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1

Objective

-Understand the difference between time and the phasor domains.

-Explain the magnitude and angular relation between the phase and

line voltages in a WYE and DELTA systems.

three-phase circuits.

2

Review

The total energy delivered to a load divided by the time

required to deliver it yields the average power delivered

Efficiency of the system

3

DC power

DC system:

load does not fluctuate.

is long power is lost in

the line.

Important:

4

Single-Phase AC Circuits

Alternating current derives its name from the fact that the voltage and current are

sinusoidal functions.

waveform squared:

The RMS is effective value of the AC voltage or current : the RMS current or voltage is the value that would cause

the same amount of heat in a resistor as a DC current or voltage with the same value.

For sinusoidal functions:

5

Phasors

Convenient way to represent voltages and currents using phasor form (work in phasor domain)

In its simplest form, a phasor can be thought as a complex number that has magnitude and

phase of a sinusoidal function and can be represented partially as a vector in the complex

plane.

IMPORTANT: The magnitude of a phasor will always be RMS value of the sinusoid it is

representing.

6

Example:

a. Choose the voltage as the reference

phasor:

current lags the voltage by 30 degrees,

so current phasor will be 30 degrees

behind the voltage

phasor:

current lags the voltage by 30 degrees,

so the voltage phasor will be

+30 degrees

reference phasor:

The sine function lags the cosine by 90

degrees, thus the voltage phasor should be at

-90 degrees, current must be 30 degrees

behind the voltage, so it is at -120 degrees.

7

Example

Symbol notation for several complex

quantities

8

Mathematical operations with phasors

Conversion between rectangular and polar coordinates

9

Addition of complex numbers:

10

Multiplication of phasors:

Division of phasors:

Conjugate:

11

Example

Impedance in AC Circuits

Impedance of the inductor:

NOTE:

1. There is a phase shift between the voltage and the

current. The current is lagging the voltage by 90

degrees for the inductor.

2. The RMS of the current is the RMS of the voltage

divided by (wL)

Impedance of the inductor:

Use Ohms low in the phasor domain for the

inductor by defining the inductive reactance

12

Impedance of the capacitor:

NOTE:

1. The current is a negative sine wave, which leads the voltage (cosine wave) by 90 degrees.

2. The RMS of the current is related to the RMS of the voltage by (wC).

Capacitance reactance:

Impedance:

example

Power in Single-Phase AC Circuits

load that is converted to heat and is not be returned

to its initial stage.

Real power used by the resistor:

Instantaneous current through the inductor varies

sinusoidally. Reactive power (Capacitor)

Inductor stores energy as a function of the current, Voltage across the capacitor varies sinusoidally.

thus magnetic field varies with time. Capacitor stores energy as a function of the voltage,

As current increases the inductor stores more energy thus capacitors electric field varies with time.

in its magnetic field and the power flows from the Capacitor draws energy from the source as it charges,

source to the inductor. and returns energy as it discharges.

As current decreases the inductor releases energy back The voltage across the capacitor and the current through the

to the source. inductor are 90 degrees out of phase, thus when inductor is

The inductor does not use any power on average, there is charging the capacitor discharges.

energy moving back and forth between the source and the

Inductor. This is called REACTIVE POWER.

14

example

Complex Power

Real power

Reactive power

power

Relationship between the real and apparent

power.

Relationship between the reactive and apparent

power.

Power factor

Angle theta is the angle of the current with

respect to the voltage.

If the current lags the voltage (inductive load)

then theta is negative.

If the current leads the voltage (capacitive load)

then theta is positive.

Power factor is always positive and less than 1.

15

example

Instantaneous AC Power

Resistive load.

Shows instantaneous

voltage, current and

power for a resistive

load

Voltage and current both have a peak value of 1.0 and RMS of 0.707.

Since the voltage and current are always in phase, their product is always positive and, so power always flows

from the source to the resistive load.

In this case the angle between the voltage and the current is zero so the power factor ( = cos (angle)) is unity.

16

example

Resistive-inductive (R-L) load

Shows instantaneous

voltage, current and

power for a resistive-

inductive load

Since the voltage and current are out of phase their product may be negative and as a result there are times

when the instantaneous power is negative. This represents a return of energy from the load to the source.

That energy comes from the magnetic field of the system inductance.

Power factor

17

Purely inductive load.

Shows instantaneous

voltage, current and

power for a purely

inductive load

Instantaneous power has an average of zero. Energy flows from source to the load half of the time and from the load

back to the source the other half of the time.

Power factor

18

Three-Phase AC Circuits

Most industrial and commercial electrical power systems employ a 3-phase configuration.

3-phase systems consist of 3 equal in magnitude voltages and 120 degrees out of phase relative

to each other.

Example: 3-phase generator contains coils that are physically spaced 120 degrees apart and when the rotor turns,

the voltages induced in the coils are electrically 120 degrees apart.

19

example

Three-Phase WYE Configuration

Wye:

Consists of three load components connected with

a common point called neutral.

Line-to-neutral, phase-to-neutral, branch voltage or

simply phase voltage :

conductor and the neutral,

of two voltage levels.

Common system voltages: 277/480 and 120/208V.

20

Three-Phase DELTA Configuration

Delta:

Consists of three load components connected end-

to-end way and has no neutral point. Phases are

connected in a triangle.

The vertices of the triangle are connected to the

power system and the current that flows on those

conductors is called the line current :

connected between the lines, is called the phase

current :

21

Angular relationship between V and V L P

Positive ABC phase sequence (phasors are assumed to rotate in the counterclockwise direction)

Using Wye circuit we write equations around one of the loops according to the Kirchoff's law:

Since and have the same magnitude and separated by 120 degrees we can write:

The line voltage leads the phase voltage by 30 degrees and the line voltage is the 3 larger in magnitude

than the phase voltage. 22

Angular relationship between I and I L P

The angular relationship between the line and phase current in a delta system

and the relationship of their magnitudes:

The line current lags the phase current by 30 degrees, assuming a standard ABC

phase rotation, and the line current is 3 larger in magnitude than the phase current

23

Balanced and unbalanced 3-Phase systems

A balanced system is one in which the line and phase currents and voltages in all three phases

are equal in magnitude and separated by 120 degrees, and the impedances in all three phases

are identical.

An unbalanced system is one in which any of the foregoing requirements are not met.

For a single-phase system, the apparent power is the product of the phase voltage and phase current

For a balanced 3-phase system , the total 3-phase apparent power is three times the power consumed by one phase

24

examples

Power Factor Correction

Power factor is the ratio of real and to apparent power.

It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful work output.

Most AC electrical power systems supply loads that are both resistive and reactive.

Power source delivers real power to the resistive component of the load and this real power

is converted into the useful work.

The power source must also deliver reactive power to the reactive components of the load.

Reactive power does no useful work and is alternatively stored in the reactive elements of the load.

Although reactive power does no useful work, the source must have sufficient capacity to provide

the reactive power, and the distribution system must be large enough to distribute reactive power.

25

Reactive power is, therefore, excess baggage. Power factor correction is a technique to reduce or

eliminate this excess baggage.

Capacitors are routinely used to correct low power factor in electrical distribution systems and

can be connected either in Wye or Delta system.

Capacitor bank.

400 kVAR power factor

correction capacitors. 26

Apparent power

As the power factor drops, the reactive power quickly becomes larger than the real power.

F.E. at a power factor 0.5 the apperent power becomes twice the real power, therefore twice as much

current must be provided as we would at unity power factor do the same amount of useful work.

27

examples

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