per year. It was observed that the practice of
panchayat. Some of the important crops cultivated burning dung cake for cooking is absent in the
are paddy, sorghum and ragi. The sole industrial villages of the panchayats. Per capita consumption
unit located in the panchayat is a rice mill. For of fuel used for cooking is 590 kg annually. The
transportation villagers rely on bicycle and state high level of per capita consumption of firewood
owned buses. Private automobile are absent. As a can be attributed to altitude, prevailing climate,
result noise and air pollution from automobile is availability of fuel wood free of cost and prevailing
non-existent. water condition. When the respondents were asked
to give reason for the high level of fire wood
METHODOLOGY consumption they replied that enough fuel wood
To measure the level of energy was available in their area and also due to hardness
consumption, a survey was conducted at household of water more time was required to cook food.
level in the eleven villages during October and Fuel wood consumption and air pollution-
November 2009, the households were selected at village wise results
random and roughly 10% of the household from Among the eleven villages Rajamunda has
each village was included in the survey. In all 85 the highest level of emission because it consumes
households were selected. The household and the maximum fuel wood (Table-1). 10 household in
energy consumption detail were gathered from the Rajamunda burn 33tonne of fuel wood, there by
heads of the household. When the particulars emitting Carbon Monoxide in the range of 427-
pertaining to cooking energy consumption was 2234 ty-1and TSP (Total suspended particle) of 36-
136 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 135-139

Table 1. Village- wise fuel wood consumption in the panchayat

Sl. Name of the Number Members Annual Annual
No. Village of sampled in the fuel wood per capita
Households Households consumption fuel consumption
(Kg) (Kg)

01. Chikalbahal 12 49 31025 633
02. Phatkera 3 15 12775 852
03. Bandha Keda 5 32 19717 616
04. Kuda Singha 10 51 30660 601
05. Nuapada 9 55 30295 551
06. Dhanaradadar 5 24 13140 548
07. Siris 5 24 12410 517
08. Kuthurla 10 44 27080 616
09 Nuniadhipa 4 18 12045 669
10. Raja munda 10 50 32850 657
11. Bhutiyarbahal 12 69 32485 471

Total 85 431 254482 591

125 kgy-1 (Table-2). For Bhutiyarbahal village the the panchayat.As far as emission of pollutant is
estimate of CO and TSP range from 422-2209 kgy-1 concerned Nuniadhipa village has the lowest level
and 36-123 kgy-1 respectively. It is interesting to of emission because the fuel wood consumption is
observe that Bhutiyarbahal does not rank first in the least in this village. The average emissions of
fuel wood consumption or in the emission of CO and TSP for the panchayat are 3308-17305 kgy-
pollutants even though the village has the highest and 280-968 kgy-1 respectively.
number of members i.e. 69 in the sampled houses. It is an established fact that pollutants
Its per capita fuel wood consumption is also emitted by firewood burning can cause eye
low (471 kg y-1) when compared to other villages of ailments, respiratory diseases and cancer (Parikh,
Table 2. Village- wise emission of major pollutants in the panchayat

Sl. Name of the Village Range of amount of pollutants emitted
No. by fuel wood burning (Kg)

Carbon Total suspended
Monoxide particles

01. Chikalbahal 403 - 2110 34 - 118
02. Phatkera 166 - 869 14 - 49
03. Bandha Keda 256 - 1341 22 - 75
04. Kuda Singha 399 - 2060 34 - 117
05. Nuapada 394 - 2060 33 - 116
06. Dhanaradadar 171 - 893 14 - 50
07. Siris 161 - 844 14 - 49
08. Kuthurla 352 - 1841 30 - 103
09. Nuniadhipa 157 - 819 13 - 46
10. Raja munda 427 - 2234 36 - 125
11. Bhutiyarbahal 422 - 2209 36 - 123

Total 3308 - 17305 280 - 968

Note: Estimates of pollutants based on emission factors reported by Joshi et al., 1989.

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 135-139 137

Table 3. Income group-wise fuel wood consumption and emission of major pollutants in the panchayat

Total monthly Number of Annual fuel wood Range of amount of pollutants
income households Consumption (Kg) emitted by fuel wood burning (Kg)
(Rs) sampled
Carbon Total suspended
Monoxide particless

Upto 300 15 34310 446 - 2110 34 - 130
301 600 25 72453 942 - 4927 80 - 275
601 1200 29 89308 1161 - 6073 98 - 339
1200 1201 14 51472 669 - 3500 57 - 196
above 2400 2 6940 90 - 472 8 - 26
Total 85 254482 3308 - 17305 281 - 966
Note: Estimates of pollutants based on emission factors reported by Joshi et al., 1989.

1976). Housewives and children are especially CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
vulnerable because during the period of cooking In the panchayat (predominantly a tribal
they are mostly confined to the houses. The WHO area) almost 99% of the house hold use fire wood
has cautioned the developing countries including for cooking which is procured free of cost from the
India, Bangladesh, Burma, Fiji, Nepal and Thailand forest. The practice of burning dung cake for
against fuel wood consumption and health hazards. cooking is non-existent. The sampled 85-house
Fuel wood consumption and air pollution- holds (sample size 10%) emits 3308-17305 kgy-1 of
Income group wise CO and 280-968 kgy-1 of TSP from burning of
An exercise was undertaken to ascertain 254tonne of fuel wood.
which income group consumes the largest amount The following suggestions can be considered
of fuel wood and there fore emits higher amounts of to minimize the air pollution and health hazards
pollutants. The households were grouped according owing to fuel wood combustion.
to the income level. Care was taken to include 1. To avert the health hazards related to fuel wood
income from all sources and income of all earning consumption, the poorer section of the tribal
members in each family. Only a few respondents in area can be given improved stoves with
this tribal belt get their income in kind. Such chimneys (i.e. smoke less earthen stoves) free
income was converted to monetary terms. After of cost through Integrated Rural Energy
making five arbitrary income groups, the fire wood Planning Scheme. The other groups can be
consumption and the emission of the pollutant in provided with subsidized improved stoves.
each income group were calculated (Table-3) 2. The villagers should be educated on the role of
Result of the survey indicates that 29-house proper ventilation in controlling smoke and
holds with a monthly income between Rs 601-1200 health hazards.
burn 89 ty-1 of CO and 98-339 kgy-1 of TSP. The 3. To reduce fuel wood consumption and its
two households under the category of income more related air pollution problems, the low and
than Rs 2400 per month emit lesser amount of CO middle income group can be desisted from
(90-472 kg y-1) and TSP (8-26 kgy-1) by burning using earthen pots instead they can be given
7tonne of fuel wood per annum. A correlation energy saving utensils (made of Aluminium),
analysis of the relationship between income level pressure cooker and energy efficient stoves.
and fire wood consumption shows that the income The higher income group can be encouraged to
and the fire wood consumption are negatively switch over to biogas and provided with loans
correlated(r = - 0.11). Since fuel wood consumption and subsidy to buy cattle and install biogas
is directly related to emission of pollutant it can be plants.
concluded that income and emission of pollutant are
negatively correlated.
138 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 135-139

We are thankful to the tribal of the villages,
revenue officer, panchayat secretary of the study
area for their valuable information about the use of
fuel wood and the source of fuel wood, Sincere
thanks to staff of Rajendra College, Bolangir for
their active co-operation.

Joshi V, Venkatraman C, Ahuuja DR. 1989.
Emission from burning bio-fuels in metal cook-
stoves, Environment Management 13(6):763-772.

Mohapatra S 1993. The tangled web tribal life and
culture, Orissa sahitya Academy publ. BBSR 1-148.

Moorthy RC 1990. Indian Energy Scenario, Yojna,

Parikh J. 1976. Environmental Problems in India
and their future trends, New Delhi, Department of
Science and Technology, Government of India.

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 135-139 139
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Screening and isolation of potent biosurfactant producing Bacillus subtilis
CS14 from contaminated soil samples of Kanchipuram, India
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Gopalakrishnan Suresh1,
Nagaiya Ravichandran1,
A good biosurfactant must reduce the surface tension of the water from 72
Ganesan Vijaiyansiva1*
to 35 milli-Neuton/meter (mN/m) and should show a surface activity of at least 37
Institution: mN/m. An extensive screening with 13 contaminated soils and one oil refinery sludge
Unit of Environmental was carried out to isolate a potential strain.. Totally 3662 colonies were obtained from
Biotechnology, Department all 14 contaminated soil samples over a period of three months from which 212
of Biotechnology, University morphologically different colonies were tested for biosurfactant production and 22
of Madras, Maraimalai positive strains were identified. All the isolates were tested quantitatively and the
Campus, Chennai, isolate CS14 showed maximum surface activity of 51.38 mN/m. Taxonomic
India – 600 025. identification of the biosurfactant producing strain CS14 was performed using 16s
Department of rDNA studies and was identified as Bacillus subtilis.
Biotechnology, Sri Sankara
Arts and Science College,
Enathur, Kanchipuram,
India – 631 561.

Corresponding author: Keywords:
Ganesan Vijaiyansiva Biosurfactant, contaminated soil, Bacillus subtilis CS14, 16s rDNA studies.

Email: Article Citation: Balasubramanian Ramesh, Gopalakrishnan Suresh, Nagaiya Ravichandran, Ganesan
Screening and isolation of potent biosurfactant producing Bacillus subtilis CS14 from
Phone No:
contaminated soil samples of Kanchipuram, India.
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 140-147

Web Address: Received: 16 Jun 2011 /Accepted: 21 Jun 2011 /Published: 23 Jun 2011
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INTRODUCTION capable of reducing the surface tension of water
Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds from roughly 76 milli-Newton/meter (mN/m) to 25-
produced on living surfaces, mostly on microbial 30 mN/m. This biosurfactant activity makes them
cell surfaces, or excreted extracellularly and contain excellent candidates for assisting in the breakdown
hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties that confer and removal of oil spills. Biosurfactants also
the ability to accumulate between fluid phases, demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activities,
which are reducing surface and interfacial tension at suggesting possible roles in the medical and
the surface and interface respectively. They are agricultural fields (Gunther et al., 2005).
structurally diverse group of surface active The present study is in continuation of our
molecules synthesized by microorganisms previous finding that Indian soils are rich in
(Muthusamy et al., 2008). biosurfactant producing bacteria and their
The Biosurfactants are a diverse group of population is higher in contaminated soils than in
biomolecules, which share the same properties as undisturbed soils (Ramesh et al., 2010).
synthetic surfactant, and in some cases, they are
superior in creating water-in-oil or oil in water MATERIALS AND METHODS
emulsions (Ashtaputre and shah, 1995; Jacobucci et Collection of soil samples:
al., 2009). Microbial derived surfactants have The soil samples were collected from
special advantages over their chemically different places in and around Kanchipuram (12°
manufactured counterparts because of their lower 50'23"N 79°42'0"E) using the procedure described
toxicity, biodegradable nature and effectiveness at by Bodour et al., in 2003 as shown in Table 1.
extreme temperature and pH values (Jacobucci et Totally 13 soil samples were collected from metal,
al., 2009). When properly stimulated, oil and petro-products contaminated sites. One oil
Biosurfactants producing microorganisms can aid in refinery sludge sample was also collected from
the bioremediation of oil contaminated soil and Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited refinery
hydrocarbon contaminant in the environment (CPCL), Manali, Chennai. These samples were
(Carrillo et al., 1996; Jacobucci et al., 2009). designated as SS1-SS14 and screened for potent
A variety of microorganisms, including biosurfactant producing isolates.
bacteria, fungi, and yeasts, have been reported to Enumeration of soil microbial counts:
produce biosurfactants. Several of these The total number of culturable, aerobic,
biosurfactants are well described chemically ad bacteria per gram of sample was determined by
categorized into high- and low-molecular-mass using nutrient agar plates (Huang et al., 2008). The
compounds. The low-molecular- mass bacterial populations were enumerated as colony-
biosurfactants include glycolipids and lipopeptides, forming units (CFU) from a serial dilution of the
such as rhamnolipids and surfactin. The high- soil suspensions. The colonies were counted after
molecular mass compounds include proteins and incubation for 3 days at 30°C.
lipoproteins, or complex mixtures of these polymers Screening for biosurfactant producing isolates:
(De-souza et al., 2003). Soils were screened for biosurfactants
In recent years, there has been a growing producing isolates by using the following procedure
interest in the isolation and identification of new (Bodour et al., 2003). A 5 g sample of each soil was
microbial surfactant the might have application in placed into a 250 ml flask containing 50 ml of
enhanced oil recovery processes. Biosurfactants are sterile tap water and incubated at 23°C on a shaker
of interest because of their broad range of potential at 200 rpm for 21 days. On days 3, 7, 14, and 21, a
industrial applications, including emulsification, sample of each soil slurry was serially diluted,
phase separation, wetting, foaming, emulsion plated on R2A agar (Himedia), and incubated for 1
stabilization and viscosity reduction of heavy crude week. After incubation, plates were enumerated,
oils (Ochsner et al., 1994). Potential application and morphologically different bacteria were
envisaged in several industries such as agriculture, selected for qualitative biosurfactant screening.
food, textiles, cosmetics, petrochemical and Isolated colonies were inoculated into 5 ml mineral
petroleum production (Reiling et al., 1986). salts medium (MSM) containing 2% glucose as the
Biosurfactants are used in the remediation of sole carbon and energy source. The MSM was a
organic and metal contaminated sites, enhanced oil mixture of solution A and solution B. Solution A
recovery and as cosmetic additives (Bodour et al., contained (per liter) 2.5 g of NaNO3, 0.4 g of
2003). They are powerful natural emulsifiers MgSO4· 7H2O, 1.0 g of NaCl, 1.0 g of KCl, 0.05 g
141 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 140-147
Vijaiyansiva et al.,2011

of CaCl2 · 2H2O, and 10 ml of concentrated burette and the supernatant was released slowly
phosphoric acid (85%). This solution was adjusted drop by drop. 50 drops were poured in to the beaker
to pH 7.2 with KOH pellets. Solution B contained and it was weighed to determine the weight of 50
(per liter) 0.5 g of FeSO4 · 7H2O, 1.5 g of drops.
ZnSO4·7H2O, 1.5 g of MnSO4 · H2O, 0.3 g of The mass of one drop was calculated by using the
K3BO3, 0.15 g of CuSO4 · 5H2O, and 0.1 g of formula
Na2MoO4 · 2H2O. One milliliter of solution B was
added to 1,000 ml of solution A to form the MSM. Mass of one drop (M) = Beaker + Sample weight – Beaker Weight
Number of drops
The broth cultures were incubated with shaking
(200 rpm) for 7 to 9 days at 23°C. The cell free Then the surface tension of the supernatant
supernatants were then tested for the presence of was calculated by using the formula
surfactant by using the qualitative drop collapse Surface tension (T) =Mg x 10-3 x nm-1
method. πr
Qualitative drop collapse tests were Where
performed in the polystyrene lid of a 96 microwell M = Mass of one drop
12.7 by 8.5 cm plate. The lids have 96 circular g = Gravity
wells (internal diameter, 8 mm). A thin coat of 20W r = Radius of glass tube
-40 oil was applied to each well. The coated wells Surface activity of each isolate was calculated by
were equilibrated for 24 hours at 23ºC and then 5µl the following formula:
of each supernatant was delivered into the center of Surface activity = Surface tension of uninoculated
each well. If the drop remained beaded after 2 medium – surface tension of
minutes, the result was scored as negative. If the supernatant.
drop spread and collapsed the result was scored as Genus level identification of all the biosurfactant
positive for the presence of biosurfactant. All the producing isolates:
positive isolates in drop collapse test were further The biosurfactant producing isolates
subjected to secondary qualitative screening for determined by quantitative studies were identified
biosurfactant production by beta-haemolytic up to genus level by studying phenotypic characters
activity. like gram staining, motility and biochemical
Qualitative screening for biosurfactant characteristics like oxidase, catalase, IMVIC,
producing isolates by beta-haemolytic activity on urease, nitrate reduction and sugar fermentation
blood agar plates: tests. The methods described by Cappuccino (1999)
Since the beta-hemolytic activity is was followed for all the procedures. All these
indicative of surface activity, qualitative screening results were compared with Bergey's Manual of
for biosurfactant producing isolates was carried out Determinative Bacteriology to determine the genus
using the Blood agar plates. The strains subjected to (Holt et al., 1994).
drop collapse test were subsequently inoculated on Taxonomic identification of the potent
blood agar plates and were incubated at 37oC. After biosurfactant producing strain CS14 using 16s r
24 hours the presence of hemolytic zone was DNA studies:
observed (Youssef et al., 2004; Rodriguez et al., Taxonomic identification of the best
2006). biosurfactant producing strain CS14 was performed
Quantitative measurement of surface activity: using 16s rDNA studies (Heuer et al., 1997; Mishra
All the isolates that tested positive in the and Doble, 2008). Universal eubacterial 16s rDNA
drop collapse test were then tested quantitatively for PCR primers, 27f- forward primer and 1492r
biosurfactant production with the drop weight reverse primer were synthesized (Xu et al., 2003;
method described by Sabesan et al., in 2002. The Bento et al., 2005). The bacterial pellet obtained
isolates were grown in 5ml of mineral salt medium after centrifugation of the overnight culture grown
amended with 2% glucose. Cell suspensions were in Luria Bertani Broth medium were boiled at 98oC
centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 minutes and the cell for 10 minutes in the boiling water bath and kept on
free supernatant was poured into a burette. The ice immediately, which was then used as DNA
bottom of the burette consists of a rubber tube template 2 μl of forward and reverse primers were
attached with glass tube of 3 mm diameter. An added along with 25 μl of 2x PCR Master Mix
empty pre-weighed beaker was placed under the (Bangalore Genie, India) and made up to 50 μl with

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 140-147 142
Vijaiyansiva et al.,2011

PCR grade water. A Program of 94o C for 1 minute RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
for denaturing, 42o C for 50 seconds for annealing Collection of contaminated soil samples:
and 72o C for 1 minute for extension were used The soil samples were collected from
Eppendorf PCR Mastercycler up to 25 cycles. The different places in and around Kanchipuram using
confirmations of the amplicons were done by the procedure described by Bodour et al., in 2003.
running the samples in 1% agarose gel along with The results are shown in Table 1.
DNA ladder marker. The sample was sequenced at Enumeration of soil microbial counts:
Ocimum Biosolutions Ltd., Hyderabad, Andhra The average Standard Plate Count
Pradesh, India and was submitted to GenBank of was 2.81 x 108 CFU/g of contaminated soil samples
National Centre for Biotechnology Information and (Table 2).
accession numbers was obtained. Qualitative screening for biosurfactant
Analysis of the sequenced bases with the help of producing isolates by drop collapse test:
NCBI-BLAST: Totally 3662 colonies were obtained from 3,
The partial 16s rRNA gene sequence in 7, 14 and 21 days retrieval of all 14 contaminated
FASTA format was used for similarity search soil samples over a period of 3 months from which
against non-redundant (nr) database by Basic Local 212 morphologically different colonies were tested
Alignment Search Tool (blastn) at National Centre for biosurfactant production employing 96 well
for Biotechnology Information server (Altschul et microplate lid and 22 positive strains were
al., 1997). identified. All the 22 positive strains were further
Phylogenetic tree construction: assessed for beta-haemolytic activity on blood agar
Phylogenetic tree was constructed using 16s plates as secondary confirmation and secretary
rRNA gene sequence obtained, 8 highly nature of biosurfacants (Table 2).
homologous sequences identified by blastn result Qualitative screening for biosurfactant
and one unrelated sequence was also selected as out producing isolates by beta-haemolytic activity on
group. Totally, 10 16s rRNA sequence including blood agar plates:
outgroup were selected for phylogenetic tree Since the beta-hemolytic activity is
construction. Similarity matrix was prepared using indicative of surface activity, qualitative screening
Dnadist program in PHYLIP analysis package for biosurfactant producing isolates was carried out
(Jiang et al., 2009) using jukes cantor corrections. using the Blood agar plates. The 22 positive strains
Phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor- from drop collapse test were subsequently
joining method using the Molecular Evolutionary inoculated on blood agar plates and were incubated
Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software package at 37oC. Totally, 15 positive strains showed good
version 5 (Tamura et al., 2011). beta-haemolytic activity on blood agar plates. The
surface active isolates obtained in this study were
designated as Isolate CS1 – CS15.

Table 1: Collection of contaminated soil samples
S. Soil Sample
Location Contamination Geographical coordinates
No name
01 SS-1 Petrol bunk Petrol and Diesel 12° 50’ 47.00”N; 79° 41’ 44.62”E
02 SS-2 Welding shop Metal and waste oil 12° 50’ 11.07”N; 79° 42’ 21.66”E
03 SS-3 Ration shop Kerosene 12° 49’ 05.48”N; 79° 41’ 32.63”E
04 SS-4 Mechanic shop Motor oil 12° 50’ 11.24”N; 79° 42’ 22.46”E
05 SS-5 Motor cycle Shed Motor oil 12° 50’ 09.50”N; 79° 42’ 22.11”E
06 SS-6 Welding shop Metal and waste oil 12° 49’ 05.68”N; 79° 41’ 36.72”E
07 SS-7 Old bus shed Motor oil, 12° 51’ 25.34”N; 79° 31’ 47.80”E
08 SS-8 Petrol bunk Petrol and Diesel 12° 49’ 58.54”N; 79° 42’ 13.38”E
09 SS-9 Mechanic shop Motor oil 12° 49’ 17.19”N; 79° 41’ 53.78”E
10 SS-10 Generator engine room Motor oil, Diesel 12° 51’ 31.48”N; 79° 43’ 52.71”E
11 SS-11 Bus shed Motor oil, Diesel 12° 50’ 04.57”N; 79° 42’ 18.01”E
12 SS-12 Mechanic shop Motor oil 12° 50’ 20.40”N; 79° 42’ 32.70”E
13 SS-13 Petrol bunk Petrol and Diesel 12° 49’ 03.34”N; 79° 41’ 34.45”E
14 SS-14 CPCL, Chennai Crude oil 13° 09’ 47.45”N; 80° 16’ 46.37”E
143 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 140-147
Vijaiyansiva et al.,2011

Table 2: Enumeration of soil microbial count and Qualitative screening for biosurfactant producing isolates
No. of colonies in R2A agar No. of Positives in
SPC x 108 Days of Total No. of Colonies Qualitative
Sample No. Location
CFU/ml incubation in colonies selected for Screening
water screening
3 154 7 0
7 21 5 1
SS-1 Petrol bunk 0.033
14 23 5 1
21 9 3 0
3 92 5 0
7 18 4 0
SS-2 Welding shop 0.047
14 16 5 0
21 11 2 0
3 32 4 0
7 7 2 0
SS-3 Ration shop 0.050
14 17 3 0
21 9 3 1
3 134 5 2
7 56 3 0
SS-4 Mechanic shop 6.43
14 24 3 0
21 14 2 0
3 198 6 0
7 112 7 0
SS-5 Motor cycle Shed 7.13
14 73 3 0
21 34 2 0
3 114 4 0
7 13 2 0
SS-6 Welding shop 0.045
14 8 2 0
21 14 3 1
3 157 6 2
7 76 4 1
SS-7 Old bus shed 3.14
14 39 3 0
21 18 3 0
3 158 4 0
7 89 6 2
SS-8 Petrol bunk 3.06
14 56 4 0
21 28 2 0
3 134 5 0
7 80 3 0
SS-9 Mechanic shop 0.80
14 65 2 0
21 27 3 0
3 112 3 0
Generator engine 7 71 3 0
SS-10 1.10
room 14 48 2 0
21 14 3 0
3 158 6 0
Bus 7 83 5 0
SS-11 4.3
shed 14 34 3 1
21 13 3 0
3 149 7 0
Mechanic 7 93 4 0
SS-12 0.93
shop 14 48 5 1
21 19 4 1
3 198 5 0
7 87 3 0
SS-13 Petrolbunk 7.93
14 46 3 0
21 17 2 0
3 156 6 1
7 86 4 0
SS-14 Sludge sample 4.34
14 74 3 0
21 20 3 0
Total number of colonies 3662 212 15

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 140-147 144
Vijaiyansiva et al.,2011

Quantitative measurement of surface activity of Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp.,
biosurfactant producing isolates using drop Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp., Bacillus sp.
weight method: and Aeromonas sp., respectively.
All the isolates that tested positive in both Mukherjee et al., in 2006, observed that
drop collapse test as well as by beta-haemolytic most of the biosurfactant research related to
activity assay were then tested quantitatively for production trials has been mainly confined to
biosurfactant production with the drop weight microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus
method. The results are shown in Table3. The sp. and Candida sp. It may be due to the fact that
Isolate CS14 showed maximum surface activity of these species produce biosurfactants in high
51.38 x 10-3 nm-1. It was able to reduce the surface amounts and get selected in quantitative screening
tension of mineral salt media from 88.8 x 10-3 nm-1 procedures. In the present study also Bacillus sp.
to 37.42 x 10-3 nm-1. As observed by Mulligan, in CS14 was selected based on the high surface
2004 and Gnanamani et al., in 2010, a good activity of 51.38 10-3 nm-1, during the quantitative
biosurfactant must reduce the surface tension of the screening.
water from 72 to 35 mN/m and should show a Taxonomic identification of the potent
surface activity of at least 37 mN/m. Isolate CS14 biosurfactant producing strain CS14 using 16s r
showed a surface activity of 51.38 mN/m and can DNA studies:
be categorized as very good biosurfactant producer. Approximately 1.5 kb DNA fragment was
Genus level identification and characterization amplified (Figure 1) and was sequenced. The
of all the biosurfactant producing isolates: sequence was submitted to GenBank of National
All the biosurfactant producing isolates CS1 Centre for Biotechnology Information and
– CS15 were identified up to genus level by accession number HQ902895 was obtained.
studying phenotypic characters like gram staining, Phylogenetic tree construction:
motility and biochemical characteristics like For the 16s rRNA gene sequence, 8 highly
oxidase, catalase, IMVIC, urease, nitrate reduction homologous sequences were identified by blastn
and sugar fermentation tests. These results results and were downloaded and one unrelated
suggested that the Isolates CS1-CS15 belong to the sequence was also selected as out group and
genus of Providencia sp., Pseudomonas sp., phylogenetic tree was constructed (Figure 2). The
Providencia sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., phylogenetic tree revealed that the best
Bacillus sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., biosurfactant producer Isolate CS14 is Bacillus
Table 3: Quantitative measurement of surface activity
of biosurfactant producing isolates using drop weight Figure 1: PCR amplification of 16s rRNA gene
method and selection best of biosurfactant producer.
S.No Isolate Surface Surface
tension x activity x
10-3 nm-1 10-3 nm-1
1 Uninoculat 88.8 0 (Control)
ed MSM
2 CS1 49.11 39.69
3 CS2 58.4 30.40
4 CS3 66.29 11.04
5 CS4 50.20 38.60
6 CS5 79.52 09.28
7 CS6 86.53 02.27
8 CS7 55.24 19.67
9 CS8 86.5 02.30
10 CS9 79.52 09.28
11 CS10 86.5 02.30
12 CS11 67.8 21.00
13 CS12 45.97 15.76
14 CS13 56.98 22.24
15 CS14 37.42 51.38 Lane 3: 1kb DNA Ladder marker, Lane 5,6: PCR
16 CS15 42.32 46.48 amplified product ~1.5 kb
145 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 140-147
Vijaiyansiva et al.,2011

Bacillus subtilis strain SAZ2-7 (HQ236026)

Bacillus sp. RT107 (AB374308)

Bacillus subtilis strain MO2 (AY553095)

Bacillus subtilis strain KJB06-35 (HQ687501)

CS14 (HQ902895)

Bacillus subtilis strain B-762 (HQ605916)

Bacillus sp. ITP04 (FR667167)

Bacillus sp. P209 (AB425358)

Escherichia coli strain IBBCt1 (JF714992)

0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00

Figure2: Phylogenetic relationships of biosurfactant producing bacterial isolate CS14 derived from 16S
rRNA gene sequence homology
CONCLUSION Bento Fatima Menezes, Flavio A. de Oliveira
The present study is the first preliminary Camargo, Benedict C. Okeke and William T.
assessment on the presence of biosurfactant Frankenberger Jr. 2005. Diversity of
producing bacterial population in Kanchipuram biosurfactant producing microorganisms isolated
contaminated soils. A potent biosurfactant- from soils contaminated with diesel oil. J.
producing bacterial isolates Bacillus subtilis CS14 Microbiol. Res., 160:249-255.
with a surface activity of 51.38 10-3 nm-1 was
isolated and chosen as research target for Bodour A. Adria, Kevin P. Dress and Raina M.
biosurfactant production, to be described in a Maier. 2003. Distribution of biosurfactant-
further work. producing bacteria in undisturbed and contaminated
arid southwestern soils. J. Appl. Env. Microbiol., 69
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (6):3280-3287.
One of the authors, B.Ramesh sincerely
thanks Dr.K.R.Venkatesan, Principal, Sri Sankara Cappuccino JG and Sherman N. 1999.
Arts and Science College for all the support Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual (6th Ed)
provided to conduct this research work. Pearson Education publication, Singapore.

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147 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 140-147
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Ethno-Veterinary Practices for Cattle Diseases in Ganjam District of
Orissa, India
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Pradipa Kumar Das

P.G. Department of
Bio-Sciences, The present communication reports on few time-tested practices of 36 plants
College of Pharmaceutical against 17 cattle diseases in some rural villages of Ganjam district of Orissa, including
Sciences, few plants used for milching of cattle are described.
Mohuda, Berhampur-
760002, Orissa, India.

Corresponding author:
Pradipa Kumar Das

Email: Keywords: Ethno-Veterinary treatment, Ganjam district, Orissa, Cattle disease,
Traditional Healers (THs).

Web Address: Article Citation: Pradipa Kumar Das.
Documents/RA0031.pdf. Ethno-Veterinary Practices for Cattle Diseases in Ganjam District of Orissa, India
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 73-79

Received: 18 May 2011 /Accepted: 26 May 2011 /Published: 27 Jun 2011

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INTRODUCTION geographical area of 8070.60 Square Kilometre.
Relationships between plants and animals Ganjam is the southernmost district of Orissa.It is
have been continuing since the beginning of this bounded by landmass from three sides and the
earth. They together flourish with the help and ocean, Bay-of-Bengal on one side. The tribals, non-
assistance of one another. This relationship was tribals and rural area of this district mostly use
analysed finely after the evolution of human indigenous plants available in their surroundings as
civilisation to a greater extent. Although, ancient medicines, for the treatment of different diseases
human beings were closely associated with their cattle suffer from. Most of the information
domestic animals, plants found in and around their incorporated here is collected from Kondh, Sabar
close vicinity and other plants used for their daily and Samuntia tribe of Ganjam district.
necessities like food, shelter, clothing and Based on the method adopted by Jain and
medicines, there is no authentic record of the Saklani (1992),field studies were conducted
veterinary use of plants in the ancient literature. frequently in some villages of Kukudakhandi block,
Therefore, it is difficult to trace the ailments namely Chadheimara, Balarampalli, Baniamari,
of animals. But, the “Rigveda’’, which is the oldest Sanakaranjee, Burugaon, Lathi, Mohuda,
describes a lot regarding the close association of Narasinghpur, Vikaspur, Tamana, Kanheiput,
human beings with the plants for treatment of their Lunighara, Chakundajola and Kumarapura that
kith and kin (Ayurveda) and their animals encompasses Kerandimal hill ranges , to collect
(Mrigayurveda) or today’s Ethno - Veterinary information from Traditional Healers /Pashu
Treatment (EVT) .The Mrigayurveda could not Vaidyas on the use of plants against cattle diseases.
flourish along with it’s counterpart, the Ayurveda. These medicinal plants, as far as possible were
This might be due to decreasing interest of the collected, processed, dried and after poisoning, the
traditional / Herbal Healers (Pashu Vaidyas) in the herbaria were prepared and deposited in the
society, less availability of the medicinal plants due Herbarium of the Department of Botany of
to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Berhampur University. The plants were properly
However, the traditional treatment of the identified with the help of Floras. The plants are
animals, the Ethno-Veterinary Treatment (EVT) arranged alphabetically along with their scientific
due to lack of proper documentation, resticted to names, family (in parentheses) and vernacular name
few Herbal Healers in our society .Those practices in Oriya (Or.). This is followed by brief description
are still continuing in the minds of local people and of the native veterinary practice of the species along
the tribals, which have got greater accountability with their method of application are described. The
towards livestock management in our country. detailed list of plant species used for the treatment
About 85 percent people of India live in villages. of different diseases is given in a tabular form
Most of them depend on traditional or folk (Table-1).
medicines or household remedies for the treatment
of diseases in them or their domestic animals suffer ENUMERATION OF PLANTS
from. In rural India and tribal societies, use of 1. Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae); Or. Bela
plants as veterinary medicines are very common Leaves along with leaves of Datura metel
and some sporadic reports from different parts of are boiled and thick decoction is prepared. The
India are available on the use of plants for the decoction is applied to the foreleg joint arch of the
treatment of animal diseases. cattle suffering from black-quarter disease. The
In this paper, an attempt was made to collect decoction is also administered orally to the diseased
information on the use of plants by the tribals of animal.
Ganjam district for the treatment of some cattle
diseases. 2. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae);
Or.Limba, Nema
STUDY AREA AND METHODS i) Neem leaves are boiled in Til oil and the oil is
For the present study, Ganjam district was applied on the fore-leg joint arch of the cattle
selected.Orissa is the ninth largest state of India by suffering from black-quarter disease.
area and the eleventh largest by population. Out of ii) A piece of neem stick is inserted into the
30 districts of Orissa state, Ganjam district extends palatal foramen of the cattle suffering from
from 18º.46' to 20º.17 ' north latitude and 83º.48' to glossitis.
85º.10' east longitude, spreading over a
74 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 73-79

Table-1: List of Cattle diseases and plants used against them.
Cattle disease Plants used against the disease
1. Abscess and Ulcer Terminalia chebula
Semecarpus anacardium
2. Arthritis Holarrhena pubescens
3. Black-quarter Aegle marmelos
Azadirachta indica
Cassia fistula
Datura metel
4. Bone fracture Bombax ceiba
Cissus quadrangularis
5. Cough and Cold Calotropis procera
Ocimum sanctum
Adhatoda vasika
6. Chicken pox and Small pox Hygrophila auriculata
7. Delivery and removal of placenta Bambusa bambos
Cassia occidentalis
Momordica charantia
Ricinus communis
Tamarindus indicus
8. Diarrhoea Holarrhena pubescens
Terminalia arjuna
Trachyspermum ammi
Psidium guajava
Syzygium cumini
Acacia catechu
9. Dysentery Dolichos biflorus
10. Foot & Mouth Nicotiana tabacum
Semecarpus anacardium
11. Fever Vitex negundo
Andrographis paniculata
Cuscuta reflexa
12. Glossitis Azadirachta indica
Pergularia daemia
13. Intestinal worm Mucuna prurita
Semecarpus anacardium
14. Knob in the nipples Steriospermum chelonoides

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 73-79 75

15. Loss of appetite Terminalia chebula
Zingiber officinale
Foeniculum vulgare
16. Milching / Galactogouge Paederia scandens
Dolichos biflorus
Amaranthus spinosus
Alternanthera sessilis
17. Wounds Ocimum sanctum
Annona squamosa

3. Adhatoda vasika Nees. (Acanthaceae); Or. made into a paste. In case of bone fracture or severe
Basanga Sprains, the paste is applied on the affected area
Equal amounts of bark and Ocimum sanctum externally and a bandage cloth may also be tied.
leaves are boiled in water to get a thick decoction. The treatment is continued for five days.
With it little honey is added and given to the cattle
twice daily for five consecutive days to get relief 9. Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss. (Gramineae /
from cough and cold. Poaceae); Or.Kanta Baunsa
Young bamboo leaves along with green
4. Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae); fodder are fed to cow after delivery for the early
Or. Kantamarisa removal of the placenta.
Leaves are boiled with pulses and given to
the cattle as galactogouge after delivery. 10. Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae);
5. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Leaves of the plant along with the leaves of
Nees. (Acanthaceae); banana (Musa paradisiaca) and bel (Aegle
Or.Bhuin Nimba, Chireita marmelos) are mixed with cow dung and boiled and
The whole plant is made into small pieces, made into a paste. The paste is applied on the
about 1 kg. of it was boiled in about 5 lit. of water foreleg joint of the cattle for four days, suffering
for 3-4 hours and mashed. It was left as such from black quarter disease.
overnight for fermentation. The decoction is filtered
and stored. For mild fever, two cups of decoction is 11. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Ampelidaceae);
administered orally twice a day for 5-6 days, and in Or. Hadabhanga lata, Hadajoda
chronic fever, the dose is continued for 3-4 weeks. The quadrangular stems of the plant are fried
in sesamum or groundnut oil and tied with bandage
6. Alternanthera sessilis (L.)R.Br.ex cloths over the fracture points of the cattle. Then
(Amaranthaceae); Or. Madaranga few drops of warm Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil
The whole plant along with grasses is used are poured on it. Massaging is prohibited during the
as cattle feed to increase lactation after delivery. treatment period.

7. Annona squamosa (L.) (Annonaceae); Or. 12. Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br.
Sitaphala, Atta (Asclepiadaceae); Or. Arakha
The leaves of the plant along with leaves of Nearly 500 gm of sun dried flowers are
Ocimum sanctum and Azadirachta indica in the boiled in 5 lit. of water for 3-4 hours in low flame.
ratio of 1:1:2 parts are shade-dried and powdered. Decoction is prepared and stored.15-20 ml of
This powder, mixed with til oil, is applied over the decoction is administered orally to cattle, 3-4 times
wound to get rid of local infection. a day for 10-12 days to get relief from cough and
8. Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombaceae); Or. Simuli,
The bark after removal of the prickles is
76 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 73-79

13. Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae); 21. Nicotiana tabacum Linn. (Solanaceae); Or.
Or. Bada Chakunda Dhuanpatra
Leaves of this plant and old tamarind Processed tobacco leaves are crushed and
(Tamarindus indicus) pulps are mixed and a paste is made into a paste with saw dust. The paste is
prepared. The paste is administered orally to cattle applied on the hoof of the cattle affected with foot
for the early discharge of placenta after delivery. and mouth disease.

14. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae); Or. 22. Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae); Or. Pijuli,
Nirmuli jammu
Whole plant is sun dried and ground to make About 500 gm. of fresh leaves of the plant
powder. Two tablespoonful of this powder is orally are boiled in 200 ml. of water for 10 minutes. The
administered twice daily for a week to get relief decoction is given twice daily for 4-5 days for the
from fever. treatment of diarrhoea.

15. Dolichos biflorus Linn. (Papilionaceae / 23. Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov.
Fabaceae); Or.Kolatha (Asclepiadaceae); Or. Uturuli
i) Decoction of seed is given orally to cattles The juice of the plant is extracted and
for good milching after delivery. mixed thoroughly with sesamum oil. The oil-juice
ii) Decoction of the whole plant along with mixture is gently rubbed on all sides of the tooth
seeds is given orally to the cattle suffering from base and jaws to cure glossitis.At the same time the
dysentery. mixture is also messaged on the back-bone. During
the treatment period a good bath is done to the
16. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae / animal regularly.
Umbelliferae); Or. Panamadhuri, Panamahuri
Nearly 50 gm of the seed powder is mixed 24. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr.
with equal amount of dry ginger (Sonth), Zingiber (Rubiaceae); Or.Prasaruni
officinale, molasses and 25 gm of black salt. One The leaves are boiled and cooked with
tablespoonful of this preparation is rubbed over the finger-millet (Ragi) flour and made into a jelly like
tongue of the cattle to improve appetite. paste, locally called Jau. This Jau is fed orally to
the milching cow to stimulate and enhance milk
17. Hygrophila auriculata (Schum.) Heine. production.
(Acanthaceae); Or. Koilekha, Koilikhia
Fresh roots of the plant, along with grasses 25. Ricinus communis Linn. (Euphorbiaceae);
are fed to the cattle, twice daily for seven days, to Or. Jada, Kala
get relief from chicken pox or small pox. Fresh leaves of the plant along with
common salt is made into a paste and administered
18. Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-ham.) Wall. ex orally to the cattle twice after delivery for easy
G. Don. (Apocynaceae); Or. Keruan, Koruan removal of placenta.
Leaf decoction is given to the cattle suffering
from arthritis and diarrhoea, twice daily till cure. 26. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. F.
(Anacardiaceae); Or. Kalabhalia
19. Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae); The warmed tar-like oil extracted from the
Or. Kalara pericarp of the fruit is applied over the abscess of
Leaves of the plant mixed with salt and the cattle for rapid cure. Warmed oil is applied on
administered to cattle after delivery for the easy the hoof of the cattle suffering from foot and mouth
removal of placenta. disease.

20. Mucuna prurita Hook. (Papilionaceae / 27. Stereospermum chelonoides (L.f.) DC.
Fabaceae); Or. Baidanka (Bignoniaceae); Or. Pamphunia, Patuli
The root of the plant is administered orally For the treatment of knob in the nipples of
with straw to kill and remove intestinal worms of the buffaloes, the leaves of the plant are burnt and
cattle. the knob is fomented with the fumes.

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 73-79 77

28. Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae); or a combination of plants / plant parts are
Or. Harida described for the treatment of cattle diseases. Of the
i) The decoction of the fruit is applied on the reported 36 species, 30 species are used in single
hoofs of the cattle suffering from foot and mouth disease, 5 species are used in two diseases and one
disease. in three diseases.
ii) The decoction of the fruit is also used as an Agriculture and animal husbandry are the two
antiseptic topical lotion for washing of wounds and most important sectors of the district. Majority of
ulcers in cattles. the inhabitants live in rural and semi-urban areas
iii) Fruit powder of the plant, Bahada and they chiefly depend upon the above two sectors
(Terminalia bellirica) and Aanla (Emblica to earn their livelihood. Their poor economic
officinalis) together called Triphala along with condition does not permit them to meet the cost of
cold water is used as a good appetizer for cattles. allopathic veterinary medicines. Hence, they
strongly believe and rely upon their age-old
29. Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.ex DC.) Wight & traditional herbal medicines. The ethno-veterinary
Arn. (Combretaceae); Or. Arjuna practice is also found to be successful in most of the
Leaves of the plant, Jamu (Syzygium cases, except few ones.
cumini) and Khaira (Acacia catechu ) are powdered However, these age-old practices developed
together and given to the cattle for the treatment of by the tribals in the field are transferred to their
diarrhoea. successive generations by words of mouth rather
than writings. These times tested ethno-veterinary
30. Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprag. (Apiaceae); medicines (EVM) are in the verge of extinction.
Or. Juani Although, ethnomedicines of this district were well
250 gm seeds of the plant and 250 gm fresh documented, reports on ethno-veterinary medicines
ginger (Zingiber officinale) are ground together to are negligible. This paper is new of its kind with the
form a paste.100 gm of tea powder is added to it. aim to document and widespread the hidden
The mixture is boiled for 10-15 minutes in 1 litre of knowledge of the tribals, villagers, farmers, cattle
water. The preparation is left to cool and then owners and traditional healers on ethno-veterinary
filtered. For the treatment of diarrhoea, half of the medicines and their practices towards cattle
preparation is drenched to the cattle, in the morning diseases of Ganjam district of Orissa , is of very
and the other half in the evening for three days. much significant for the biochemists and
pharmacologists for further scientific research to
31. Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae); Or. develop new pharmaceutical preparations.
Begunia, Nirgundi
Two handfuls of fresh leaves of the plant are ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
boiled in one litre of water for 15-20 minutes to Author is grateful to the authorities of
make a decoction. 1-2 cups of the decoction is College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda ,
drenched to the cattle, thrice a day for 5 days, for Berhampur for providing necessary facilities and
the treatment of fever. resource persons of different tribal communities of
Ganjam District for providing valuable
DISCUSSION information , during the course of investigation.
The present investigation reports the age-old
and time tested ethno-veterinary practice of 17 REFERENCES
types of cattle (Cows, Bullocks, Buffalo etc.) Annonymous. 1948-1976. The wealth of India
diseases that are known to be treated by 31 plant (Raw Materials), C.S.I.R., New Delhi. Vols. 1-11.
resources available in these areas. Some plants used
for milching of cattle are also described. It is Das PK. 2010. Ethno-Colour concept among some
observed that, most of the rural villagers of this tribals inhabiting in selected villages of Ganjam
district, cattle owners and local people (about 75%) District, Odisha, India, Ethnobotanical Leaflets
are habituated and prefer to use herbal medicines 14:743-50.
(EVM) based on ethno-veterinary practices
available in their localities, since long by Dash SS and Mishra MK. 1995. Tribal uses of
Traditional Healers (THs).Single plant / plant part plants from Narayanpatna region of Koraput

78 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 1: 73-79

district, Orissa, Ancient Sci. of Life 15(3):230-237.

Das Sarita, Das SK and Pandey SN. 2003.
Ethnomedicinal information from Orissa state,
India, A Review, J.of Human Ecology 14(3):165-

Jain SK and Saklani A. 1992. Cross-cultural
Ethnobotanical studies in North-East India,
Ethnobotany 4:25-38.

Mathias E. 2004. Ethnoveterinary medicine:
harnessing its potential, Veterinary Bulletin 74

Mc Corkle CM. 1986. An Introduction to
Ethnoveterinary Research and Development, J. of
Ethnobiology 6(1):129-149.

Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 73-79 79
Journal of Research in Biology
An International Online Open Access
Original Research paper
Publication group

Evaluation of air pollution tolerant tree species for Kothagiri Municipal
Town, the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu.
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Senthilkumar P1 and
Paulsamy S2.

1 Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) has been determined by pooling the at-
Department of
Biotechnology, Hindusthan tributes viz., total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and moisture content of leaves and leaf
College of Arts and Science, extract pH for certain locally available tree species in and around Kothagiri Municipal
Coimbatore – 641 028, Town, the Nilgiris. Of the 24 species analyzed 6 tree species such as Alnus nepalensis,
2 Callistemon lanceolata, Eucalyptus ficifolia, Ficus elastica, Michelia champaca and
Department of Botany,
Kongunadu Arts and Toona ciliate recorded higher APTI values. Hence, it is suggested that these tree spe-
Science College, cies can be given priority for plantation programme in and around industrial com-
Coimbatore – 641 029, plexes, road sides and also new urbanized areas in Kotagiri so as to reduce the effect
of air pollution and makes the environment clean.

Corresponding author:
Paulsamy S.

Email: Keywords: Air pollution tolerance index, Nilgiris, Urbanized area, Kothagiri.

Article Citation:
Web Address: Senthilkumar P and Paulsamy S.
Documents/RA0012.pdf. Evaluation of air pollution tolerant tree species for Kothagiri Municipal Town, the
Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu.
Journal of research in Biology (2011) 2: 148-152

Received: 30 Apr 2011 /Accepted: 04 May 2011 /Published: 29 Jun 2011

© Ficus Press.
This Open Access article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://, which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-
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Paulsamy et al.,2011

INTRODUCTION total chlorophyll contents were estimated
Air is never found absolutely clean in nature. respectively by the methods of Keller and
It is indeed deteriorated every moment due to ever Schwanger (1977) and MacLachlon and Zalik
increasing industrial activities, automobiles etc. The (1963). Relative water content was determined by
industrialized countries are dumping lot of following and the leaf extract pH was measured by
materials and wastes in their immediate using digital pH meter.
environment, which is now becoming a big source The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) was
of pollution. During the past many decades, there determined by using the following formula
Journal of Research in Biology

has been a growing awareness about the serious proposed by Singh and Rao (1983):
hazards of atmospheric pollution to which we are
constantly exposed. Serious discussions are going APTI = A (T+P) + P
on about the effects of green house gases and 10
carbon gases on environmental security world wide Where,
(Kanchev et al., 2005, Blottnitz and Curran, 2007). A= ascorbic acid content in leaf (mg/g); T=
The damaging effects of air pollution on vegetation total chlorophyll content in leaf (mg/g); P= leaf
have been recognized (Treshow, 1970; Chang and extract pH and R= per cent water content of the
Terwilliger, 2000; Cape, 2003). Screening of plants leaf. The sum value is divided by 10 to get the
for their sensitivity to air pollutants is of vital value in reduced scale.
importance. Many workers like Agarwal and
Tiwari, 1997, Paulsamy et al., 2000, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Ramakrishnaiah and Somasekhar, 2003, Kannan, A considerable number of 24 tree species
2003, Rathinaswamy et al., 2005 have identified were analyzed in the municipal town, Kothagiri. It
tolerant tree species of air pollution for some was estimated that many tree species showed wide
industrial cities in India. variation in leaf chlorophyll content at the study
In India, Tamil Nadu is one among the area. The higher chlorophyll content was prominent
leading states in industrial development. Kothagiri, in tree species like Alnus nepalensis, Callistemon
one among the cities gets affected by air pollution lanceolata, Cupressus cashmeriana, Ficus elastica
mainly due to automobiles and agricultural and Michelia champaca (Table 1). Further, it was
pesticides in Tamil Nadu. Since, it is one of the observed that the close proximity observed between
important tourist places in Nilgiris, Kothagiri is the individuals of tree species growing in polluted
experiencing high degree of air pollution through (Kothagiri) and unpolluted nearby areas with
vehicles. In this juncture, for the control of the respect to high chlorophyll content indicates that air
effect of air pollution, an attempt has been made in pollution has no marked effect upon the synthesis
the present study at Kothagiri to identify suitable air of chlorophyll pigment for these species. In the
pollution tolerant tree species based on air pollution other extreme, some species including Accia
tolerance index. dealbata, Pinus roxburghii, Podocarpus latifolia,
Sterculia guttata and Syzygium cumini have
MATERIALS AND METHODS contained lower amount of chlorophyll. Speading
The locally available tree species were amd Thomas (1973), Santhoskumar and Paulsamy
analyzed for air pollution tolerance index (APTI) by (2006) already reported that pollution stress
estimating the contents of ascorbic acid, decreases the chlorophyll level in plants. However,
chlorophyll, relative moisture in leaf and leaf the other species have been drastically affected by
extract pH at monthly intervals from November pollution in terms of chlorophyll production.
2006 to July, 2007. Leaves from tip, middle and Varshney (1982) reported that plants appearing
basal canopy of trees were collected in the forenoon green and normal at low concentration of sulphur-di
between 07.00 and 08.00 am. Care was taken for -oxide show reduced efficiency of photosynthesis.
plants under investigation with respect to exposure Hence, it is known that the plants having high
of almost similar conditions for light, water, soil chlorophyll content under field condition are
and pollutants. The collected samples were generally tolerant to air pollution.
analyzed for ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll and The leaf extract pH was higher (6.5) in the
relative water content and leaf extract pH. species, Ficus elastica (Table 1). In the presence of
Unpolluted regions were taken 25km away from the an acidic pollutant, the leaf pH is lowered and the
city which served as control. The ascorbic acid and decline is greater in sensitive species (Scholz and
149 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 148-152
Paulsamy et al.,2011

Reck, 1977). A shift in cell sap pH towards the acid sensitive ones respectively. Such plants can
side in the presence of an acidic pollutant might effectively be used as indicators and pollution
decrease the efficiency of conversion of hexose scavengers (Singh and Rao, 1983; Agarwal, 1989;
sugar to ascorbic acid. However, the reducing Tiwari, 1991; Agarwal and Tiwari, 1997; Paulsamy
activity of ascorbic acid is pH controlled, being et al., 2000; Santhoskumar and Paulsamy, 2006;
more at higher and less at lower pH. Hence, the leaf Senthilkumar et al., 2008; Thanbavani et al., 2009).
extract pH on the higher side gives tolerance to Hence it is suggested that these tree species of high
Journal of Research in Biology

plants against pollution (Agarwal, 1989; Agarwal APTI can be given priority for plantation
and Tiwari, 1997). programmes in and around industrial complexes,
Ascorbic acid being a strong reductant road sides and also in new urbanized areas so as to
protects chloroplast against sulphurdioxide induced reduce the effect of air pollution and makes the
H2O2, O2ˉ and OH accumulation and also protects environment clean for our healthy life.
the enzymes of the CO2 fixation cycle and
chlorophyll from inactivation (Tanaka et al., 1982). REFERENCES
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maintaining higher ascorbic acid level under Mandhar cement factory, NEERI, Nagpur.
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chlorophyll content are also having high ascorbic tolerance index”, Indian Forester 319-322.
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some species such as Alnus nepalensis, Callistemon transportation fuel from a net energy, greenhouse
lanceolata, Eucalyptus ficifolia, Ficus elastica, gas, and environmental life cycle perspective,
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likely therefore that the tree species with high
relative water content under polluted conditions Chang E and Terwilliger VJ. 2000. The effects of
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The obtained APTI of certain tree species perspective, Progress in Physical Geography 24
viz., Alnus nepalensis, Callistemon lanceolata, (1):53-74.
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by very narrow differences in the APTI values of 13th Aug., Muthayammal College of Arts and
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151 Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 149-152
Paulsamy et al.,2011
Table 1. The contents of total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and relative moisture and leaf extract pH in various
tree species of Kothagiri Municipal Town, the Nilgiris with their air pollution tolerance index.
Total Air pollution
Sl. Leaf extract Ascorbic acid moisture
Species chlorophyll tolerance
No. pH (mg/g) content
(mg/ml) index (APTI)
1.30 ± 0.24 5.3 ± 0.15 2.23 ± 0.09 37.28 ± 4.74 5.21 ± 0.63
1 Acacia dealbata
(1.63 ± 0.12) (5.9 ± 0.32) (2.57 ± 0.08) (40.56 ± 5.11) (5.99 ± 0.50)
Journal of Research in Biology

1.53 ± 0.22 5.9 ± 0.58 2.40 ± 0.67 28.55 ± 5.35 4.59 ± 0.40
2 A. melanoxylon
(1.67 ± 0.38) (6.0 ± 0.50) (3.03 ± 0.94) (32.48 ± 5.85) (5.61 ± 0.13)
4± .13 0.70 6.4 ± 0.15 3.31 ± 0.20 59.81 ± 0.39 9.45 ± 0.12
3 Alnus nepalensis
(4.16 ± 0.71) (6.5 ± 0.20) (3.36 ± 0.14) (60.13 ± 0.14) (9.55 ± 0.20)
1.73 ± 0.26 5.0 ± 0.55 2.44 ± 0.38 42.78 ± 1.78 5.92 ± 0.55
4 Araucaria excelsa
(2.35 ± 0.23) (5.2 ± 0.64) (2.66 ± 0.45) (46.85 ± 1.77) (6.71 ± 0.83)
1.84 ± 0.25 4.8 ± 0.15 1.60 ± 0.12 38.56 ± 1.52 4.92 ± 0.12
5 Biota orientalis
(2.42 ± 0.78) (4.8 ± 0.20) (2.22 ± 0.47) (38.75 ± 2.67) (5.51 ± 0.74)
Callistemon 3.75 ± 0.64 6.1 ± 0.61 2.71 ± 0.79 63.53 ± 4.47 9.02 ± 0.23
lanceolate (3.77 ± 0.66) (6.2 ± 0.61) (2.75 ± 0.66) (63.60 ± 5.50) (9.07 ± 0.26)
Casuarina 2.28 ± 0.17 5.8 ± 0.55 2.16 ± 0.49 51.70 ± 3.48 6.93 ± 0.44
equisetifolia (2.62 ± 0.37) (6.1 ± 0.50) (2.79 ± 0.87) (56.06 ± 3.37) (8.10 ± 0.91)
Cupressus 2.85 ± 0.55 5.5 ± 0.57 2.27 ± 0.18 35.10 ± 1.76 5.41 ± 0.15
cashmeriana (3.89 ± 0.83) (5.8 ± 0.57) (2.89 ± 0.55) (37.23 ± 3.05) (6.55 ± 1.18)
Elaeocarpus 1.82 ± 0.57 5.6 ± 0.55 2.01 ± 0.76 38.77 ± 8.66 5.38 ± 1.61
tectorious (2.43 ± 0.86) (6.3 ± 0.36) (2.64 ± 0.18) (44.95 ± 9.38) (6.51 ± 1.14)
2.35 ± 0.76 5.4 ± 0.25 2.76 ± 0.35 62.17 ± 2.61 8.37 ± 0.13
10 Eucalyptus ficifolia
(2.41 ± 0.79) (5.5 ± 0.36) (2.84 ± 0.27) (62.27 ± 3.29) (8.48 ± 0.16)
1.80 ± 0.60 4.9 ± 0.50 2.59 ± 0.97 50.81 ± 3.98 6.82 ± 1.08
11 Eucalyptus sp
(2.84 ± 0.97) (5.8 ± 0.40) (2.74 ± 0.83) (55.27 ± 4.13) (7.84 ± 0.86)
3.36 ± 0.42 6.5 ± 0.25 3.50 ± 0.04 72.30 ± 0.70 10.67 ± 0.16
12 Ficus elastica
(3.38 ± 0.42) (6.6 ± 0.15) (3.56 ± 0.08) (72.62 ± 0.99) (10.80 ± 0.24)
1.95 ± 0.54 5.4 ± 0.20 1.74 ± 0.34 36.12 ± 1.77 4.88 ± 0.33
13 Grevillea robusta
(2.43 ± 0.70) (6.2 ± 0.12) (2.44 ± 0.88) (40.18 ± 2.36) (6.06 ± 0.63)
Jacaranda 2.02 ± 0.30 5.2 ± 0.85 1.81 ± 0.26 40.73 ± 8.94 5.40 ± 0.80
mimosifolia (2.87 ± 0.36) (5.8 ± 0.96) (2.47 ± 0.65) (43.27 ± 8.41) (6.51 ± 0.40)
1.46 ± 0.21 5.2 ± 0.32 2.42 ± 0.04 47.79 ± 2.50 6.40 ± 0.20
15 Kigelia pinnata
(2.13 ± 0.65) (5.9 ± 0.06) (3.08 ± 0.10) (52.96 ± 3.80) (7.76 ± 0.16)
2.91 ± 0.49 5.5 ± 0.59 3.12 ± 0.66 67.42 ± 4.99 9.39 ± 1.09
16 Michelia champaca
(2.96 ± 0.47) (5.6 ± 0.67) (3.13 ± 0.53) (67.47 ± 6.12) (9.45 ± 1.10)
1.33 ± 0.10 5.4 ± 0.53 2.56 ± 0.07 37.46 ± 1.13 5.47 ± 0.12
17 Pinus roxburghii
(1.61 ± 0.25) (5.4 ± 1.13) (3.16 ± 0.53) (39.92 ± 2.05) (6.15 ± 0.30)
1.40 ± 0.58 6.3 ± 0.46 2.59 ± 0.04 28.69 ± 0.43 4.86 ± 0.32
18 Podocarpus latifolia
(2.75 ± 1.30) (6.8 ± 0.06) (2.91 ± 0.47) (34.35 ± 1.39) (6.27 ± 1.02)
1.96 ± 0.58 6.2 ± 0.06 2.00 ± 0.14 42.00 ± 1.20 5.83 ± 0.11
19 Schleichera oleosa
(2.79 ± 0.97) (6.7 ± 0.26) (3.04 ± 0.83) (45.56 ± 1.17) (7.49 ± 1.28)
Spathodea 2.00 ± 0.02 4.7 ± 0.50 1.98 ± 0.56 55.46 ± 2.42 6.89 ± 0.20
companulata (2.48 ± 0.01) (5.4 ± 1.00) (2.84 ± 0.80) (59.09 ± 1.34) (8.20 ± 0.96)
1.44 ± 0.64 6.2 ± 0.15 1.25 ± 0.02 40.17 ± 1.23 4.97 ± 0.10
21 Sterculia guttata
(2.08 ± 0.81) (6.6 ± 0.20) (1.64 ± 0.12) (45.76 ± 2.34) (6.01 ± 0.28)
1.23 ± 0.33 6.2 ± 0.06 1.42 ± 0.23 40.61 ± 1.72 5.12 ± 0.30
22 Syzygium cumini
(1.78 ± 0.34) (6.6 ± 0.40) (1.89 ± 0.40) (46.19 ± 4.53) (6.20 ± 0.73)
2.59 ± 0.19 5.5 ± 0.12 2.91 ± 0.07 59.78 ± 0.95 8.34 ± 0.11
23 Toona ciliata
(2.65 ± 0.17) (5.6 ± 0.12) (2.96 ± 0.05) (59.98 ± 1.20) (8.42 ± 0.13)
1.57 ± 0.53 4.6 ± 0.44 1.88 ± 0.07 43.64 ± 1.22 5.52 ± 0.35
24 Vernonia monosis
(2.12 ± 0.90) (5.5 ± 0.29) (2.35 ± 0.47) (47.05 ± 2.32) (6.54 ± 0.95)
Journal of Research in Biology (2011) 2: 149-152 152