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Polynomials

1. Find the remainder when 4x3 3 x2 +2x 4 is divided by

1
(a) x 1 (b) x + 2 (c) x +
2
Solution:
We know by remainder theorem, that when polynomial p(x) is divided by another linear
polynomial (x a), then remainder is given by p(a).
(a) Let p(x) = 4x3 3x2 + 2x 4
remainder is p(1)
i.e., p(1) = 4(1)3 (1)3 + 2(1) 4
=43+24
=1
(b) p(2) = 4(2)3 3(2)2 + 2(2) 4
= 32 12 4 4
= 44 8
= 52
3 2
1 1 1 1
(c) p 4 3 2 4
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
= 4 3 2 4
8 4 2
1 3
= 1 4
2 4
1 3
= 5
2 4
2 3 20
=
4
5 20 25
=
4 4

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2. Find the value of k, if (x 2) is a factor of the polynomial p(x)= kx2 2 x +1.
Solution:
If (x 2)is a factor of the polynomial.

k 2 2 2 1 0
2

4k 2 2 1

2 2 1
k
4
3. Evaluate (103)3 by using suitable identities.
Solution:
(103)3 = (100 + 3)3
= (100)3 + (3)3 + 3 100 3 (100 + 3)
(using identity (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a + b))
= 1000000 + 27 + 900 103
= 1092727
4. Factorize: 3u3 4u2 12u +16.
Solution:
3u3 4u2 12u + 16
= u2(3u 4) 4(3u 4)
= (3u 4)( (u2 4)
= (3u 4) (u 2) (u + 2)
(using a2 b2 = (a + b) (a b))
5. Using a suitable identity and without multiplying directly, find the value of (0.98 1.02).
Solution:
(0.98 1.02) = (1.00 0.02) (1.00 + 0.02)
= (1.00)2 (0.0)2
[ (a b) (a + b) = a2 b2]
= 1 0.0004
= 0.9996

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6. For what value of m is 2x3 + mx2 + 11x + m + 3 exactly divisible by (2x1)?
Solution:
Let p(x) = 2x3 + mx2 + 11x + m + 3.
We know that p(x) will be exactly divisible by (2x 1) if remainder is zero
1
i.e. if p = 0
2
3 2
1 1 1 1
p 2 m 11 m 3 0
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
2 m 11 m 3 0
8 4 2
1 m 11
m30
4 4 2
1 22 12 m 4m
0
4 4
35 5m
0
4 4
35 + 5m = 0
5m = 35
35
m=
5
m=7
1 1
7. If x + =7, then find the value of x3 3 .
x x
Solution:
1
We have, x 7
x
We know that,
3
1 1 1
x x 3
3 x
x x3
x

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7
3
= 3 7 342 21

= 322
8. If a + b=10 and a2 + b2 = 58, then find the value of a3 + b3.
Solution:
We have,
a + b = 10 and a2 + b2 = 58
We know that,
(a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab
(10)2 = 58 + 2ab
100 = 58 + 2ab
2ab = 100 58
2ab = 42
42
ab 21
2
Now, we know that,
a3 + b3 = (a + b)3 3ab(a + b)
= (10)3 3 21 10
= 1000 630 = 379
9. The polynomial p(x)=4x3 2x2 + px + 5and q(x)=x3 + 6x2 + p, leave the remainders a and b
respectively, when divided by (x+2). Find the value of p, if a + b=0.
Solution:
We have, p(x) = 4x3 2x2 + px + 5
and q(x) = x3 + 6x2 + p
When p(x) and q(x) divided by (x + 2), then leave the remainders a and b, respectively.
p(2) = 4(2)3 2 (2)2 + p(2) + 5
a = 32 8 2p + 5
a = 35 2p
and p(2) = (2)3 + 6(2)2 + p
b = 8 + 24 + p

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b = 16 + p
Given, a + b = 0
2p 35 + p +16 = 0
p 19 = 0
p = 19
p = 19
10. Factorize:(3a 5b)3 + (4c 3a)3 + (5b 4c)3.
Solution:
Given expression is
(3a 5b)3 + (4c 3a)3 + (5b 4c)3
Now, (3a 5b) + (4c 3a) + (5b 4c)
= 3a 3a 5b + 4c 4c
=0
(3a 5b)3 + (4c 3a)3 + (5b 4c)3
= 3(3a 5b) (4c 3a)(5b 4c)
[ if a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc]

Chapter Test {Polynomials}

M:M: 40 M: Time: 40Min.
1. Factorize: (i) 36a3b 60a2bc (ii) 5x2 20xy [4]
Solution:
(i) 36a3b 60a2bc = 12a2b(3a 5c)
(ii) 5x2 20xy = 5x(x 4y)
2. Find the value of 64x3 125y3, if
4x 5y = 16
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and xy = 12 [4]
Solution:
Given, 4x 5y =16
On cubing both sides, we get
(4x-5y)3=(16)3
(4x)3 (5y)3 3 4 5y(4x 5y) = (16)3
[using (a b)3 = a3 b3 3ab(a b)]
64x3 125y3 60xy(4x 5y) = 4096
64x3 125y3 60 12 16 = 4096
[ xy = 12 and 4x 5y = 16, given]
64x3 125y3 11520 = 4096
64x3 12573 =4096+11520
Hence, 64x3 125y3 =15616

3. Find the zeroes of the polynomial f(x) = 2x3 + 3x2 11x 6. [4]
Solution:
Let f(x) = x40 + x51 +5
If f(x) is divisible by (x + 1), then remainder is f(1).
Remainder = f(1)
= (-1)40 +(1)51 +5
=1 1 + 5 = 5
4. If x40 + x51 + 5 is divisible by x + 1, then find the remainder. [4]
Solution:
Consider f(x) = ax2 + 5x + b
1
(x 3) and x are factors of f(x).
3

1
f(3) = 0 and f = 0
3
a 32 +5 3 + b = 0

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2
1 1
and a 5 b 0
3 3
9a + 15 + b =0
a 5
and b0
9 3
9a + b+15 = 0
and a +9b + 15 = 0
9a + b = 15 (i)
and a + 9b =15 ...(ii)
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
9a + b = a + 96
8a = 8b
a=b
1
5. If (x 3) and x are both factors of ax2 + 5x + b, then show that a = b. [4]
3
Solution:
Given, f(x)=x2 5x + 1 ...(i)
Put x = 2 in Eq. (i),
f(2) = (2)2 5 2+1
= 4 10 + 1
= 5 10 = 5
Put x = 1 in Eq. (i),
f(1) = (1)25 (1) + 1
=1+ 5 + 1 = 7
1
Put x = in Eq. (i),
3
2
1 1 1
f 5 1
3 3 3
1 5 1 15 9 5
= 1
9 3 9 9
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5 5
= 5 7 12
9 9
108 5 113
=
9 9
1
6. If f(x) = x2 5x + 1, then evaluate: f 2 f 1 f . [4]
3
Solution:
f(x) = x2 5x + 1
f(2) = (2)2 5(2) + 1
= 4 10 + 1
= 6 + 1 = 5
f(1) = (1)2 5(1) + 1
=1+5+1
=7
2
1 1 1
f 5 1
3 3 3
1 5 15 9
= 1
9 3 9
14 9 5
=
9 9
1 5 5
f(2) f(1) + f = 5 7 = 12
3 9 9
108 5 113
=
9 9
7. Factorize: the following: 12(x2 + 7x)2 8(x2 + 7x) (2x 1) 15(2x 1)2. [4]
Solution:
12(x2 + 7x)2 (8x2 + 7x) (2x 1) 15(2x 1)2
let a = x2 + 7x, b = 2x 1
Therefore, we have
12a2 8ab 15b2

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2
a a

= b 12 15
2

b b

a
2
a a

= b 12 18 10 15
2

b
b b

a a a
= b2 6 2 3 5 2 3
b b b
6a 2a
= b2 5 3
b b
b2 6a 5b 2a 3b
=
b2
= (6a + 5b) (2a 3b)
= {6(x2 + 7x) + 5(2x 1)} {2(x2 + 7x) 3(2x 1)}
= (6x2 + 42x + 10x 5) (2x2 + 14x 6x + 3)
= (6x2 + 52x 5) (2x2 + 8x + 3)
8. Factorize: x4 + x3 7x2 x + 6. [4]
Solution:
x4 + x3 7x2 x + 6
= x4 + x3 (7x2 + x 6)
= x4 + x3 (7x2 + 7x 6x 6)
= x4 + x3 {7x(x + 1) 6(x + 1)}
= x4 + x3 (7x 6) (x + 1)
= x3 (x + 1) (7x 6) (x + 1)
= (x + 1) (x3 7x + 6)
= (x + 1) (x3 + x2 7x + 6 x2)
(adding and subtracting x2)
= (x + 1) {x3 x2 + (x2 7x + 6)}
= (x + 1) {x3 x2 + (x2 6x 1x + 6)}
= (x + 1) {x2 (x 1) + (x 1) (x 6)}
= (x + 1) (x 1) (x2 + x 6) = (x + 1) (x 1) (x + 3) (x 2)
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9. Factorize: a8 b8. [4]
Solution:

a b
2 2
4 4
a 8 b8 =

= a b a b
4 4 4 4

a a b
2 2
= 4
b4 2 2

= a 4

b4 a2 b2 a2 b2

= a2 b2 a2 b2 a b a b
2 2

= a 2

2
b2 2a2b2 a b a ba b
2 2

= a 2

b2 2ab a2 b2 2ab a2 b2 a b a b
10. Simplify (a + b)3 (a b)3 6b(a2 b2). [4]
Solution:
(a + b)3 (a b)3 6b(a2 b2)
= {(a + b) (a b)} {(a + b)2 + (a b)2 + (a + b) (a b)2 6b(a2 b2)
= (a + b a + b) (a2 + b2 + 2ab + a2 + b2 2ab + a2 b2)
= 2b(2a2 + 2b2 + a2 b2) 6b(a2 b2)
= 2b(3a2 + b2 3a2 + 3b2)
= 2b(4b2)
= 8b3.