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Indian Geography

The Himalayas is the highest mountain range in the


world and also the youngest mountain range.
Longest Mountain Range is Andes in South
America
Mountains between the Indus and the Brahma-
putra are called 'the Himalayas' meaning 'the abode
of snow.'
The Himalayas consist of three parallel ranges.
(i) The southernmost range, called the Siwalik is
the lowest.
(ii) The ranges lying north of the Siwalik are known
as the middle Himalayas or the Himachal.
(iii) The northernmost ranges of the Himalayas,
known as the Himadri, are the highest with an
average height of more than 6,000 metres above
the sea level.
Longitudina or Regional Divisions of Himalayas.
Karakoram Kashmir Himalayas, between river indus and sutlej.

India : Physical
Features Queen Mary 2
The Indian mainland can be divided into
five physiographic units namely
(i) The Great Mountains of the North
(ii) The North Indian Plains
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau
(iv) The Coastal Plains (v) The Islands
Mountains of India
The mountains extending between the
Pamir plateau and the Indus river in Kash-
mir are known as the Karakoram.
The Karakoram mountains contain the
Siachen, which is the world's largest moun-
tain glacier.
The world's second highest peak called K2
(Godwin Austin) belongs to Karakoram
range. World's largest and most expensive cruise liner
The Himalayas surrounds India on the north, Queen Mary 2, the luxury ship carrying more than
north west and north - east which extends to 2,500 passengers and 1,500 employees.
about 2400 km.

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Kumaon Himalayas, between river Sutlej and River
Kali.
Nepal Himalayas, between river Kali and river
Teesta.
Assam Himalayas, between river Teesta and
Brahmaputra Gorge.
The Himadri contain some of the world's highest
peaks.
Mt. Everest (8848 m) in Nepal is the world's
highest peak.
Kanchenjunga in Sikkim is the highest peak of
the Himalayas in India.
Highest Mountain Peak in India
(a) K2 (b) Kanchenjunga
(c) Nanda Devi (d) Mt. Everest
Ans: (a) K2
It is in Pak Occupied Kashmir.HutZym-Kn-I-ambn
CXv Cy-bpsS {]tZ-i-am-Wv. Geographically, Deccan plateau is the
Important passes of Himalayas oldest part of India.
Kashmir : Burzil and Jojila
Himachal Pradesh : Bara, Lepcha-la, Shipkila The Eastern Ghats are irregular hill ranges that
Uttar Pradesh : Thanga-la, Niti-la, Lipu-Lekhla stretch from northern Orissa to the Nilgiris in
Tamil Nadu across the coastal Andhra.
Sikkim - Nathula, Jelepla
The Satpura range extends from the Narmada val-
Khybar pass is the most famous pass which leads ley in the north to the Tapti valley in the south.
from Peshwar to Kabul.
The 800 km range Aravallis stretching from the
South of Khybar pass is the Gomal Pass (it is in north-east to the south - west of India separates
Pakistan) the semi-desert regions of Rajasthan from the fer-
The Bolan Pass leads from Kandahar to Quetta. tile Udaipur and Jaipur regions.
Shipki Pass leads from the Punjab to Tibet. Aravallis is the oldest mountain range in India.
The Purvachal Hills in the north-east consist of Sahyadri hills is a part of the Western Ghats.
the Patkai-Bum, the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia and Lushai Nilgiris is also a part of Western Ghats. Nilgiri is
Hills. known as the Blue Mountains.
Vindhya mountains cut off the northern plain from The southernmost tip of Eastern Ghats is called
the south. Cardamom Hills.
The Peninsular mountains include The Western The Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats meet at
Ghats (The Sahyadris), The Eastern Ghats, The Nilgiri Hills.
Satpura Range and The Aravallis.
The Western Ghats runs along the west coast The Peninsular Plateau
from the south of Tapti river valley to Rising from the Alluvial plains of U.P and Bihar,
Kanyakumari. Passes in Western Ghats are the south of the Yamuna - Ganga line, the great Indian
Palghat between Palakkad and Coimbatore, plateau (Peninsular plateau) extends towards the
Shenkotta between Kollam and Madurai, Thalghat
south to encompass the whole of the peninsula.
between Mumbai and Pune and the Bhorghat be-
Its north-west limit is marked by the Aravalli range.
tween Mumbai and Nassik.
The Peninsular plateau can be divided into three-

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the Central Plateau, the Eastern Plateau and the
Deccan Plateau.
The Eastern plateau lies to the north - east of
Malwa.
East of Baghelkhand is the Chottanagpur plateau
in Jharkhand which is 700m high and has steep
borders.
The Malwa plateau, particularly its north - east- Anthroth Island
ern part called the Chottanagpur plateau is the
The largest Island in Lakshadweep
richest mineral producing region of India.
Anamudi (Idukki) in Kerala is the highest peak of Islands.
Peninsular India.
The southernmost tip of India, Indira point is in
The Deccan plateau lies to the south of northern Great Nicobar islands which is the biggest island
plain. The plateau is flanked by mountain ranges in Nicobar group.
called Eastern and Western Ghats. The islands of Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi
The triangular plateau is Indias largest plateau in the Arabian sea are known as Lakshadweep. It
with a height ranging from 900 to 300 m in the comprises of a group of 36 islands, about 300km
west and east. N- Sextenat - 1600 km and E-Wextent to the west of Kerala coast. Only 10 of the islands
- 1400 km. are inhabited.
Kavarathi is the capital of Lakshadweep.
New Moore Island lies in Bay of Bengal near West
Great Plains Bengal also belong to India.
The Great plains are found between the Himalayas Coco Islands North of Andaman belong to
and Peninsular plateau which extends to about Myanmar.
2400 km. Biggest Island in Andaman Group - Middle
The plains are drained by river Sutlej and the Beas Andaman
in the west, the Ganges and its tributaries in the Biggest Island in Nicobar Group - Great Nicobar
east. Smallest Island in Andaman Group - Ross Island
Sambhar, the salt lake lies in the Rajasthan plains. Smallest Island in Nicobar Group - Pilomillow Is-
The most fertile region of India is the northern land
plains formed by the valleys of rivers Ganges and Highest point in Nicobar Group - Mount Thullier.
Brahmaputra.

The Islands
Soils in India
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Besides mainlands India has two groups of Islands
(ICAR) divides the soils found in the country into
namely the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the
8 major groups.
Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep Islands in the
Arabian Sea. They are: Alluvial soil, Black soil, Red soil, Later-
ite soil, Forest soil, Arid and Desert soils, Saline
Andamans consists of a northern cluster of 204
and Alkaline soils and Peaty and Organic soils.
small islands and Nicobar islands consists of a
southern cluster of 19 Islands. Alluvial Soil
Ten degree channel separates Andaman from Alluvial soil contributing the largest share, is
Nicobar. formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers
Port Blair is the capital of Andaman & Nicobar in the interior parts of India and by the sea waves

71 5
in the coastal areas of the country. hydrated double iron and titaniferous magnetite.
Alluvial soil is the best agricultural soil because Black soil found in Maharashtra, Gujarat, West
(i) They contain a variety of salts derived from Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
Himalayan rocks. Nadu
(ii) They are light and porous, therefore easily Red Soil
tillable.
(iii) They are good for canal irrigation because of Red soil is formed by the weathering of ancient
high water table and an easily penetrable stratum. metamorphic and crystalline rocks.
Alluvial soils are rich in potash and poor in nitro- They are airy and need irrigation support for cul-
gen and organic matter. tivation. Red soil is suitable for the cultivation of
pulses and coarse grains.
Alluvial soils are suitable for cultivation of almost
all kinds of cereals, pulses, oil seeds, cotton, sug- Red soils are poor in nitrogen, phosphorous, po-
arcane and vegetables. tassium and organic matter.
Ahmedabad, Baroda and Kheda districts of They are more suitable for the cultivation of rice,

Gujarat, Orissa and


Kerala are some of
the states in which
alluvial soil is
found.
The coastal allu-
vium is of tidal ori-
gin.
The desert alluvium
or 'Loess' is
bought by wind
erosion.
Black Soil
Black soil is found
largely in the
Deccan plateau.
Black soil is suit-
able for the cultiva-
tion of cotton and
therefore it is called
black cotton soil.
The black colour of
the black soil is at-
tributed to the pres-
ence of compounds
of Iron and alu-
m i n i u m ,
accumulated hu-
mus, aluminium sili-
cate, colloidal

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ragi, tobacco and vegetable. of organic matter. These soils are highly saline
and rich in organic matter.
Laterite Soil
Laterite soils are formed by the weathering of lat- The River Systems of India
erite rocks. Laterite soils are deficient in nitrogen.
Rivers in India may be classified into the Hima-
They are chiefly found in Karnataka, Kerala,
layan rivers, the Deccan river (Peninsular Rivers).
Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Malabar areas.
These soils cover the high rainfall areas of West
These soils are agriculturally unimportant because
Bengal, Orissa and Kerala.
of intensive leaching, a low base exchange capac-
ity and their acidic nature. Himalayan rivers
The Himalayan rivers are perennial snow fed riv-
Forest Soil ers. During the monsoon season, the rivers dis-
Forest soils are formed by the deposition of or- charge the maximum amount of water causing fre-
ganic matter derived from forests. They are rich in quent floods.
organic matter and humus. They are found mainly Yamuna, Gomti, Ghagra, Gandak, Ram Ganga, Son,
in Punjab, Karnataka, Manipur and Jammu & Chambal, Betwa and Ken are the the main tribu-
Kashmir. taries of Ganga.
Ganga is known by the name Padma in Bangladesh.
These soils are used for plantations of tea, cof- Ganga flows through Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West
fee, spices and fruits. Bengal and finally enters into the Bay of Bengal.
Brahmaputra is the second largest river system
Arid and Desert Soils of Indian sub-continent. The 2,688 km
Arid and Desert soils are formed under arid and Brahmaputra is longer than the Ganges, but only
one third of the river passes through India.
semi arid conditions in the north -western parts of
Brahmaputra orginates from the Manasarovar lake
the country. They are rich in phosphate though
in Western Tibet. It mainly flows through Tibet
poor in nitrogen.
and a small portion of it flows through India.
These soils often have a high soluble salt content In Tibet, Brahmaputra is known as Tsang Po.
and low to very low humus content. After making deep gorges in Namcha Barwa, it
These soils are made fertile by adding gypsum. enters India in Arunachal Pradesh as 'Dihang'. It
enters Sadiya District of Assam and known as
Saline and Brahmaputra when it enters Bangladesh, it is
Alkaline Soils named as 'Meghna.'
knphpw {_lva]p{Xbpw KwK-tb-m hep-Xm-
Saline and Alkaline soils are salt impregnated
and infertile. These soils are found especially in
the dry tracts of the north.
Also known as reh, kallar, usar, thur, karl and
chopan
They contain a larger proportion of sodium po- The River Ganga is
tassium and magnesium the longest river
They acquire salts largely because of dry climate (2640 km) in India. Its
and poor drainage source is at Gangotri
glacier in the
Peaty Soils Himalayas.
Peaty soils are developed under humid conditions
as a result of the accumulation of large amounts

71 7
sW-nepw Ch-bpsS sNdn-sbmcp `mKw am{Xta The Luni orginates from Annasagar in the Aravallis
Cy-bn-eqsS Hgp-Ip-p-p. and ends on the Sahni marshes, North of Rann of
Brahmaputra is the only river in the world which Kutch.
form a river island named 'Majauli Island.' The worlds largest delta, Sunderbans is formed
Indus is the longest river of Indian sub-continent. by the Ganges and Brahmaputra in West Bengal
It is 2900 km long. It flows mainly through Pakistan. and Bangladesh, in the Bay of Bengal.
Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum are the five The Third river system is also called the Rivers
tributaries of Indus. Mount Kailash in Tibet is the of Inland Drainage Basins which consists of small
source of Indus river. It enters into the Arabian sea. rivers in the sandy areas of Rajasthan.
The Ravi is the smallest river of Punjab and is well- Lakes
known as the 'River of Lahore.' It rises near the The largest fresh water lake in India: Lake Kolleru
Rohtang pass in the Kulu hills of Himachal Pradesh. (Andhra Pradesh). Wular is the second largest
The Chenab is the largest of Indus tributaries. It fresh water lake.
has a total length of 1,800 km in India. The second largest salt water lake is Sambhar in
Peninsular rivers Rajasthan.
Important lakes in India are Chilka (Orissa),
Peninsular rivers (The Deccan System) are gener- Sambhar (Rajasthan),
ally rainfed and comprises the rivers of peninsu- Pulicat (Andhra
lar India. They are shorter and seasonal in nature. The largest Pradesh) and
River Godavari is the largest river system (1465 saltwater lake : Vembanad (Kerala),
km long) of peninsular India. It is known as the Lake Chilka Woolar (J &K), Dal
'Vridha Ganga' or 'Dakshin Ganga.' It rises from (Orissa) (J&K), Uday Sagar
Trambak in Nasik district in the Western Ghats. (Rajasthan), Puslikar
River Krishna rises from the north of (Rajasthan), Puslikar
Mahabaleswar in the Western Ghats. It enters into (Rajasthan), Loktak
the Bay of Bengal. Krishna basin forms the third (Manipur Hills).
largest river basin in India. Dal Lake is fa-
River Cauvery rises from the Brahmagiri hills in mous for house boats.
the Coorg district of Karnataka. About 55 percent Sambar in
of the cauvery basin lies in Tamilnadu, 41 percent Rajasthan is the largest inland salt lake in India.
in Karnataka and three percent in Kerala.
River Pennar rises in the Kolar district of Karnataka.
River Damodar rises from the Chottanagpur pla- Indian Climate
teau near Tori in Palamau district of Jharkhand. Indian climate is greatly influenced by the pres-
River Damodar of Jharkhand is called as "Sorrow ence of Himalayas in the north and the Indian
of Bengal and Jharkhand", because of frequent Ocean in the south.
flood, mass, soil erosion and heavy siltation. The climate of India is monsoonal type, fed up by
River Narmada which rises from the Amarkantak two rain bearing winds.
plateau in Chhattisgarh is the largest among the Latitude and the monsoon winds are the major
west flowing peninsular rivers. factors affecting the Indian climate.
Narmada and Tapti are the major west flowing The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two al-
rivers of India. They drains into the Gulf of most equal climatic zones namely the northern
Cambay in the Arabian Sea. zone and the southern zone.
Satpula Mountain range lies between Narmada
India receives 90% of the total rainfall from monsoons.
and Tapti.
Monsoons are the seasonal winds which blow during
Luni and Sabarmati are the other two west flow-
six months of summer from ocean to land and for the
ing peninsular rivers.
Sabarmati rises from the Jai Samand lake of six months of winter from land to sea.
Udaipur, Rajasthan. The South West Monsoon forms the main mon-
soon season in India (June to August).

71 8
The North East Monsoon (October - November) landmass of north-western India towards the In-
brings rain mainly to Tamil Nadu. dian Ocean.
On the basis of monsoonal variations there are Thunder storm cause upto 25 cm of rainfall along
four seasons in India namely the cold (winter) the Kerala and Karnataka coasts and about 10 cm.
season (December to February), the hot (summer) in the interior of South India. Such rains are called
season (March to May), the south west monsoon 'Cherry Blossoms' in Karnataka where they
(the rainy season) (June to September) and the prove immensely beneficial to coffee plantation.
season of retreating monsoon (October to No- They are called as 'Mango Showers' in South
vember). India, due to their salutary effect on mango crop.
The North - East Monsoons are comparitively mi- The normal date of the onset of the rains is 20th
nor monsoons confined to a smaller area of the May in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and by the
country. They are the winds blowing out from the end of June, it is usually established over most of
the country.

Wild life Sanctuaries & National Parks

71 9
''Two roads diverged in a wood,and
I took the one less travelled by
and that has made
all the difference''
from 'THE ROAD NOT TAKEN'
by ROBERT FROST

Which is the
right job?
Pohn- X - nse Ghpw kp{]- [ m- \ - a mb HmWv
Career Selection. B{K-ln-p-Xv e`n--W-sa-n
Which is the
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n- p- p. DtZym- K w FXv GXm\pw Znh- k -
tv am{X-ap Hcp kwhn-[m- \-a- . AXv Hcp
good job?
Life long engagement BWv. \n t\Sp DtZym-
K- a m- b n- c npw \n- f psS hfbpw `mhnbpw \ DtZym-Kw, icn-bmb DtZymKw Fsms ]d-
bp-tm \n-fpsS taste, aptitude Fnh kp{]-
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DtZymKw t\Sn- -g n-b p- tm \n- fpsS {][m\ [m-\--fm-Wv.Teaching \v ss\knI Ign-hp--bm
temIw \n-fpsS Hm^o-kpw, Npp-]m-Sp-I-fp-ambn mm-bm AXv \ selection Bhn. AXn-\m
amdpw. \n-fpsS Pohn-X-nse Prime Time (Im- \nfpsS A`n-cp-Nnv apK-W\ sImSp-Ww
ev 10 apX sshInv 5 hsc) Nne- hn-S p- Xv sXc- s-S p- t- Xv hf- bp DtZym- K- am-b n-
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DtZym-K-ns t]cn-em-bn-cn-pw. \nv e`n- \n-S-bn DtZym-Khpw hf-c-Ww. {]tam-j e`n-p-
p kmaqly AwKo- I mcw Xocp- a m- \ n- p- Xv -tXm-sSmw IqSp-X D-c-hm-Zn-zhpw A[n-Im-
\n- f psS DtZym- K - ns {]m[m- \ yhpw {]tXy- chpw hn]p-e-amb {]h-\taJ-ebpw Dm-I-Ww.
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AXn- \ m- e mWv DtZymK sXc- s - S pv Pohn- X - ]nSn-p-]-p DtZym-K-ambncnWw sXc-s-Sp-t-
nse Hcp Crucial Decision BsWv ]d- bp- - Xv. kaq-l-n-\mbn ]eXpw sNm km[n-p
Xv. Hcp wrong selection \S-n-bm Pohn-X-ns DtZym-K-am-sW-n AXn\v apK-W\ \I-Ww.
Xmfw Xs sXp- -Xm-W v.
Therefore you must select the right job in your life.
720
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Wn- p-n- ).
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bv Akn- v BWv (sU-]yqn If-IvS DtZym-K-
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t\SWw?
Hgn-hp-I 1000 ntesd AXn-\m \mbn
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No Transfer - kz IpSpw-_-Po-hnXw
GREAT SCOPE FOR A[n-Im-c-tI-{--fp-ambn _w
PROMOTION a{n-amv D]-tZ-i--fpw, am-\nt-i-fpw
\Im-\p Ah-kcw
Additional Secretary AsX Cu DtZymKw \npw
XnIpw A\p-tbm-Pyw.
Joint Secretary
Deputy Secretary Fix this job
Under Secretary as your
Section Officer life's goal
Fix it now, start the preparation
Assistant seriously, improve and empower
yourself with knowledge and skill.
Grow yourself in a daily manner.
Don't take any chances. Make doubly
sure that you get it. Grab it at any
cost. Never, Never, Never, Ever
allow you to lose this job. Start the
great work now, Now and Now.
Let this decision
make all the difference
to your life.

721
gions, Drass and Kargil of Ladakh region are the
Mawsynram in coldest regions in the country.
Meghalaya (1141 cm) is the
rainiest place in the world. Chirapunji in Meghalaya is the wettest place in
India.
Jaisalmer in western Rajasthan is the driest place
in India which receives the lowest rainfall.

India : Natural Vegetation


(Forests)
Natural vegetation in India varies from region to
region due to variations in climatic conditions,
soil types and relief features.
Nearly 19.39% of the total land area in India is
Normal duration of the monsoon varies from 2 to 4 under forest. The National Forest policy has laid
months. down a target of raising the area under forest to
The Trans-Himalayan and Greater-Himalayan re- nearly 33.3%.
Tropical Evergreen forests are dense forests of
luxuriant growth found in areas where rainfall
National Parks, Sanctuaries and ranges between 200 to 300 cm. eg; Western Ghats
Biosphere Reserves in India and sub-Himalayan regions.
Tropical Decidous Forests or Monsoon Forests
Namdapha (B.R) .................. Arunachal Pradesh are areas having annual rainfall between 100-200
Kaziranga (N.P) ...................................... Assam cm.
Manas (N.P) ........................................... Assam Tidal or Littoral Forests occur along the deltas of
Hazaribagh (N.P) ............................... Jharkhand West Bengal Orissa and Andhra Pradesh receiv-
Gir (N.P) ................................................. Gujarat ing annual rainfall above 200 cm. Sundari tree is
Nalsarovar (S) ........................................ Gujarat the important tree in these forest.
Jaldapara (S) .................................. West Bengal Dry Tropical forests are mostly prevalent in re-
Manali (S) ............................. Himachal Pradesh gions with an annual rainfall of 90 to 130 cm.
Dachigam (N.P) ..................... Jammu & Kashmir Swamps or Littoral forests are also called tidal
Salim Ali (N.P) ....................... Jammu & Kashmir forests which occur in and around the tidal creeks
Karakoram (S) ........................ Jammu & Kashmir and along the deltas of river Ganges, Mahanadi,
Krishna and Godavari.
Bandipur (N.P) .................................. Karnataka
Alpine forests cover the alpine areas in the
Kudremukh (N.P) ............................... Karnataka
Himalayas, at a height of 2880 m to 3700m.
Ranganathittu (S) .............................. Karnataka Siwaliks are covered with tropical moist deciduous
Eravikulam (N.P) ...................................... Kerala flora such as sal and bamboo.
Silent Valley (N.P) .................................... Kerala Planting of trees is known as afforestation.
Idukki (S) ................................................ Kerala Deforestation is the destruction of trees.
Indravati (N.P) ............................... Chhattisgarh Forests also help to prevent soil erosion and
Kanha (N.P) .................................. Chhattisgarh land slides. It maintains the ecological balance
Sariska (N.P) ...................................... Rajasthan and provides forest products such as timber and
Jim Corbett (N.P) ............................. Uttaranchal industrial raw materials. Forests helps to pro-
tect wild life and rare species of trees and plants.
Dudhwa (N.P) ............................... Uttar Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under for-
Nanda Devi (N.P) ............................ Uttaranchal
est among the Indian states.

72 2
Haryana has the least area under forest. fauna, to which India is a signatory.
Arunachal Pradesh has the largest percentage of Some of the endangered species are Asiatic Lion,
area under forest. One Horned Rhinocerous, Hangul, Royal Bengal
India provides about 8% of the worlds hardwood Tiger, Wild Ass etc.
and ranks third after Brazil and Indonesia. The Animal Welfare Board of India was estab-
Mangrove forests are found in the coastal plains. lished in 1962. Research programmes in wildlife
The forests on the Ganges delta in Bengal are called are carried out by the Wild life Institute of India,
Sunderbans after the sundari trees in these forests. Dehradun and the Salim Ali Centre for
Evergreen forests (Tropical) are found in the West- Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore.
ern ghats and Sub-Himalayan region. They pro- Project Tiger is the centrally sponsored scheme
vide hardwood like teak, rosewood, ebony etc. launched on April 1, 1973 to save the tigers from
Social forestry aims at not only providing extinction on India.
fuelwood, fodder and other forest products, but At present Madhya Pradesh tops the state with
also to meet the requirement of ecological bal- greater number of Tigers. Madhya Pradesh is
ance through large scale afforestation on known as the tiger state of India. M.P was fol-
community lands and waste lands. lowed by Uttar Pradesh.
Energy plantations are plantation of softwood and Project Elephant was launched to protect the wild
grass to meet the energy needs of households. life and elephant population during the eighth
World Environment Day : June 5 plan, ie in 1991.
A wild life week is observed in the first week of
Indias Wild Life October every year.
Biosphere Reserves: Biosphere preserve are multi
The wild life reserves of India are of two types -
purpose protected area to preserve the genetic
the Wild life sanctuaries and National parks.
diversity in representative eco system.
Presently the country has 500 Wildlife Sanctuar-
So far fourteen biosphere reserves have been set
ies, 92 National Parks and 27 Tiger Reserves.
up.
Wild life protection in India was given statutory
status with the adoption of the Wildlife (Protec- They are: Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek, Great
tion) Act, 1972 by all the Indian states except Nicobar, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, Sunderbans,
Jammu and Kashmir.. Similipal, Dibru Daikhowa, Dehong Deband,
Trade in endangered species is subject to strict Panchmarhi, Khangchendzonga. Agastyamalai
rules under the Convention on International Trade and Achanakamar - Amar Kantak.
in Endangered Species (CITES) of wild flora and
Mineral Wealth In India
India is rich in mineral resources and has the po-
tential to become an industrial power.
India is the 5th largest exporter of Iron ore in the
world.
India is the largest producer of mica in the world.
Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica. Bihar,
Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh also produce mica.
The Great plains of Northern India are devoid of
deposits of economic minerals. On the other hand
Jharkhand and Orissa areas on the North-Eastern
parts of Peninsular India possess large concen-
Keibul Lamjo is the only floating National tration of mineral deposits accounting for nearly
Park in the country, is located in Manipur in three-fourths of the countrys coal deposits.
Loktak Lake

72 3
Raniganj (West Bengal), Jharia (Bihar), Singarui
(Madhya Pradesh) and Korba (Chhattisgarh) are
the major coal fields in India.
Mineral deposits are also scattered over the pen-
insular India and in parts of Assam and Rajasthan.
Thorium, a likely future substitute for Uranium as
a fission meterial in atomic reactors, occurs in con-
siderable quantities as ThO2, in the beach sands
of Kerala coast.
Thorianite and Monazite are the main ores of tho-
rium. Monazite deposits of commercial value are
found in about 160 kms between Cape Comorin
and Kollam in Kerala.
India possesses the largest reserves of monazite
known in the world. Mineral State of India
Uranium compounds occurs in Singhbhum - cop- Jharkhand
per belt of Jharkhand, Aravalli's and central
Himalaya. The first successful oil well was sunk at Digboi in
Monazite which contains small percentage of Ura- 1889. The recently discovered sea-bed oil fields of
nium Oxide occurs in the beach sands of the east Bombay High are also yielding, substantial quan-
and west in India. tities of oil.
Marble is found largely in Rajasthan. Bombay High is the offshore oil field located in
Diamond is found at Panna in Madhya Pradesh. the coast of Maharashtra.
India is rich in iron, mica, manganese and bauxite. The first boring was made at Nahor Pung in No-
India is deficient in copper, lead, mercury, zinc, vember, 1866 in Makum area of Assam.
tin, nickel, petroleum products, sulphur and Digboi in Assam is the oldest oil well of India.
tungsten and spends considerable amounts in Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) was set
foreign exchange on their imports. up at Dehradun in 1956.
Gypsum deposit is found in Rajasthan.
Leading salt producer in India is Gujarat. It pro- Major Industries in India
duces 60% of salt of the country.
State with the largest mineral deposit is Jharkhand. The Industrial policy adopted by the Government
Formerly it was a part of Bihar. of India envisages a mixed economy, i.e., the
Jharkhand is the state with highest mineral out- co-existance of public and private sectors.
put in India. The large scale industries of India covers iron
Chottanagpur plateau is the richest mineral belt and steel, engineering, jute, cotton, textiles and
of India. sugar industries.
Gold is found in the Kolar Gold fields in Karnataka Cotton textiles is the oldest industry in India. It
and in small quantities in Ramigiri gold fields in has the largest number of workers employed in
Andhra Pradesh. an industry.
Lignite is mainly found in the Neyveli fields in Tamil Mumbai has become the 'cottonpolis' of India.
Nadu. Ahmadabad Vadodra region is the second largest
Natural gas fields are Ankleshwar and Cambay in centre of cotton textile.
Gujarat, Bombay high and Assam. Kanpur is famous for textiles and clothing, large
Almost all the copper in India comes from modern tanneries, leather works and shoe
Singhbhum and Hazaribagh in Jharkhand and manufacturing.
Khetri in Rajasthan. Sholapur is famous for important textiles based
India ranks third in the world in the production of on cotton grown in local regular soils.
manganese. Orissa is the leading producer of man- The first modern cotton textile mill was estab-
ganese in the state.

72 4
lished in Bombay in 1851. (i) at Vellore (near Kottayam) in Kerala
Karnataka is the largest producer of silk. (ii) at Nepanagar (M.P) - 1955
First modern silk factory - was set up at Howrah in (iii) Shimoga in Karnataka.
1832. (iv) Pugalur in Tirchchirapalli (T.N.)
Dharwar - Belgaum are known for cotton textiles West Bengal is the leading state in paper manu-
railway and general engineering goods. facturing.
In 1870, the first steel industry,Bengal Iron NALCO (National Aluminium Company Ltd.),
Company was set up at Kulti, West Bengal. BALCO (Bharat Aluminium Company),
The first large scale steel plant in the private sec- HINDAL CO (The Hindustan Aluminium Corpo-
tor was Tata Iron and Steel Company, Jamshedpur. ration Ltd.), The Indian Aluminium Co. Ltd.
The public sector steel plants are managed by the (INDAL) are the leading producers of aluminium
Steel Authority of India (SAIL). in the country.
Majority of the jute mills are located in West Ben- India is the largest sugar producing country with
gal. As a foreign exchange earner, it is an impor- over 15% share of the global output. It is also the
tant industry in the country. largest consumer.
Rourkela steel plant in Orissa was set up under Maharashtra produces more than one third of the
the second five year plan in assistance with Ger-
total production of sugar in country.
many.
Bokaro, the biggest plant in Asia was set up un-
der the fourth five year plan in association with Agriculture
the Russian Government. It is located in Agriculture is the largest source of livelihood for
Jharkhand. over 2/3rd (about 70%) of the population of India.
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is a quasi gov-
Agriculture contributes 22% to the GDP.
ernmental institution for drawing up standards
for the products of Indian industry. It was estab- Crops in India can be classified into subsistence
lished in 1947. crops, commercial crops, plantation crops and hor-
National Productivity Council (NPC) is an autono- ticulture crops.
mous body formed to inculcate productivity in Crop season in India can be classified into three
industries, established in 1958. such as Kharif, Rabi and Zayad.
Godavari - Krishna delta is known for local to- Kharif (rainy) crops are sown in June/July and
bacco, sugarcane, rice, oil, cement and small tex- harvested in September / October. Rice, Jowar,
tiles. Bajra, Ragi, Maize, Cotton and Jute are the impor-
The industry associated with sports materials tant Kharif crops.
mainly located at Agra, Meerut (UP), Batalla, Rabi (winter) crops are sown in October/ Decem-
Jalandhar (Punjab) and Delhi. ber and harvested in April/ May. Wheat , Barley ,
Pinjore in Haryana and Jalahalli in Bangalore are Peas, Rape-seed, Mustard and Grams are the im-
associated with watch industry. portant Rabi crops.
Moradabad is famous for brass utensils with en- Zayad (Summer) crops : Swon in April, May and
graving and polishing. June. Products are mostly fruits and vegetables.
Indian Explosives factory is located at Gomia in Cardamom is found mainly in Karnataka, Kerala,
Hazaribagh (Jharkhand). Sikkim and Tamil Nadu.
First fertilizer plant is near Ranipet of Tamil Nadu
in 1906.
First public sector fertilizer plant is at Sindri Punjab is
(Jharkhand) known as the
The first synthetic rubber factory was started in 'Granary of
Bareilly in 1955.
There are only four newsprint manufacturing India.'
plant:

72 5
Cashewnut is mainly found in Kerala. India is the third largest producer of and fourth
Saffron is found mainly in Jammu and Kashmir. largest consumer of Rubber.
Groundnut is found mainly in Gujarat. Black pepper is the most important dollar earning
Karnataka is the chief producer of coffee. crop.
Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugar- India occupies second position after Gautemala
cane. in terms of production, productivity and export of
Tobacco is mainly produced in Maharashtra. cardamom.
The Green Revolution (first) was launched in 1967-68. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of chil-
The second Green Revolution was launched in lies.
1983-84. India is the largest (80%) producer of ginger
The father of Green Revolution in India - Dr. M.S.
India stands second in terms of cultivated land
Swaminathan. after USA.
Father of Green Revolution - Norman Borlaug.
Millets (Jowar & Bajra) is a poor man's food.
To increase yield per hectare government of India
Two varieties of tea in India : Black tea and Green tea.
introduced a programme called Green Revolu-
tion. According to this programme the farmers are Indian Coffee is known for its quality and aroma.
taught to use high yielding variety of seed (H.Y.V), There are two types of coffee : Arabica and
correct types of fertilisers and the government Raibusta. Arabica is better than Raibusta.
has provided facilities of irrigation. Wheat production is highest in Uttar Pradesh
and Punjab comes next.
Rice in the staple food of India.
Operation flood I was launched in 1970, which
India has the largest area under rice cultivation in
aimed at capturing a commanding share of the
the world liquid milk market.
In terms of production it is next only to China. A centrally sponsored Command Area Develop-
India occupies second position in rice exports, ment Programme was launched in 1974-75 with the
nex only to Thailand. main objective of improving utilization of irrigation
Banana ranks no 1 in fruit production in India's potential and optimizing agricultural productivity.
followed by Mango and citrus. India is the leading producer of tea.
Potato ranks No. 1 in vegetable production in In- "Cy-bnse tXbn-e-tXmw' Fv hnti-jn-n--
dia, followed by Brinjal, Tomato, Cabbage. s-Sp Bm-amWv tXbne Dm-Z-\-n
India accounts for 10% of world fruit production. Hmw m\v \np-- kwm\w.
India has highest productivity in grapes. Uttar Pradesh leads in the production of wheat,
sugarcane, maize and barley.
India's share in mango production is 54% of world
IWm- S IbmWv Ghpw IqSp- X Imn,
production
N-\w, knv Fn-h Dm-Zn-n-p-Xv.
India leads the world in Mango, banana and acid Gujarat is the leading producer state of cotton,
lime. caster seed and groundnut.
India occoupies first position in the production Rajasthan leads in the production of coriander (a- n).
of cauliflower, second in onion and third in cab- West Bengal leads in the rice production and jute
bage in the world. production.
India is the largest producer, consumer and ex- Irrigation in India can be classified into Wells,
porter of cashew in the world. Tanks and Canals.
India is the largest producer and consumer of Wells account for about 48% of the total irrigated
pulses area in the country.
India is the second largest producer of ground- Tanks account for about 10% of the total irrigated
nut in the world. area, are used in Central and Southern India.
India is the second largest producer of tobacco in Canals are the major sources of irrigation in Punjab,
the world after China. Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. They account for
Tobacco crop depletes the potash content of the about 40% of the total irrigated area.
soil.

72 6
The most
populous state
of India: Uttar The least
Pradesh populous state:
Sikkim The eastern
most state:
Arunachal
The Pradesh
largest
state:
Rajasthan

Largest
populated
city:
Mumbai

The
smallest The Mineral
state state:
Goa Jharkhand

The
smallest
Union
Territory

The southern
most tip of
India: Indira
point

72 7
INDUS
Indus ( km) is
the largest
river of Indian
sub continent.
J h e l u m ,
Chenab Ravi,
INDIA
Sutlej, Beas are
the important
tributaries
Chenab is the
largest of all
Water Bodies
the Indus
tributaries

T apt i

Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra is
the second
largest river
system of Indian
sub continent.
After making
Narmada & deep gorges in
Tapti are the two Namcha Barwa,
important west it enters India in
flowing rivers of Arunachal
India GANGA Pradesh as
Dihang. It
It is the longest enters Sadiya
river in India District of
(2640 km). Assam and
Formed by two known as
head streams, Brahmaputra.
East Flowing
Alakananda and When it enters
Rivers Bhagirathi which Bangladesh, it is
Mahanadi, join at Devprayag. named as
Godavari, Krishna, Meghna.
The Yamuna is the
Kaveri are the
largest and the
important rivers.
most important
Godavari is the
tributary of Ganga.
longest river of the
Peninsula. Ganga is known as
Bhima, Krishna and Padma in
Thungabhadhra are Bangladesh.
the three tributaries
of Krishna.

72 8
INDIA Physical Features
Worlds second
highest peak: K2 Mount Everest: Kachenjunga
(Godwin Austin) Highest Peak in Sikkim is
in the World the highest
(Nepal) peak of the
Himalaya in
India

Aravallis is the
Oldest Mountain
Range in India

Deccan Plateau
is the oldest part of
India

Bhor Ghat, Thal


Ghat, Pal Ghat are
the important passes
of Western Ghats

Cardomom Hills The highest peak in


Southern tip of Western Ghaths:
Eastern Ghats Anamudi

72 9
Now India have
Wild life Sanctuaries: 490
National Parks : 88
Keibul Lamjo is the only floating National
Park in India (Manipur)
Sanctuaries/National Parks .... Location & State
Valmiki ............................ Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)
Simlipal ................................. Mayurbhanj (Orissa)
Palamau .......................... Daltonganj (Jharkhand)
Bandipur ................................ Mysore (Karnataka)
Kanha ...................... Mandla and Balaghat (M.P)
Melghat ............................................... Maharashtra
Ranthambore .......... Swai Madhopur (Rajasthan)
Corbett ............................. Garhwal (Uttarakhand)
Sunderbans ........................................ (West bengal)
Manas ......................................... Barpetal (Assam)
Periya r ........................................... Idukki (Kerala)
Sariska ....................................... Alwar (Rajasthan)
Buxar .................................................... West Bengal
Indra vathi ............................................. Chattisgarh
Nagarjuna Sagar ............................ Srisailam (A.P)
Namdapha ................ Tirap (Aruanchal Pradesh)
Dudwa ............................. Lakhimpur Kheri (U.P)
Kalkad Mundanthuria Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu)
Bandhavagarh ............. Shadol (Madhya Pradesh)
Panna ............................................ Madhya Pradesh
Da mpha .................................... Aizwal (Mizoram)
Bhadra ..................................................... Karna taka

INDIA - Minerals
India has the worlds largest
reserves of iron.

Chottanagpur plateau is the


richest mineral belt of India.

India is rich in iron, mica,


manganese and bauxite but
deficient in copper, lead,
mercury, zinc, tin, nickel,
petroleum products, sulphur &
tungsten.

India ranks third in the world in


the production of manganese
Orissa is the leading producer.

Gold is found in Kolar Gold


fields in Karnataka and in small
quantities in Ranigiri gold fields
in Andhra Pradesh.

73 0
River Valley Projects

Idukki Project ........................................................ Periyar

Koyna Project ......................................................... Koyna

Tehri Dam Project ..................... Bhilangana, Bhagirathi

Narmada Sagar Valley Project ......................... Narmada

Obra Power Station .................................................. Obra

Rihand project ....................................................... Rihand


Name of the Project .............................................. River Bhakra - Nangal Project .......................................... Satlej
Farakka Project ................................. Ganga - Bhagirathi Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) .............. Damodar
Beas Project ............................................................... Beas Hirakud Dam Project ......................... Mahanadi (Orissa)
Rajasthan canal project ................ Beas, Ravi and Sutlej Mayurakshi Project .................................... Murali (A.P.)
Chambal Project ................................................. Chambal Nagarjunasagar Project ....................................... Krishna
Kakrapara Project ..................................................... Tapti Kosi Project ................................................................Kosi
Ukai Project ............................................................... Tapti Pallivasal .....................................Mudirappuzha (Kerala)
Poochampad Project .......................................... Godavari Peringalkuthu ..................... Chalakkudy Puzha (Kerala)
Malaprabha Project ....................................... Malaprabha Sabarigiri ................................................. Pamba (Kerala)
Mahi ........................................................................... Mahi Kuttiyadi ................................. Kuttiyady Puzha (Kerala)

73 1
&
Neighbouring Countries

73 2
73 3
1
12

11

2
3

10

4
9

6
7

73 4
73 5
Golden Quadrilateral - Links Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai
North-South Corridor - Sreenagar to Kanyakumari
East West Corridors - Porbandhar to Silchur

73 6