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Practical use of CO2 sensors

for early life cycle energy
and comfort performance
Sarah Noye
Laing O’Rourke Centre for System Engineering and Innovation
s.noye11@imperial.ac.uk

CIBSE Technical Symposium, Edinburgh, UK, 14-15 April 2016

Post occupancy
commissioning
• Truncated
commissioning may
contribute the the
energy performance
gap

• BMS data might not
have sufficient data for
post-occupancy
commissioning
Source: Noye et. al, 2016

Unregulated loads Carbon buzz 3 .

Unregulated loads Carbon buzz 4 .

microphone. chair sensor • CO2 5 . video. RFID. Occupancy detection • Occupancy detection is an active research field • They are many ways to detect occupancy • Surveys • PIR.

Occupancy detection Known disadvantages of CO2 sensing for occupancy detection • No/bad calibration • Calibration drifts • Relation between occupancy and CO2 depend on a series of building specific factors 6 .

Occupancy detection • Occupancy detection is mostly use for demand driven controls • Current CO2-based methods require • Training period and/or • Detailed building models • Not adapted for real occupancy schedule verification 7 .

Requirements We want an method that • Is not building specific • Does not require training • Do require accurate calibration 8 .

Portable wireless sensor network Rapid development of wireless sensor network can provide low cost data for pop-up monitoring • Affordable • Easily deployable • Self powered • Wireless • Scalable and flexible .

Portable wireless sensor network Rapid development of wireless sensor network can provide low cost data for pop-up monitoring • Affordable • Easily deployable • Self powered • Wireless • Scalable and flexible .

11.3.9. Relation between CO2 and occupancy Test Time People Door 1 7 .30 am 2 d close 6 12 .5.1.30 pm 30 d close 7 2 .30 pm 12 d open 10 5 .30 am 1 d open 3 9 .30 pm 11 close 9 4 .30 am 1 close 2 8 .30 am 6 close 5 11 .6.7.30 am 2 open 4 10 .30 pm 2 d close 12 7 .8.30 pm 3 close 11 6 .2:30 pm 6 d open 8 3 .10.30 pm 0 d open 11 .4.7.

Relation between CO2 and occupancy • CO2 patterns follow occupancy patterns • Extract vent is the best sensor location • More occupants leads to higher CO2 concentration • Build up time ~5 min • Back to baseline in 15 to 30 min • No clear relation with state of the door .

A qualitative occupancy algorithm 13 .

A qualitative occupancy algorithm • CUSUM is used in signal processing to detect anomalies in a noisy signal • It detects when the signal deviate from the expected baseline .

A qualitative occupancy algorithm 15 .

A qualitative occupancy algorithm 16 .

A qualitative occupancy algorithm 17 .

A qualitative occupancy algorithm 18 .

Occupancy visualisation Qualitative scale 19 .

Algorithm applied to a single office 20 .

but be aware • No training • Does not give the exact number of • Independent from the people building • Slightly overestimate • Qualitative insight the end of the occupancy period • Independent from CO2 sensor calibration .. A qualitative occupancy algorithm Strengths .

Application exemple Comparison of occupancy and system schedule 22 .

Applications • Detect wasted energy in zones that are rarely used • Detect comfort issues linked with intensive occupation Outcome • Better consistency between system schedules and occupancy • Less FM time spent on complaints’ solving 23 .

Conclusion • CO2 sensing can be used as a qualitative indicator for real occupancy schedule • The method is independent of the building characteristics • The method is unaffected by known CO2 sensor limitations 24 .

Conclusion • Quantitative occupancy can give insight on how the building is being used • It can be used as part of a wider post-occupancy process to fine tune the building for occupants’ comfort and efficient energy use 25 .

Thank you for your attention • CO2 sensing can be used as a qualitative indicator of real occupancy schedule • The method is independent of the building characteristics • The method is unaffected by known CO2 sensor limitations • Quantitative occupancy can give insight on how the building is being used • It can be used as part of a wider post-occupancy process to fine tune the building for occupants’ comfort and efficient energy use 26 .