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Arjun Sharma

Multiple Choice Questions 5. Consider p-V graph for an ideal gas shown in figure
(Single Option Correct) below.

1. If an average person jogs, reproduces 14.5 104

cal/min. This is removed by the evaporation of
sweat. The amount of sweat evaporated per minute p p = constant
(assuming 1 kg requires 580 103 cal for
evaporation) is 2

(a) 0.25 kg (b) 2.25 kg (c) 0.05 kg (d) 0.20 kg V

2. Consider two containers A and B containing Out of the following graphs, which represents
identical gases at the same pressure, volume and the T-p graph?
temperature. The gas in container A is compressed T T
to half of its original volume isothermally while the 2
gas in container B is compressed to half of its 2
original value adiabatically. The ratio of final
pressure of gas in B to that of gas in A is 1
g -1 1
(a) 2 g - 1 p p
2 (i) (ii)
2 2
1 1
(c) (d) T T
1 - g g - 1

3. An ideal gas undergoes four 2 1 1 2

different processes from the
same initial state as shown 3 p p
in figure. Four processes (iii) (iv)
are adiabatic, isothermal, 2
1 (a) (iv) (b) (ii) (c)(iii) (d) (i)
isobaric and isochoric. Out
of 1, 2, 3 and 4 which one is 6. Three copper blocks of masses M1 , M2 and M3 kg
adiabatic? respectively are brought into thermal contact till
(a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 1 they reach equilibrium. Before contact, they were at
T1 , T2 , T3 (T1 > T2 > T3 ). Assuming there is no heat loss
4. An ideal gas undergoes cyclic process ABCDA as
to the surroundings, the equilibrium temperature T
shown in given p-V graph.
is (s is specific heat of copper)
The amount of work done by gas is
T1 + T2 + T3
p (a)
D C M T + M 2T2 + M 3T3
2p0 (b) 1 1
M1 + M 2 + M 3
A B M1T1 + M 2T2 + M 3T3
3( M1 + M 2 + M 3 )
V0 3V0 M1T1s + M 2T2s + M 3T3s
M1 + M 2 + M 3
(a) 6 p0V0 (b) - 2 p0V (c) + 2 p0V0 (d) + 4 p0V0

Multiple Choice Questions 11. Figure shows the p-V diagram of an ideal gas
undergoing a change of state from A to B. Four
(More than One Option Correct)
different parts I, II, III and IV as shown in the figure
7. An ideal gas undergoes isothermal process from may lead to the same change of state.
some initial state i to final state f. Choose the correct I
alternatives. IV
(a) dU = 0 (b) dQ = 0 A
(c) dQ = dU (d) dQ = dW
8. Which of processes described below are III
irreversible? V
(a) The increase in temperature of an iron rod by hammering it (a) Change in internal energy is same in IV and III cases, but not
(b) A gas in a small container at a temperature T1 is brought in in I and II
contact with a big reservoir at a higher temperature T2 which (b) Change in internal energy is same in all the four cases
increases the temperature of the gas (c) Work done is maximum in case I
(c) A quasi-static isothermal expansion of an ideal gas in (d) Work done is minimum in case II
cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston
(d) An ideal gas is enclosed in a piston cylinder arrangement Very Short Answer Type Questions
with adiabatic walls. A weight w is added to the piston, 12. If a refrigerators door is kept open will the room
resulting in compression of gas
become cool or hot? Explain.
9. Consider a heat engine as shown in figure. Q1 and 13. Air pressure in a car tyre increases during driving.
Q2 are heat added both to T1 and heat taken from T2
in one cycle of engine. W is the mechanical work
done on the engine as shown below:
14. Can a system be heated and its temperature remains
15. Is it possible to increase the temperature of a gas
without adding heat to it? Explain.
W 16. A system goes from P to Q by two different path in
Q2 p- V graph as shown in figure. Heat given to the
system in path 1 is 1000 J. The work done by the
system along path 1 is more than path 2 by 100 J.
If W > 0, then possibilities are What is the heat exchanged by the system in path 2?
(a) Q1 > Q 2 > 0 (b) Q 2 > Q1 > 0
(c) Q 2 < Q1 < 0 (d) Q1 < 0, Q 2 > 0 1
10. Consider a cycle followed by an engine as shown in
figure. 2
1 to 2 is isothermal
2 to 3 is adiabatic V

3 to 1 is adiabatic Short Answer Type Questions

p 1 17. Consider a Carnots cycle operating between
2 T1 = 500 K and T2 = 300K producing 1kJ of
mechanical work per cycle. Find the heat
transferred to the engine by the reservoirs.
18. If the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator is 5
and operates at the room temperature (27 C), find
Such a process does not exist, because the temperature inside the refrigerator.
(a) heat is completely converted to mechanical energy in such
19. A person of mass 60 kg wants to lose 5 kg by going
a process, which is not possible
up and down a 10 m high stairs. Assume he burns
(b) mechanical energy is completely to heat in this process,
which is not possible twice as much fat while going up than coming
(c) curves representing two adiabatic processes dont intersect down. If 1 kg of fat is burnt on expending
(d) curves representing an adiabatic process and an 7000 kilocalories, how many times must he go up
isothermal process dont intersect and down to reduce his weight by 5 kg?

20. In a refrigerator one remove heat from a lower (c) Using the first law of thermodynamics, write
temperature and deposits to the surrounding at a down a relation between Q, pa, V , V0 and k.
higher temperature. In this process, mechanical 25. Consider that an ideal gas (n moles) is expanding in
work has to be done, which is provided by an a process given by p = f(V ), which passes through a
electric motor. If the motor is of 1 kW power and point (V0 , p0 ). Show that the gas is absorbing heat at
heat transferred from -3 C to 27 C, find the heat (p0 , V0 ) if the slope of the curve p = f(V ) is larger than
taken out of the refrigerator per second assuming its the slope of the adiabatic passing through (p0 , V0 ).
efficiency is 50% of a perfect engine.
21. The initial state of a certain gas in (pi , Vi , Ti ). It
undergoes expansion till its volume becomes Vf . PHYSICS
Consider the following two cases:
(a) The expansion taken place at constant Molecular accordion drives thermoelectric
temperature. behavior in promising material
(b) The expansion takes place at constant pressure.
Engines, laptops and power plants generate waste heat.
Plot the p-V diagram for each case. In which of the Thermoelectric materials, which convert temperature
two cases, is the work done by the gas more? gradients to electricity and vice versa, can recover some of
22. Consider a cycle tyre being filled with air by a that heat and improve energy efficiency. Scientists have
pump. Let V be the volume of the tyre (fixed) and at explored the fundamental physics of the world's best
each stroke of the pump DV (<< V ) of air is thermoelectric material -- tin selenide -- using neutron
transferred to the tube adiabatically. What is the scattering and computer simulations. Their work may aid
work done when the pressure in the tube is energy sustainability and design of materials that convert
increased p1 to p2 ? heat into electricity.

Very Long Answer Type Questions

23. Consider a p-V graph in p
which the path followed 1 (p1, V1, T1) pV 1/2=constant
by one mole of perfect
2 (p2, V2, T2)
gas in a cylindrical
container is shown in
given figure. V
O V1 V2
(a) Find the work done
when the gas is taken from state 1 to state 2.
(b) What is the ratio of temperature T1 / T2 , if
V2 = 2V1 ?
(c) Given the internal energy for one mole gas at Redistribution of electronic clouds causes lattice instability
3 and freezes the flow of heat in highly efficient tin selenide.
temperature T is RT, find the heat supplied
2 The crystal lattice adopts a distorted state (as shown
to the gas when it taken from state 1 to state 2, above) in which the chemical bonds are stretched into an
with V2 = 2V1 . accordion-like configuration, and makes an excellent
24. Consider one mole of perfect gas in Atmospheric
thermoelectric because heat propagation is upset.
pressure = p
a cylinder of unit cross-section with Thermoelectric materials can support sustainable energy.
a piston attached (figure). A spring These can be placed under solar panels, where a
(spring constant k)is attached temperature difference can generate electricity cheaply.
(unstretched length L) to the piston Photovoltaic panels can be expensive, and many are
and to the bottom of the cylinder. needed to generate useful amounts of electricity. With
Initially the spring is unstretched thermoelectric materials, once you have the temperature
and the gas is in equilibrium. A differential, you only need a comparatively small amount of
certain amount of heat Q is supplied to the gas material to produce the electricity. In thermoelectric
causing an increase of value from V0 to V1 . devices, energy conversion is really a direct link because
(a) What is the initial pressure of the system? the material does all the work. There are no moving parts. It
(b) What is the final pressure of the system? generates the voltage from a temperature gradient only.

1. (a) As, amount of sweat evaporated/minute 7. (a, d) In an isothermal process, temperature remains constant.
Sweat produced / minute Therefore, internal energy, U = constant, dU = 0
Number of cals required for evaporation / kg From dQ = dU + dW , when dU = 0, dQ = dW .
14.5 10 4 145 So, options (a,d) are correct.
= = = 0.25 kg 8. (a,b,d) Thinking Process If any process can be returned
580 10 3 580
back such that both, the system and the surroundings return
2. (a) When the compression is isothermal for gas in A, we have to their original states, with no other change any where else
p1V1 V1 in the universe, then this process is called reversible process.
p2V2 = p1V1 p2 = = p1 = 2 p1
V2 V1 / 2 (a) The increase in temperature of an iron rod by hammering,
For gas is B, when compression is adiabatic. it is an irreversible process.
p2 V2 g = p1V1g (b) A gas in a small container at a temperature T1 is brought in
g g contact with a big reservoir at a higher temperature T2
V V p 2 g p1
p2 = p1 1 = p1 1 = 2 g p1 2 = = 2g - 1 which increases the temperature of the gas is also an
V2 V1 /2 p2 2 p1 irreversible process.
3. (c) Thinking Process The slope of the curve for the adiabatic (d) An ideal gas is enclosed in a piston cylinder arrangement
process will be more that is the curve will be steeper. Slope with adiabatic walls. A weight w is added to piston resulting
of p-V curve in adiabatic process = g( p / V ) whereas slope of in compression of the gas is also an irreversible process.
isothermal process = - p / V In all the three cases above, the original state of the system
As shown in figure, in curve 1, V is constant. It represents cannot be regained.
isochoric process. In curve 4, p is 9. (a, c) In figure, represents the working of a refrigerator,
constant. It repesents isobaric 4
wherein Q1 = Q 2 + W
process. Out of curves 2 and 3, T1
one is thermal and other is p 3 If W > 0, Q1 > Q 2 > 0
adiabatic. As slope of curve 2 is Both Q1 and Q 2 are positive.
2 W
more than the slope of curve 3, 1 If Q 2 is negative, Q1 is also negative
therefore curve represents (but less negative as W > 0)
V Q2
adiabatic process. \ Q 2 < Q1 < 0
4. (b) Thinking Process Work done in a process by which a gas T2
Choices (a) and (c) are correct.
is going through can be calculated by area of the p-V graph.
10. (a, c) In the given one complete cycle, 1 2 3 1, the
system returns to its initial state.
2p0 \ dU = 0 and dU = dQ, i.e. heat is completely converted into
mechanical energy, which is not possible in such a process.
p0 Further, the two adiabatic process (2 3) and (3 1) cannot
intersect each other. Choice (a) and (c) are correct.
V 11. (b,c) Thinking Process Internal energy is a state function
V0 3V0
and work done by the gas is a path dependent function. The
Work done by the gas is equal to area of rectangle ABCDA as work done in a thermodynamical process is equal to the
shown in figure, W = AB BC = (2 V0 ) p0 = 2 p0V0 area bounded between p-V curve.
As the trace is anticlockwise, this work is done on the gas. From the given initial state A to final state B, change in internal
energy is same in all the four cases, as it is independent of the
\ Work done by the gas = - 2 p0V0
path from A to B.
5. (c) In graph, T is constant and 1 As, work done = Area under p-V curve, therefore work done is
p1 > p2. This situation is represented
by curve (iii) in which p1 > p2 and maximum in case I. Choices (b) and (c) are correct.
p = constant
straight line graph is parallel to p V 12. When the refrigerator door is kept open, the room may become
pressure axis indicating constant hotter. This is because in that event, amount of heat removed
temperature. 2 would be less than the amount of heat released in the room.
So, choice (c) is correct. V 13. During driving, temperature of air inside increases while its
volume remains constant. According to Charles law, at
6. (b) If the equilibrium temperature T > T1 and T2 but less than T3, constant volume V, p T . Therefore, pressure of air inside the
then as there is no heat loss to the surroundings,
tyre increases.
\ Heat lost by M1 and M 2 = Heat gained by M 3
14. Yes, a system can be heated and its temperature remains
M1s(T1 - T ) + M 2s(T2 - T ) = M 3s(T - T3 )
constant. This would happen when the entire heat supplied to
M1T1 + M 2T2 + M 3T3 = ( M1 + M 2 + M 3 )T the system is spent up in expansion (i.e. working against the
M T + M 2T2 + M 3T3 surroundings).
Equilibrium temperature, T = 1 1
M1 + M 2 + M 3

15. Yes, this happen when the gas undergoes adiabatic 20. Thinking Process The Carnot engine is the most efficient
compression. heat engine operating between two given temperatures.
As, dQ = dU + dW This is why it is known as perfect engine. The efficiency of
\ dQ = 0 in an adiabatic process. Carnot engine is h = 1 - 2
So, dU + dW = 0 or dU = - dW
where, T1 and T2 are temperature of source and sink.
In compression, work is done on the gas, therefore, dW is
negative. Hence, dU is positive, i.e. internal energy of the gas Given, power of motor, W = 1 kW
increases. Hence, temperature of gas increases. T1 = 27 C = (27 + 273) K = 300 K
T2 = -3 C = ( -3 + 273) K = 270 K
16. Thinking Process We have to apply first law of thermo-
T 270 1
dynamics for each path. Efficiency of refrigerator, h = 1 - 2 = 1 - =
T1 300 10
According to zeroth law of thermo-
dynamics, we have p 1
So, efficiency of refrigerator = 0.5h =
1 20
For path 1 dQ1 = dU + dW1 Q
Q 1 - h 1 - 1 / 20
For path 2 dQ 2 = dU + dW 2 Coefficient of performance, b = 2 = = = 19
P W h 1 / 20
dQ1 - dQ 2 = dW1 - dW 2 2
1000 - dQ 2 = 100 Q 2 = 19 W = 19 1 kW = 19 kW
dQ 2 = 1000 - 100 = 900 J V \ Heat taken out of refrigerator/sec = Q 2 = 19 kW.
As heat exchanged by the system in path 2 is 900 J. 21. In figure, A represents initial state of the gas.
17. Thinking Process The efficiency of a Carnots engine is (a) When expansion takes place at a constant temperature T1,
T2 the p-V curve is an isothermal curve AB,
h = 1-
T1 Work done by the gas,
where, T1 and T2 are temperature of source and sink W1 = Area under the curve AB.
T1 = 500 K, T2 = 300 K; W = 1 kJ = 1000 J, Q1 = ? (b) When expansion takes place at constant pressure, the
According to Carnots cycle, we have p-V curve is straight line AC parallel to OX.
T 300 2 Work done by the gas,
h = 1- 2 = 1- =
T1 500 5 W 2 = area under the curve AC. Clearly, W 2 > W1
W W 10 3 i.e. work done is more, when the gas expands at constant
As, h= Q1 = = = 2500J
Q1 h 2/5 pressure.

So, heat transferred to the engine by the reservoir is 2500J. (pi, Vi)
Pressure (p)

A (pi, Vf)
18. Thinking Process The coefficient of performance (b ) of a
refrigerator is ratio of quantity of heat removed per cycle (Q2 )
to the amount of work done on the refrigerator (Q1).
(pf, Vf)
As, coefficient of performance, b = 5,
T1 = 27C = (27 + 273)K = 300K, T2 = ? O Vi Volume (V) Vf .

T2 T2
Then, b = 5= 22. Thinking Process There is no exchange of heat in the process,
T1 - T2 300 - T2 hence this can be considered as an adiabatic process.
T2 = 250K = (250 - 273) C = -23 C Let volume is increased by DV and pressure is increased by
So, the temperature inside the refrigerator is -23 C. Dp by an stroke.
19. Thinking Process Potential Energy (PE ) of an object at height For just before and after a stroke, we can write
( h ) is mgh. The energy in the form of fat will be utilised to p1V1g = p2V2g
increase PE of the person. Thus, the calorie consumed by the p( V + DV )g = ( p + Dp)V g (Q volume is fixed)
person in going up is mgh, then according to problem calorie g
DV Dp g
consumed by the person in coming down is 1 / 2 mgh. pV g 1 + = p1 + V
V p
Here, m = 60 kg, g = 10 m/s 2, h = 10 m
DV D p
In going up and down once, number of kilo calories burnt pV g 1 + g pV
1 + (Q D V << V )
= ( mgh + mgh / 2 ) = 3 / 2 mgh V p
3 60 10 10 6 DV Dp 1 V 1 V
= = kcal g = DV = Dp dV = dp
2 4.2 1000 2.8 V p g p g p
Total number of kilocalories to be burnt for losing 5 kg of weight Hence, work done is increasing the pressure from p1 to p2
= 5 7000 = 35000 cal. p2 p2 1V
W = pdV = p dp
\ Number of times the person has to go up and down the stairs p1 p1 g p
35000 35 2.8
= = 10 3 = 16.3 10 3 times. V p2 V ( p - p1 )
6 / 2.8 6 =
g p 1
dp =
( p2 - p1 ) W = 2

k (c) If t is final temperature of the gas, then increase in internal
23. Let, pV 1/ 2 = constant = k p =
V energy, dU = C V (T - T0 )
(a) Work done for the process 1 to 2 : pV pV
V2 V2 where, T0 = 0 0 = a 0
dV R R
W = pdV = k V pV V
V1 V1 and T = f = [ pa + k( V - V0 )]
V 1
= k = 2 k( V2 - V1 ) Also, dW = pa( V - V0 ) + kx 2
1 / 2 V1 2
According to first law of thermodynamics, we have
= 2 p1V11/ 2( V2 - V1 ) = 2 p2V21/ 2 ( V2 - V1 )
dQ = dU + dW
(b) From ideal gas equation :
pV p V V \ Q = C V (T - T0 ) + pa( V - V0 ) + k( V - V0 )2
pV = nRT T = = 2
nR nR
This is the required relation.
k V
T = (As, p V = k) 25. According to question, slope of the curve p = f( V ), where V is
k V1 k V2 volume.
Hence, T1 = T2 = \ Slope of p = f( V ), curve at ( V0, p0 ) = f( V0 )
nR nR
k V1 Slope of adiabatic at ( V0, p0 )
= k( - g ) V0
-1 - g
= - g p0 / V0
T1 nR V1 V1 1
= = = = (Q V2 = 2 V1 ) Now heat absorbed in the process, p = f( V )
T2 k V2 V2 2 V1 2
dQ = dU + dW = nC V dT + pdV (i)
Q pV = nRT T = pV
(c) Given internal energy of the gas, we have nR
U = RT 1
2 T = V f( V )
DU = U 2 - U1 = R(T2 - T1 ) 1
2 dT = [f( V ) + Vf ( V )] dV (ii)
3 nR
= RT1( 2 - 1) [QT2 = 2T1 from (b)]
2 Now from Eq. (i), we get
DW = 2 p1V11/ 2 ( V2 - V1 ) dQ dT dV
= nC V + p
= 2 p1V11/ 2( 2 V1 - V1 ) dV dV dV
= 2 p1V1( 2 - 1) = 2 RT1( 2 - 1) ( DQ = DU + DW ) dT
= nC V + p
3 dV
= RT1( 2 - 1) + 2 RT1( 2 - 1)
2 n CV
= [ f( V ) + V f ( V ) ] + p [from Eq. (ii)]
3 7 nR
= ( 2 - 1)RT1 2 + = RT1( 2 - 1)
2 2 C
= V [f( V ) + V f ( V )] + f ( V ) [Q p = f( V )]
This is the amount of heat supplied.
24. Thinking Process We will assume the piston is massless, = [f( V0 ) + V0 f ( V0 )] + f( V0 )
dV V = V0 R
hence at equilibrium atmospheric pressure and inside
pressure will be same. = f( V0 ) V + 1 + V0 f ( V0 ) V
(a) Initially, the spring is unstretched and the gas is in R R
equilibrium, therefore, initial pressure of the system R
Q CV =
pi = atmospheric pressure = pa g -1
(b) On supplying heat, the gas expands from V0 to V CV 1
\ Increase in volume gas = V - V0 R g -1
As cross-sectional area of piston, dQ 1 V f ( V0 )
A=1 = + 1 f ( V0 ) + 0
dV V = V0 g - 1 g -1
\ Extension in spring,
g V0
V - V0 = p0 + f ( V0 )
x= = ( V - V0 ) (Q A = 1) g -1 g -1
Force exerted by stretched spring on the piston, Heat is absorbed where > 0, when gas expands
F = kx = k ( V - V0 )
Final pressure of the system, Hence, g p0 + V0 f ( V0 ) > 0 or f ( V0 ) > - g 0
pf = pi + p = pa + k( V - V0 )

Master Resource

Theory in Sync with NCERT

Coverage of NCERT & NCERT Exemplar Question
Coverage of Previous Years Questions of JEE Main
from Book I

General Instructions
1. All questions are compulsory.
2. There are 26 questions in total questions number 1 to 5 are very short answer type questions
and carry one mark each.
3. Questions number 6 to 10 carry two marks each. Questions number 11 to 22 carry three
marks each and questions number 24 to 26 carry five marks each.
4. Question number 23 is value based question carry four marks weightage.

1 Mark Questions
1. Define the term mobility of charge carriers in a conductor. Write its SI unit.
2. Two spherical bobs one metallic and the other of glass, of the same size are allowed to fall freely from the
same height above the ground. Which of the two would reach earlier and why?
3. Two charges 4 C and 4 C are placed at points A and B, 3 cm apart. Depict an equipotential surface of
the system.
4. A capacitor has been charged by a DC source. What are the magnitudes of conduction and displacement
currents when it is fully charged?
5. A 10V battery of negligible internal resistance is connected across a 200V battery and a resistance of 38
as shown in the figure. Find the value of the current in the circuit.
10 V

38 200 V

2 Marks Questions
6. The oscillating magnetic field in a plane EM wave is given by
B y = 8 10 6 sin[2 10 11t + 300 x ]T
(i) Calculate the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave.
(ii) Write down the expression for oscillating electric field.
7. An alternating voltage of frequency f is applied to a series L-C-R circuit. Let fr be the resonance frequency
for the circuit. Will the current in the circuit lag, lead or remain in phase with applied voltage when
(i) f > fr (ii) f < fr ? Explain.
8. A proton and a deutron having equal momenta enter in a region of uniform magnetic field at right angle
to the direction of the field. Depict their trajectories in the field.
9. n small drops of same size are charged to V volt each. They coalesce to form a bigger drop. Calculate
potential of bigger drop.
10. A copper wire of length l and radius r is nickel till its final radius is R. If specific resistance of copper and
nickel be c and n . What is the conductance of wire now?

Copper r R


3 Marks Questions
11. Derive relations for electric potential due to a uniformly charged thin spherical shell at a point (i) Outside
the shell (ii) On the shell (iii) Inside the shell. Show graphically also.
12. A capacitor of unknown capacitance is connected across battery of V volt. The charge stored in it is 360
C. When potential across the capacitor is reduced by 120 V, the charge stored in it become 120 C.
(i) the potential V and the unknown capacitance C.
(ii) what will be the charge stored in the capacitor, if the voltage applied had increased by 120V ?
13. AB is an 1 m long uniform wire of 10 resistance. The other data is as shown in the circuit diagram given
2V 15


1.2 1.5V

(a) Potential gradient along AB.
(b) Length AO of the wire, when the galvanometer shows no deflection.
14. Two concentric conducting spherical shells of radii R1 and R2 (where R1 < R2 ) have a
medium of resistivity = filled in the space between the shells, where k is a constant R1
and r is the distance from the common centre. If current flows from inner to outer sphere,
calculate the effective resistance of the arrangement. R2

15. Calculate the field at the centre of a semicircular wire of radius r as shown in figure if straight wires are of
infinite length
I a
O r b

16. Draw a plot showing the variation of intensity of magnetisation with the applied field intensity for
bismuth. Under what condition does a diamagnetic material exhibit perfect conductivity and perfect
17. Two coaxial circular coils C1 and C2 of radii R and r respectively ( R > r ) , such that the distance between the
centres of the two coils is x.

x r
I1 I2


Find mutual inductance of coils.

18. What are eddy currents? How are these produced? In what sense are eddy currents considered
undesirable in a transformer and how are these reduced in such devices?
19. Give two uses of each of the following:
(i) Gamma rays
(ii) Infrared rays
(iii) Ultraviolet rays
20. How are amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields related in electromagnetic waves? Name the
electromagnetic radiation used for viewing object through haze or fog. What is their wavelength range?
21. A capacitor C a variable resistor R and a bulb B are connected in series to the AC mains in circuit as
shown. The bulb glows with some brightness. How will the glow of the bulb change, if
(i) a dielectric slab is introduced between the plates of the capacitor, keeping R constant.
(ii) the resistance R is increased keeping C constant?


22. Three batteries of 2V, 1V and 4V with internal resistance 4, 3 and 2 respectively are arranged in
I1 4 I1
I3 I3

Find values of I1, I2 and I3 .

4 Marks Question
23. Renu saw her aunt suffering from severe joint pain. Her aunt could not take any pain killer as she was
allergic to them. Renu in her quest to help her aunt found the use of magnets. She read Dr. Philpotts
work on magnetic therapy. That most people are negative magnetic field deficient due to
electromagnetic pollution. Supplementing the body with negative field energy has shown in restore
balance and encourage healing. Renu takes her aunt to the doctor for the treatment. Her aunt is
improving at a phenomenal speed.
(i) What values does Renu have?
(ii) A short bar magnet with moment 0.48 J/T. Give the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field
produced by magnet at a distance of 10 cm from the center of the magnet on (a) axial line (b) equitorial
line of the magnet.
5 Marks Questions
24. (a) Derive the expression for the torque on a rectangular current carrying loop suspended in a uniform
magnetic field.
(b) A proton and a deutron having equal momenta enter in region of uniform magnetic field at right angle to
the direction of the dipole field. Depict their trajectories in the field.
(a) A small compass needle of magnetic moment m is free to turn about an axis perpendicular to the direction of
uniform magnetic field B. The moment of inertia of the needle about the axis is I. The needle is slightly
disturbed from its stable position and then released. Prove that it executes simple harmonic motion. Hence,
deduce the expression for its time period.
(b) A compass needle free to turn in a vertical plane orients itself with its axis vertical at a certain place on the
earth. Find out the values of
(i) horizontal component of earths magnetic field
(ii) angle of dip at the place.
25. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor. On charging a parallel plate
capacitor to a potential V, the spacing between the plates is halved and a dielectic medium of r = 10 is
introduced between the plates without disconnecting the DC source. Explain using suitable expressions,
how the
(i) capacitance
(ii) electric field and
(iii) energy density of capacitance?
(a) Define electric flux write its SI units.
(b) The electric field components due to a charge inside the cube of side 0.1 m are as shown.

0.1 m 0.1 m

Ex = x where, = 500 N /C-m

Ey = 0
Ez = 0
(i) the flux through the cube.
(ii) The charge inside the cube.

26. An AC source of voltage V = Vm sin t is connected one by one, to three circuit elements X,Y and Z. It is
observed that the current flowing in them,
(i) is in phase with applied voltage for element X.

(ii) lags the applied voltage, in phase by for element Y.

(iii) leads the applied voltage, in phase by for element Z.
Identify the three circuit elements.
Find an expression for the (a) current flowing in the circuit (b) net impedance of the circuit, when the
same AC source is connected across a series combination of elements X,Y and Z.
If the frequency of the applied voltage is varied, set up the condition of the frequency when the current
amplitude in the circuit is maximum. Write the expression for this current amplitude. A series L-C-R
circuit is connected to an AC source of voltage V and angular frequency . When only the capacitor is
removed, the current lags behind the voltage by a phase angle and when only the inductor is removed,
the current leads the voltage by the same phase angle. Find the current flowing and the average power
dissipated in the L-C-R circuit.

Solutions will be provided in the next issue

Kriti Sharma

Do you know, Astronauts are younger than us, if our birth are Do you know, the fact behind the light waves that don't
similar to them? always move in straight lines?
Both velocity and gravity have an effect on the speed of time. The It is generally believed that light waves only move in straight
stronger the gravitational pull (the closer the clock is to the lines. However, as per the recent research in 2010 using
source of gravitation). Therefore, Astronauts of the International computer controlled hologram, it has been proved that light,
Space Station (ISS) (who are in reduced gravity compared to too, can get twisted into knots. According to the study, when
people on Earth but travelling at increased speed around it) light passes through the hologram, it twists into different
experience time more slowly, at a rate of roughly 1 second lost shapes, producing multiple knots.
every 747 days.
Do you know, the human body is a composition of heavenly
Do you know, the speed of light is constant only in vacuum. bodies? Explain.
Why? Human beings are literally made out of star stuff. Almost all of
According to theory of relativity, the speed of light is same in all the chemical elements that make up a person come from the
inertial frames that means it is independent of motion of observer stars. Any element heavier than hydrogen originated in the
and it does not vary with time or place. Really, light is slowed stars, and we are definitely composed of more than hydrogen.
whenever it passes through something, being measured travelling Calcium, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and around 60
as slowly as just 38 miles per hour at absolute zero (27315. C) other basic ingredients make up a human being. Since,
through ultra-cooled rubidium. hydrogen and helium were the only elements that are not made
up of stars stuff, therefore, its safe to inform that most of the
Do you know, the basic principle behind the sunshine that substance that constitutes the physically originate from the
makes life possible on the earth? stars.
The sun, shines by turning hydrogen into helium in its core. This
process is called thermonuclear fusion. Because the sun is so While making a standard resistance, the coil is made of
massive, it has great gravity and so its core is under tremendous manganin. The coil is double folded and is wound over
levels of pressure and heat. This pressure and heat is so high in non-conducting frame, why?
the suns core (about 15 million C) that the protons of the For manganin, the temperature coefficient of resistance is very
hydrogen atoms which largely make up the sun collide into each low. Due to it, resistance of manganin is high. Therefore for
other with enough speed that they stick together or fuse to create making a standard resistance of the given value, smaller length
helium nuclei. It effectively takes four hydrogen nuclei to fuse of wire is needed. It is due to these facts, the wire of manganin is
together to produce one nucleus of helium, although it is actually a used for making standard resistance coil. The coil is double
more complicated three-part process (hydrogen to deuterium, folded on itself to avoid the inductive effect and it is wounded
deuterium to helium-3 and helium-3 to helium). over the non-conducting frame in order to avoid the conductive
effect and the leakage of current.
Do you know, the fact that using equation E = mc 2 would
make the mobile GPS to perform its functionality? Do you know, the sides of a horizontal pipe carrying the
The satellite navigation system mobile phones, i.e. made up of a dirty water makes the pipe dirty? Explain.
network of 24 geostationary satellites into orbit to pinpoint our When dirty water is flowing through the horizontal pipe, the
location and time information in all weather conditions using radio velocity of the water is maximum along the axis of pipe and is
waves exchanging data because of the theory of relativity, the minimum near the walls of the pipe, i.e. a relative motion exists
speed at which the satellites into orbit clocks tick is around 38,000 between the various layers of the liquid flowing through the pipe.
nanoseconds faster than clocks on the ground. Every time data is As a result of it, a resistive force comes into play which opposes
sent to the receiving device, a calculation must be applied to the relative motion between the adjacent layers. Due to it , the
correct the timings to within the required 20-30 nanoseconds dirty particles present in dirty water move outwards and get
accuracy. struck on the wall of pipe, making the pipe dirty.

NOVEMBER 2015 39
OPTICS (i) If m > 1, the image is magnified.
The branch of physics that deals with the study of
nature, production and propagation of light. It has two
sub-branches. Ray optics and wave optics.
(i) Ray optics It deals with the particle number of
(ii) If m < 1, the image is diminished.
(iii) If m = 1, the image is of the same size as the
light and is based on the rectilinear propagation of AREAL MAGNIFICATION
light, the laws of reflection and refraction of light. If a 2D object is placed with its plane perpendicular to
(ii) Wave optics It concerns itself with the wave the principal axis, then
nature of light and is based on the phenomenon 2 2
A v2 f f v
like interference, diffraction and polarisation of m= I = 2 = =
AO u f u f
where, AI = area of image and AO = area of object. RAY OPT
When a ray of light after incidenting on a boundary RELATION BETWEEN FOCAL LENGTH AND RADIUS
separating two media comes back into the same media, OF CURVATURE OF A SPHERICAL MIRROR
then this phenomenon is called reflection of light as Focal length = 1 / 2 Radius of curvature
shown in figure.
In new cartesian sign convention, the focal length and
Normal ray
radius of curvature are taken negative for a concave ENDOSCOPE
mirror and positive for a convex mirror.
Optical fibres are another important application of
Incident Reflected
REFRACTION OF LIGHT total internal reflection. These thin fibres are
ray i ray generally composed of a glass or plastic core with a
r It is the phenomenon of bending of light from its
straight path when it passes at an angle from one high index of refraction surrounded by an outer
Polished interface (Boundary) transparent medium to another. coating or cladding with low index of refraction.
Light is introduced into the core of the fibre at one
LAWS OF REFLECTION The incident ray, the refracted ray and normal at the
end. It then propagates a long the fibre in a zig-zag
Angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection path, undergoes one total internal reflection after
point of incidence all lie in the same plane.
(r). The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal, another as shown in figure given below.
The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence and the
all lie in the same plane. sine of the angle of refraction is constant for a given The ability of optical fibres to convey light along
REFLECTION AT A PLANE SURFACE (MIRROR) pair of media. This law is also known as Snells law of curved paths has been put to good use in various
Distance of image from mirror = Distance of object sin i fields of medicine. In particular, devices known as
refraction. = = constant endoscopes allows the physicians to examine the
from mirror. sin r
Size of image = Size of object.
interior of the body by snaking a flexible tube
If the object moves with a certain velocity, the image
where, is called refractive index of second medium containing optical fibres into the part of the body to
w.r.t. first medium. This law of refraction is known be examined.
moves with the same velocity but in the opposite Core
as Snells law.
Keeping the incident ray fixed, if the mirror is rotated REFRACTIVE INDEX
through an angle , the reflected ray rotates through It is defined as characteristics which decides the speed Guide the light
through the fibre.
an angle 2. of light in it. It is a scalar, unitless and dimensionless
quantity. Total internal
(CONCAVE OR CONVEX MIRROR) Absolute refractive index The ratio of speed of light in Cladding
Mirrors having their reflecting surface spherical are free space to that in a given medium.
called spherical mirrors. It is of two types : Speed of light in air or vacuum c
= =
Concave mirror A mirror in which the reflection of Speed of light in medium v
light takes place from the inner hollow surface.
Relative refractive index When light passes from one APPLICATIONS OF TIR
Convex mirror A mirror in which the reflection of light medium to the other and refractive index of medium 2 Shining of air bubble An air bubble in water shines
takes place from the outer bulged surface. relative to 1 is written as 1 2 and is defined as due to the total internal reflection at its outer
SIGN CONVENTIONS 2 c / v2 v1 surface. Here, light is propagating from denser to
All distance are measured from the centre (pole) of 12 = = = rarer medium and if i > C . TIR will take place at the
1 c / v1 v2
the mirror. surface of the bubble.
Distance measured in the direction of incident ray are PRINCIPLE OF REVERSIBILITY OF LIGHT Mirage An optical illusion observed in deserts or
taken as positive, while in the direction opposite of This principle states that if the final path of ray of light over not extended surface like a coal tarred road due
incident ray are taken as negative. after it has suffered several reflections and refractions is to which a traveller sees a swimming pond of water
Distance above the principal axis are taken as reversed, it retraces its path exactly. some distance ahead him and in which surrounding
positive, while those below the principal axis are objects like tree, etc., appear inverted.
taken as negative. LENS MAKERS FORMULA
The phenomenon in which a ray of light travelling at an
MIRROR FORMULA AND MAGNIFICATION angle of incidence greater than the critical angle from a This formula relates the focal length f to the refractive
For a spherical mirror, if u = object distance, v = image denser to a rarer medium is totally reflected back into index and the radii of curvature R1 , R2 of its
distance, f = focal length, R = radius of curvature, O = the denser medium obeying the law of reflection. spherical surfaces.
size of object, I = size of image. NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR TOTAL INTERNAL 1 1 1
1 1 1 REFLECTION i.e. = ( 1)
Mirror formula = + f R 1 R2
f u v Light must travel from an optically denser to an
Since, the refractive index of the material of a lens
I v f f v optically rarer medium.
Linear magnification m = = = = decreases with increases in wavelength of incident
O u f u f The angle of incidence (i) in the denser medium must
light, it follows that focal length of the lens will
be greater than the critical angle ( C ) for the two
For an erect image, m is positive and for an inverted increases with increases in wavelength of incident
image, m is negative. light.
refracting faces. The line along which the two refracting COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

on through
faces meet is called refracting edge of the prism. It is a two lens system, i.e. objective lens and eyepiece
REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM lens of focal length, f O and f e . Its magnifying power
is very large as compared to the simple microscope.
When a ray of light is refracted through a prism, the sum
If final image is formed at near point of eye, then
of the angle of incidence i and angle of emergence i is
v D L D
equal to the sum of the angle of the prism A and angle of m = m O m e , i.e = O 1 + = 1 +

PT MAP deviation, as shown in figure.

Deviation at
first surface
Angle of prism
or refracting angle
u O f e f O

where uO is distance of the object from objective


lens and v O ( L ) is length of tube of microscope.

If final image in a microscope is formed at infinity,

Normal at second surface
then m =
Angle of fO fe
f i
1 2 i
le o 2

STRUMENTS inc id at second

surface) It consists of two converging lenses placed co-axially.
The one facing the distant object is called the
Normal at first surface
objective and has a large aperture and large focal
A + = i + i and A = r + r length. While another convex eyepiece lens of small
focal length and small aperture.
In some cases, the bronchoscope an even be used where, r and r are the corresponding angles of refraction For relaxed eye When image formed at infinity,
retrieve small samples from the lungs for further at the two faces. m = f O / f e . In this position, length of telescope is
analysis. Similarly, the colonoscope, can be used to
DEVIATION PRODUCED BY A PRISM OF SMALL given by L = f O + f e where f O and f e are focal
examine the colon, making it one of the most
ANGLE length of objective and eyepiece lens.
important weapons in the fight against colon cancer.
It does not depend on the angle of incidence and is given TERRESTRIAL TELESCOPE
BINOCULAR by = ( 1) A. It is used to see far off objects on the earth. It consists
If two telescopes are mounted parallel to each other of three converging lenses, i.e. Objective, eye lens and
so that an object can be seen by both the eyes erecting lens.
simultaneously, the arrangement is called The splitting of white light into its constituent colours
For relaxed eye, image formed at infinity,
binocular as shown in figure. In a binocular, the when it passes through a glass prism is called dispersion.
m = f O / f e .
length of each tube is reduced by using a set of totally The dispersion of light occurs because refractive index of
In this position, length of telescope,
reflecting prisms which provide intense, erect image prism material is different for different wavelengths.
L = f O + 4 f + f e
free from lateral inversion. Though a binocular we Angular dispersion ( ) It is the angular separation When final image is formed atleast distance of
get two images of the same object from different between two extreme colours (violet and red) in the f f
angles at same time. Their superposition gives the spectrum is called angular dispersion. distinct vision, m 0 = O 1 + e and length of
perception of depth along with length and breadth, fe D
i.e. = V R = (V R )A where V , R are
i.e. binocular vision gives proper three-dimensional telescope, L = f O + 4 f + f e where f O , f e and f
refractive indices of violet and red colour.
( 3D ) image. are the focal lengths of objective lens, eyepiece lens
Objective lens (fo) Dispersion power ( ) It is the ability of the prism and erecting lens.
material to cause dispersion and is defined as the ratio of
the angular dispersion to the mean deviation. REFLECTING TELESCOPE
It is based upon the same principle except that the
Angular dispersion
i.e. Dispersion power = formation of images take place by reflection instead
Mean deviation of refraction.
Blue colour of the sky According to Rayleighs law of Magnifying power of the reflecting telescope when
scattering, the intensity of light of wavelength present the final image is formed at the least distance of
Eyepiece lens (fe)
in the scattering light is inversely proportional to the f f
distinct vision, is given by m = O 1 + e
fourth power of wavelength. i.e. I 1 / 4 fe D
So, blue colour of sunlight is scattered more by the When the final image is formed at infinity,
It relates a relation between object distance u, image atmospheric molecules, due to which the sky appears f R/2
distance v and focal length of a spherical lens of small m= O = , where R is radius of curvature of a
blue. fe fe
1 1 1
aperture, i.e. = . RAINBOW lens.
v u f
It is a spectrum of sunlight through rain drops suspended Limit of resolution It is measured by the angle ()
LINEAR MAGNIFICATION PRODUCED BY A LENS in air. It is seen in the sky usually after rain when back of subtended at its objective, by those two distant
It is the ratio of the size of the image formed by a lens to observer is towards the sun. objects whose images are just seen separate through
the size of the object. the telescope.
Primary rainbow is much brighter with inner edge violet 1 A
Size of image ( h2 ) and outer edge red, subtending 41-43 angle on Resolving power of telescope = = ,
Magnification (m ) = observers eye. 1.22
Size of object ( h1 ) where, A is the aperture size of the telescope
Secondary rainbow is fainter with inner edge red and objective lens.
POWER OF A LENS outer edge violet, subtending an angle 51-54 on
The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its observers eye. GALILEOS TELESCOPE
focal length expressed in metres. i.e. P = 1/ f ( m ) It uses a concave lens for the eyepiece to obtain an
SI unit of power is m , also called dioptre ( D ).
SIMPLE MICROSCOPE erect image of the distant object. The real, inverted
One dioptre is the power of a lens whose principal
A convex lens of small focal length is called a simple and diminished image formed by the objective lies at
microscope or a magnifying glass. the focus of the eyepiece. The final image is formed at
focal length is 1 metre.
If a image is formed at near point, the angular infinity and is erect and magnified.
PRISM magnification of image is m = [1 + D / f ] where, D is In normal adjustment, m = f O / f e
A prism is a portion of a refracting medium bounded by the least distance of distinct vision. length of telescope, L = f O f e
two plane faces inclined to each other at a certain angle. If a image is formed at infinity, then magnification,
where, f O , f e are focal length of objective and eye
The two plane faces inclined to each other are called m =D/f. piecelens.
OVERVIEW 2. Four long straight wires, each
carrying a current i, are placed in a
Magnetic effect of current and magnetism is important topic plane as shown in figure. The
according to exam point of view. Student should focus on P
point of intersection forms a
Biot-Savart law, Amperes law and its applications, current loop square of side 2a. The magnetic
as a magnetic dipole, torque on a magnetic dipole in a uniform
field at the centre P of the square is
magnetic field as described in Q. Nos. 1, 4, 7, 8, 26, 28, 35, etc.
In medical point of view, Earths magnetic field and magnetic m0 i m 2 i m04 i
(a) zero (b) B = (c) B = 0 (d) B =
elements are generally asked in exam as described in Q. Nos. 11, 4p a 4p a 4p a
12, 15, 16, 20, 46, etc.
3. A cylindrical shell is carrying an electric current
along its length distributed uniformly over its
1. The following figure shows the arrangement in surface. The magnetic field at any point on its axis is
which a magnetic dipole of magnetic dipole m0 i m 02 i m 0 4i
(a) B = (b) zero (c) B = (d) B =
moment m is placed in an external magnetic field B 4p a 4p a 4p a
which is directed from South to North. 4. Wire 1 in figure is oriented along the y-axis and
Which configuration has neutral point at point P? carries a steady current I1 . A rectangular loop
located to the right of the wire and in the x-y plane
carries a current I2 . Both wires are placed in the
magnetic field as shown below.
(a) (b) Wire 1 FB
Wire 2
I1 I2

(c) (d) P
S a b

Bright Bat 45
The magnitude and direction of the force exerted on
the bottom wire of length b is
(a) the force has the same magnitude as the force on wire 2 but 45
is directed downwards (c) (d)
(b) the force has the same magnitude as the force on wire 2 but
is directed upwards
(c) the force has the different magnitudes as the force on
wire 2 but is directed downwards +
(d) the force has the different magnitudes as the force on
wire 2 but is directed upwards 9. The segment of wire in
5. The permanent magnetic moment of the atoms of a figure carries a current of I
material is zero. The material is I, where the radius of the
(a) paramagnetic circular arc is R. The
(b) diamagnetic magnitude and direction R
(c) ferromagnetic of the magnetic field at the
(d) may be paramagnetic or ferromagnetic origin is
6. A straight current carrying long conductor is kept (a) B =
m 02 I
(b) B =
m 0I
along the axis of rectangular current carrying loop. 4p R 8R
The straight current carrying long conductor will (c) B =
m 0I m 2I
(d) B = 0
experience a magnetic force which is 4p R pR
(a) directed towards the current loop
(b) directed away from the current loop 10. A short bar magnet placed with its axis at 30 with
(c) of zero magnitude an external field of 800 G experiences a torque of
(d) inversely proportional to the square of length of current loop 0.016 N-m. The magnetic moment of the magnet is
(a) 0.35 A -m2 (b) 0.45 A -m2
7. A circular wire loop of radius R located in the
(c) 0.40 A -m2 . A -m2
(d) 020
y-z plane and carrying a steady current I as shown
in figure below. 11. The Earths magnetic field at the equator is nearly
0.4 G. The Earths dipole moment is
ds . 10 25 A -m2
(a) 105 . 10 24 A -m2
(b) 105
(c) 3.05 10 23 A -m2 . 10 23 A -m2
(d) 105
12. In the magnetic meridian of a certain place, the
O r horizontal component of the Earths magnetic field
is 0.26 G and the dip angle is 60. The magnetic field
of the Earth at this location is
dBx x (a) 0.35 G (b) 0.55 G (c) 0.52 G (d) 0.22 G

The magnetic field B at an axial point P at a distance 13. A solenoid has a core of a material with relative
x from the centre of the loop is given by permeability 400. The windings of the solenoid are
m 0IR m 0IR 2 insulated from the core and carry a current of 2 A. If
(a) (b)
4p( x 2 + R 2 )3/ 2 2( x + R 2 )3/ 2
2 the number of turns is 1000 per metre, then the
m 2 IR m IR magnetic field (H) inside the solenoid is
(c) 0 (d) 0
4p x 4p ( R + x ) (a) 2 10 3 A /m (b) 4 10 3 A /m
(c) 8 10 3 A /m (d) 1 10 5 A /m
8. In which configuration, the initial direction of the
deflection of charged particles as they enter the 14. The dimensional formula of permeability of free
magnetic fields as shown in figure is along upward space is
direction in the plane of paper ? (a) [ML2T -2A -2 ] (b) [MLT -2A -2 ]
Bin Bup (c) [ML2T -2A -3 ] (d) [M2 L2T -2A -2 ]

15. Magnetic moment and magnetic flux respectively

+ are
(a) (b) (a) both scalars (b) both vectors
(c) scalar and vector (d) vector and scalar

16. There exists a perfect diamagnet, namely a 23. A straight horizontal conducting rod of length
superconductor. This is a metal at very low 0.45 m and mass 60 g is suspended by two vertical
temperatures. The magnetic susceptibility of wires at its ends. A current of 5.0 A is set up in the
superconductor is very well given by rod through the wires. The magnetic field should be
(a) - 1 c < 0 (b) c >> 0 (c) 0 < c < e (d) -1 set up normal to the conductor to keep the tension in
17. A circular coil of 16 turns and radius 10 cm carrying the wires is zero, is
a current of 0.75 A rests with its plane normal to an (a) 0.30 T (b) 0.26 T (c) 0.45 T (d) 0.34 T
external field of magnitude 5.0 10-2 T. The coil is
24. Two wires which connect the battery of an
free to turn about an axis in its plane perpendicular
automobile to its starting motor, carry a current of
to the field direction. When the coil is turned
300 A (for a short time). The force per unit length
slightly and released, it oscillates about its stable
between the wires is
equilibrium with a frequency of 2.0 s -1 . The moment
(a) 1.2 N/m of attractive nature
of inertia of the coil about its axis of rotation is
-4 2 -4 2 (b) 1.2 N/m of repulsive nature
(a) 82. 10 kg - m (b) 12
. 10 kg - m
(c) 4.2 N/m of attractive nature
. 10 -3 kg - m2
(c) 12 . 10 -6 kg - m2
(d) 12
(d) 4.2 N/m of repulsive nature
18. The magnitude of magnetic force per unit length on
a wire carrying a current of 8 A and making an angle 25. A toroid has a core (non-ferromagnetic) of inner
of 30 with the direction of a uniform magnetic field radius 25 cm and outer radius 26 cm around which
of 0.15 T is given by 3500 turns of a wire are wound. If the current in the
(a) 0.3 N/m (b) 0.8 N/m (c) 0.6 N/m (d) 0.5 N/m wire is 11 A. The magnetic field inside the core of
the toroid is
19. An electron emitted by a heated cathode and (a) 6 10 -2 T (b) 5 10 -2 T
accelerated through a potential difference of 2.0 kV, (c) 2 10 -2 T (d) 3.02 10 -2 T
enters in a region with uniform magnetic field of
0.15 T. The radius of the electron if the field is . 10-19 C)
26. The electron of charge (-e) (e = + 16
transverse to its initial velocity is performs uniform circular motion around a
(a) 10 -4
m (b) 10 -2
m (c) 10 -6
m (d) 10 -3
stationary heavy nucleus of charge + Ze. The ratio of
the angular momentum and magnetic moment is
20. A short bar magnet placed in a horizontal plane has e -e
(a) (b)
its axis aligned along the magnetic North-South 2 me 2 me
direction. Null points are found on the axis of the e -e
(c) (d)
magnet at 14 cm from the centre of the magnet. The me me
Earths magnetic field at the place is 0.36 G and the
angle of dip is zero. The total magnetic field on the 27. A uniform magnetic field of 3000 G is established
normal bisector of the magnet at the same distance along the positive z-direction. A rectangular loop of
as the null-point (i.e. 14 cm) from the centre of the sides 10 cm and 5 cm carries a current of 12 A. The
magnet is torque on the loop in the case shown in figure given
(a) 0.54 G (b) 0.40 G (c) 0.50 G (d) 0.30 G below is
21. A compass needle free to turn in a horizontal plane
is placed at the centre of circular coil of 30 turns and
radius 12 cm. The coil is in a vertical plane making
an angle of 45 with the magnetic meridian. When B
the current in the coil is 0.35 A, the needle points
West to East. The horizontal component of the
Earths magnetic field at the location is y
(a) 0.39 G (b) 0.50 G (c) 0.45 G (d) 0.18 G
22. A magnetic needle free to rotate in a vertical plane
parallel to the magnetic meridian has its North tip
pointing down at 60 with the horizontal. The
horizontal component of the Earths magnetic field . 10 -2
(a) 18 N-m and the direction is along - y-axis
at the place is known to be 0.35 G. The magnitude of . 10 -2
(b) 18 N-m and the direction is along + y-axis
the Earths magnetic field at the place is . 10 -2
(c) 18 N-m and the direction is along - z-axis
(a) 0.54 G (b) 0.70 G (c) 0.50 G (d) 0.45 G . 10 -2
(d) 18 N-m and the direction is along + z-axis

28. Two current carrying conductors are shown in 32. A uniform magnetic field of 1.5 T exists in a
figure given below. cylindrical region of radius 10.0 cm, its direction
parallel to the axis along East to West. A wire
d carrying current of 7.0 A in the North to South
direction passes through this region. The
a magnitude and direction of the force on the wire if
the wire intersects on the axis, is
b (a) 2.1 N along vertically upward direction
(b) 2.1 N along vertically downward direction
(c) 4.2 N along vertically upward direction
L (d) 4.1 N along vertically downward direction
33. The area enclosed by the magnetisation curve
Ib required to take the material through the hysteresis
cycle is represented by
The magnetic force F on length L of conductor is (a) work (b) susceptibility
given by (c) permeability (d) None of these
m 0 Ia Ib m 0 Ia Ib
(a) L (b) 34. The magnetic permeability of the substance is
2 pd 4pd
related to the susceptibility by
m 0 Ia Ib
(c) (d) None of these (a) m m = m 0 (1 + c ) (b) B = m mB
(c) B = m 0 (H + M ) (d) None of these
29. A circular coil of 20 turns and radius 10 cm is placed 35. Gausss law in magnetism states that the net
in a uniform magnetic field of 0.10 T normal to the magnetic flux through any closed surface is always
plane of the coil. If the current in the coil is 5.0 A, zero, is
then the average force on each electron in the coil
due to the magnetic field is
B dA = 0

(a) 2.5 10 N -25

(b) 4.5 10 N -25 This is due to the fact that,
(c) 5 10 -25 N (d) 5.5 10 -25 N (a) isolated magnetic poles (monopoles) have never been
detected and perhaps do not exist
30. Amperes law in magnetism is represented as (b) isolated magnetic dipoles have never been detected and
perhaps do not exist
(a) B dS = m 0 l (b) f B = B dA
(c) magnetic poles (monopoles) have been detected
m 0 ldS r (d) None of the above
(c) dB = (d) None of these
4p r 2
Assertion and Reason (Q. Nos. 36-45)
31. Consider the current carrying loop shown in figure Read the following questions and choose the correct option.
formed of radial lines and segments of circles whose (a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the
centres are at point P. correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the
C correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) Assertion is false but Reason is true.
B b 36. Assertion (A) The magnetic dipole moment of an
atom is due to both orbital and spin motion of
electrons of the atom.
P Reason (R) An accelerated charge particle produces
D A electric field as well as magnetic field.
The magnitude and direction of B at point P is 37. Assertion (A) A magnetic dipole of magnetic dipole
m 0 4I 4I m 0 4l 4l moment m is placed inside the imaginary cube of
(a) B = - (b) B = - edge a. The magnetic flux linked with the
4p a b 12 a b
imaginary cube of edge a is zero.
m0 l l m 0 4l 4l
(c) B = - (d) B = - Reason (R) This is true as per the Gauss's theorem in
12 a b 6 a b
the magnetism.

38. Assertion (A) In Fig. (a), a wire suspended Reason (R) The magnitude of magnetic dipole
vertically between the poles of a magnet. In Fig. (b), moment of magnetic dipole is M = m(2 l ), where M is
the set up shown in part (a) as seen looking at the magnetic dipole moment of dipole and m is the pole
South pole of the magnet, so that the magnetic field strength of dipole.
is directed into the page. When there is no current in 41. Assertion (A) An electron moving along the positive
the wire, it remains vertical and in Fig. (c), when the x-axis perpendicular to a magnetic field
current is upward, the wire deflects to the left experiences a magnetic deflection in the negative
direction. y-direction. The direction of the magnetic field is
along z-direction.
Reason (R) The magnetic force on moving charge q in
a uniform magnetic field B is given by F = q (v B).

S 42. Assertion (A) When the magnitude of the force per

Bin Bin
unit length between two long parallel wires that
carry identical currents and are separated by 1 m is
2 107 N/m, the current in each wire is defined to
I be 1 A.
Reason (R) Two long straight parallel wires
separated by a distance a and carrying currents I1
Fig. (a) Fig.(b) Fig.(c) and I2 in the same direction, then the force exerted
on wire B per unit of its length due to the magnetic
Reason (R) The magnetic force acting on a current field set up by the other wire A is given by
conductor in the magnetic field is given by FB m0 I1 I2
= .
F = BIl sin q. The direction of magnetic force can be l 2p a
given by using Fleming's left hand rule. B
43. Assertion (A) A long
39. Assertion (A) A straight wire of radius R
wire bent into a carries a steady current Br
semicircle of radius B 1/r
I0 that is uniformly
R forms a closed ds distributed through the
circuit and carries cross-section of the
a current I. The r
d wire. The magnetic R
wire lies in the field at a distance r from the centre of the wire in the
x-y plane and a m I
regions r > R is B = 0 0 .
uniform magnetic 2p r
field is directed I
Reason (R) Magnitude of the magnetic field versus r
along the positive
for the long straight wire of radius R carries a steady
y-axis as shown in figure. The magnitude of the
current I0 is graphically shown in the figure.
magnetic force acting on the straight portion of the
wire and on the curved portion is zero. 44. Assertion (A) An electron L

Reason (R) Assuming the force F1 acting on the moving with constant
straight portion and force F2 acting on the curved speed v in a circular orbit
portion of loop. Since, F2 with a magnitude of 2iRB, of radius r about the O r
is directed into the page and because F1 with a nucleus as shown in
magnitude of 2 iRB is directed out of the page, the figure. The angular
net force on the closed loop is zero. momentum L of revolving
electron lies in one
40. Assertion (A) A rectangular coil of dimensions direction and a magnetic
5.40 cm 8.50 cm consists of 25 turns of wire and moment m in the opposite direction.
carries a current of 15.0 mA. A magnetic field of Reason (R) The magnetic moment associated with
0.350 T is applied parallel to the plane of the loop. this current loop is given by
The magnitude of its magnetic dipole moment is ev 2 1
. 102 A-m2 .
173 m = LA = pr = evr
2 pr 2

45. Assertion (A) Hysteresis loops for (a) a hard 48. Different charge particles are thrown in
ferromagnetic material, e.g. steel and (b) a soft magnetic/electric field in different manner as
ferromagnetic material, e.g. soft iron is given as shown in Column I and their possible trajectories in
below: Column II.
B B Column I Column II
A. Proton with speed v along the 1. Parabola
direction of magnetic field.
B. Proton with speed v perpendicular to 2. Helical
H H the direction of magnetic field
C. Helium nucleus with speed v making 3. Circular
an acute angle q with the direction of
magnetic field.
(a) (b) D. Electron with speed v perpendicular 4. Straight line
to the direction of electric field.
Reason (R) Steel has high retentivity and low
coercivity whereas, soft iron has low retentivity and A B C D A B C D
high coercivity. (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 4 3
(c) 4 3 2 1 (d) 3 4 1 2
Matching Type Questions (Q. Nos. 46-50)
49. The current carrying conductors of different shapes
In each of the following questions, match Column I and are given in Column I and corresponding magnetic
Column II and select the correct match out of the four field produced by them at a given point P as shown
given choices. in Column II.
46. The physical quantities are given in Column I and Column I Column II
their units in Column II. A. A point P lies at a perpendicular 1. B = m 0 2 i
distance a apart from long, straight 4p a
Column I Column II wires, carrying a current i.
A. Permeability 1. Tesla B. Due to circular current carrying loop of 2. B = m 0 i
radius a carrying current i at its centre. 2 a
B. Magnetic induction 2. No unit
C. Due to semicircular current carrying 3. B = m 0 i
C. Magnetic flux 3. A - m2 loop of radius a carrying current i at its 4 a
D. Magnetic moment 4. Weber centre.
D. Due to an arc of circular current 4. B = m 0 qi
carrying loop of radius a which 4p a
subtends an angle q at centre carrying
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 4 3 2 1 current i at its centre.
(c) 2 1 3 4 (d) 2 1 4 3
47. There are different types of magnetic material in (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 4 3
Column I and their properties in Column II. (c) 4 3 2 1 (d) 3 4 1 2
Column I Column II 50. The expressions are given in Column II and
A. Steel 1. Atoms are magnetic dipole physical terms / laws are mentioned in Column I.
with random direction of
Column I Column II
dipole moment.
B. Paramagnetic substance 2. Permanent magnet
A. Biot-Savart law 1. s B dS = m 0 l

C. Diamagnetic substance 3. Temporary magnet B. Amperes law 2. m 0 l dS r

dB =
4p r2
D. Soft Iron 4. Get feebly magnetised in
opposite direction to C. Magnetic flux f B 3. fB = 0
magnetising field. D. Gauss law of magnetism 4. f B = B dA

(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 4 3 (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 4 3
(c) 4 3 2 1 (d) 3 4 1 2 (c) 4 3 2 1 (d) 3 4 2 1

1. (d) The magnetic field at point P, which lies at the Net magnetic moment of the magnet
perpendicular bisector of magnetic dipole in option (d) due to m = 160 2 / 800 = 0.40 A -m2
magnet is parallel to dipole and opposite to the direction of
dipole moment, i.e. anti-parallel to applied magnetic field B. 11. (d) The equatorial magnetic field is given by
Therefore, there is a possibility of getting neutral point at P in m0 m
BE =
option (d). 4p r 2
2. (d) According to right hand thumb rule, the magnetic field at P where, m is dipole moment of Earths magnetic field
due to two vertical current carrying conductors is equal and
opposite and balance each other whereas, the magnetic field BE = 0.4 G = 4 10 -5 T
at point P due to two horizontal current carrying conductors is On substituting the values, we get
equal and along the same direction. Therefore, the magnetic The Earths dipole moment
m 2i m 4i
field at point P is B = 2 0 = 0 4 10 -5 ( 6.4 10 6 )3
4pa 4pa m=
m 0 / 4p
3. (b) Considering a loop enclosing the axis and inside the
cylindrical shell, no current threads it and hence, by Amperes 4 10 -5 ( 6.4 10 6 )3 Q m 0 = 10 -7
circuital law magnetic field at any point on its axis is zero. 10 -7 4p
4. (a) According to Flemings left hand rule , the direction of . 10 23 A -m2
= 105
magnetic force at bottom wire of length b is along downwards
and magnitude is same as the force on wire 2. 12. (c) Since, HE = 026
. G. Let BE is the magnetic field of the

5. (b) The atoms of diamagnetic material have their permanent Earth at given location.
magnetic moment equal to zero. When diamagnetic material So, we have
is placed in magnetising field , the orbital motion of electrons HE
cos 60 =
changes and hence net dipole moment is produced opposite BE
to the direction of magnetising field.
HE 0.26
6. (c) The direction of magnetic field due to current loop is along BE = = = 0.52 G
cos 60 1
its axis. This makes an angle between current carrying
conductor and magnetic field equal to 0 or p. Therefore, the
magnetic force on a conductor is zero, as F sin q. 13. (a) The field H is dependent on the material of the core and is
7. (b) The magnetic field B at an axial point P at a distance x from given by
the centre of the loop is given by H = nI = 1000 2.0 = 2 10 3 A/m
m 0lR 14. (b) The dimensional formula of permeability of free space is
2 ( x 2 + R 2 )3/ 2 [MLT -2A -2].
This expression can be derived from the Biot-Savart law. 15. (d) Magnetic moment and magnetic flux respectively are both
vector and scalar quantities.
8. (a) Using Flemings left hand rule, the direction of force on
positive charge [Fig. (a)] is along upward direction. 16. (d) The susceptibility c of a material is diamagnetic if c
Bin is negative, paramagnetic, if c is positive and small
and ferromagnetic. If c is large and positive. For the perfect
diamagnet namely a superconductor, the susceptibility
c = - 1.
1 mB
17. (b) The frequency of oscillation, f =
2p I
9. (b) The magnetic field at origin exists only due to circular arc where, magnetic moment m = NIA = Nlpr 2
which subtends an angle p/2 at origin. Also, the magnetic field The moment of inertia I is given by
due to straight current carrying conductor at origin is zero.
m i mB NIpr 2B 16 075 . )2 5 10 -2
. ( 01
The magnitude of the magnetic field at the origin is B = 0 . I= 2 2
= 2 2
8R 4pr f 4p f 4p(2 )2

10. (c) Torque acting on a short bar magnet, t = mBsin q, q = 30, = 1.2 10 -4 kg-m 2
1 18. (c) Magnetic force per unit length
Hence, sin q =
2 F
= = lBsin q = 8 015
. sin 30
0.016 = m ( 800 10 -4 T )
2 = 0.6 N/m

19. (d) According to work-energy theorem, we get 24. (b) Magnetic force per unit length of two wires
work done by an electron = change in kinetic energy of an m 0l1l 2 4p 10 -7 300 300
electron F = = = 1.2 N/m
2 pr 2 p 0.015
eV = mv 2 25. (d) As magnetic field B for a toroid at any point inside it is
same as that of a solenoid on its axis and given by B = m 0nI,
2eV 2 16 10 -19 2000 where, n is number of turns per unit length.
v = =
m . 10 -31
The mean radius, r = 25.5 cm = 0.255 m
= 2.65 10 7 m/s N 3500
Number of turns per unit length, n = =
Here, angle between v and B is 90, therefore charge particle 2 pR 2 p 0250
perform circular motion of radius Now, magnetic field inside the core of the toroid B = m 0nI
mv . 10 -31 2.65 10 7
91 where, n is the number of turns per unit length.
r= = = 10 -3 m
qB . 10 -19 015
16 . 3500
\ B = 4p 10 -7 10
2 p 0.255
20. (a) At null-point on axis of magnet,
magnetic field at any axial point B = horizontal component of = 3.02 10 -2 T
the Earths magnetic field H
26. (b) The ratio of the angular momentum and magnetic
m 0m -e
= H = 0.36 G moment is .
4pr 3 2 me
Magnetic field at any equatorial point is 27. (a) Magnetic moment of current loop
m0 m H 0.36
= = = = 018
. G m = NiA = 1 12 (10 5 10 -4 )
4pr 3 2 2
= 0.06 A -m2
Thus, net magnetic field at equatorial point
and magnetic field, B = 3000 G \ 1 G = 3000 T = 0.3 T
= H + Be = 0.36 + 018
. = 0.54 G
10 4
21. (a) Magnetic field due to current carrying coil at its centre is
given by
m 0 Nl
Since, the coil is in a vertical plane making an angle of 45 I
with the magnetic meridian. Therefore, horizontal component
of the Earths magnetic field
m 0 Nl y
H = B cos 45 = cos 45
4p 10 -7 30 0.35
= = 0.39 G x
2 12 10 -2
Torque experienced by current carrying coil in magnetic field B
22. (b) Since, H = B cos d, where horizontal component of the
t = (m B ) = 0.06 $i 0.3 k$ = - 1.8 10 -2 $j
Earths magnetic field H = Bcos 45 G, angle of dip d = 22.
. 10 -2N-m and the direction is
i.e. magnitude of torque is 18
i.e. H = Bcos d
along negative y-axis.
Magnitude of the Earths magnetic field at the place, 28. (a) Force on length L of wire b is F = IaLBa. The magnetic force
H F on length L of conductor is given by
cos d m 0l a l b
= L
0.35 2 pd
= = 070
. G
cos 60
29. (c) Magnetic Lorentz force on each electron F = evB
23. (b) Magnetic force on straight horizontal rod = weight of a Also, current i = neAv
conducting rod i.e. magnetic field normal to the conductor to i
keep the tension in the wire is zero, i.e. ev =
mg 0.06 9.8 Therefore, magnetic Lorentz force on each electron
B= = = 0.26 T
il 5 0.45
iB . 5
in a direction to perpendicular to the straight horizontal rod. F = evB = = = 5 10 -25 N
nA 10 29 10 -5

30. (a) According to Amperes circuital law, the line integral of 39. (a) The component of current element which is perpendicular
magnetic field induction B around a closed path in vacuum is to magnetic field causes magnetic force. Also, the Reason is
equal to m 0 times the total current I threading the closed path the correct explanation as well as both are true.
B dS = m 0I. 40. (b) As, magnitude of magnetic dipole moment of magnetic
dipole is M = m (2 l). So, the Reason is not the correct
31. (c) There will be magnetic field at P due to BC and AD.
explanation of Assertion but both are true.
41. (a) Since, the magnetic force on moving charge q in a uniform
magnetic field B is given by F = q ( v B ).
l According to problem in vector form - F $j = - e ( vj$ B ).
B b This exists only when magnetic field is along z-direction.
Thus, Reason is correct explanation of Assertion as well as
Reason and Assertion both are true.
42. (a) Assertion is the definition of Ampere based on the formula
D A given in Reason .
p Thus, Reason is correct explanation of Assertion as well as
m0 3 Reason and Assertion both are true.
Magnetic field at P due to arc AB = I
4p a 43. (a) The graph explains very well the relation between B and r
p for every point at a distance r from the centre of the wire in the
I region, i.e. r > R.
Magnetic field at P due to arc DC = 0 3
4p b Thus, Reason is correct explanation of Assertion as well as
m0 p I Reason and Assertion both are true.
Net magnetic field at P is B =
4p 3 a b 44. (b) Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion but
m Reason and Assertion both are true.
= 0 -
12 a b 45. (c) As, coercivity of soft iron is less than coercivity of steel. It
means that soft iron loses its magnetism more rapidly than
32. (a) Since, axis of cylinder is along the axis, i.e. East to West steel does. So, the Assertion is correct but Reason is false.
and wire is along North to South and placed in intersecting
position, so the angle between conductor and magnetic field 46. (d) Permeability No unit, Magnetic induction Tesla
is 90 and wire should be along the diameter of cylinder. Magnetic flux Weber, Magnetic moment A -m2.
Length of a wire = 2 r = 2 10 = 20 cm = 0.2 m 47. (b) Steel is a permanent magnet and soft iron is temporary
Magnetic force F = iBl sin q = 7 15
. 020
. sin 90 = 2.1 N magnet, paramagnetic substance having magnetic dipole
Flemings left hand rule suggests that direction of force is with random direction of dipole moment while diamagetic
along vertically upward direction. substance get feebly magnetised in opposite direction to
magnetising field.
33. (a) The hysteresis curve represents the relation between
magnetic field induction B (or intensity of magnetisation I) 48. (c) When a proton moves with speed v along the direction of
of a ferromagnetic material with magnetising force (H). magnetic field forms straight line, perpendicular to magnetic
It represents the behaviour of the material as work done field forms circular path, perpendicular to the direction of
through a cycle of magnetisation curve. electric field shows parabolic path while making an angle
( q < 90 ), then it forms helical path.
34. (a) The relation between magnetic susceptibility and
magnetic permeability of a medium m m = m 0 (1 + c ). 49. (a) When a point P at distance a apart from straight wires
carrying a current i if it is perpendicular to plane, i.e.
35. (a) According to Gausss law for magnetism, the net m 2i
magnetic flux ( f B ) through any closed surface is always zero. B= 0 .
4p a
i.e. f = B dA = 0. m i
s Circular current carrying loop, B = 0 . Due to semicircle
2 a
36. (b) The magnetic dipole moment of an atom is due to both m0 i
orbital and spin motion of electrons of the atom. The orbital loop, then B = and an arc of angle subtends q, its
4 a
motion causes diamagnetism, whereas spin motion causes
m iq
para or ferromagnetism. centre then B = 0 .
4p a
37. (a) According to Gausss law in magnetism such that net m IdS r
magnetic flux through any closed surface is always zero. 50. (b) Biot-Savart law d B= 0
4p r2
Thus, it is the application of Gausss theorem in magnetism.
Amperes law B dS = m 0 l
38. (a) As, magnetic force acting on current carrying conductor is S

given by F = Bil. So, it is directly determined using Fleming Magnetic flux f B = S B dA and Gausss law of magnetism
left hand rule. The reason is correct explanation of Assertion
i.e. f B = 0.
as well as Reason and Assertion both are true.

The Universe where we live in is still full of unknowns. A Neutrinos are among the fundamental particles, we do not
major discovery cannot be achieved in a day or two. It takes know how to divide any further. Therefore position within
a long of people and a long time. I would like to see young the models of physics at the most fundamental
people try to join our pursuit of mystery solving. level is very important.
Takaaki Kajita (born 9 March 1959) is a Japanese physicist, known for Arthur Bruce McDonald, (born August 29, 1943 in Scotia), is a Canadian
neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, astrophysicist. McDonald is the director of the Sudbury Neutrino
Super-Kamiokande. His wife, Michiko, lives in Toyama. In 2015, he was Observatory Institute and holds the Gordon and Patricia Gray Chair in
awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Canadian physicist Particle Astrophysics at Queens University in Kingston, Ontario. He was
McDonald. Kajita studied at the Saitama University and graduated awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Japanese physicist
in 1981. He received his doctorate in 1986 at the University of Kajita. McDonald graduated with a B.Sc. degree in Physics in 1964 and
Tokyo. Since 1988, he has been at the Institute for Cosmic in Physics in 1965 from Dalhousie University in Scotia. He then
Radiation Research, University of Tokyo, where he obtained his Ph.D. degree in Physics in 1969 from the California. McDonald
became an assistant professor in 1992 and professor in worked as a research officer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
1999.He became director of the Center for Cosmic northwest of Ottawa from 1970 to 1982. He became professor of physics at
Neutrinos at the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research Princeton University from 1982 to 1989, leaving Princeton to join Queens
(ICRR) in 1999. As of 2015, he is at the Institute for University. He is currently the University Research Chair at Queens University
the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe in and a board member at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.
Tokyo and Director of ICRR.
CONTRIBUTION In August 2001, a collaboration at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO),
In 1998, Kajita's team at the Super-Kamiokande a detector facility located 6,800 ft. (2,100 m) underground in a mine outside
found that when cosmic rays hit the Earth's Sudbury, Ontario, led by McDonald, checked in with a direct observation
atmosphere, the resulting neutrinos switched suggesting that electron neutrinos from the Sun really were oscillating into
between two flavours before they reached the detector muon and tau neutrinos. SNO published its report in the August 13, 2001,
under Mt. Kamioka.This discovery helped prove the issue of Physical, and it is widely considered as a very important result.
existence of neutrino oscillation and that neutrinos have
mass. In 2015, Kajitas shared the Nobel Prize in Physics along with
Canadian physicist Arthur McDonald, whose Sudbury Neutrino
2006, made an Officer of the Order of Canada.
Observatory discovered similar results. Kajita and McDonalds work 2007, awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in
solved the longstanding solar neutrino problem, which was a major Physics with Yoji Totsuka.
discrepancy between the predicted and measured Solar neutrino fluxes, 2009, elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)
and indicated that the Standard Model, which required neutrinos to be of London.
massless, had weaknesses. 2011, awarded the Royal Society of Canada's
Henry Marshall Tory Medal in recognization
HONOUR for having brought great honour and
1989, Bruno Rossi Prize along with the other members of the intellectual wealth to Canada.
Kamiokande collaboration. 2015, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
2002, Panofsky Prize. jointly with Takaaki Kajita for the discovery of
1987, Asahi Prize as part of Kamiokande, and in 1999 as part of neutrino oscillations, which shows that
Super-Kamiokande. neutrinos have mass.
1999, Nishina Memorial Prize.
2013, Julius Wess Award. The Nobel Prize was shared by two scientists
Takaaki Kajita of Japan and Arthur B. McDonald
2015, Nobel Prize for Physics jointly with Arthur B. McDonald for the of Canada. The Discovery has changed our
discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have understanding of the innermost workings of matter
mass. and can prove crucial to our view of the universe.
Kamal Upreti

Problem No. 6.234 Step II According to conservation principle of energy in the form of
m1 c 2 = m2 c 2 + m3 c 2 + Q
Recoiling of a daughter nucleus Q = ( m1 - m2 - m3 ) c 2
According to conservation principle of energy, we have
A stationary Pb200 nucleus emits an alpha-particle with
T1 + m1 c 2 = T2 + m2 c 2 + T3 + m3 c 2
kinetic energy Ta = 5.77 MeV. Find the recoil velocity of a
daughter nucleus. What fraction of the total energy 0 + m1c 2 = T2 + m2 c 2 + T3 + m3 c 2
liberated in this decay is accounted for by the recoil ( m1 - m2 - m3 ) c 2 = T2 + T3
energy of the daughter nucleus? Q = T2 + T3 = Total energy released.

Sol. STRATEGY TO SOLVE For solving the problem, based upon Step III Find out the fraction of recoil energy of a nucleus.
nuclear reaction, three basic equations are provided. \ Fraction of recoil energy is
1. On the basis of conservation principle of momentum. T2 p22
% DE = =
2. On the basis of energy conservation principle. T2 + T3 2 m2
3. On the basis of conservation principle in the form of p22 p2
+ 3
Q-factor. 2 m2 2 m3
Step I Apply law of conservation of momentum, we have 1 / m2
= (Q p2 = p3)
Pb 200 Y 196 + a + Energy released 1 / m2 + 1 / m3
m1 m2 m3 m2 m3 m3 m
= = = a
Time taken, T1 = 0 T2 T3 m2 ( m2 + m3 ) m2 + m3 m1
Momentum, p1 = 0 p2 p3 4 1
= = = 0.02
where, m1 = mass of Pb nucleus (not atomic mass) 200 50
m2 = mass of daughter nucleus Step IV Find velocity recoil velocity of a daughter nucleus, we get
m3 = mass of a-particle. According to problem, time taken by alpha-particle to decay.
i.e. p1 = p 2 + p 3 p2 p2
T3 = Ta = 3 = 3
0 = p2 + p3 2 m3 2 ma
p2 = - p3 \ p2 = p3 = 2 ma Ta
It means a-particle and daughter nucleus move in opposite m2v 2 = 2 ma Ta
\ Velocity of daughter nuclei,
|p 2| = |-p 3|
2 ma Ta
i.e. p2 = p3 vdaughter = v 2 = [Q m2 = mdaughter ]

54 NOVEMBER 2015

Here, . 10 -27kg
ma = 4 167
. 10 -27kg
mdaughter = (200 - 4) 167
Problem No. 6.233
. 10 6 16
On putting the values, we get (a) What isotope is produced from the a-radioactive
vdaughter = 3.39 10 5m/s 3.4 10 5m/s Ra 226 as a result of five a-disintegrations?
(b) How many a and b - -decays does U238 experience
before turning finally in to stable Pb206 isotope?
AGE OF AN ORE Due to emission of a-particle, mass number decreases by four
and atomic number decreases by two. But due to emission of
In a uranium ore the ratio of U238 nuclei to Pb206 is h = 2.8. b- particle from the nucleus, mass number does not change but
Evaluate the age of ore, assuming all the lead Pb206 to be atomic number increases by one.
a final decay product of the uranium series. The half-life Step I Find isotope is produced from the a radioactive Ra 226 as a result
of U238 nuclei is 4.5 109 years. of five a-disintegrations and four b-disintegrations.
226 226- 5 4 226- 20
88Ra 5
88- 2 5 X
88- 2 5 + 4 Y
226 206 206
product. So, number of nuclei of Pb in the sample is equal to 88Ra 5
78 X
82 Y
number of decay nuclei of U 238.
So, applicable formula is N = N0 e - lt Hence, final product has mass number 206 and atomic
number 82.
Step I The number of nuclei of U 238 after time t is N = N0 e - lt , where From periodic table, 82 Y 206 is 82Pb 206
N0 is number of nuclei of U 238 at t = 0
Step II Calculate number of a and b - -decays from radioactive element
So, the number of Pb after time t = number of nuclei of U 238 U 238.
decay in time t n b
Here 92U

1 a
92- n1 2 X
238- n1 4 2

N1 = N0 (1 e - lt )
92- 2 n 1 + n 2 Y 238- 4 n1
Step II Calculate the age of the ore, assuming all the lead Pb 206 to be 206
But according to problem, final product is 82Pb
a final decay product of the uranium series. 238 - 4 n2 206
Y = 82Pb
N N 0 e - lt 92- 2n 1 + n2
As, h= =
N1 N0 (1 - e - lt ) Comparing mass numbers, we get
e - lt
= h (1 - e - lt
)e - lt
= h - he - lt 238 - 4n1 = 206
238 - 206 32
(1 + h) e - lt = h n1 = = =8
4 4
h Comparing atomic number, we get
e - lt =
1 + h 92 - 2 n1 + n2 = 82
Taking log on both sides, we get 92 - 2 8 + n2 = 82
h n2 = 6
In (e - lt ) = ln
1 + h Here, number of a-particles, n1 = 8
h and number of b-particles, n2 = 6
- lt = ln
1+ h

1 + h
Problem No. 6.244

1 + h h
t = - ln =
T1/ 2 Passing down to the ground state, excited Ag109 nuclei emit
1 either gamma quanta is 87keV or K conversion electrons
ln 1 + h whose binding energy is 26 keV. Find the velocity of these
t = T
1/ 2 electrons.
Here, h= 2.8 and T1/ 2 = 4.5 10 years Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION
According to problem statement, it is clear that the energy
On putting the values, we get
released by nucleus in returning from excited state to ground
the age of an ore, t = 2 10 9 years state is DE = 87 MeV. In other way, This energy is taken by

NOVEMBER 2015 55

Step I If this energy is taken by K- electron, then a part of energy is ( E - T )2 = T 2 + 2Tmc 2

spent for knocking out K-shell from atom and remaining part 2
E + T 2 - 2 ET = T 2 + 2Tmc 2
provides kinetic energy to the electron.
E 2 - 2 ET = 2Tmc 2
The energy required to knock out the electron is equal to
binding energy of K-shell electron. E2 E E - T
T = =
DE = Binding energy + KE 2( mc 2 + E ) E E
KE = DE - Binding energy Here, m is mass of Ir191nucleus.
= ( 87 - 26) keV Step III Find fractional change of gamma quanta energy due to recoil
KE = T = 61 keV of the nucleus.
Step II Relative kinetic energy of an electron E E-T
-1= -1
T = mc 2 - 1 = 61 keV DE T T
1 - v 2 / c 2 = 1- - 1 =

+1 DE E2 E
= =
1- v2 / c2 mc 2 E 2( mc 2 + E ) E 2( mc 2 + E )
1 026
. But, E << mc 2
2 2
= 1.26 v 2 = c2
1- v / c 1.26 \ mc 2 = E mc 2
v = 0.454 c = 0.45 c Fractional change of gamma energy of a nucleus,
So, velocity of an electron is 0.45 c. DE E
E mc 2
Problem No. 6.245 Here, E = 129 keV, c = 3 10 8 m/s, m = 191
On putting the values, we get
= 3.6 10 -7
Quanta energy of the nucleus. E
A free stationary Ir191 nucleus with excitation energy
E = 129 keV passes to the ground state, emitting a gamma Remarks
quantum. Calculate the fractional change of gamma Positron emission or b -decay b + -decay take place by an

quanta energy due to recoil of the nucleus. unstable nucleus having excess proton than needed for stability.
Concept beyond the question In this process, a proton converts itself into a neutron, positron
and neutrino. Positron is antiparticle of electron. The rest mass
When the recoil speed of nucleus is neglected. The energy
of positron is same as that of electron and electric charge on
of g photon is E = 129 keV
positron is positive. Neutrino is antiparticle of antineutrino. The
When nucleus is in the condition of recoiling, then energy reaction is as follow:
E is shared by g-rays and kinetic energy of nucleus.
P = n + e+ + n
E = E + T
b + -decay process in an unstable nucleus is represented as
i.e. T is kinetic energy of nucleus.
Step I According to conservation Excited state A A +
principle of momentum, the Z X Z -1Y + e + n
mp md m
momentum of nucleus is Gamma
equal and opposite to g Here, m p = mass of parent nucleus
photon as shown in figure.
\ The magnitude of
= mass of parent atom - mass of total number of electron in the
momentum of nucleus is parent atom = M p - Zm
hg E Similarly, m d = M d - (Z - 1) m
p= =
c c Applying conservation principle in the form of Q-factor:
pc = E Ground state m p c 2 = m d c 2 + mc 2 + Q
Step II The relative momentum of
nucleus is or (M p - Zm )c 2 = {M d - (Z - 1)m }c 2 + mc 2 + Q
pc = T (T + 2 mc 2 ) M p c 2 = M d c 2 + mc 2 + mc 2 + Q
E = T (T + 2 mc 2 )
Q = (M p - M d - 2m )c 2
Squaring both sides, we get
E 2 = T (T + 2 mc 2 )

56 NOVEMBER 2015
To boost up your ranks in JEE Main and Advanced
1. Two long thin parallel 5. How should 1 kg of water at 50C is divided in two
conductors of the shape a parts so that if one part is turned into ice at 0C, if it
shown in the figure carry would release sufficient amount of heat to vaporise
direct currents I1 and I2 . the other part? Given that latent heat of fusion of ice
The separation between I1 is 3.36 105 J /kg, latent heat of vaporisation of
the conductors is a and r
dr water is 22.5 105 J /kg and specific heat of water is
the width of the right I2 4200 J /kg-K.
hand conductor is equal (a) 1.2 kg (b) 0.812 kg (c) 0.52 kg (d) 0.692 kg
to b with both conductors 6. A beam of protons with a velocity of 4 105 m/s
lying in one plane. Find the magnetic interaction enters a uniform magnetic field of 0.3 T at an angle
force between them reduced to a unit length. of 60 to the magnetic field. Find the radius of the
m 0 I1I2 a - b m 0 I1I2 a + b
(a) loge (b) loge helical path taken by the proton beam. Also, find
2 pb a 2 pb a the pitch of the helix (which is the distance travelled
m II a m II 2 a by a proton in the beam parallel to the magnetic
(c) 0 1 2 loge (d) 0 1 2 loge
2 pb b 2 pb b field during one period of rotation).
2. Calculate the difference in wavelength of Ha -line (a) 1.2 10 -2 m, 4.37 10 -2 m
of ordinary and heavy hydrogen. Given that (b) 4 10 -6 m, 7 10 -8 m
proton-electron mass ratio is 1836 and wavelength (c) 8 10 -3 m, 4.6 10 -3 m
of H a -line of ordinary hydrogen is 6563 . (d) 1.6 10 -7 m, 2.4 10 -6 m
(a) 2.42 (b) 1.78 (c) 4.2 (d) 3.67
7. If we place a negative charge ( of magnitude -q and
3. Suppose that the pressure p and the density r of air mass m) at the centre of a charged ring and slightly
are related as p / r = constant, regardless of height displace it along the axis of ring and release. Find
(n is a constant here). Find the corresponding the angular frequency of oscillation of the particle.
temperature gradient. kq Q kq Q kq Q kq Q
(a) (b) (c) (d)
- Mg ( n + 1) - M ( n + 1) - Mg ( n - 1) gM ( n) ma 2 ma 3 ma ma 4 / 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
nR nR nR R
8. A heating coil of 2000 W is immersed in an electric
4. A tuning fork having frequency of 340 Hz is circuit. How much time will it take in raising the
vibrated just above a cylindrical tube. The height of temperature of 1 L of water from 4 C to 100C ?
the tube is 110 cm and water is slowly poured in it. Only 80% of the thermal energy produced is used in
What is the minimum height of water required for raising the temperature of water.
resonance? (Given, v = 340 m/s). (a) 212 s (b) 252 s
(a) 30 cm (b) 35 cm (c) 40 cm (d) 50 cm (c) 300 s (d) 150 s

NOVEMBER 2015 63

9. A particle executes a simple harmonic motion of points B, C and D. The thermal conductivities of x
amplitude 1.0 cm along the principal axis of a and y are 0.92 and 0.46 SI units.
convex lens of focal length 12 cm. The mean
x x
position of oscillation is at 20 cm from the lens. Find
the amplitude of the image of the particle. A y B E
y y
(a) 2.6 cm (b) 2.5 cm
(c) 2.8 cm (d) 2.25 cm
(a) 76 C, 68 C , 68C
10. Two rods of material x and three rods of material y (b) 72C, 64C, 68C
are connected as shown in the figure. All the rods (c) 75C, 60C, 54C
are of identical length and cross-sectional area. If (d) 70C, 45C, 40C
the end A is maintained at 60C and the junction E at
100C, calculate the temperatures of the junctions at

1. (b) Consider a strip dr of conductor B at a distance r. Magnetic m 2M

Here, m =
field produced by the conductor A carrying current I1 at a distance m +2M
r from it is given as mM
A B and m=
where, M is mass of proton and m is mass of electron
l m+M
l m +2M
I1 l m + 1836 m
r 6563 m + 3672 m
I2 l = 6564.782
\ Change in wavelength of Ha -line of ordinary and heavy hydrogen
l - l = 6564.78 - 6563 = 1.78
m I 3. (c) As, the temperature gradient is given by
B = 0 1 (perpendicular to thin element and directed downwards)
2 pr dT dT dr dp
= (i)
The force dF, on the thin element of width dr per unit length of dh dr dp dh
conductor B is given by From change in pressure, we have
m I I
dF = BI 2 = 0 1 2 dp = - rgdh
2 pr dp
where, I 2 = current in thin element i.e. = - rg (ii)
= current per unit width in conductor B width of element
Given that p / r n = c (constant)
I2 = 2 dr p = cr n
m I I dr = cnr n - 1 (iii)
dF = 0 1 2 dr
2 pr b
Total force on element AB is given by We know that p = r T or cr n = r T
a+ b
m 0 I1 I2 dr m 0 I1 I2 M
F= = [loge r ]aa + b
T = cr n - 1
2 pb r 2 pb R
m 0 I1 I2 a + b dT M
= loge = c ( n - 1) r n - 2 (iv)
2 pb a dr R
From Eqs. (ii), (iii) and (iv) substituting these values in Eq. (i) and
2. (b) In case of hydrogen like atom, solving, we get
hc 2 p 2 k 2 Z 2e 4 m 1 1 1 dT - Mg( n - 1)
DE = = 2 - 2 where, k = 4pe =
l h2 n
1 n 2 0 dh nR
When nucleus and electron (both) rotate around their common where, n is constant.
1 2 p 2 k 2 Z 2e 4 m 1 1 4. (b) For the tuning fork to be in resonance with air column in the
centre of mass, then = -
l h2 2 2 3 2 pipe closed at one end.
l m nv
Now, = f= with n = 1, 3 , 5
l m 4L

64 NOVEMBER 2015

So, length of air column in pipe, 8. (b) Here, power consumed by a heating coil, P = 2000 W
nv n 340 100
L= = = 25 n cm with n = 1 , 3 , 5 Volume of water = 1 L = 1000 cm 3
4f 4 340
Mass of water, m = volume density = 1000 1 = 1000 g
Now, as the tube is 110 cm, so length of air column must be
Raise in temperature = Q 2 - Q1 = 100 - 4 = 96 C
lesser than 110 cm, i.e. it can only be 25 cm or 75 cm. Further,
if h is height of water filled in the tube, then We know that specific heat of water, C = 1 cal g -1 C -1 .
h = 110 - L hmin = 110 - L min = 110 - 75 = 35 cm \ Heat taken by water = mc (Q 2 - Q1 )
5. (b) Let x kg of water is frozen, then the amount of heat released by = 1000 1 96 = 96000 cal
it is Energy spent in heating coil,
Q1 = ( x 4200 50 + x 3 .36 10 5 ) J E = Pt = 2000 t
= ( x 5.46 10 5 ) J Useful energy produced = 80% = 2000 t
The heat required to vaporise (1 - x ) kg of water from 50 C is 100
Q 2 = (1 - x ) 22.5 10 5 J 2000 t 80
Useful heat produced =
Thus, the heat Q 2 must be provided by first part of water, we have 100
Q 2 = Q1 As, this heat is taken by water, we have
2000 t 80
(1 - x ) 22.5 10 5 = x 5.46 10 5 = 96000 J
100 4.2
22.5 - 22.5 x = 5.46 x
Time taken to raise the temperature of 1 L of water from 4C to
Amount of heat required to vaporise water, 100C
22.5 96000 100 4.2
x= = 0.812 kg t= = 252 s
25.06 2000 80
mv ^ mv sin q
6. (a) The radius of helical path, r = = 9. (d) According to lens makers formula, we have
Bq Bq
1 1 1
(1.67 10 -27 5
)( 4 10 )sin 60 - =
= -19
v v u f
0.3 1.6 10 v
Differentiating both sides, we get
= 1.2 10 -2 m du dv
- =0
As we know, pitch of helical path, p = v|| T 60
B u 2 v2
2pm v|| 2
p= v cos q v2 f
Bq dv = du = du
u2 u + f
(2 p ) (1.67 10 -27 ) ( 4 10 5 )cos 60 Here, du = path length of object = 2 .0 cm and dv = path length of
= = 4.37 10 -2 m
0.3 1.6 10 -19 image
7. (b) As, electric field along its axial position, we have 12 9
i.e. dv = 2 = 2 cm = 4.5 cm
kQx -20 + 12
( a 2 + x 2 )3 / 2 1
Amplitude of an image = path length of image
- kqQx 2
Force on a charged particle, F = - qE = 1
( a 2 + x 2 )3 / 2 = 4.5 = 2.25 cm
As, acceleration of a negative charged particle, 2

- kqQx 10. (a) The square BCED is forming a balanced Wheatstone bridge,
m m( a 2 + x 2 )3 / 2 hence C and D have same temperature, so no heat flows from
C to D.
a H1 H1
x x
O F q A y B y
H2 H2

Now, net heat H = H1 + H 2
Hence, acceleration is opposite to displacement, so motion will Ky A KxA KyA
be oscillatory. (TA - TB ) = (TB - TE ) + (TB - TE )
l 2l 2l
But a is not directly proportional to x so motion is not SHM.
- kqQx 0.92 (100 - TB ) = 0.46 (TB - 60 ) + 0.92 (TB - 60 )
If x < < a, then a = TB = 76 C
ma 3
Here a x, so the motion will be SHM. Also, TB - TC = TC - TE
Comparing with a = - w2 x, we get 76 + 60
TC = = 68 C
kq Q 2
Angular frequency of oscillation of the particle, w = Similarly, TC = TD = 68 C
ma 3

NOVEMBER 2015 65
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3F 4. (b) For the shell not to slide, it should start pure rolling
1. (a) Normal force, N = Mg -
5 immediately after being hit.
= Mg - 0.6 F
N+ 3F h

37 4F = 0.8 F
Fdt = mv 0 (i)
s N 2
Mg Fhdt = Iw 0 = mR 2w 0 (ii)
For pure rolling, a = Ra and v 0 = Rw 0 (iii)

On dividing Eq.(ii) by Eq.(i), we get
0.8F - m s N ( m N )R T
= R s
Q a = 2 w 2 w 2
l h = R2 0 = R2 0 = R
M 1 MR 2 3 v0 3 Rw 0 3
5. (a) Net force acting on a billiard ball,
0.8F = 3 m s N = 3 ( 0.4) ( Mg - 0.6F )
f = ma mmg = - ma
F = 0.79 Mg
a = - mg
\ Maximum value of F = 0.79 Mg
t=0 t=t
2. (b) For pure rolling, a = Ra
mMgR - Fr v
F - mMg
=R v0
M 2 a
MR /2
f f
Solving this equation, we get F
0=0 Pure rolling starts v =R
3 mMgR Mg
F =
R + 2r fR = Ia
This is the maximum value of F. m mgR = mR 2a
MR 2 5 mg
3. (a) (2T ) R = a (i) a=
2 2R
Mg - 2T = Ma COM (ii) v = u + at
MR 2 v = v 0 - mgt
2T R = a (iii)
2 w = w 0 + at
(for drawing FBDs, the system is viewed from left side) 5 mg 5 mgt
w=0+ t =
Let acceleration of thread be a. 2R 2R
Upper Cylinder Lower Cylinder v = Rw
2T 5 mgt
( v 0 - mgt ) = R
P 2R

mgt 1 + = v 0
Mg 7mg
For no slipping at P, a = Ra 1 2
s = ut + at
For no slipping at P , 2
a = a COM - Ra 2v0 1 4v 02
s = v0 - mg
\ a COM = 2 Ra (iv) 7mg 2 49 m 2g 2
Note a = a from Eqs. (i) and (iii) 2 v 02 2 v 02 12 v 02
s= - =
Mg 7mg 49 mg 49 mg
Solving the above equations, we get T =



6. (c) In case of pure rolling of a billiard ball, 5 mgt

2 2R
Fhdt = MR 2w 0
5 At t = t , velocity of point of contact
t=0 t=t 7
= vC + Rw = mgt
h v0 v= 9
7 v0 N=mg
f f
f Pure rolling starts
f mmg
2 a=- =-
Fhdt = mR 2w 0 m M
Instantaneous velocity,
Fdt = mv 0
2 mmg
2 R w0 v = v0 - t
\ h= (i) M
5 v0
For pure rolling both points in contact should have same
f = ma mmg = ma velocity
a = mg 7 mmg
\ mgt = v 0 - t
2 2 M
fR = - mR 2 a
5 7 m
mgt + = v0
5 mg 2 M
2 2R
mR 7 M + 2 m
5 mgt = v 0
9 2M
We have, u = v 0, v = v 0, v = u + at
7 2 Mv 0
or t =
9 2 v (7 M + 2 m)mg
v 0 = v 0 + mgt t = 0
7 7 mg
8. (a,c) For pure rolling to take place on the ground
w = w 0 + at a
5 mg
w = w0 - t
v = Rw F
9 5 mg 2 v 0
v 0 = w0 - R
7 2 R 7 mg
Rw 0 = 2 v 0 f
4 a = Ra (i)
Using this in Eq. (i), we get h = R
5 F - f = Ma (ii)
7. (a) In case of a sphere, we have I = MR 2
T = Ia = MR 2 a
vC fR = MR 2a

0 f = MRa (iii)
f Using Eq. (i) in Eq. (iii), we get
t =0 t =t f = Ma
m=0 v = vC Using this in Eq. (ii), we get
w0 = 0 w=w F - Ma = Ma
f = m mg F = 2 Ma
a = mg F
\ f =
5 mg 2
a = fR / l =
2 R F
\ F - = Ma
vc = u + at = 0 + mgt 2
vc = mgt F
5 mg 2M
w = w 0 + at = 0 + t
2 R


9. (b,d) v2, a2 mg
Cylinder Pulley Mass
T1 T2 v1, a1
a1 a2
5 kg
R1 R1 a1 = mg ( ), a2 = mg ( )
1 2
B f v1 = mgt ( ), v 2 = (mgt ) ( )
T2 5g m mg R 5 mg
a=- =-
2 2R
T1 + f = M1a1 (i) (T2 - T1 )R2 5g - T = 5 a 2 (iv) mR 2
M1R12 M R2
(T1 - f )R1 = a1 = 2 2 a 2 (iii) 5 mg
2 2 w = w 0 - at = w 0 - t
(ii) 2R
For no slipping at A, a2 = a1 + R1a1 (v) During pure rolling, velocities of contact points are same.
For no slipping at B, \ v1 = Rw - v1
a1 = R1a1 (vi) 5 mg
mgt = R w 0 - t - mgt
Solving the above equations, we get 2 R
4 4gt 9
a2 = g , v = a2 t = mgt = w 0R
11 11 2
2 Rw 0
10. (a,d) Mg - 2T = MaCOM ...(i) t=
9 mg
2TR = a ...(ii) 2 Rw 0 2
2 16. (a) Velocity of sphere, v 2 = mgt = mg = Rw 0
9 mg 9
1 2
17. (d) s = ut + at
T T 2T 2
1 2 Rw 0
P s=0+ (mg )
aCOM 2 9mg

Mg Mg 2 R 2w 20
or s=
81 mg
For no slipping at P, a COM = Ra ...(iii)
Solving the above equations, we get 18. Displacement of the plank till the sphere starts pure rolling,
a = a COM =
f1 F cos
Mg F cos q - f1 = ma1 (i)
and T =
A f1
11. (d) Statement I is incorrect and Statement II is correct. When a

spherical body rolls without slipping on an inclined rough
surfaces, frictional force is required to maintain pure rolling. a2
12. (b) Statement I is correct and Statement II is also correct and
Statement II is not the correct explanation of Statement I. f2 B
If the surface is smooth, f = 0
Consider a sphere rolling down an inclined rough surface. MR 2
( f2 + f1 ) R = a (ii)
Friction does work it increases KE R. If the sphere is pure rolling 2
on rough horizontal surface wf = 0. f1 - f2 = Ma2 (iii)
1 For no slipping at A,
13. (b) For a disc rolling down an inclined plane, f = g sin a
3 a1 = a2 + Ra (iv)
14. (a) As, velocity of a rolling disc at point P For no slipping at B,
q a2 - Ra = 0 (v)
v P = 2 v 0 sin
2 Solving the above equations, we get
4F cos q
Hence, (i) (q), (ii) (p), (iii) (s), (iv) (r) a2 =
3M + 8m
15. (b) Let after time t (when pure rolling begins) v1 and
3MF cos q MF cos q
f1 = and f2 =
v 2 are the velocities of plank and the cylinder. 3M + 8m 3M + 8m

1. A recent high-precision determination of g has a 4. Find the ratio of the height h of a cushion on a
quoted error of 6 parts in 109 . Estimate the increase snooker table to the radius r of a ball as shown in
in height at the earths surface which gives a change figure, such that when the ball hits cushion with a
in g equal to this error. [g is acceleration due to pure rolling motion it rebounds with a pure rolling
gravity and earths radius = 6400 km]. motion. [Assume that the force exerted on the ball
(a) 0.20 m (b) 0.125 m by the cushion is horizontal during the impact and
(c) 0.110 m (d) 0.019 m the ball hits the cushion normally].
2. A flat circular ring has mass M, outer radius a and (a) 2 / 5 (b) 4 / 9 (c) 7 / 5 (d) 9 / 5
inner radius b (see figure). The measured values of
these quantities are:
M = 0.191 0.003 kg,
a = 110 1 mm
and b = 15 1 mm .

5. A planet is in a circular orbit about a massive star.

b The star undergoes a spherically symmetric
a explosion in which one per cent of its mass is
suddenly ejected to a distance well beyond that of
the planet's orbit. Find the eccentricity of the new
orbit of the planet, assuming that the planet itself is
Find the moment of inertia of the ring about an axis unaffected by the explosion.
through the centre and normal to the plane of the (a) 1.0 (b) 1.5 (c) 0.05 (d) 0.01
ring. v0
Position of planet when
explosion occurs

(a) 1.177 10 -3 kg m2 (b) 1.0 10 -4 kg m2

(c) 1.5 10 -3 kg m2 (d) None of these r0 r1
3. A chlorine molecule with an initial velocity of Old orbit
600 ms -1 absorbs a photon of wavelength 350 nm
New orbit
and is then dissociated with two chlorine atoms.
One of the atoms is detected moving perpendicular 6. To an observer, the two bodies of equal rest mass
to the initial direction of the molecule and having a collide head on with equal but opposite velocities
velocity of 1600 m/s. Calculate the binding energy of (4c / 5) and cohere. To a second observer, one body is
the molecule. [The relative atomic mass of chlorine initially at rest. Find the apparent velocity of the
is 35]. other, moving mass before the collision.
(a) 4.0 10 -19 J (b) 5.4 10 -19 J (a) ( 40 c / 41) (b) ( 49 c / 41)
(c) 4.5 10 -19 J (d) 5.0 10 -19 J (c) ( 30 c / 41) (d) ( 45 c / 41)

NOVEMBER 2015 79

7. A long string of mass per unit length 0.2 kgm-1 is 9. What is the mass of singly charged ions which
stretched to a tension of 500 N. Find the speed of follow a circular path of radius 0.41 m when placed
transverse waves on the string and the mean power in a transverse magnetic field of 0.223 T, the initial
to maintain a travelling wave of amplitude 10 mm energy being 100 keV?
and wavelength of 0.5 m. (a) 6.0 10 -27 kg (b) 7.0 10 -27 kg
(a) 50 m/s and 197 W (c) 6.5 10 -28 kg . 10 -27 kg
(d) 67
(b) 45 m/s and 120 W
(c) 30 m/s and 154 W
10. 1 kg of ice at 0C floats in 5 kg of water at 50C, the
whole being thermally isolated. When thermal
(d) 50 m/s and 185 W
equilibrium has been reached, then find how much
8. A telescope is used to observe at a distance of 10 km change in the entropy of the system will occur?
two objects which are 0.12 m apart and are [Latent heat of fusion of ice = 333 kJ kg -1 , specific
illuminated by light of wavelength 600 nm. heat of water = 4200 J kg -1 K -1 .]
Estimate the diameter of the objective lens of the (a) 186 JK -1
telescope if it can just resolves the two objects. (b) 240 JK -1
(a) 6.5 cm (b) 6.0 cm (c) 200 JK -1
(c) 4.0 cm (d) 5.0 cm (d) 150 JK -1

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80 NOVEMBER 2015