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Table of Contests Weekly Analysis May 4 2017
th

1 Global Issues 28 Transcripts ofTalk Shows 41 FPSC Inspector ASF (Airport
2 UK: General Election 2017 23 CNN’s Amanpour Security Force) Paper 2015)
explained 26 Connect the World
3 China’s Maritime Disputes 43 BOOK REVIEWS
37 Research Articles for CSS 43. India vs Pakistan: Why can’t
8 Pakistan’s Domestic Issues Essay Topics we just be friends?
8 12 proposals for electoral reform 29I. Introduction to Rule of Law 44 Neither a Hawk Nor a Dove-An
in Pakistan 31 The Rule of Law Problems in Insider’s Account of Pakistan’s
16 Civil Military Relations: Pakistan Foreign Relations including Details
Pakistan and India in Comparison of the Kashmir Framework

21 Pakistan’s External Affairs 45 Solved Pas Papers
5 Iran: a self-inflicted wound? 37 Solved MCQs of CSS 51 Urdu Reports & Transcripts
6 Protracted Afghan Refugee Compulsory Papers 2015 of Programs
Situation: Policy Options for 39 PMS General Knowledge Paper 47 Apas Ki Baat I with Najam Sethi
Pakistan 2014 47Apas ki Baat II with Najam Sethi
27 Weekly Current Affairs 40 Solved FPSC Assistant Director 48 Jirga with SaleemSaaf
MCQs Federal Government Organization
(Intelligence Bureau) Paper 2015

Editorial
Each edition of Weekly Analysis tries to bring best of current affairs prevailing in the whole week to its readers especially
students and candidates of competitive exams and it aims at .providing holistic view pertaining to Pakistan’s domestic, external
and global affairs. Current issue of the magazine will give its in-depth analysis of global issues like China’s maritime disputes and
UK’s upcoming General Election 2017. Pakistan’s domestic and external affairs cover strains in Pak-Iran relations, 12 proposals for
electoral reforms, repatriation of Afghan refugees and comparison of civil-military relations in Pakistan and India.

Current issue of the Weekly Analysis deals with those global, regional and domestic affairs which are increasingly
affecting the globe militarily, politically, and economically.-As previous edition of this magazine has thoroughly explained Syria’s
Crises, North Korea’s Problem, Populism and Indo-Pak Water Disputes along with other regional and domestic problems such as
South China Sea Dispute, FATA’s Mainstreaming and Nuclear Arm Race in South Asia etc in such a manner that even a person
with no background of national and international affairs can easily comprehend the nature of those issues. These topics are
essential part of CSS and PMS compulsory papers like International Relations, Political Science, Public Administration,
International Law, Governance and Public Policy, Pakistan Affairs and Current Affairs etc.

Similarly, weekly current affairs MCQs, transcripts of week’s best talk shows, research articles for CSS essay on Rule of
Law and solved past papers conducted by FPSC and PPSC are also part of current Weekly Analysis so that readers and candidates
of competitive exams may enrich their knowledge in order to succeed in their lives.

Mian Waqas Haider
0345-4740019 Editorial Board
Mianwhaider@gmail.com Haseeb Hassan, Dawood Gill, Aqsa Batool, Amir Saleem, Farina,
Kamishka Iftikhar, Kinza Qaisar, Maliha Fayyaz, Momel Khan, Laiba
Haq, Rizwan Haider, Faiza Azhar, Naima Batool &.Aliya Arshad

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Global Issues Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017

Global Issues
UK: GENERAL ELECTION
2017 EXPLAINED

HOW DO THEY WORK? represented by its own Member of disagree with what their party is
Parliament (MP). On 8 June, people trying to do, they are still allowed to
YOU might have heard about the will go to a local polling station to vote against them. These MPs are
General Election that’s happening on vote for the person they want to be known as ‘rebels’. Theresa May is
their MP in the constituency where hoping for a bigger majority than she
Thursday 8 June, but why are people they live. Voters don’t get to pick the has right now – only 17 – which will
voting? Who for? And who can vote? Prime Minister, only their local MP. make her Government stronger. But
Most of the successful candidates are she is taking a risk. She could end up
A GENERAL Election is the way we members of political parties, but with fewer MPs, or lose the election
decide which political party is going anyone can stand for election. To try altogether.
to rule the House of Commons, set up to stop people standing for a joke, What’s a hung Parliament?
the Government, and run the United each candidate has to pay £500. If Things get a bit complicated if no
Kingdom for the next five years. they don’t manage to win 5% of the party gets a majority in the election.
The last General Election was held in votes cast, they lose their £500. This is known as a ‘hung Parliament’
2015, so this one came as a bit of a What is a political party? and can make it difficult to govern, as
surprise when Prime Minister There are lots of different parties, the other parties can club together to
Theresa May called it three years with different ideas about how the block any laws that the Government
early. Two thirds of MPs in the House nation should be run. tries to pass. This is what happened
of Commons had to agree to run the They all make promises to the voters in 2010 because the party with the
election early. The PM said she before the election in their manifesto, most seats – the Conservatives – only
thought the election was necessary to such as their ideas for the NHS won 302 seats. They chose to team up
help bring certainty to Britain (National Health Service) or the to form a Government with the
following the EU referendum. armed forces, or their plans to get Liberal Democrats, who won 56
What is a snap election? more people jobs. seats. This working together is known
Under the 2011 Fixed-term Who wins? as a coalition.
Parliaments Act, passed when David If one party wins a majority of the What could General Election
Cameron was prime minister, seats in Parliament (i.e. more than mean for Brexit?
general elections in the UK are 325), then they will form a If May wins, it will shore up May's
supposed to take place every five government. The leader of the elected strategy for Brexit. In voting for the
years on the first Thursday in May. party will usually become Prime Conservative party, the British people
A snap election can be called for two Minister. Having a majority of MPs will be giving May a mandate to
reasons: if there is a vote of no makes it easier for the Government to carry out Brexit the way she sees fit.
confidence in the government or if bring in new laws or make other The main opposition Labour Party
MPs vote for an early election by a changes to the country, as they have has also committed to carrying out
two-thirds majority. enough MPs to win any vote that the desire of Britons to leave the EU,
What will happen on 8 June? takes place in Parliament. However, expressed in last year's referendum.
The UK is split up into 650 areas, this doesn’t always work out because, Only the Liberal Democrats, a
known as constituencies, each if enough of the Government’s MPs minority party, opposes Brexit.

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Global Issues Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017
In any case, the UK is already bound Legal experts are divided on whether Union and there can be no turning
by Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, it can be revoked -- but there's no back."
which May triggered last month. By chance of that being attempted (Sources: Press Reader, CNN,
invoking Article 50, the British anyway. Parliament.UK. Wales Today)
government has set the process of As May said in Downing Street:
withdrawing from the European "Britain is leaving the European
Union in motion.

China’s Maritime Disputes

The East and South China Seas are the scene of escalating

territorial disputes between China and its neighbors, Historical Context
including Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. The tensions, China’s maritime disputes span centuries. The tug-of-war over
shaped by China's growing assertiveness, have fueled sovereignty of the Diaoyu/Senkakus in the East China Sea can be
concerns over armed conflict and raised questions about traced to the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, while Japan’s defeat in
Washington's security commitments in its strategic rebalance World War II and Cold War geopolitics added complexity to
toward the Asia-Pacific region. claims over the islands. The fight over overlapping exclusive
East-China Sea is basically a political conflict while South economic zones in the South China Sea has an equally complex
China Sea is an economic one chronology of events steeped in the turmoil of Southeast Asian
Mapping the Claims history. Globalization—including extensive free trade pacts
Six countries (China, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, Philippines, between claimants—and recent developments like the U.S.
Malaysia, Brunei) lay overlapping claims to the East and “pivot” to Asia have further connected the two disputes. As
South China Seas, an area that is rich in hydrocarbons and China’s economic ascent facilitates growing military capabilities
natural gas and through which trillions of dollars of global and assertiveness in both seas, other regional players are also
trade flow. As it seeks to expand its maritime presence, China experiencing their own rise in nationalism and military
has been met by
growing
assertiveness from
regional claimants
like Japan,
Vietnam, and the
Philippines.
The increasingly
frequent standoffs
span from the
Diaoyu/Senkaku
Islands, on China’s
eastern flank, to the
long stretch of
archipelagos in the
South China Sea
that comprise
hundreds of islets. The U.S. pivot to Asia, involving renewed capability, and have exhibited greater willingness to stake
diplomatic activity and military redeployment, could signal territorial claims.
Washington’s heightened role in the disputes, which, if not Power Projection
managed wisely, could turn part of Asia’s maritime regions In recent years, China has undertaken drastic efforts to dredge
from thriving trade channels into arenas of conflict. and reclaim thousands of square feet in the South China Sea. Its

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Global Issues Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017
construction of artificial islands and infrastructure, such as China and Vietnam, and China and ASEAN, could be established
runways, support buildings, loading piers, and possible among all claimants. These hotline systems would connect
satellite communication antennas, has prompted its leaders in the event of a crisis that could arise from mishaps,
neighbors and the United States to question whether they are such as naval maneuvers misinterpreted by captains of
strictly for civilian purposes, as claimed by the government. merchant vessels or fishermen. Lastly, joint naval exercises, such
China’s land development has profound security implications. as those proposed by Beijing in October 2015, could support
The potential to deploy aircraft, missiles, and missile defense greater military transparency and help develop shared rules of
systems to any of its constructed islands vastly boosts China’s the road.
power projection, extending its operational range south and Building a Multilateral Framework
east by as much as 1,000 kilometers (620 miles). The development of a multilateral, binding code of conduct
China’s Island Building between China and ASEAN countries is often cited as a way of
China’s highest rate of island development activity is taking easing territorial disputes in the South China Sea. The parties
place on the Paracel and Spratly Island have already agreed upon multilateral risk reduction
chains. Beijing has reclaimed more than and confidence-building measures in the 2002
2,900 acres (PDF) since December Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the
2013, more land than all other South China Sea, but none have adhered to its
claimants combined in the past "We are strongly committed provisions or implemented its trust-building
forty years, according to a U.S. to safeguarding the proposals. While China has historically
Defense Department report. preferred to handle all disputes bilaterally,
Satellite imagery has shown country's sovereignty and ongoing consultations between Beijing
unprecedented activity from security, and defending our and ASEAN still hold some promise for
China on Subi Reef and Fiery territorial integrity."- reinvigorating a multilateral framework
Cross Reef in the Spratlys, toward greater cooperation and conflict
including the possible CHINESE PRESIDENT XI resolution. However, given differences
construction of helipads, airstrips, JINPING among ASEAN members vis-à-vis China and
piers, and radar and surveillance China’s preference to settle matters bilaterally,
structures. In addition to China, the it is uncertain whether progress can be made.
Spratlys are claimed by Malaysia, the International Arbitration
Philippines, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Experts say that China’s Bringing territorial disputes to an international legal body
artificial island building and infrastructure construction are presents another means of conflict mitigation. The International
increasing its potential power projection capabilities in the Court of Justice and the International Tribunal for the Law of the
region. Sea are two forums where claimants can file submissions for
Policy Options settlement. In July 2013, a UN tribunal was convened at The
Thousands of vessels, from fishing boats to coastal patrols Hague to discuss an arbitration case filed by the Philippine
and naval ships, ply the East and South China Sea waters. government contesting the legality of China’s territorial claims
Increased use of the contested waters by China and its in the South China Sea. The court ruled in favor (PDF) of the
neighbors heighten the risk that miscalculations by sea Philippines in July 2016. The tribunal found that China’s “nine-
captains or political leaders could trigger an armed conflict, dash line” had no legal basis for its claims to historic rights to
which the United States could be drawn into through its resources in the South China Sea and that none of the land
military commitments to allies Japan and the Philippines. features met the requirements of an exclusive economic zone for
Policy experts believe that a crisis management system for China. The Chinese foreign ministry dismissed the court’s award,
the region is crucial. saying it had no binding force. Alternatively, an outside
PREVENTIVE MEASURES organization or mediator could also be called upon to resolve the
A range of preventive measures could ease regional tensions disagreement, yet the prospect for success in these cases is slim
and de-escalate the risk of military conflict. Experts including given China’s likely continued opposition.
Elizabeth Economy, Sheila Smith, Joshua Kurlantzick, and CRISIS MANAGEMENT
Simon Tay weigh the options. In the event military conflict erupts, policy experts including
Elizabeth Economy, Sheila Smith, and Shen Dingli outline a few
immediate options facing the countries involved.
"Provocations against Japan’s sovereign Diplomatic
sea and land are continuing, but they must Escalatory actions would likely trigger ramped up diplomacy.
not be tolerated." JAPANESE PRIME The United States could initially serve in a mediation role in the
MINISTER SHINZO ABE event of crisis erupting in either sea. In the South China Sea,
mediation could also come from ASEAN or a trusted, neutral
Resource Sharing actor within the region like Singapore. Parties could also call for
Claimants in both the South China Sea and East China Sea an emergency session of the UN Security Council to negotiate a
could cooperate on the development of resources (PDF), cease-fire, although China’s permanent seat on the Council could
including fisheries, petroleum, and gas. A resource-sharing limit the effectiveness of this option. In the East China Sea,
agreement could include bilateral patrolling mechanisms, bilateral management of the dispute is the likely first option,
which would deter potential sources of conflict like illegal
fishing and skirmishes arising from oil and gas exploration. "Vietnam does not pursue a military buildup, but
More collaborations in the mold of joint fishery deals like
Vietnam pursues protecting our sovereignty,
those between China and Vietnam and Japan and Taiwan
could mitigate risk by sharing economic benefits. firstly with peaceful measures, diplomatic
Military-to-Military Communication measures, and even justice measures."-
Increased dialogue between military forces has the potential VIETNAMESE PRIME MINISTER NGUYEN
to reduce the risk of conflict escalation. Communication XUAN PHUC
mechanisms like military hotlines to manage maritime with Beijing and Tokyo sitting down to negotiate a common
Keeping a peaceful and predictable maritime
emergencies, similar to the ones set up by China and Japan, guideline for handling the conflict and preventing its escalation.
order is an international priority." -

the alliances have kept them locked in opposite camps even in the Shah. once an Development) which weaved three major Asian allies of the ‘axis of evil’ state. and Iran effectively became a pariah. Pakistan a declared such intent. Since then. Verbal declarations that to improve Beijing-Tokyo relations.-China Military Maritime Consultative Agreement (PDF) to US – Turkey. which maintains important interests in In response to a Chinese action. Such has been Pakistan’s legacy of dependence on the US for both military and economic assistance through the years. Experts note that Washington's defense Beijing’s extensive land reclamation efforts. for instance. Interesting? tried hard to mask this latency but Pakistan remains wary of There was a regional conundrum too.S." ASEAN SECRETARY territorial dispute. A dispute between China and after a territorial spat in 2010—a charge Beijing denied— Vietnam over territorial claims could also threaten the military causing a commodities crisis for resource-dependent Japan. the parties to the dispute could US Concerns respond to a rise in tensions by imposing economic sanctions. the United ensuring freedom of navigation and securing sea lines of States could sanction financial transactions. the communication. and its which was the forebear of the current Centcom – a more strangulating sanctions against Iran and anyone else doing militaristic evolution – and the RCD (Regional Cooperation business with it. and territorial linkages have imposed themselves in to a sworn foe. international finance literally dictated by the US. Signals GENERAL LE LUONG MINH Manila could draw the United of such a response have already been States into a China-Philippines conflict seen: in 2012 Chinese protesters launched a over the substantial natural gas deposits in wave of boycotts of Japanese-made products. can also serve Economic as essential “coercive de-escalation” measures during a crisis. it had remained dormant while divided into its Persian Gulf and to run its largest CIA station. Chinese-built artificial islands in 2015 and sent warships to sail Philippine treaty holds both nations accountable for mutual within 12 nautical miles of disputed features in the Paracel and support in the event of an “armed attack in the Pacific Area Spratly island chains to emphasize the importance of freedom of on either of the Parties. 5 Pakistan’s External Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 Chinese and Japanese officials made a breakthrough to ease encourage a stand-down of forces and facilitate communication tension in November 2014.S. In the event of armed conflict breaking out scope and have received support from U. These operations. regional allies. renewed interest in Iran on Balochistan. Despite extensive trade ties. with Pakistani and Iranian denominations – Iran’s being a sliver in the cold war at its height there hadn’t been a bigger loss to comparison. As such.S. However. issuing a joint four-point outline between Tokyo and Beijing. Once a combined America thus lost its most strategic location to control the territory. Iran and Pakistan – meant that all structures needed an instant review. and commercial interests of the United States.S. Such was the consequence of one Pakistan’s External Affairs singular event – the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Ayatollahs took control of it. ally of the Western block and Iran’s friendliest neighbour had Pakistan’s inalienable linkages to its interest tied with keeping to reorient almost equally instantly. the United States maritime disputes and encourage destabilizing arms buildups. and would depend on the scale and circumstances challenge China’s maritime claims. also manipulate exports and Washington’s defense treaty with relaunch boycotts of goods. Treasuries. has expressed support for an movement of some goods and services. Add to it the compulsions of geopolitics so dominantly overwhelming. though it still remains beholden to a strong American influence. Iran has colours from being Persian to Arabian. In 1979.. would be obligated to consider military action under defense In the South China Sea. Beijing "The South China Sea issue is not measures. are expected to expand in of the escalation. instantly turning Iran from an ally new world. as well as offers of military assistance. Claimants could region. intended to last resort. exports and cut just about competing claims. Internationally. agreement on a binding code of conduct and even travel between the two and other confidence-building countries. Pakistan never found the space to Iran: a self-inflicted reset its ties with Iran. had been de-seated. it was easy to There are two other underlying causes to this stand-off: old understand because an important American partner. development and a military buildup could lead to regional Under its treaty obligations. the power of the 1970s the Americans in good humour. In retaliation. the U. The Iran-Pakistan relationship hasn’t recovered much since that geopolitical cataclysm. Tied into Cento. Now that newer dynamics dictate American priorities in the region Pakistan may find its moment in wound? pursuing an independent foreign policy.” Military action would represent a navigation in the contested waters. it’s role in preventing military back on its extensive holdings of about peace and stability in the escalation resulting from the U. between China and Japan. military deployed surveillance aircraft over the defend Japan in the case of an armed attack. the United States could also use (Source: Council on Foreign Relations) crisis communication mechanisms outlined in the U. The failure of Military Chinese and Southeast Asian leaders to resolve the disputes by If confrontation were to involve Japan in the East China Sea diplomatic means could undermine international laws governing or the Philippines in the South China Sea. The United States.S. communicate the seriousness of the dispute and convey support for an ally. The United States has a could bar U.S. warning that island commitments to Tokyo are stronger than those to Manila. Washington has protested against treaties. With little liberty of action away from its dominant American leanings. things haven’t It is true that Iran has mostly been an outlier ever since the changed how they should have with Iran. Pakistan could not break beyond what the . the Gulf has changed Iranian interest in furthering its territorial ambitions. The U. the United States would have to conflict. Japan the disputed Reed Bank or the lucrative fishing also accused China of halting exports of rare earth minerals grounds of the Scarborough Shoal. But tenuous relations have rekindled a latent American interests ever.

is to focus on the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan since Continued violence and political and economic turmoil in 1979. especially the UAE. had little cause for consternation. implicit but easily pinned. in your interest while keeping all others in good humour. Saudi Arabia. pathways to mitigate adversity. 3. The Islamic Summit in 1974. secure under the American particular were approached to contribute forces. it is estimated that during the Pakistan past 34 years. refugee fatigue. Saudi-Iran relations at one’s peril. has bailed Pakistan out when it ran out of money – which sucked into this virulent vortex of an unwanted war. falling short on there. Although the UNHCR Policy Options for provides assistance for only one point five million registered refugees of the total three million. During the last days of Obama. the ball has been difficult to roll back. determine what constituted Pakistan’s prime interest. 3 As a result. Nawaz Sharif will soon be in Riyadh to attend a US- routed via the UAE. umbrella. That pulled in Pakistan into polarised into its Persian and Arab ends. nations generally fail to Rewind a little. and possibly some force. reminding us brazenly that when you do others’ test to this fraternal relationship. If diplomacy becomes the way. Also. In the meanwhile General Baqeri of Iran has come out all active support in their war against Yemen arrived as the first guns blazing. Afghan refugees have become a Afghanistan continues to face one of the world’s largest refugee serious concern for Pakistan and an irritant in Pakistan- crises and the largest protracted refugee situation under the Afghan relations due to declining donor assistance. Pakistan will suffer the than half of the Pakistani Diaspora that is critical to sending consequences in its neighbourhood. always known to have been grandfathered by It was in this background that the Saudi request to provide it them. Pakistan. That then East and Iran would all happily gather on the same table gave cause to an indirect formulation of the 34-nation alliance which the Americans chaired – the Arabs yet to evolve into initially that Pakistan was surprised to learn included it too. both workers and people of means who own properties through aggressive engagement. 6 Pakistan’s External Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 world together had imposed as the governing regulation of allies off badly and they responded by overtly cosying up to Iran. In 1979. Pakistani public opinion bidding you also carry their trash. Very soon our We have singularly failed on this one critical aspect. such contiguous Saudi villages to which Raheel Sharif has had to identity only found an even sharper delineation. Most of the informal Pakistani trade to Iran or India is all counts. The Shah of Iran. Egypt and Pakistan in Middle East. domestic UNHCR’s mandate. Having (By Shahzad Chaudhary: Published in the News played to the tune of others for too long. SA Pakistan finds its most famous general. Expedience has once again and its parliament went into an exceptional huddle to trumped common sense.1 Over the years. The game has only begun. money back in Forex happens to work and live in SA. All three. the Americans achieve their interests and end up being sucked into even attempted at pushing an Arab coalition to fight against Assad more unsavoury consequences. the Afghan refugee crisis . Qatar and other GCC nations continue to Arab Summit which will stamp the American approval to the be a favoured haunt for Pakistani labour. I have said was more than once. This exceptionalism didn’t last long though. there are three million in four Afghans has been a refugee. Even after more than three registered and unregistered Afghan refugees. Other All policy will have some con to it but smarter nations use Gulf countries.8 million (Afghans) have returned to History of Afghan Refugees (1979. thus Protracted Afghan making it close to impossible to give an accurate number of unregistered refugees. The Houthis in Yemen have forayed into and their criticality in international affairs. 2 however. weak economy.to present) Afghanistan but many returnees keep trickling back to Pakistan. 4 the refugees are reluctant to go back due to the protracted refugee populations ─ more than five million poor state of affairs in Afghanistan. militants. We did neither. The Gulf was respond with forces in the theatre. rather than committing their own boots there. Since 2002. Currently. Hence the aim of this paper Afghan refugees have been living in Pakistan since 1979. The Arab Middle politely and correctly. Pakistan has spent hundreds of billions of dollars on hosting Afghan refugees. the OIC That act done. Sadly. The Saudis were Under ZAB Pakistan actively developed a support base in the tasked to elicit support and Turkey. That cut our Arab number of unregistered refugees is believed to be far greater since movement across the Pak-Afghan border has traditionally taken place under an unregulated and unmonitored system. have nosedived with bad rhetoric taking over on both sides. and the growing largest refugee group after the Syrians as it is estimated that one threat of terrorism. But choose we did. Our rulers have found abode and before that. more muscled entities. Afghan refugees represent the second– constraints. Somewhere along the sentiments of the militaries. leadership was travelling to SA more often and explaining itself Diplomats must never become warriors and imbibe than fighting our own wars in the country. But then what is good diplomacy? Getting to do what is India. Choosing sides was Yemen. arrangement. May 12. Pakistan has been indebted to Saudi Arabia for long now. the UNHCR has doubled Abstract the assistance package from US$200 to US$400 per person for the registered Afghan refugee families opting to return to Pakistan provided shelter to one of the world’s largest Afghanistan. Except that it happened to be to its perpetual benefactor. trafficking of drugs and arms from Afghanistan. warded off direct involvement. Pakistan has been the most Refugee Situation: vulnerable country to mass movement. and then the Arab League with the crown jewel the GCC have This arrangement was tested the first thing after Raheel Sharif evolved over the years to give a sense of identity to the Arabs took over in Riyadh. their current status in the light of changing dynamics and Afghanistan have discouraged refugees to return and suggest plausible options for the management and honourable resulted in the continued influx of Afghan refugees into repatriation of Afghan refugees. while SA will drive policy to which the coalition succour there when they were in trouble back home. are a second home to diplomacy to cover vulnerabilities and mitigate adversity many. 2017) found the courage to say ‘no’. we agreed to make amends by making Gen (r) Raheel supporting arm for war – unless it is essential to so act – and Sharif available to them to lead a 41-country Muslim military loses its own brand of carving space towards additional coalition against terror. Pakistan finally International. More under Raheel Sharif will respond. the decades of prolonged displacement. Although.

It is estimated that during the Afghan Refugees in Pakistan invasion. the Afghan US$27. more than 3. militants. Traditionally. very few Afghan refugees returned as the three decades. families.8 million Afghan refugees returned to invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai. carpet and gem stone industry.562 million in terms of foreign exchange in the last five community spread to all corners of the country as Afghan years. Pakistan has second and third generation locally houses. Hence. this has been ignored. which restricted the movement of refugees to camps and prevented them from indulging in politics.000 refugees mostly to Pakistan and some to and Iran. of Afghanistan. conflict and war. trafficking of Due to cultural. continued Revolution in 1978. been given access to education. many of them have married locals After the Geneva Accord in 1988. Pakistan welcomed the incoming refugees which at have discouraged refugees from returning home. 7 Pakistan’s External Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 continues to linger on. While many The movement of refugees in Pakistan was not restricted to have attained Pakistani citizenship through illegal means. a non-signatory to the Geneva Convention of Continued violence. the and. further displacement and migration limited access to free education. while 33 per cent live art and has contributed significantly to Pakistan’s economy. and travel freely within Pakistan like other Pakistani born Afghans who while on paper may be Afghans are Pakistani citizens. thus million. However. Even after more than to return. 67 per cent of Puktunkhwa which is renowned all over the world for its skilful Afghans live in urban and rural areas. Continued strife and turmoil in Afghanistan has led Iran. 000 Afghans fled to Pakistan. Currently. Pakistan has been the most ethnic Pashtun but also included Tajiks. the same holds true. As a result. an estimated 172. they Afghan traders based in Peshawar. others the camps. yet. an While thousands of Afghans fled to Pakistan after the Saur estimated 160. continued political attitude underwent a significant change from “integration to instability and turmoil as a result of the failure of the repatriation and prevention of future flows due to continuing mujahideen to successfully establish a government led to the uncertainty in Afghanistan. due to the drought that hit Afghanistan in the to the continuous flow of individuals fleeing the country as year 2000. the first documented large scale turmoil in Afghanistan has been the sole reason behind the movement of Afghans into Pakistan began in the aftermath of continued influx of Afghan refugees into Pakistan. Gilgit-Baltistan of the work force in the carpet weaving industry in Khyber and Azad Jummu and Kashmir. which is primarily run by cannot officially own trucks according to law. bulk continued to stay in Pakistan and Iran respectively. Majority of the refugees of the Soviet Union from Afghanistan in February 1989. 95 per cent are hosted by Pakistan additional 700. was hoped that refugees would repatriate. rent discrimination. From The Afghan nationals moved to Pakistan prior to the Soviet 2002 to 2015. hosting 21 per cent of The number of unregistered refugees is believed to be far greater the world’s refugees. Yet others have established themselves partners and cannot hold immovable property or the within the country’s business community and working class. ethnic. Afghan refugees easily integrated into the society and lived in For majority of the Afghan refugees who fled from Afghanistan relative peace. with majority of the refugees based in Pakistan. there were 1. For example. vulnerable country to mass movement.000 refugees came to Pakistan. result of the ongoing fighting and take over by the Taliban decreasing financial assistance for healthcare. In the formal sector. well as internal displacement of the Afghan population. making it close to impossible to give an accurate number of Majority of the Afghan refugees that came to Pakistan were unregistered refugees. to escape poverty. While Afghan refugees were of some 1. thus making Pakistan the it has resulted in a continuous influx of refugees into Pakistan. Iran imposed outflow of even more Afghans soon after. Although. the business of gemstones. appealed even though at a subsistence level. drought Although Afghanistan saw the return of refugees. more than 51 refugee community in Pakistan became the foundation for the per cent of the total Afghan refugee population in Pakistan is US-Saudi backed resistance against the Soviet in under 18 years of age (with the majority born in Pakistan). It is worth mentioning that a major chunk of the in spirit and conduct. Pakistan provided them with to the 5 million Afghan refugees residing in Pakistan and Iran a higher quality of life than in Afghanistan. regime in 1996.5 million refugees under the UNHCR assisted welcomed in Iran after the Soviet invasion. linguistic and religious affinities. refugees officially need Pakistani set up small businesses. Afghans have Afghanistan with UNHCR assistance under the formal bilateral migrated across the border for social issues or to meet their agreement on Afghan refugees. unemployment. They moved around freely throughout the country continued to live in Pakistan without facing any form of where they were allowed to work. With the passage of time some moved out of the Unlike in Iran. registered camps into residential areas in all the major cities of and unregistered refugees in Pakistan have like all Pakistani Pakistan. once settled they were able to find work and earn. in 2011. the authorities have always work. constitute a considerable dominate the entire transport sector in the province. the Afghan refugees in Iran have had limited After the victory of the mujahideen over Najibullah’s access to public facilities and have not been able to merge into government in April 1992. trade. accommodated the Afghan refugees to work in the informal While many work as labourers. the Tripartite Commission. refugees and locals coexist. However. Uzbeks and Hazaras. this number had risen to around five taken place under an unregulated and unmonitored system. more recently. After the 2001 US invasion of Afghanistan and the subsequent ouster of the Taliban. in 1979.” Over the years. as a several restrictions on the Afghan refugees in an attempt to compel repatriation. Afghanistan. there were more than six million Afghan refugees.4 to 1. Sindh. Pakistan’s law prohibits the hiring of nationals. On the contrary. second largest refugee hosting nation . This led to the movement of an more than 70 countries. While Afghan refugees are present in continued to take place. it that came to Pakistan were illiterate and had no finances at all. the Soviet invasion in 1979. by 1990 Iran’s repatriation programme. Afghanistan witnessed the return the Iranian society so easily.5 million Afghan since movement across the Pak-Afghan border has traditionally refugees but by 1986. As in 54 refugee villages throughout the country. The then President However. For example in KP. deteriorating state of affairs in Afghanistan did not prevent masses from fleeing the country. part of Pakistan’s export to other countries and has earned During the course of the last three decades. which led to the withdrawal and integrated into the larger society. in search of work. In 1981. Consequently. lawsprohibiting undocumented . For than not. one point numbered five million. refugees instance. requisite documents to own a business. Afghan refugees make up more than 70 per cent communities have settled in Punjab. Pakistan became their permanent home. repatriation began to take place. These include increasing the cost of living. Additionally. Subsequently. drugs and arms from Afghanistan. more often particularly in the transport. health and the right to unregistered foreigners. However. According to 2014 statistics. Similarly. political and economic turmoil and poverty Refugees. others have found odd jobs and sector. Although. acquire education.

000 Registration (PoR) cards and the Tripartite Agreement on drug users in Pakistan. refugee fatigue. Repatriation Strategy (AMRS) to find a durable solution for the producing about 92 per cent of the world’s opium crop. Meanwhile in 2009. It was only in Since then the government has had to keep on extending the 2005 when a survey was conducted to determine the number deadline ─ with the current deadline extended from March 2017 of refugees residing in Pakistan. In 2010. Islamabad decided to close all refugee camps. This process went on till 2007. very few opted for relocation to these ‘government-designated’ camps due to economy. the use of drugs in Pakistan is also an unfortunate the refugees was extended until June 30. This is reflected in the approved. due to domestic constraints. Since 2002. the citizens of Pakistan went to the ballot brought. many refugees had acquired fake national identity cards and others refused out of fear of deportation. denial of citizenship and marriage rights. 2013 that Given the significance of the milestone and the hopes that it for the first time. Islamabad agreed to a new National Policy on Afghan Refugees. and Qom are the only provinces that do not these camps provided a safe-haven to terrorists and criminals as have residential restrictions on Afghans. 2015. There is no doubt that. residents of the camps were given the choice of voluntary Over the years. there has been no comprehensive registration. Alborz. Afghan refugees have become an issue of repatriation with UNHCR assistance of US$100 per person. it was 66 years after independence. by private actors. number of work permits issued to Afghan refugees has The UNHCR supported Pakistan’s decision to close the camps drastically decreased and the cost for renewing permits has because security issues were posing a challenge to the provision been substantially increased. Time and again. the Iranian were against repatriation had the option of relocating to vacant authorities have repeatedly associated unemployment. which was drafted in tandem with the Solutions Strategy for Registered and Unregistered Refugees Afghan Refugees (SSAR). The decision to close the camps was taken border provinces. declining donor assistance. till December 2015. Yet. too. and had resulted in the repatriation of 2. Pakistan also announced the closure of refugee camps in 12 provinces have bans on particular areas and cities. the well as illegal Afghan refugees. and obtain driving licenses and mobile SIM cards. 8 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 Afghans. and assistance to refugee host communities. played an important role in altering Islamabad’s stance regarding refugees and hence the call for their repatriation. However. due to the believed that militants groups fund their insurgencies through an ‘informal tax’ they collect when it is smuggled deteriorating state of affairs in Afghanistan as well as the through Pakistan. Simultaneously. sustainable reintegration than 37 years without any form of legal identification since inside Afghanistan. They were limited to Waziristan in 2005. which made life impunity for attacks and violence perpetrated against them easier for the refugees.1 million in Voluntary Repatriation until December 31. Hence possibilities for livelihood. but they now exist in majority of Iran’s 31 while the repatriation process was ongoing which began in 2002 provinces. the most recent being the Mazandaran province. which included the extension of the Proof of fact that during the 1980s there were an estimated 50. some 2. crime camps in other parts of Pakistan. which focuses on voluntary The Afghan refugees have been living in Pakistan for more repatriation in safety and dignity. Afghan government registered refugees were given an The security impact of the presence of refugees has also additional 3 year extension. Pakistan also adopted the Afghan Management and Afghanistan continues to be the largest producer of opium. The task was laborious since to December 2017. It is protracted refugees’ population.4 million Afghans to 16 provinces have a complete ban on Afghans living there and return. KP and Balochistan to ensure security as it was believed that Tehran. a new policy on Afghan refugees was as the presence of the Afghan refugees. In December 2012. lack of basic infrastructure and the limited increase in crime and the threat of terrorism. Pakistan has been facing immense instability and support of UNHCR. Iran has begun to implement Additionally. with the closure of a camp in South has declared “no go areas” for refugees. weak relocation to camps in Dir and Chitral. their location. the stay of reasons. 2013 as an interim consequence of the prolonged conflict in Afghanistan as well measure. and drug problems in Iran to the presence of these refugees Hence. or concern for Pakistan. Pakistan’s External Affairs 12 proposals for electoral reform in Pakistan box to transfer power from one democratic government to The preamble of the Constitution of the Islamic another. on May 11.” highest number in recent history by some margin. this number rose to 8. This has made them more of humanitarian assistance as well as the fact that those who vulnerable to deportation. it is perhaps no wonder that tales and controversies . Republic of Pakistan 1973 states “the State shall The ECP recorded that 55% of Pakistan’s registered voters exercise its powers and authority through the chosen participated in the polling process on 11th May 2013 – the representatives of the people. stringent measures restricting the movement of refugees and starting from FATA. These cards also allowed them to open bank accounts. In 2006. In July 2013 2011.15 million Afghans were violence primarily in FATA and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa due to the registered and Proof of Registration (PoR) cards were issued US invasion of Afghanistan and the subsequent threat posed by by National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) the Tehreek- recognizing them as Afghan citizens living in Pakistan who were entitled to live and work for three years until December 2009. with the Since 2001. due to the Islamabad has begun to raise the issue of their honourable worsening state of affairs in Afghanistan and on the behest of the repatriation. among other continued challenges impeding the return of refugees. In July 2013.

other localities within and outside the city. I acquired invaluable insight. If we are to improve our electoral system. There is no possibility of transferring the voting place of and fearlessly maintain that it was a momentous occasion for a voter in the FER for political gain prior to the general our country. resides. the Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP) and the Federal Given that the prime responsibility of the Pakistan Army is to Government and it is their duty to take the lead and strive for defend Pakistan from an external threat. the role of the Opposition is to ensure that and verify the residents of each household in Karachi. presumably in an and building for the future. there has been little constructive and the order of the Supreme Court required the ECP to verify debate. A voter can always correct the present address in his CNIC through NADRA rather than a convoluted process 1. the ECP had the opportunity to to physically verify that each and every voter was actually put things in right in NA-250 due to the earlier suspension of residing in a certain area or that a voter owned a house polling at 43 polling stations. That said. The advantage of this is primarily three-fold: I will always defend the sanctity of the 2013 General Elections 1. This proved to be hugely problematic. This the debate is focused on making specific improvements in the predictable failing led to further protests by political parties in electoral system and to maintain the pressure on the Federal Karachi and a rejection of the FER for the second time. which was. The only reason this political interests and transferred unfavorable votes outside was possible was that polling was conducted in only 43 polling the city or within the city by forging or forcefully obtaining stations on 19th May 2013. 3. smaller election will always be fairer than a larger one. signatures. it was entirely improvement in this process. election tribunals are hearing some of these electoral one property. he has the right to choose the electoral area disputes and one expects that the results will be declared to be from which he wants to vote. Electoral rolls through the ECP. Well in advance of the 2. void wherever there is evidence of rigging. verify whether a given person lived in a certain house or not. and videos of human Section 6 of ERA provides that a resident can exercise his vote rigging machines wherever he is a resident. unreasonable to expect army personnel to accompany ECP staff At the same time. the Supreme Court directed the ECP to re- one year on. adopted to ensure that such events do not take place again. Section 7 goes on to clarify that a mechanically stamping ballot papers. the FER by going door-to-door through the entire city. logic dictates that if all of the ECP’s resources are . is that while the forces. Certain parties alleged that the local government employees Part of this was due to the presence of at least 30-40 armed in Karachi that were appointed for this task were serving personnel manning each polling station. however. It will also be a logistical nightmare if an effort is made Pakistan challenging the FER in Karachi on the ground that a to transport polling staff from one province to another to ensure number of residents had been illegally displaced in the FER to impartiality all across Pakistan. Government and ECP implement them well ahead of the next It needs to be remembered that Pakistan roughly has a general elections. This requires gradual and conscientious steps. 2012 to July 2013. Simultaneously. The solution to this is quite simple: voters should simply be During this time. Karachi is a city of approximately 20 million residents political rhetoric rages on. verify the FER for Karachi with the assistance of the armed The unfortunate aspect of this. the narrative must The only difference this time was that the ECP was to call upon be directed towards drawing upon our previous experience the Pakistan Army to “provide assistance”. On the assumption that the CNIC actually reflect a made. Separate polling days general elections in Some of the lasting May 2013. Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) and Pakistan held in approximately 69. population of 180 million – the suggestion that the ECP should I assisted the former Chief Election Commissioner from July verify each and every household is nothing short of absurd. debated and representative in their own constituency tested before implementation. a teenage boys comprehensive list of threatening voters all eligible voters in outside polling stations Pakistan and their place of voting.000 polling stations throughout the Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) filed a petition in the Supreme Court of country. in the scorching sun. Thus. Such deployment is downright impossible when elections are Due to this reason. the ECP images of the 2013 published the Final general elections were Electoral Rolls 2013 those of endless queues (FER). information registered in the FER at the present address which appears on and experience into the workings of our electoral system and their CNIC issued by NADRA. hugely successful and peaceful by-election on 19th May 2013. foolproof measures were elsewhere. there are undoubtedly improvements that can be 2. draw upon my experience in this study. the Pakistan Army assured the presence of army There was thus a critical human element to this entire officers inside the polling stations. The sheer magnitude of this exercise required the ECP to Presiding officers and polling staff were transported from appoint employees of local governments to painstakingly Balochistan and Interior Sindh to ensure impartiality. thereby This is admittedly only anecdotal evidence to prove that a disenfranchising them. elections That said. quite simply. voters are voting for a Improvements are required to be proposed. voter will be deemed to be a resident wherever he ordinarily The ECP cannot defend these allegations. owns immovable property and if he owns more than To date. effort to ensure that the exercise was done fairly and free of any A large part of this responsibility falls upon the shoulders of mischief. 9 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 surrounding the elections have continued to dog the headlines In November 2013. These measures led to a process. This is regrettable. for it required the ECP One week after 11th May 2013. person’s correct present address.

Parliamentarians to our Assemblies. honest politicians should represent the people of Pakistan in our Under Section 14 of ROPA. to the National or Provincial Assemblies in Pakistan whereas Thus. sins. therefore. the then Chief Justice of Pakistan. one plausible alternative is to conduct elections for each Article 63 lists the disqualifications. political parties and government officials is bound to be Thrust into the limelight and emboldened by public sentiment. in the court of to elect honest politicians with clean track records became a the people of Pakistan in the national elections and. for the Returning Officers were subordinate Judges and More importantly. Whatever the motive of Qadri and notwithstanding his In doing so. done in nine phases. Parliament should have a serious and meaningful debate These provisions proved to be a Damocles sword in the in relation to the scope and utility of Articles 62 and 63 of the scrutiny process leading up to the 2013 general elections in Constitution. statement in his nomination form. of days of the scrutiny circus when it passed an order restraining Qadri. is to give the Caretaker Government an extended term. also weighed into the public’s demand for clean and concerns. The polling was in 2013. Iftikhar Muhammad There are however ways and means to guard against such Chaudhry. the Lahore High Court stressed that “the real and limited success to stir an effective public movement. The Returning Officers asked some of the most absurd questions: Prior to the 2013  How many wives do you have. the complete character and is not commonly known as one who and utter disregard for fairness that Pakistan suffered in violates Islamic Injunctions.  Article 62(1)(e) of the Constitution provides that a Needless to say. In amongst this list are a number of vague. perhaps one possibility effective. hardworking and effective received serious criticism due to their conduct. there throughout the country. it is possible to argue that having light of the qualifications for Parliamentarians listed in the qualifications and disqualifications for candidates is in itself Constitution. who had come from Canada to Pakistan in late 2012 to the Returning Officers from embarking upon a subjective ostensibly spearhead a campaign for this purpose. candidate must be one who has “adequate knowledge of One major source of concern is that an earlier elected Islamic teachings and practices obligatory duties government in one province may use its clout to influence the prescribed by Islam as well as abstains from major elections in another. the subjective elements in Articles 62 and 63 of the nomination paper inter alia if “a candidate is not qualified to Constitution inevitably lead to questions such as those raised by be elected as a member” or if a candidate makes a false the Returning Officers leading up to the 2013 general elections. from a practical point of view. creating violence and jeopardising the the scrutiny period into a farce. For instance. 2013. 10 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 concentrated in one area at a given time rather than spread Article 62 of the Constitution specifies the qualifications that a over the entire country. lest the campaign. the need unforgiving test of the candidate is yet to come. India held its 16th general elections over a period of unenforceable qualifications that proved extremely problematic six weeks to vote for their Parliamentarians.” It will also undoubtedly encourage horse-trading. the ECP appointed sitting District Judges as scrutiny process and what is the purpose of the qualifications Returning Officers throughout the country on the demand of and disqualifications listed in Articles 62 and 63 of the the political parties. the likelihood of success is that much prospective Parliamentarian must meet before he can be elected higher. there  Do you believe in honeymoon? was a very  Have you been circumcised properly? public and  Have you stood in front of a girls college ever in your widespread life? effort to ensure  Have you ever seen any censored movie? that the  Have you ever eaten pork? elections bring a The scrutiny process and Returning Officers quite rightly group of honest. Whereas there were obviously a number  Article 62(1)(d) states that a candidate shall be “of good of disputes pertaining to some of these elections. tarnishing the neutrality The scrutiny of candidates is conducted by Returning Officers and independence of the judiciary…” appointed by the ECP under Section 7 of ROPA. province separately. for the electorate should be able to vote for . gesture. formed for a number of weeks until polling is conducted righteous and non-profligate.” It will also mean that our National Assembly will not be  Article 62(1)(f) requires a candidate to be “sagacious. Nomination and Scrutiny distinguished politicians were rejected. How effective is the general elections. Nomination papers of some of Pakistan’s most 3. anti-democratic. For the 2013 This leads us to an important consideration. and how many nights do general you spend with each of them? elections in Pakistan. All these Shortly before the commencement of the scrutiny period in April issues will inevitably cause some instability and uncertainty. inquisition by asking random and intrusive questions. Constitution? This was done in an attempt to ensure impartiality through While it is difficult to argue against the requirement that only the entire process. controlling the Chief Justice is very much their chief. The Lahore High Court finally put things in place after a number A portion of this can perhaps be attributed to Dr Tahir-ul. sanctity of the electoral process. easier than an infinite number of criminals bent upon the District Judges in their capacity as Returning Officers turned harassing voters. lofty and In 2014. given that general elections in honest politicians and reinforced the message to the Returning Pakistan are now conducted under a Caretaker Government Officers to ensure that the scrutiny process is stringent and in the centre and in all the provinces. the national obsession following the media’s coverage of his RO must not over step the law and exceed his limits.” some constituencies in 2013 was nowhere to be found. right It is arguable that this did not merely amount to a symbolic until the last election results are announced. honest and ameen. After all. being no declaration to the contrary by a court of law. scrutiny appears to be a witch-hunt. Ideally. this proposal is not without its drawbacks. Candidates were humiliated and ridiculed in front of live cameras. Returning Officers may reject a Assemblies.

the powers and limitations of the Returning Officers in A special committee was constituted by the ECP to consider these this process and the scope and use of Articles 62 and 63 when very questions as far back as 2009. Thus. Overseas voting Given the passing of the Supreme Court order mentioned above Shortly before the as well as the renewed interest on the subject. located in areas which are Bear in mind that this entire exercise will have to be repeated relatively free from political interference and be within two for each polling station established around the world and kilometres of its closest polling station. the ECP is stations may even need to be established in some countries in required to examine the suitability of over 69. the responsibility of establishing polling Pakistan. it is only after Pakistanis and PTI to the ECP is entirely confident that it has arrived at a fair and implement voting for secure mechanism to implement this exercise that this proposal overseas Pakistanis may move forward in Parliament for necessary debate and ahead of the 2013 general elections. there is perhaps another anything of the sort will take place. planning. his appointment was met with widespread voting. a Judge of the Supreme consensus amongst the mainstream political parties that Court or is. Ebrahim was appointed the The risk increases manifold with the prospects of overseas CEC in July 2013. it is highly unlikely that In addition to these procedural issues. who will have to meticulously researched. or has been. fundamental question .000 buildings which Pakistanis are residents in sizeable numbers. There are a number of basic questions: Political parties in Pakistan rarely agree on issues when faced  How will the voting take place? with competing interests. planned. There are a plethora of tasks that need to be Officers. defaulter or reasonably expected to establish polling stations in each country dishonest.801 polling abroad across several countries. requires a great amount of overseas Pakistanis are required in a given country to justify organisation. the CEC This proposal could not however be implemented in 2013 due may only be a person who is. all the election material will have to be Members of the ECP. considers the oft-touted option of establishing polling stations Thus.) Fakhruddin G. be specifically trained for this purpose and then sent from Take for instance. However. Under the Constitution. the In such a case. the conclusion that the only viable way to give overseas Pakistanis a right to vote was through a postal ballot. 11 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 whosoever it pleases. across the political spectrum. safeguards are not in place. The government buildings expeditiously so as not to jeopardise the election results in the have to be sufficiently large to accommodate voters. experience and cooperation with establishing a polling station as the ECP cannot be government departments. This exercise. connected to the electricity grid. rest of the country.) Fakhruddin G. necessarily must possess. Ebrahim had credibility in embassies abroad. This will need to be done the 272 constituencies in Pakistan. new. which the CEC and indeed. at the very least. Justice (Retd. like Then there is also the question as to what numbers of most others in the election process. multiple polling stations. . In 2011. 4. this was indeed a momentous occasion. stations throughout the country to allow the electorate to Once polling is complete. there are close to 7 million Pakistanis who are residents The 2013 general elections saw the ECP establish 69. to ensure certainty and clarity. Court was hearing In this regard. one needs to be conscious of the fact that the ECP two petitions filed a is entrusted to ensure free and fair elections under the group of expatriate Constitution and has the expertise to do so. or to paucity of time. It is important costs and a substantial amount of risk. In hindsight. When Justice (Retd. Yet in this instance. separate constituency and should therefore have their own the ECP may consider enacting rules to specify how the representation in the National Assembly to look after their scrutiny process should proceed under Section 14 of the interests. Thus. together with the Returning Officers. This will inevitably entail required from the CEC and Members of the ECP. to appreciate that conducting the general elections is largely an Polling stations will have to be staffed with Presiding administrative task. whether he be a criminal. Ultimately. the Supreme issue once again. polling staff and security personnel. Formation of the ECP expatriates may also participate in the 2013 general election. securely transported to Pakistani missions across the world That said. the Supreme Court disposed off the petitions directing the ECP to make all possible efforts so the 5. securely transported back to a centralised location for The ECP is required to identify government buildings in each of counting and verification. given the endless national obsession for where Pakistanis reside. accessible. the ECP arrived at considering the nominations of candidates. it appears 2013 general reasonable that the ECP may give serious consideration to this elections. the Pakistani  Will the host country allow political activity? Peoples Party (“PPP”) and the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz  What measures can be taken to guard against (PML-N) remarkably agreed on one person to oversee a process rigging? which was going to determine their political future for the next A taste of the logistical issues begin to surface when one five years. all the ballot papers will have to be conveniently cast their votes. it is a relief that the High Courts in right to vote in a constituency in which they do not presently Pakistan have now laid down certain judicial principles so reside? that Returning Officers do not repeat their conduct in 2013. Thus. ROPA. legislation. tested and implemented. there appears to be a general has been. clean and honest politicians. That said. to be a Judge of the Supreme The 2013 general elections exposed the failures that can Court whereas the Members of the ECP must each be a plague the sanctity of the poll if effective and foolproof retired High Court Judge from each province. a Judge overseas Pakistanis should be allowed to vote in the general of a High Court and is qualified elections and therefore this issue deserves serious attention. approval. It is arguable that overseas Pakistanis themselves form a However.should Pakistanis living abroad have the In these circumstances. there are a number of other attributes that are well in advance of polling day. across the length and breadth of the country.

However. students and restrictions on the amount professionals across India. the successful implementation of EVMs will make voting. the successful There is unarguably a compelling case for introducing the use of implementation of electronic voting may ultimately prove to EVMs in Pakistan. stations. Most people in Fourthly. adopted nationwide for the time first time in 2004. Section 49 of ROPA places In 2010. study concluded that “India’s EVMs do not provide One can certainly laud the Parliament’s intention to ensure that transparency. This is a commendable feat given the sheer scale of elections in India. such a change will allow EVMs across the country is an entirely different proposition the possibility of appointing more qualified and suitable altogether. However. there is the issue of the infrastructure of our polling have a judicial background or not. EVMs are manufactured by two public sector revisited. Pakistan needs to follow a similar example There is no such restriction in any democracy in the South to ensure a level of accountability. There is election expenditure of the candidate for any other item absolutely no question however that the ECP will have to whatsoever.. Hundreds of thousands of Additionally and more importantly. been debated. individuals to these positions notwithstanding whether they Thirdly. Perhaps. Pakistanis may recall that the typical instance of Pakistan are fairly rigging in the 2013 general elections was that a polling station convinced that the only was ransacked by criminals. where political and financial muscle ECP when the proposal to implement electronic voting has has historically played a vital role on the outcome of elections. coherent and long-term serious attention. scientists. A India had previously used EVMs that are classified as candidate for a National paperless direct-recording electronic (“DRE”) voting Assembly is only machines. a group of professors. Before electronic voting becomes proper measures are not in place. the former CEC and quite apart from the paucity of time to It is all well having well-meaning provisions in the statute books. sitting High Manufacturers of EVMs are not responsible for conducting free Court Judges or retired Judges under ROPA. this are also significant risks associated with such a drastic step if the answer is far too simplistic. These DREs do not leave a paper trail and thus permitted to incur Rs1. In reality however. The restriction wholly fails there were several other issues that will need to be addressed in this respect. the judicial role fact that EVMs were first developed in India in the 1980s and is undeniably limited. This is perhaps all the These are some of the concerns raised by the experts at the more important in Pakistan. Thus. functions in the election process. Many of the 69.e. implement the EVMs ahead of the 2013 general elections. a reality. Indeed. from persons with a judicial background needs to be In India. It is worth mentioning that the CEC and the Members of the drawn out process and will only succeed if done with a suitable ECP do not adjudicate upon the two most significant judicial amount of testing and training. there is million whereas the expense for a candidate for the no way to verify the vote except the reading on the EVM. there are a number of considerations that require The ECP needs to make a serious. Provincial Assembly is capped at Rs1 million.” regardless of their financial background. but they should also be enforceable. companies. Asian region. Election expenses India has not been without its skeptics. in the future. so voters and election officials have no reason all candidates contest elections on a level playing field. which been that of credibility and security. Electronic voting 2013 were located in remote areas which have no access to electricity supply lines. these appear fair.5 once a voter presses a button to vote for a candidate. However. strategy to work towards this tall order. the authors of the On the face of it. EVMs require an uninterrupted supply of electricity. Can Removing such a qualification from Article 218 of the the manufacturer and the ECP guarantee that the EVMs are Constitution will immediately open a much larger pool of completely secure? eminent persons. the ECP is legally required to monitor every conduct extensive training over many years to educate the expense incurred by any person in relation to the election electorate how to use an EVM. They are companies who In these circumstances. shortly before the general elections. the qualification in the Constitution manufacture and supply EVMs for profit and the Government of that the CEC and the Members of the ECP can only be selected Pakistan has no control over them. After examining the features of the EVM. are performed by either Returning Officers. the implementation of these provisions is Two presentations were made to the ECP during the tenure of much more complex. This is a long. one needs to appreciate that there be the tipping point in our election process. his election campaign. no difference in any case. there is the often publicised issue of literacy and any person on behalf of a candidate shall be deemed to be whether our electorate is capable of using EVMs.000 polling stations established by the ECP in 6. and fair elections in Pakistan. campaign of each candidate. . just and desirable provisions. the implementation of EVMs in 7. and another important issue raised by the ECP has candidate’s nomination papers and election disputes. to be confident that the machines are behaving honestly. deciding the fate of a Secondly. i. who may be selected in these key It is worth recalling that the ECP website was hacked in 2013 constitutional positions. Section 49 of ROPA provides that election expense incurred by Firstly. the United States of America and of expenses that a the Netherlands authored a study examining the security candidate may incur for features of the EVMs used in India. there are also judicial functions carried out by The time and effort needed in this regard can be gauged from the the CEC and Members of the ECP. This also leads us to the all-important question of security. voters and polling staff were answer to prevent wide threatened and ballot boxes were stuffed. scale rigging on polling If Pakistan is unable to effectively deter such criminal behaviour day is electronic on polling day. Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) are utilised for polling in India. However. 12 Admittedly.

The obvious hurdle in this proposal however is that in the recent past. the Supreme Court directed the general elections in Pakistan. Even though removing the restrictions on election expenses These complexities pose a serious challenge to the ECP. ROs candidates in 2013 general elections spread across 272 are responsible for their constituencies. government officials. If DROs. superior Judiciary exercises over the DROs and ROs. ROs or polling staff are incapable or unwilling to perform their Parliamentarians need to give attention to this issue. in 2013 all political frequently conduct transactions with persons who do not parties were in agreement that DROs and ROs should be drawn possess NTNs. of a certain election expense. which was raised by the ECP by any such Government and local authorities. integrity. District Returning Officers (“DRO”) and Returning After observing the futility of controlling elections expenses Officers (“RO”) became household names in the 2013 through this method however. rather than members of the possible for candidates to find persons with NTNs to provide. from ROPA may prove to be a largely unpopular move. It is absurd to even consider that a sitting Judge will ever face a . these directions inevitably leads to a slipshod exercise. this issue has been a central theme taken by political should be given a clear. However. Establish monitoring cells DROs and ROs are inter alia responsible for identifying polling 2. DROs and ROs were to be in the lead up to the 2013 general Moreover. It also makes a mockery of the legal restriction in Shortly before the general elections. a vast portion of the polling staff appointed in Karachi who were For example. and DROs are Judges from the Subordinate Judiciary. the JI raised grievances that ROPA. Some candidates are left application of the law. The ECP staff is then faced with the impossible option of ROs in the United Kingdom and India are also appointed from whether to disallow a candidate to conduct an election rally. it is not always Court and Supreme Court Judges. realistic mandate to perform and One solution offered by political parties is that DROs and ROs Parliament needs to establish a forum should face criminal prosecution if they fail to conduct their to continuously review the sums responsibilities properly. ECP. leadership. a prior to polling day in the previous general elections. from acting unlawfully. This is no coincidence ECP to monitor the election expense of each candidate as and reflects the significance and variety of functions follows: that such officers perform in the election process. Hold weekly meeting with candidates stations. or unique predicament in that employees of the Federal or allow a candidate to incur an expense. Government and local authorities. which it cannot verify. often conduct business outside their personal interest to please their supervisors. appointing polling staff. were affiliated with the Muttahida Qaumi spent over Rs58 million. This makes it impossible to verify the accuracy from the members of Judiciary to ensure impartiality. it is in especially in remote localities. Appointment and accountability of District expenses along with copies of all bills. the entire election process Even if the restrictions are to be may be jeopardised. approximately Rs20 million and Rs5 million respectively on The ECP directed all DROs and ROs to counter this difficulty by their electronic media campaigns. the ECP Indeed. This has been a constant source of criticism of the ECP’s failure to perform its legal duties trouble. If the ROs Anyone living in Pakistan will appreciate that vendors. receipts and his Returning Officers and Returning Officers personal affidavit 30 days after his election. The rationale behind this suggestion specified in Section 49(2) of ROPA so appears to be that the threat of a sanction will deter such officers as to ensure that the law can be effectively implemented. The impracticality of the Supreme Court’s directions can be The only difference between the two officers is that while DROs gauged from the fact that there were 15. Government. chairs or microphones. Provincial Governments. coherent and parties to discredit the 2013 election results in their entirety. Pakistan. whereas PML-N and PPP had spent Movement (MQM). all the way from Badin in Sindh to Bannu in that DROs and ROs are the lynchpin of the election process in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. tents. for an election rally. 13 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 The mechanism for this specified in ROPA is that each successful candidate is required to submit a statement of 8. The experience in 2013 has shown that appointing DROs and The reason for this is not necessarily to deviously circumvent ROs from the Judiciary does not guarantee fairness or strict the restriction on election expenses.629 contesting are responsible for the conduct of elections in each district. which was highlighted in Karachi in the previous properly and unfairly casts doubts over its competence and general elections. corporations controlled Another relevant consideration. Ensure that candidates only transact with entities election results from each polling station and declaring the having valid National Tax Numbers (“NTNs”). preserved in the statute. Provincial Government in Pakistan are often political appointees The inability of the ECP to enforce these provisions leads to or have political affiliations. with no option but to transact with unregistered businessmen One additional aspect to examine is the influence that the in certain constituencies. Conduct random inspections polling staff. appointing as many polling staff as possible from the Federal These concerns unfairly burden and inevitably damage the Government and to ensure that all Presiding Officers were senior ECP’s reputation. It is therefore fair to say constituencies. It is completely unreasonable to expect the ECP to undertake Given this central role. where Section 7 of ROPA states that DROs and ROs are to be appointed some candidates face the full wrath of the restrictions by the ECP from “…amongst the officers of the Federal whereas others manage to escape it. the inability of the ECP to effectively carry out elections. scrutinising nomination papers. consolidating 4. supplying electoral rolls to the 3. media outlets informed the ECP that one month drawn from the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board. election duties free of any influence. there was a great deal of discussion these tasks for such a large number of candidates imminently within the ECP and amongst political parties about who the before polling day. Therefore. 1. judges themselves have been appointed as DROs and ROs. successful candidate. Pakistan has a which is arguably a violation of his fundamental rights. was that candidates Notwithstanding this legal requirement. This contradiction leads to uncertainty and questions over say. who are High the net of the tax authorities. PTI had government body.” staff prior to the 2013 general elections.

together with the ROs received and The FER does not specify the religion of any person. although a non-Muslim may vote from the joint electorate.442 nomination forms each day during the the name. and with the PCP and 9. The ECP. which stated March. regardless of which religion a voter may belong to. Unfortunately however. Supplementary list on the FER To begin with. for no other persons belonging to any other polling day. the only way of identifying whether a particular voter appeals and write judgments within seven days for each is a non-Muslim is by the name. the PCP and Pakistan Press expressed their large number considering the adult population of the country. were required to be filed by 10th April However. to print the ballot papers for discrimination. these assignments and just how catastrophic failure in this respect can be. the members of the Ahmadi community exclusively find themselves Printing Corporation of Pakistan (“PCP”) and the Pakistan in a supplementary list in the FER. the voter. the printing organisations had approximately two maximum of 272 ROs and even fewer DROs required to be weeks to print all the ballot papers. These details of each voter simply appear below one Thereafter. this proposal will only be enforceable if there is a and therefore. This further burdened the voter’s name from the FER and place it in the supplementary list ECP to expedite the publication of the final list of candidates on its own accord without the satisfaction of these requirements. his name will be deleted from the joint electoral ECP on 19th April rolls and be placed in a supplementary list. perform these critical functions. languid judicial system had to consider arguments. appointed for election duty throughout Pakistan. Section 7C of the 2002 Order provides that if an objection is taken against a voter that he is not a Muslim and the  The appeals were to be decided by 17th April voter subsequently refuses to confirm that he believes in the  The last date for withdrawals was 18th April “…absolute and unqualified finality of the Prophethood of  The final list of candidates was to be published by the Muhammad…”. Timelines Pakistan Press working overtime. In such an instance. and therefore. as the ECP also required a number of days to specific bar from appointing Judges as DROs and ROs. father’s name. restriction in ROPA that DROs and ROs can only be sensitivity and confidentiality required for printing ballot appointed from government departments. the non-Muslim voter’s name can potentially There were a total of 1. the government of schedule within 30 days of the announcement of the date for General (Retd. judiciary come under The previous general elections saw an unprecedented number of immense pressure to candidates and the increasing interest may become a trend for complete a substantial the foreseeable future with further democratic progress. decide Therefore. credibility and competence. Pakistan’s overburdened and traditionally another. whether working in the public or private sector. the High his belief in the finality of Prophethood. That means on FER. This clearly amounts to Printing Press (Pakistan Press).` Courts were deciding appeals after the expiry of the deadline It is important to bear in mind that the ECP cannot remove a specified in Section 11 of ROPA. A total of 24. 10. It only states scrutinised 3. The said voter’s refusal to sign a declaration confirming was no surprise that despite their best efforts. and printing of ballot papers. . which was translated as follows in 2013: Elections Order 2002 (“the  After the ECP notified its election schedule on 23rd 2002 Order”). the ECP could not afford to take this risk and the only person. inability to complete this task and suggested that private It is thus perhaps worthwhile to consider removing the contractors be engaged to assist them.649 appeals filed by candidates be removed from the FER and placed in the supplementary voter against the decisions of the ROs. on average. average the ECP. who alternative was for the ECP to take the drastic step of changing satisfies a given criteria specified by the ECP in terms of the date for polling day. which used its aircraft to swiftly transport ballot papers to the more remote areas of the country. Muslim Given the sheer impracticality of meeting this disposal rate. appeal filed against the decision of the ROs.094 nomination forms were filed by candidates Thus. the last date for filing nomination papers for that the elections for the candidates was 30th March members of the National  The scrutiny process concluded on 6th April Assembly and the Provincial Assemblies shall be on the  Appeals against the decisions in the scrutiny process basis of a joint electorate. the ECP did just that in 2007 and The ECP engaged two government organisations. CNIC number. the four High Courts in Pakistan had to cumulatively decide This procedure requires: 235 appeals. This will allow any papers. 2013 Therefore. age and the address of scrutiny period. Musharraf passed the Thereafter. 14 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 criminal prosecution in relation to his election duties. its partners in the Placing such acute demands on the ECP and other institutions election process and the involved in the election process is unfair and unrealistic. This is more so the case in the Stakeholders fail to appreciate the lengths that these event that Parliament desires to retain and make the scrutiny institutions have to go to in order to successfully complete process more effective. The ECP published the final list of candidates on 19th April. for the 2013 general elections. transport the ballot papers to all the polling stations across the Another important consideration is that there are only a country. to be appointed to However. list by following the procedure in Section 7C of the 2002 Order. which was the highest his name may potentially be placed in a supplementary list in the witnessed in Pakistan by some distance. these challenging deadlines were fortunately met. number of tasks within a In such circumstances. with the extensive assistance of the Pakistan Army. each 1. the ECP is required to notify the election In 2002. it 2. Due to the security. certainly require a reassessment. A person to raise an objection that a voter is non- day. experience. Section 11 of ROPA requires compliance with a Conduct of General timeline.) Pervez polls by the President under Section 11 of ROPA. religious group are placed in the supplementary list. and each High Court close to 60 appeals. That is not a At one stage. the timelines in Section 11 of ROPA very stringent time frame ahead of polling day.

subsequent by-elections. However. 12. Although the Constitution. It is noteworthy that the ECP’s proposed budget for the 2013 making the entire original exercise redundant. Karachi (NA-250). the possibility that another election may well bring a similar Not only does this place further demands on the ECP to organise result once again. by-elections for vacated seats will delay the Spain and even Bangladesh. several candidates filed In Pakistan. votes are cast in favour of NOTA. securing polling stations. for 41 constituencies would have also entailed substantial Whatever the outcome of that debate. it is thus safe to assume that the repeated exercise needs to be assessed by the ECP. the ballot paper is a voter’s fundamental right. receiving and voter to vote or not to vote for anyone. examine the issue at length and preoccupation with more One of the recommendations in the Final Report of the European pressing issues. general elections was approximately Rs6 billion for all 272 Whether these are realistic concerns is something which constituencies. the Supreme Court of India ordered the Election This will also extend the electoral cycle by a number of months. general public due to a tense political climate. However.) Musharraf was qualified to contest elections in one part had the highest number of votes cast in its favour. the number of lesser of evils. for basic human rights. 15 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 There is also a complaint in the Supreme Court pending in candidate securing the highest number of votes would still be relation to this issue. in the 2013 general elections. electorate better. However. printing and transporting ballot This will also defeat the arguments of citizens who refuse to papers and adopting security measures in coordination with cast votes on the ground that there is no viable option and government departments to ensure a free and fair election all also perhaps ultimately encourage candidates to serve the over again. This would Pakistan’s democratic credentials in the long term and empower not only reflect a step towards greater equality and respect the electorate. Commission of India (ECI) that it should make necessary which will inevitably cause inconvenience and disturbance to the provision for a NOTA option in the EVMs. One constituency per candidate The 2013 general elections 11. not directed the ECP to place voters belonging to the Ahmadi This renders the entire exercise superficial and essentially makes community back in the FER along with other voters of the NOTA option toothless. for clarity to voters and to remove the need for number of NOTA votes. However. the . the RO in Chitral accepted his nomination.how to deal with an election result where most (NA-32) and Kasur (NA-139) and whereas the ROs in Karachi.” What if the electorate in a constituency voted overwhelmingly The ECP had to conduct by-elections in 41 constituencies only in favour of NOTA? three months after the 2013 general elections due to the number The natural consequence of such a vote would be to conduct of successful candidates who won elections in multiple elections in that constituency again. It is interesting to note that only 1. different faiths. the right to simultaneously contest elections in general elections. given the paucity of time to different constituencies is a matter which requires debate. The ECP considered whether Whereas it is heartening to see increased participation in the to include a NOTA option in the ballot paper for the 2013 election process. the ECI clarified that even if NOTA (Retd. little headway was made. elections should allow a appointing polling staff. it is undeniably expenses. assemblies. and administer a fairly extensive election for the second time This problem will become even more acute if NOTA wins the within a short time frame. Perhaps this is a starting point. such as France. The legalities surrounding this proposal require thoughtful Take for example the case of General (Retd.) Pervez Musharraf consideration. consistent with democratic norms to provide for a NOTA In so far as the ECP is concerned. In 2013. Additionally. there is always constituencies. Chitral scenario . this is perhaps nomination forms which required scrutiny was exceptionally particularly significant. The approach. the stakeholders need to consider the extreme constituencies. if the ECP and the There is no complexity in relation to this issue. There is no Federal Government decide to adopt a more meaningful need for legal amendments or Supreme Court judgments. After all. Islamabad (NA-48). it requires training and option on the ballot paper. required in a large number of constituencies and the result of the These considerations have led a number of countries to general elections does not allow for a clear majority in the provide a NOTA option on the ballot paper. None-of-the-above (NOTA) option on the Ballot in Pakistan witnessed an paper unprecedented number of Many people consider that having a NOTA option on candidates. when candidates file nomination forms in different electorate voted for NOTA in the 2014 general elections when constituencies. it can potentially lead to contradictory decisions the option was made available for the first time.1 per cent of the Indian Third. where voters their nomination forms in argue that they are often multiple constituencies. Union Election Observation Mission for Pakistan was that The major concern raised against this step during the course “Candidates be limited to running in only one constituency in of debate however was the possibility of having a majority any election. formation of a government and prolong political uncertainty. but is also mandated by law and the Constitution. he filed nomination papers in four Foremost. compelled to vote for the Consequently. scrutinising nominations forms. knowing full well that voters now have the The second concern in this respect is that if by-elections are option to vote for NOTA. the NOTA option will undoubtedly strengthen ECP merely needs to reverse its decision of 2007. to date the Supreme Court has declared elected. would have to conduct elections twice over in multiple places. the NOTA option was provided in the EVMs for the 2014 This rather peculiar contradiction meant that while General Indian general elections. by the ROs or the High Courts. high. in which case the ECP public exchequer. but it also unnecessarily burdens the election in a number of constituencies. Islamabad and Kasur rejected his nomination form on the The Indian example is enlightening and perhaps exposes ground that he did not meet the qualifications under Article 62 of India’s failure to fully embrace the NOTA initiative.

Commission. one constituency for there will be a sense of commitment and (By FURKAN ALI: Published in the Dawn) loyalty. there is the obvious argument that curtailing a Justice (retd. it is also arguable that a candidate will serve the may only file nomination papers in one constituency. reports of the difference in the number of registered men and One part of PCER’s proposals. Politicians may well challenge any such restriction This practice will encourage candidates to pick and choose given that it has the potential of seriously affecting their political constituencies from where to contest elections depending on prospects. but for mapping out a at one or more polling genuinely democratic election stations. activity. does cast his/ her ballot is capable of making a free choice. The academics. and the reservation of the electoral field only for the Pakistanis. and take chief election commissioner and members of the Election special measures to reduce the gap. very rich. Some electoral reforms THE Parliamentary Committee on Electoral Reforms (PCER) agreement from casting their votes.) Fakhruddin G Ebrahim during his tenure as CEC candidate’s right to contest elections to a single constituency from July 2012 to July 2013. whether they expect a favorable outcome from a particular This is a moot point for now. he had been disqualified to contest elections in is a violation of his fundamental right to engage in political others. He was an advisor to Against this. to this privilege than ulema and technocrats. The unwelcome proposals include grant of rule. accusations and 25.A. greater use of Nadra data for preparation and revision of whereas a great number of people — bonded workers. both Pakistan pattern of Civil Military relations of both countries through and India have adopted very different course of Civil Military examination of inter connected roles of both military and . better system for publication of results data.” deserves credit for finalising its proposals for reform of the A laudable provision obliges the ECP to take note in annual election system before next year’s polls. objections/ complaints. poor men and women belonging to minorities — more time for making representation to the ECP and filing of cannot afford to make independent decisions. If and when Parliament decides to RO. or election in the system it may be necessary to whole constituency. “if create a new commission the turnout of women voters is comprising — besides politicians less than 10pc of the total votes and parliamentarians — jurists. such changes take place there is a strong case for reserving seats making power to the government. Till rights. The the pulls of status quo. void”. and special measures to secure women’s voting demolition of feudal. experts eligible for appointment as chief election Quite a few issues that the PCER was expected to resolve have commissioner and ECP members. polled in a constituency”. These include the eligibility/ The more important improvements suggested in the disqualification criteria inserted in the Constitution (Articles 62 election system include greater financial and administrative and 63) by Gen Ziaul Haq that are incompatible with democratic powers for the ECP. has taken the form of the 22nd Amendment to It would have served the cause of democracy better if the the Constitution that the National Assembly has already proposed law had included some steps to promote proper adopted. REHMAN: Published in women voters have been the Dawn January) restrained through an Civil-Military Relations: Pakistan and Indian in Comparison Plot twists. free and democratically acceptable elections demand elections.000 pages of evidence — a snapshot of the case that resulted in the formation of a JIT Abstract relations. relating to appointment of the women voters in each National Assembly constituency. provision of voting by overseas principles. been left unaddressed. The Election Commission has been present set of proposals is empowered to declare “polling welcome. The amendment has received favourable comments registration of voters belonging to the minorities and ensuring for making — besides judges — former civil servants and their maximum possible turnout. grant of rural have-nots. The writer is a lawyer at Ebrahim Hosain. tenants. and civil society ECP will act in the matter representatives. The research attempts to analyze the developmental Having drawn the inheritance of colonialism. it will be electorate better if he is restricted to only contest elections in for Pakistan’s Judiciary to decide the legality of such measures. take the step by placing a restriction in ROPA that a candidate Fourth. regulation of local government Thus. That the PCER recommendations still need a critical The main problem with the present exercise seems to be the appraisal can be gauged from the measures proposed to misplaced belief that parliamentarians securing seats through secure women’s due an elite-friendly system can resist participation in elections. The fault lies perhaps in assuming that everybody who opening of district returning officers’ posts for ECP staff. 16 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs 411ththth2017 Weekly Analysis May 11 2017 2017 of Pakistan. caste and social stratification of society. after presuming “that the (By I. which hits the principle of for peasants and labour in the Senate as they have a better claim the ECP’s independence from the executive. electoral rolls and delimitation of constituencies.

garrison outposts and supremacy has not faltered. Finer (1988. a constituted government. military grew the due to the insecure international environment. but were autocracies and independence movements witnessed an increase in the role of oligarchies. High Military Political Power and High even while not in power it largely dominated the various Military Professional. institutional framework had always resisted the Army’s The concept of “Garrison State” was coined by Lasswell intrusion in Politics by keeping a firm bureaucratic and (1976)and he expounded that technological changes within the political oversight over military affairs. both India Political Power and High Military Professionalism are the and Pakistan faced the security dilemma and monumental categories in which the ideologies of society are so intensely tasks of internal state building and shared organizational pursued that it becomes impossible for military to intervene. but even democratic regimes like India which has strong civilian Civil-Military relations of the two countries took altogether appeal and less military political role with fairly good different paths within a single decade after the 1947 partition. Finer’s (1976) paradigms (Christianity. Moreover. it is very important how Pakistani Civil-Military relations since independence. And military was deemed as a Military mind advocates the establishment of strong military legitimate pressure group. amidst conceived as modernizing force in those countries which are the conduct of national affairs. It considers country has been a recurring feature in history. that institutionalized civilian control is essential for military according to Koonings and Kruijt (2002. Pakistan’s military held control of power which suffer few external threats. From ancient power as source of continuous wrangling amongst states Greece to the end of the twentieth century. Military culture The threat of military intervention in the political life of a emboldens the perceptions of power maximization. Pakistan’s military security threats and ideology sympathetic to military values intervention in domestic politics can be attributed to factors may permit a high level of military political power and yet still like the fragility of political base and constant infighting for maintain military Professionalism. and military is subservient to civilian control as suffered military coups and the pattern military intervention long as national integrity and core values are not threatened and became the norm in the developing countries. p. Islam. signifying the power can only be preserved Introduction and enhanced through military means. with the systematic analysis of both the casesto determine the various aim to keep the centrifugal tendencies in the outlying provinces causes and contributing factors by drawing comparisons as and regions in check in particularly to curb secessionism. These explanations carry intervention in situation of crisis: failure of governance or relevance to Pakistan’s case. Pakistan Army can fall in power. obsession for power. problems. Moreover. India civilian states.12). rancor and even institutions. Indian Army remained sympathetic public opinion and being the guardian of Pakistan subservient to strong civilian control. In this category also fall the society Since Independence. political and economic military was generally the strongest institution in a new state change in countries where resources are scarce.10) “national professionalism. It largely remained military alter the relationship between the military and civilian stable with intermittent period of bitterness. This present work is net assessment of Civil Military relations power is the variable which is understood in the realm of and influencing events and occurrences in both countries. power hungry attitude. It renders knack of intervention in internal politics being the savior of importance to society over individual. Low Military which has relevance. 1964). and irrational and human nature has inherent greed and ability to maintain varying levels of control over the military.In developing countries against an enemy who is already inclined to attack the former particularly those with colonial history. Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi regimes.p. Despite their similarities at the time of well as ascertaining the theoretical foundation of such partition.2) recollected that out of 28 order. military often considers deficient in a strong middle class. the connection pattern between the Armed Forces of a state as Huntington (2005) describes few different types and pattern of an institution. socialism) are highlighted the attention to the fact that military Coups were invoked to lend ‘higher support’ to the intervention”. 17 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 political class. Therefore. p. military coup or through military engagements and focusing on either security threat of intervention has been regular phenomenon against maximization or power maximization(Huntington (2005). According to Ahmed (2013. need arises for towns are continued to be found in Pakistan and India. On the contrary. The military mindset underscores that man is weak. thirteen countries political goals. Another category is Pro for over 30 years (58 to 71. hierarchy. and gives preference to the country. Both military mindset perceives the human nature and power cases reveal how structures of domestic politics interact with phenomena. More specifically. Immediately after partition. 1977 to 1988 and 1999 to 2008) Military Ideology. According to Koonings and Kruijt (2002). The argument is Theoretical Perspective tested with paired-comparison case studies of Indian and In elaborating Civil Military relations. However. there is no due to the former colonial powers’ monetary and training strong middle class and entrepreneurial skills. these two militaries and civilian institutions took institutional behavior pattern. after partition Pakistan was inadvertently . Both emerged as poor Such structures are found in modern totalitarian regimes or multiethnic societies in the wake of a shared experience. radicalism. historical roots of Pakistani and India pre-colonial and colonial despite multiple protracted insurgencies. the government. as Pakistan has failed to develop legitimacy of the political regime. Robust Indian geographical and ideological frontiers. Donnelly (2000) argues that for realists. and other sectors of society civil military relations. nationalism. professional background. Huntington (1962) underscores that the military in the Developing World. extremism and terrorism undermined Pakistan’s Civil-military relations can be understood more broadly as chances of becoming a credible moderate Muslim state. the soldiers could become the agents of social. internal conflicts or violent upheavals. The garrison states concept links up with war. military prowess. Anti-Military Ideology. decolonization and national democracies nor communists. values derived from prevailing religious or ideological Regarding the recurring coups in countries. severe socio-economic into a modern democracy with strong middle class. Alongside. external and internal threats spectrum and military’s this category because of High external threat from India. capable of playing a positive role either to protect itself from the threat of external powers by in the socio-political transformation of the newly created maintaining a balance of power or by preemptive use of force peripheral states (Janowitz. In addition. taking place in those countries which were neither liberal After World War II. military threat perceptions in order to explain civilians’ evil. It also opines that war is the instrument of countries created between 1917 and 1955. it occurs in societies with continuous strategic decision making bodies. Military is assistance. Thus establishing the supremacy of military over antipathy particularly in the episodes of 1962 India China state and society. completely different political trajectories. culture from the same colonial army.

2003). no Although. In 1951. Jinnah had remarked Military relations. In 1954. He removed a president. insecurity syndrome”. The 3. first. instead of Martial Law in Lahore in 1953.However. This is identical concept like garrison in the country. and no central bank. there were nine members of the Prime aside to make way for an elected government run by Zulfiqar Ali Minister’s cabinet. whereas India framed their constitution within two Administrator (CMLA). It expects the church to mobilize its financial. Moreover. Their the Punjab and the central government led to the imposition of incompetence and constant wrangling for power. economic. The military wields substantial political and difference of opinion regarding the magnitude of threat from economic power. It claims the The threat which Pakistan faced from India also generated weak role of the guardian of national interest and extends its and often-nonexistent civilian control. After the demise of which was coming from Delhi. Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) (Steven. In the same vein. while on the contrary. which were due in 1951. India for matters of planning. Pakistan army stepped cabinets. around 53 leadership which could steer the country out of political woes. was in shambles. This was the first breach of discipline in Civil Pakistan. was infighting.35-40)identified seven upheaval. its their tenure was reduced from four to three years. the influence over political. p. led to ceaseless paved the way for the loss of civilian control in state control. The Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan Therefore. a permanent political systems and to remain fully cognizant for external post of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC) threat perception. under Bhutto’s regime. Enemies are described as cunning and ruthless. drawing the larger 99 role of military in the decision making process of the state. Pakistan has faced. Under the tenure of Indira Gandhi. constitution allowed the Governor-General to continue his The ensuing protests undermined the legitimacy of the military authoritarian rule for seven long years (1947-56). Pakistan’s administrative set up the induction of Army Chief Ayub Khan into the federal cabinet. several measures were used to deemed as NSS in the historical context. officers and some civilians with leftist orientation were accused Most of the other leaders belonged to areas which became of staging a coup to overthrow the civilian regime (Siddiqa. for these leaders. there was no established parliament. General Karamat ( Report: administration could not maintain a balance institutional Roundtable 2012) defined “NSS as a state with inordinate framework of Civil Military relations. Pakistan had to perform the Pakistan’s Civil Military Dynamics and Intervention. and military affairs. A NSS views democracy with suspicion. and later became the President. ability to influence all other institutions. significant power shift within civil-military relations in Whereas. From the very beginning the Pakistan Army remained involved partition politics. Pakistan Civil Military façade of democracy is maintained formally. years of independence in 1949. Third. Even if a undermined civilian control at all. were held after a lapse of state. 1998)and seemed to indicate this and marked a being a NSS on that account into social democratic state”. in which. Bhutto objectives are to transform the country economic and diluted the individual autonomy of each service. the first general elections extreme external threat.134).In highly including Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) General demoralized state. Ayub regime was challenged by Zulfiiqar Ali Bhutto. it was the Army which was the Muslim League to evolve itself from a freedom movement asked to establish civil secretariat in Karachi. the chiefs of the three services characteristics that define the NSS. a clash between the leadership of that “he had false coins in his pocket” (Khan. controlling the political landscape of the country. coordination and review between the was branded as NSS because of her aggressive posture and three services was established (Siddiqa. and that India was gradually moving away from Analysis. Second. Pakistan has retained the NSS status due to many Pakistan. These complex circumstances highlight participation through secrecy or intimidation. renovated these to house the secretariat and the staff damaged the novice political culture. political role by leaving the cabinet in 1955 but remained Armed forces were also not organized. pp. They vacated their to a progressive political party caused the upheaval which barracks. both external drawn. India is not the only threat 5. who did not have a seat in the Parliament. military’s obsession for power grew Pakistan took nine years to finalize its first constitution in after General Ayub was appointed the Chief Martial Law 1956. Political Institutional Culture Military’s Political Disposition The institutional legacy had a profound effect on post. no supreme court. In 1947. Such a state is obsessed with enemies. Rawalpindi conspiracy Jinnah and assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan there was no case surfaced on the national limelight. 2007). External Threat 1. real powers relations have mostly been shaped through the prism of Indian reside with the military. Ziring(1997. “Pakistan was born with an as well as internal. In the same vein. 18 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 transformed into “National Security State” (NSS)due to Muhammad Ayub Khan. 2001). India brought the civilian and military leaders at daggers 4. Nawaz Sharif’s second civilian extent. Moreover. the military institution is were put under the direct control of the Prime Minister. Even Indian Prime Minister Modi’s 1977(ICG. thereby. Because of these intricacies of ideological. 1997). the turbulent international security environment within which 7. The NSS restricts public debate and limits popular challenges for Pakistan. till 1958 Pakistan had seven prime ministers and eight In the wake of secession of Bangladesh. The three key ensure civilian supremacy. General Ayub khan voluntarily relinquished his civil secretariat. Another. and its collapse into civil war had both posed tremendous 6. Moreover. present government has molded into NSS paradigm to some In continuation of the same norm. part of the Indian Union and had no political base in 2006. Pakistan has been situated. The delay in framing the Thereafter. 1947– role of “Garrison State” and NSS. and theological resources to support the NSS. detrimental step which cooperation and mutual accommodation. military had to endure the autocratic style of . where military is the paramount institution and has the almost quarter of a century in 1970 (Shafqat.From 1947 regime and enhanced the appeal of an alternative civilian rule. Sattar (2001) argues that. extensive use of Indian forces in internal missions didn’t 2.146) argues that failure of in civil administration. international systems in South Asia. cost him the government and ensued a massive political Nelson–Pallmeyer (1993. After partition. hostility and indeed it is single largest determining factor. powerful. The military is the highest authority. His later showdown with COAS General Musharraf compulsive variable with external and internal dimensions. Bhutto’s often use of military to pose threat to the neighbors and even failure to respect democratic norms undermined his legitimacy using highly kinetic approach towards dealing with the and gave the army the opportunity to seize power again in insurgencies in India. all means to crush them are considered legitimate. p. characteristics of NSS as following:.1 In addition. 2000). a resource allocation towards defense at the cost of social chief justice and (COAS) General Jehangir Karamat(Asia welfare. Pakistan has been In 1970s.

the Later on. India was born in war with Pakistan. view (Khosa. the ISI’s role. Musharraf brought the basic mass mobilizing protests were held by secular and religious democracy concept again. However. The first military coup in 1958 was the business organizations of Pakistan and follow rules of the land. There judiciary. Another President of Pakistan from the civil set. He also alleged that Bhutto assured him of full According to Chibber (1989. 1947 till To Date broaden and stretch the theater of war to international Military Predilections borders. emancipated the media from state parties against Bhutto on electoral fraud. Musharraf’s process of constitutional engineering which started with the hold on power became increasingly suspension of the 1973 constitution and introduction of8th tenuous during 2007 because its legitimacy amongst key social amendment. a civilian the civilian government and the military ex-Army Chief General bureaucrat Governor-General of Pakistan. 2013). Military backed People’s Party off the political scene (Dawn. relied on the Presently. dissolved the National Assembly in and former president Pervaiz Musharraf’s trial. undertook a visit to Afghanistan. and bureaucracy (Ahmed. Resultantly. Neol Durrani showered loads of money rented out from Mehran Khokhar that military businesses support the families of poor Bank on politicians of various parties to keep the Pakistan soldiers and particularly the Shuhada’s families. 2006). result to political alignment between the civil and military After the Musharraf era. constituencies has palpably diminished in the wake of In 1987 again rift was created by General Zia and his controversial referendums. Zia sacked the Junejo characterized. Iskander Mirza (1956-1958). without any discrimination The military declined to be treated as a player with lesser between good and bad Taliban (Sharif. rigging and interference in the handpicked Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo. over the Kerry-Lugar Bill. the Legislative Development and Transparency (2015). in others there is a shared decision- amendment (Siddiqa. Though. 2013). ‘Memo gate’. with the resumption of democratic rule bureaucracy. Tehreek-e-Talibane. 2014). fully cognizant of the impinge upon the interests of the military (Siegfried.Pakistan (TTP). . It is becoming clear that the Military is becoming Khan of Kalat declared his secession from Pakistan. bureaucracy. Army remained unaffected by the influences of race and political Ishaq Khan and his successor President Farooq Leghari affiliations. p. there have been several low-intensity disputes between from the civil bureaucracy. 2012).When General Zia-ul-Haq was making and in some areas the civilian government has been free killed in a mysterious plane crash in 1988. However. Ghulam Kayani. Zia enforced a control and other economic initiatives. The credibility of Military has To ensure Gen Ayub allegiance. Nawaz Sharif abdication of civilian authority in military to ensure the state’s integrity when the PML national security matters may prove to be fatal for nourishment President.COAS General Mirza Aslam Beg and General hierarchy of Army. was also difference of opinions regarding foreign policy Post-Musharraf Current Civil-Military relations are related to Afghanistan. advices and false claims of Bhutto. threatened direct action and the of democracy. India would never India’s Military-Civil Nexus. weakened international role of the Army Chief continued to grow as he the institutions and political regimes (Siddiqa. He claimed The military rode into preeminence on the shoulder of the that all these businesses pay maximum taxes among other civilian bureaucracy. it’s overthrew the governments of Benazir and Nawaz Sharif. Muhammad (1951-55). the Indian Army didn’t take international diplomatic support and military assistance by part in the freedom movement deliberately and only the political various countries (Ahmed 2013). corporations accommodate soldiers who retire at young age at Civil-Military Bureaucracy the same time it provides jobs to deserving civilians. However. the military then to make decisions about a number of domestic issues that do not handed power back to civilians. For instance. 70). Moreover. It was only in January 2013 superordinate and subordinate behaviour between the Army that Pakistani military had a paradigm shift in its doctrine.p. therefore. as a mixed model where in certain areas the government with the help of infamous and controversial 8th military has a free hand. where the military responded with repression(Cline. However. Qayyum Khan. more assertive due to the growing internal and external Therefore. the extension to General Ayub as Army Chief in 1954. General Gul Hassan was Military Intervention and Civil Military Melieu-1999 forced to resign after Hamood ur Rehman commission report Till 2015 as he was the Director General Operations of the military In the wake of Nawaz Sharif continuous infringement with other debacle in East Pakistan.It is ironical that in the two which recognized internal insurgency as the bigger national wars of 1967 and 1971. 2013) and by June 2014 it was observed. Imran (2015) cites Gen. 19 Pakistan’s Domestic Affairs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 Bhutto with continuous interference. the importance of Bureaucracy in shaping the Civil Military major threat came from tribal insurgencies in the Indian relations. replacing Prime Minister Bogra which Ayub high profile visits to the United States in November 2014 and to declined. growing Governor General formally invited General Ayub to take over International Role of the General Raheel Sharif following his the government. a dangerous precedent will be (McGrath. He ousted the populist Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto after with the idea of intervention. According to Pakistan Institute of Civil bureaucrat turned politician Ghulam Mohamamd. there is a wide prevalent perception that military disposition for political interference was not Pakistan Army internal corporate culture is benefitting the top subsided . the civilian government decision to grand the United Kingdom and China in January 2015. Wolf. Musharraf and the Army were comfortable Zia regime.89). Pakistan’s all heads of state from1951-58 came in 2008. civilian and military rifts were security threat than India (Mir. Bannerji (2013) 1954 and the Federal Court justified and validated his argues that Military top brass is aware that if Army let unconstitutional act on the basis of the “Law of Necessity” Musharraf be tried and punished. 2014). In 1990s bureaucrats-cum Politicians presidents. and extended the stakes in power politics and refused to accept the anti-terror operation to Karachi. vastly larger size and less strategically vulnerable position led to with the tacit approval of military. 1997). northeast. growing resentment of military rule on the streets. This highlights the much lower perceived external threat until 1962. 2006). cadre ran the political movement for freedom. Musharraf’s unfortunate intervention was an Another protracted phase of military dictatorship came with expected outcome. the situation was deemed conducive in for challenges in addition to the sympathetic civilian population imposition of 1958 Martial Law (Ahmed. state institutions. Ayub Khan asserted that he headed to the ill termed as a ‘War of Survival’ by the Army. If anything. 2013). Sikanadar Mirza again gave redeemed as General Sharif launched Operation Zarb-e-Azb to him extension as Army Chief in 1958. 2006. This personal reclaim the state’s writ over vast swathes of territory lost to the concession proved to be very costly to the civilian leadership.

Punjab on the Pakistani border. Moreover. p. Lieutenant General SF Pakistan’s case was the early demise of Jinnah. Though. The Army was deployed with increasing frequency to had direct contact with Nehru and was also considered the deal with violent internal threats. At one point. He border. Dasgupta (1991) argues that “The military’s quarters over Indira’s decision. bureaucrats. carried out by the Stakeholders in order to abstain from Having said that. It is Manekshaw (later Field Marshal) whether or not he was fair to say that notwithstanding the incessant internal security plotting a military coup. Kaul incompetence was observed in (Bimaya. Prime Minister the politicians. 2015). Gandhi’s challenge. (1997. India inherited Delhi and its bureaucracy. lieutenant was just as ambivalent about the military as Nehru. India received a much showing its clout and relevance vis-à-vis disputes with more favorable institutional heritage from the shared colonial Pakistan. Later on. General Vaidya while commanding with heavy Indian repression (sparking a conflict that included Eastern Division.Moreover. and growing political violence to the armed services all the officers and men who had has periodically brought the armed forces into the political defected to the Indian Army which was what many arena. Nehru. He allowed the democracy and near the Pakistan border. 1985). it has become evident that the endurance of the crossing the red lines. survived until 1964. and believed General Hoon alleged that Army Chief Gen Krishnaswami in civilian supremacy. Indian military was not allowed to deviate from their question was along the lines of “You are too pretty to coup prescribed role enshrined in the Indian constitution. with strategically crucial Kashmir and Punjab along the Pakistani political ambitions. The political against. who ordered her to commit ill In 1947. However. criticized the non-Congress governments in the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by her own Eastern regions by getting attention of Indira Gandhi. I won’t (take over). the core of the prepared troops to action prematurely in Mar/ April 1971. In another instance. It vividly Moreover. it was persuaded by the Indian military to abandon the a common place in the third world countries. Lieutenant General B. was used extensively for more than Thimaya. who was the regular Indian Army were stationed in Punjab. The insurgency was handled political ambitions. it carried substantive sway on civilian Nehru’s rule allowed civilian control to be sharply imposed on government. a dozen were within India’s borders. and the public generally have Indira Gandhi asked Chief of army staff Gen Sam become militaristic … what we see is civilian militarism”. appeared on the political limelight.M Kaul. The Civilian leadership appeared comfortable by empowering service chiefs. living only Rodrigues. (Bimaya. Indian government was the military in the early days after independence. and other senior Indian officers. startling thirteen months after winning of independence. But if Jinnah goes. K Sinha. past. It was on the verge of overthrowing Rajiv Gandhi’s Jalal. often using high-intensity favourite of Defense minister Krishna Memon. Gen Manekshaw Role of Political Institutions refused Indira Gandhi. Out of 17 major Indian Army campaigns between 1947 nationalists wanted (Bimaya. who had vivid quarter of the entire active army. by revelation was made that Operations Brasstacks. the future of civilian control over the military…in modern India. 20 Pakistan’s Weekly Current Domestic Affairs Affairs MCQs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 Bimaya. were involved in the plot. Navy and Air force officers found and 1989. Manekshaw’s reply to Mrs. yours”(Malik. during the Declaration of Emergency. who is there”. p. In 2004 Agra summit. Moreover. without the knowledge of Gandhi (Dhaliwal. due in part to the very different nature of its dominant pro- Indian military came into quite interventionist mood in 1987. Sino Indian war. It old colonial state. alongside it received silent growing internal security role has given rise to concerns about disapproval of the large number of officer corps. However. it infrastructure was made available to Pakistan. and 1995. 1970s. 2014). was no military exercise but a electioneering to strengthen and helping these democratic provocative build up planned by Sundarji and Arun Singh tendencies become the habits of Indian political culture. In Kamtekar’s is abundantly clear that there was no threat to civilian (1988) words: “It is an oversimplification with some truth to say supremacy even if Indira hadn’t accepted the General’s advice that while in India independence involved restructuring a state. Kaul was counterinsurgency operations in response. 1964. The army. “deliberately discouraged the modernization of the armed force . the Indian Congress Party (Rudolph. Indian military has been in Pakistan it involved building a state”. there is always Nehru or Raja Gopal Achari India Civil Military relation but introspection was always or Patel or a dozen others. Insurgencies grew in Between 1958 and 1962. In another security campaigns.S to police and paramilitaries. despite the significant use of military forces in internal was put under doubt by civilian government.68) argues that when military coup became however.2014). As far as Indian role in the foreign Congress Party and the legitimacy of Prime Minister Jawaharlal security issues. grave resentment was displayed by many (Epstein. nine divisions of Another case is Lieutenant General S. nearly one- superseded to make way for General Vaidya. 1997).83). the India’s Civil-Military relations have taken a radically different status and influence of Army was belittled and its legitimacy course. conducted contrast. Later on. threats developed in the 1980s.63) argues that in the mid-1980s. he transgressed the integral boundaries between Naxalites insurgency has become existential threat for India due Political and Military spheres but was promoted by Indira to its protracted nature and ideological attraction Gandhi. 1991). suspicions about the military were sagaciously fueled by the Internal Security and Civil-Military Relations intelligence chief Bhola Nath Mullick. as long as their forces to interact with the politicians on rare cases only through the stayed in far-flung parts of the country. which was headed by a civilians. 1997). although Nehru defended both Brass (1994. 1997. You let me do my job and I will institutions had the depth and maturity to undertake the leading let you do role in resolution of internal and external threats. were supposed generals as state governors and advisors. In his just book “The Untold Truth”.p. but no such continuity of centralized political was politically uncomfortable for Indira Gandhi. General Cariappa persuaded Nehru not to re-admit at every level of armed conflict. independence party. regarding the leadership cadre Jalal (2014) argued bespeaks the fact that there has been peaks and troughs in that “If Gandhi goes. But the most unfortunate part in Sundarji and his Vice Chief. Many ambitious officers jumped into Kaul ten years as an internal security/counterinsurgency force bandwagon. and the various state bureaucracies. the army was deployed to assist the civilian themselves ranking below from their civilian counterparts of authorities no less than 721 times (Kohli. cabinet secretariat. bodyguards in 1984). the politicians’ idea(Musharraf. Between 1982 Even the most senior Army. a violent Sikh Krishna Memon and Kaul but both had to resign because of separatist movement developed in the northwestern province of Indian strong institutional framework. 2008). Consequently. . The Indian army has been active since 1970 instance. More severe internal Defense Ministry. in addition promoted against the advice of then Chief of Staff Gen K. Nehru quite willing to discuss Siachen Glacier with Pakistan. However.It is sometimes forgotten that Mohammed Ali Jinnah government.

1991). A Research Journal of South Asian Studies) Weekly Current Affairs MCQs (May 4 – May 12) 1. As Huntington (1991) vividly states that “no institutions and political system have resisted the Indian Army’s other country attaining independence after World War II was intrusion into political life. new 5. .5 % votes) defeated: by JIT after 60 days? 15 Questions Marine Le Pen (34. the would lead to the militarization of society” (Ganguly. Moreover. 8. however. Pakistan’s current advisor for National Security is? Electronic Micro-computerized system is going to be Nasir Khan Janjua implemented for collection of tax from Pakistani 6. Political institutions instead acted as the tool of state power. While neighboring Pakistan foundered. News agency TASS belongs to? Russia largest ‘artificial’ lake)? Kalri Lake 17. Baluchistan’s current Governor. According to current reports. JIT will report its findings to Supreme Court within 21. Military leadership political system’s resilience. How many questions asked by SC will be answered 22. Cohen (By Shahid Ahmed Afridi: University of Peshawar. insurgencies and internal challenges. 1997). Even during a period and electioneering process were very weak but these institution of decreased legitimacy and growing political contention. 1975–77 Emergency. This Electronic Micro-computerized system Rana Tanveer Hussain is based on? Singapore Model 7. Moreover. After Khaled Mashal. Which satellite india has lauched recently? South 13. India’s politics are volatile and must shed away the endemic obsession of being the lone savior of complex. Indian politics become more chaotic inevitably lead to military politicization or intervention in and fractured. economy and social reforms. What is another name of Keejhar lake (Pakistan’s 16. who has currently been officially Asia Satellite”? because Pakistan refused to join it. Kundu. as well as intense poverty and the strains of a multiethnic society possesses similar Pattern of civilian interactive approach and the (Kukreja. but there is an underpinning of broad consensus Pakistan geographical virtual and ideological frontier. and practices were never allowed to grow. Conclusions Unlike the collapse of the Muslim League in Pakistan. and relatively strong military. the 1977 elections carried out and it would demand a massive overall in created a return to normalcy that highlighted the Indian governance. as internal paramilitary forces in domestic politics on numerous occasions. Who has been made head of JIT (Joint Investigation Pakistan Muslim League (N) Team) to probe Panama Case? Wajid Zia (Additional 20.5 %) 12. From India’s case it is control over the military also was strongly asserted. due the external The army. Residence of Frace’s president is named as? Elysee campaign has been hacked and documents leaked? Palace Emmanuel Macron . named as senior leader of militant group. On 7th May. Capital of Palestine is? Disputed (Each of Israel and shortage Karachi? Keejhar Lake. despite many decades’ long institutionally as well prepared as India for self. military intervened of raw political repression. 1996. Which French Presidential candidate’s election 23.”Consequently. Baluchistan’s current CM. Why did India rename “SAARC Satellite” as “South 14. culminating in the domestic politics. he had suspicions that an excessive emphasis on Army relationship is fundamentally sound because for most Indian. Who has become France’s youngest in? 6o days president ever? Emmanuel Macron (aged 39) 11. In recent elections. Hamas. Muhammad Khan. argues (1984) that “the structure of the Indian civil-military Published in South Asian Studies. Sana ullah Zahri belongs to? 9. India institutional parity that British held between civilian and was able to rely on both high legitimacy and high military in order to keep the pendulum of power in balance. the domestic party system. Which Sections of Pakistan Penal Code deals with DG FIA) blasphemy law? 295-B & 295-C 10. Pakistan inherited weak political institution down on civil liberties (Bimaya. did not become involved in this exercise threats and internal secessionist movements. Although Military culture of Pakistan and India holds obvious Congress and Nehru maintained domestic stability despite similarities in professional and ceremonial outlook. But it have never government. legitimacy of the political system remains high. Current minister of Defence Production Pakistan is? restaurants. in 3. “the supremacy of civilian weakened the Indian civil institutions. 21 Weekly Current Affairs MCQs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 . Ishaq Dar. after partition on the Indian side. How many aliens (and refugees) have been deported belongs to? PukhtunKhwa Milli Awami Party since last 5 years? 40149 19. during which Indira Gandhi clamped In Pakistan’s case. According to Finance minister Pakistan. institutionalization through the bureaucracy and political However. Current Indian army chief is? Bipin Rawat 18. water level of which Palestine? Ismail Haniya lake in Pakistan fell to 47 feet and may cause water 15. Macron (65.”After evident that counterinsurgency and political repression do not Nehru’s death in 1964. In Pakistan the state institutionalization removed a need or opportunity for institutional growth would only be possible if a gradual and military intervention with exception of Sikh secessionist robust transformation of state from NSS to social welfare state is “Khalistan” movement in 80S. Which political movement (party) was founded by Asia Satellite Macron in 2016: En Marche (Forward) 2. about the value and legitimacy of the political system. Peshawar. thatta Palestine claimed Jerusalem as its own capital) 4. 1998).

who was removed from World Record for the largest water screen projection: position of South Korea’s President? Park Guen Hye Dubai (she belongs to Conservative Party) 62. is celebrated as “victory day” 57. India claimed to petition ICJ (International Court of 800 crore and become second highest grossing Justice) against Kulbhushan Yadev’s death sentence. Total number of ICJ judges is? 15 Punjab? from 22 to 27 May 48. When will elections in Iran be held? 19 May 52. Iran’s current ambassador to Pakistan is? Mehdi 59. Current Chief Executive of Afghanistan is? Abdullah 50. In 2016. Current chairman of CDA (Capital Development 27. who has been elected as new president of an attack blast by ISIS (Daesh) in Mastung. Recently Pakistan has signed MoU of warship and (Minister of information & Culture) defence cooperation with: Turkey . Which are two main candidates in upcoming British 54. Current President of European Commission? Jean Director of FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) whose Claude Juncker name is? James Comey 29. When did Karachi Violence or Black Saturday riots Hunar Dost (series of bloody clashes among rival political activists 38. Which is the highest grossing Indian Who is current president of ICJ? Ronny Abraham movie? Baahubali 2 (Rs 1000 crore) (France) 25. in Russia. in Russia. Governor SBP (State Bank of Pakistan) Ashraf Wathra (against Nazi Germany)? 9th May has been retired on 29 April. To what term an ICJ judge is elected by UN General ambassador to Afghanistan? Javed Nasarullah Assembly and UN Security Council? 9 years 26. Secret lines of communication between two opponents His name is? Basuki Purnama (nicknamed as ‘Ahok’) through informal intermediary or 3rd party is called: 44. Tipu Sultan’s 218th death anniversary has been Regiment celebrated on? 4th May (died in 1799) 37. deaths related to terrorism in 2016 dropped 33. When will screening hepatitis day be celebrated in 47. International Firefighter Day is celebrated on: 4th May (leader of Labour Party) 56. What is official name of North Korea? Democratic Zakaria People’s Republic 63. On April 10 (Last month). Which day. 22 Weekly Current Affairs MCQs Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 24. Indian movie. Amir Khan’s film. Pakistan ranks: 3rd 35. Indian Deputy High Commissioner to Pakistan is: J. 65. Current Deputry chairman of Senate has been injured in 39.P 42.000) threatened Pakistan to hit “terrorists” in Pakistan? 51. On Victory Day. Who has currently been appointed as Pakistan’s new 46. Pakistan’s newly appointed High Commissioner to India 43. According to recent HRCP (Human Right Commission 32. is: Nobuo Kishi belongs to Conservative Party) & Jeremy Corbyn 55. has recently crossed Rs 45. Donald Trump. Current US ambassador to UN is? Nikki Haley Pakistan). World Thalassemia (Genetic blood disease) Day is occurred? 12 May 2007 (10 years ago) celebrated on? 8th May 60. Which Saudi Arabia’s minister recently met PM Backdoor diplomacy Nawaz in Islamabad? Awwad bin Saleh al-Awwad 66. Current Chairperson of HRCP is? Zohra Yousaf 34. Jakarta. 000 Abdullah casualties). His name South Korea? Moon Jae-in (he belongs Democratic is? Abdul Ghafoor Haideri Party) 61. is: Sohail Mehmood has been sentenced prison (2 years) for blasphemy. Syria remained deadliest country (50. who General Election? Theresa May (Current PM who recently visited Pakistan. Foreign Office Spokesman of Pakistan is: Nafees 41. Christian Governor of Indonesia’s Capital. Current White House spokesman (Press Secretary) is? Mohammad Baqeri Sean Michael Spicer 31. Which country did remain second deadliest? 30. American President. has recently fired 28. What is official name of South Korea? The Republic Singh of Korea 64. Current Head of Iranian armed forces. who recently Mexico (23. who is Acting Governor of 36.. In ICC T20 ranking list. Current Chairman of PEMRA (Pakistan Electronic Authority) is? Sheikh Ansar Aziz Media Authority) is? Absar Alam 49. Dangal. General elections in UK are going to be held in? 8 to? 45 % (as compared to 2015) June 53. On 9th May. which march was joined SBP? Riaz Riazudin (Deputy Governor) by over 800000 participants? March of Immortal 58. Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of Japan. Which country has recently set the Guinness 40.

Not just thrown out on a tweet some morning that. She was eventually the west coast of the United States. And I don't know what kind of potentially. I'm hoping that voices like many of yours in So negotiations are critical. You should not offer that At the event promoting women's roles in peace and security. non-partisan voices. South Korea to put the kind of pressure on back at her old office. And I national security. that it will take wanted negotiations with the Clinton unplugged. tool in the toolbox namely the military tool. And we should be very careful about on Capitol Hill. what do views on her loss in election. I didn't publicly support it. everyone. the (BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) uranium program started up. we're going to shut down your uranium program. I did support it. hey. To ways to make administration not end our efforts making women's rights it plutonium. James Comey fought back status and their position.S in this country. But she said regime that needs to be placed. the regime that will finally bring them to the negotiating table (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) with some kind of realistic prospect for change. . because that wasn't my role. you know. in the absence of a broader strategic framework to try to get Clinton criticized the Trump administration's plans to cut China. That is a necessary tool. FORMER PRESIDENTIAL As Christiane said. let's get together and. because they withdrew from any kind of negotiations. control agreement that worked with North Korea. you're going to have to buy me more (APPLAUSE) ammunition. saying that he wouldn't change what he did. larger issue that was the last person to actually negotiate and cause an arms has to be addressed. come up with some sort of a deal. alone are able to really put the pressure on this North Korean She did take personal responsibility for her loss. That the Russians may have been given a heads up even before our own Congress was. That has spoken out and said you cut the State Department. And I know that secretary of Defense Mattis understands that. primarily from special weekend edition of our program. you know. I think it's too soon to really tell. the former presidential candidate lets rip on negotiations as a way to forge peace and not as a sign of her loss. the doesn't work. to elevate their And the next day on Wednesday. 23 Transcripts of Talk Shows Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 Transcripts of Talk Shows CNN'S AMANPOUR (CNN HOST: CHRISTIANE AMANPUR) Transcript of this CNN talk show covers first major AMANPOUR: I am sure that everybody in this room. back room And diplomacy and development should be the first efforts. will speak up for the work of diplomacy and development. weakness and appeasement. you know. not just Kim Congress they were Jong-un. there has to be a regional effort to (END VIDEO CLIP) basically incentivize the North Korean regime. the tide turned against her after the FBI director informed Now. shut down the plutonium. Hillary Clinton has come out swinging. but they have to be part of a broader this room. see if we can get along. Hillary dirty little secret is. (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) CLINTON: Right. He maybe we can. And then a few and opportunities central to American foreign policy and years later. I (APPLAUSE) think the Bush administration aired in saying they are cheaters. There is no more important. (APPLAUSE) CLINTON: First of all. deals were made with the Russians. We're always interested in reopening a probe into her use of a private e-mail server.S. giving that away. misogyny and the state of our world. but his father before him.I want your view on the U. if it pursues this reckless policy of nuclear weapons Amanpour in New York. to our security. strategy. there was evidence that they were cheating. I'm Christiane China. AMANPOUR: So it was a rarely seen side of Hillary Clinton They should have said you're cheating. we later learned And I'm hoping that because of voices like Jim Mattis and that the Russians and the Syrians moved jets off the runway. others that that will begin to influence the administration. But women around Donald Trump's cabinet table.and I have said this publicly before. election. United States. In her first major live TV interview since North Korean regime to actually come to -. to meet Kim Jong-un? And I ask you that seriously because the CHRISTIANE AMANPOUR. and I would say bipartisan. everybody in the world is really afraid Election and topics to be discussed in this interview of the crisis with North Korea. the North Koreans are always interested. Japan. I mean. to our values and interests. everybody including women. HILLARY CLINTON. CLINTON: Women's right is the unfinished business of the AMANPOUR: What do you think? Because President Bill Clinton 21st century. misogyny and the state you make of President Trump saying that he would be honored of women’s world. But I am not convinced that it really made much of a difference. But I don't believe that we York on Tuesday. USAID budget. CLINTON: Well. to understand AMANPOUR: Good evening. uranium. there was a negotiation in the `90s that put CANDIDATE: I am going to publicly request that this an end to one aspect of their nuclear program. the State Department. (END VIDEO CLIP) now we're not going to do anything with them. development and very dangerously for us the missiles that can And in her first extensive live conversation since the 2016 deliver those nuclear packages to places like Hawaii and election. Russia. frankly. but it should only be one of three. CNN HOST: Tonight. back to the negotiating as we began our conversation by discussing the lack of table now. and welcome to the that it will pay a much bigger price regionally. stunningly candid at the "Women for Women" charity in New So I take this threat very seriously. may help its readers to understand her valuable So given the right effects. AMANPOUR: Did you support it? without understanding them that we are left with just one CLINTON: Yes. But I did support it. think that there was -. trying to get Americans to come to negotiate. because you cannot talk about pursuing AMANPOUR: Did the Syrian strike work? diplomacy and development that will be to the benefit of the CLINTON: Well. everybody live interview of Hillary Clinton since the U.

And it's not women. (LAUGHTER) You look at places where women's rights are being stripped So this is something we have to clear out the cobwebs and say. about past pay. And if the person has the qualifications. But have we made enough? No.were you a victim of Do you buy that? misogyny? And why do you think you lost the majority of the white female vote -. And do you think -. I think we are and to the women of the world who are looking for potentially going backwards. It's not an accident. at least it did prior to this the equivalent of what men made the prior year in administration. I think it would have been a really big deal. the book's coming quite coordinated with the goals that that leader. that he was (LAUGHTER) determined to thwart your ambitions. what was your last pay? And I think that -. There is supposed to pay. And we've seen a protect terrorism. we Russian people are extraordinarily talented.whatever your political party. It is central to the maintenance. those people in the streets. think it played a role. you know. is still mired in pay inequities. granddaughters. Every day that goes by. had. create ideologies that are an antithetical to women's lives and the forefront of our economy. a lot of young men and have. we haven't. that I'm the one who got all that is expected of them get paid fairly and equally. what the job requires. promise of equality that we hold out and the efforts that so many women and men have made over the decades to secure it don't go What do you imagine your election as the first female backwards. many representations of that. including from a foreign power whose leader is not a member And I think they have been denied their opportunities to really of my fan club. It's not something And people -. badly governed. And. For example. And so I did say it was an illegitimate election comparable professions. and it's a painful So what is happening in current times in some places. whatever your because it's obviously vital. the people who want CLINTON: Well. President here still? Putin hated you so much that it was personal. And about right now? if you chart my opponent and his campaign's statements. he rigged the elections for the parliament. pay no more important. for somebody to shatter that highest and hardest pay. And we know it's a problem in our country. stability. one of ceiling? the problems about equal pay is when you hire people. Petersburg and deal in an economy to ensure that people who do the work demonstrate and Putin blames me. as you might guess. But I quite troubling. as well. the misogyny foreign country was not a member of your fan club. you know what.do you think -. yes. there are many. And one of these is don't ask what is the job rights is the unfinished business of the 21st century. Do you think I'm ready? sustainability of democracy. long women have to work past the first of the year to make That kind of goes with the territory. look. or lot of evidence in the last month that the tech industry. and it had been rigged. and I will have a lot to say about it. which is how rigged elections. They are the places most likely to either catalyze or you know what. who shall out in the fall. And it to be protected from the kinds of challenges you're talking was clear he interfered to hurt me and to help my opponent. that exists somewhere far away. there were important localities don't pass laws that prevent employers from asking messages that that could have sent to our own daughters. there shouldn't be differences. I am writing a book. grandsons and sons.it is real. You when their president came back after having taken a time-out to know. you know. you say CLINTON: Oh. of human rights. And yes. real quickly. it was a role in this election. 24 Transcripts of Talk Shows Weekly Analysis May 11th 2017 So I think there's a lot that we don't really yet fully know So yes. because you got built-in inequity. join the modern world in a way that will lift them all up. what was part of that strike. on equal validation. It's not a luxury issue you get to after person that is a bump-up in pay and respect and responsibility. it's not going to have much of a lasting effect. And if all it was was a kinds of examples of that. away. we over the course of my professional life. And it's even millions of Russians something they didn't know. that person. So it kind of went downhill from there. if somebody who has employed a lot of people progress? Yes. And I think the I think other things did. they CLINTON: Right. in fact. (APPLAUSE) and you say what your pay is. (LAUGHTER) . president of the United States might have said to the world And I think we're not just at a stalled point. you have a stake as a woman and a and we're dealing obviously with issues that affect women all man to go back to your very first comment in ensuring that the over the world. And so part of what I really And so how do we get out of it if we don't set some standards. And I And so I think it is -.you know. he certainly interfered in our election. But I want to ask you as a woman particular idealogical bent. then a slight bump looks fair. man or woman.you AMANPOUR: So just to bring you back to that leader of that have just spoken eloquently about the sexism. I do remain nameless. Just to give you a tiny little preview.the security moms. what do you and inequity around the world. It exists right here. So have we made Now. many about. futures. I was your secretary of state. So yes. everything else is young women almost always say to me. an example that has nothing to do with me personally be prime minister. But (LAUGHTER) it's not. It is critical to Young men basically say what took you so long? our national security. you know. So they go really troubling to me that we are still grappling with how to out into the streets in Moscow and St. Well. you know. larger issue than has to be addressed. I think is process reliving the campaign. And we do speak out against You know. So if you're a young woman and you've been underpaid before. A number of cities and states have said. I think Russia is a great country. we just had equal payday in April. I wasn't telling hundreds of thousands. And I think they are learn more about some of the unprecedented interference. And I think that it is AMANPOUR: I'm going to come back to Russia in a moment something that -. believe is that women's some metrics. and is this whole question of equal pay. It is very much a part of the also think that landscape politically and socially and economically. one-off effort. it's always the case when you offer a job to a young a minor issue. right? (APPLAUSE) (APPLAUSE) AMANPOUR: Given that I wonder if you could address -. but do you believe it exists make of a journalist who basically said that. because there's a great effort to make sure that think that partly here at home. do you think I can do it? resolved.

health care is (APPLAUSE) complicated. There is no such thing. You know. I mean. better that than interfering Thank you for watching and goodbye from New York. @Amanpour. the Russian theft being president. look. Continuing my his administration. I just didn't think (BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) he got that credit. really . fine. And so. I was very proud to serve in AMANPOUR: Welcome back to the program. But (LAUGHTER) I was on the way to winning until a combination of Jim [14:25:00] And so is foreign policy and other stuff that lands on Comey's letter on October 28th and Russian WikiLeaks raised a president's desk. That is a historical fact. if the election had been final reflection about that election. the necessary votes and electoral votes. And ask yourself this. and part of the resistance. conversation with Hillary Clinton. I was the candidate. And I think you can see I was up ending the economy for the vast majority of Americans to say leading in the early vote. within an hour or two of the And I'll tell you something else I prepared for. And where was your (LAUGHTER) message? Do you take any personal responsibility? CLINTON: I wouldn't say it's therapy. AMANPOUR: And finally tonight. I mean. If he wants to tweet about me. negativity. at times poignant. compelling. And so we overcame AMANPOUR: And coming up. And. And it wasn't a perfect campaign. you (APPLAUSE) know. including people who. but got scared off. (APPLAUSE) So. But once the result was known. you know. yes. I prepared for "Hollywood Access" tape being made public. is. but she says CLINTON: Yeah. we had made it clear -. (END VIDEO CLIP) remember. So did we make And I think. So I said yes. but I challenges. economy. And the evidence for that.you will write all this out for you. I'm happy to END be the diversion. What a coincidence. (APPLAUSE) (END VIDEOTAPE) AMANPOUR: Just briefly to -. it's very difficult to succeed a two- responsibility. of John Pedesta's e-mails hit WikiLeaks. I would say that it is [14:20:00] CLINTON: Oh. I was the person who was term president of your own party. It (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) was on October 28th. your opponent. which I think is frankly what's and I'm very proud of the staff and the volunteers and the getting him into all kinds of difficulties now in trying to fulfill people who were out there day after day. in foreign affairs. And I spent decades learning about what it would take to move Did I make mistakes? Oh. In a But as Nate Silver. AMANPOUR: Your supporters are sad. Make America great again. AMANPOUR: Did you have any message for President Obama? CLINTON: You know. the always knew that it was going to be a hard election. you know. imagine losing the election and a lot in the campaign. he's an room full of powerful women. have been better? Could you have had a better rationale? when I'm not in the woods walking. you know. I did win more than 3 million votes than my AMANPOUR: And that is it for our program tonight. of course. intervening (END VIDEOTAPE) event. because. 25 AMANPOUR: They did. because we've got lots of other things to (By Editorial Team. Weekly Analysis) worry about. for passing the Affordable Care Act. on October 27th. you know. . look. clearly my confession and my request for absolution. you just can't make this stuff up. my opponent actually made fun business going on around that. you know. next. So it's like. I did not think She accepts responsibility for her election loss and tweaks President Obama got the credit he deserved for saving our Trump with her 3 million more popular votes. on across the country about where I was in terms of.you know. He had one message. could the campaign about this excruciating analysis that I'm engaged in right now. you know. And I called Donald had the election been held the very day before the Comey Trump -. and it was successful AMANPOUR: Is it therapy? message. persuasive. to try to make sure that we dealt with a lot of (LAUGHTER) these hard issues that are right around the corner like robotics But the reason why I believe we lost were the intervening and artificial intelligence. confident. red meat for the faithful. And he should worry less about the election and my winning the popular vote than doing some other things that would be important for the country. And I am very aware of. I on the ballot. you can always listen to our podcast.not just our nothing of the rest of the world. the shortfalls that we had again. I take absolute personal cathartic. opponent. didn't vote for me. you know.we're going to finish on some AMANPOUR: Relaxed. We overcame an enormous barrage of then joining the resistance. could it have been different. I mean. (APPLAUSE) they are disappointed and some are angry. I think.yes. watch us online AMANPOUR: I feel a tweet coming. you'll read our country forward. I thought that at the end of the day. You know. me. I've been in a know. I wasn't going to appeal to people's emotions in the same lot of campaigns and I'm very proud of the campaign we ran way that my opponent did. of me for preparing. my gosh. And some say. Remember. I had a very strong -. it doesn't get to the doubts in the minds of people who were inclined to vote for president's desk. I would be your president. you can read all you know. Obama? What did you say to him? Now she admits it wasn't a perfect campaign. mistakes? Of course we did. I called President Obama. among the -. So. And it wasn't. But I will say this. these promises that he made because. if it's easy. who doesn't work for me. has concluded. again. they are devastated. I'm now back to polling and data analysis. and things that are really going to be events in the last ten days. letter was made public. Clinton lays down the gauntlet. did you call President my conversation with Hillary Clinton coming up. imagine Hillary Clinton defiant and trending online with this you know. More of other stuff.com and follow me on Facebook and Twitter. And there were just a lot of funny CLINTON: In that first debate. but a very strong assessment going being an activist citizen. the problems. CLINTON: Well. trying to lift up all women. I can't be anything other than who I am. independent analyst but one considered to be very reliable. the result would have been very (LAUGHTER) different. of false equivalency and so much else. And I said ad nauseam during the campaign. I did prepare for the debate.

he's going to have to -- That is. If he's that clever.agreed on the last two candidates they had to pick from. Many said they voted white. looking presidential just hours after JIM BITTERMAN. People feel that And the question is will he be able to do it? And the thing. which was ran almost eight or so So he's got to be a good salesman. What does this playbook is going to see him become the country's youngest election result mean for the French and indeed for the rest of the leader since Napoleon. which is quite a significant number. Becky. And they feel he belongs to the elite. more -. so western liberal democracy. the election. nowhere. if you like. There's no question about that. BITTERMAN: Well.of towns as a campaigner for the presidency. And he clearly knows what that really. because they don't to reform the economy. trust him. Emmanuel Macron will be called something very ANDERSON: Isa. equivalence." I'm But you do get a sense that not everyone agrees or thought (ph) - Becky Anderson for you.winning everywhere that's really wasn't there. But also. one of the surveys that came out But they didn't know France. Macron gave an excited victory speech. significantly reduced many people because he says that France needs to be reformed and he knows dispersing. the tough ones (ph) that became (ph) Marine Le needs to be done in terms of economic reforms here to get the Pen. Jim. Let's start with you. We've been reviewing him several times as a -. Some of his opponents in Our Jim Bitterman. So what is that whether it's going to hold. the -. Marine Le Pen. Sarkozy. some people are declaring this is a victory now all this in just three years. Emmanuel Macron has been extremely for months and months now has no precedent nor lucky getting elected president of the -. And There have been a succession of presidents here. And they were hit with the kind of strikes and -- And that is the big point that keep -. I wanted to give you a sense of he need to do next? the numbers.I'm hearing time and and demonstrations that we've seen take place here. And just analyzing the votes. And they tried. So you -- ANDERSON: Well. different -. it's his win. pushback we're seeing even this afternoon out on the streets So in terms of what we heard from the president-elect is where he says that the fact is he's going to face that again and really making France a bit more open.Monsieur President. the Becky? police behind me. out of touch but . improve the lot of the French? What does when it comes to his reforms. Everybody told us it was impossible. If you look. also in Northern France. on the left here. world? Macron. as you would expect. along the world-famous Champs-Elysees. We've started at about a thousand or so. skyrocketing from a virtual unknown to where he is interesting. stop in their tracks because they could see that it was going which way did they vote. trade.whether he's making his plan? And how much resistance does he face? own luck. 26 Transcripts of Talk shows (CNN) Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 CONNECT THE WORLD (CNN HOST: BECKY ANDERSON) Topics to be covered in this talk shows are: Macron Defeats So there is -. He doesn't belong to us. and then followed by Holland who said they were going because he's never held elected office. they vote Marine Le Pen. Becky. self-destructed. But what I've heard from people here in Paris but the issues. wasn't really a movement -. extremely lucky getting to where he is. And they've been stopped in their tracks. Isa. But it should be said. one. perhaps he's going to be able to ISA SOARES. People still feel that he doesn't represent them. He's got to sell that program percent. CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well. stand by. whether -. South Korea's Presidential Election. Hello and welcome. too young. just to back MACRON (THROUGH TRANSLATOR): What we have done up what Isa was saying. he belongs to the elite. we are on every side of the story for you you really have a contradiction here. only a couple of -. you've probably forgotten more about French crowds of as many as a thousand people here or so. Becky? . time again. for one thing. movement. to get people employed again. kind of -. than change. when I spoke to majority people (ph) here.a worldwide in blue here. crushing his right wing and populist rival. trumps a populist France's incredible election rewriting its entire political protectionist agenda from Marine Le Pen. You're watching "Connect the World. divided country.I know it's quite a cliche when you say this is a Le Pen.of France. that they weren't going to be able to get the legislation they shook their heads as you'd expect in voting and said no. for the anti-populist.as a minister and has turned majority (ph) blue.of France.that they're voiceless.much more globalist vision of -. through. not only to the legislature. who claimed just two small spots of red. which that's going to be hard but also to the French people so that they're not out on streets. majority politics than we will ever know. of course. though. now. economy going again. starting with many people here don't believe he is man to do it. CNN's Isa Soares is out and about in You have someone who's been elected president who's coming in Paris where there is already a protest against labor reforms with a lot of enthusiasm and whatnot but who has been Macron wants to bring in. the ones that were saying that populism And check out just how he did it -. which with triumph. Corrupt. it's definitely make his own luck going forward.the riot police have been -. many people like you said who don't see eye-to-eye How does that. seem to back that theory up that populism could be dead if it ever (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) was there in the first place. Filled And we've seen elections now in the Netherlands and here. They've been forced to Interestingly. any obstacle in his effort to reform France. Macron said he won't be stopped by And it's a question as whether that luck is going to continue. CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well. too.seen ANDERSON: Jim. where you were mentioning there. not the victory lap he had in mind. more open to free again and again as he challenges the icons. I mean. two. So this is about continuity rather of them unionists. as you can see. yesterday was that 43 percent of French voters voted for (APPLAUSE) Emmanuel Macron only to stop Marine Le Pen from getting into (END VIDEO CLIP) office so voting against the populism of Marine Le Pen. the first round of the election.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) ANDERSON: War. stepping in. Moon Jae-in. in policy reality the Arabs themselves can't escape. The age group that you where CNN's very own Ivan Watson is for us now. North Korea." 18 and 24 are thinking across much of this region. even highlighting the friendships are fading. are horribly wrong. Donald Trump as a way of connecting with the country's ANDERSON: Almost everyone doesn't like America's new main ally. Hong Jun-pyo. JOHN F. Moon could ANDERSON: And peaceful. But also rare defector the polls and driving them early. "strategic patience" have failed. PRESIDENT: I. nearly more than 350 million people. Becky. So one big reason for his direction. Sunil. So unless the polls anywhere. many look to it as a beacon of hope. ISIS. indicator. The region is probably one of the youngest Tuesday in -. CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well. brothers and sisters are all in North Korea. according to the National 60 percent below the age 30. expected overnight Tuesday. Several days before the polls formally open on -. if you talk to ordinary voters on the street. has happened elsewhere in the world. just above the Electoral Commissions. seem outright unrealistic in the Middle East. that matters here more than the results.S. I will stop the war from happening. currently on trial for extortion and bribery.S. So almost half of those asked MICHAEL BREEN. Defectors traditionally vote conservative for a more hardline That's one of the things that is certainly driving young people to approach to the regime they fled. But HANCOCKS: Former businessman. of course. The second we carry a country. And even before I started reading this. It gauges what youngsters -. But Moon is assumed to -. Russia. nearly doubled between 2015 and 2016. which Korea and seek asylum elsewhere if Moon wins. have the most hope for it. When it comes man's election. here in the United Arab Emirates. world's 200 million youth. as we said. PAULA HANCOCKS. said that the past policy from the U. let's get you live on the ground in Seoul. if you will. there is considerable talk about him seeking a more (BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) diplomatic approach with Pyongyang if he is elected.000 of them would leave South biggest concerns right now is rising youth unemployment. though. What struck you most about what they told you? IVAN WATSON.the feeling here is that he's the only one (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) who can prevent a future war on the peninsula. to this frontrunner that Paula was reporting on. even organizing the Pyongyang. (END VIDEO CLIP) Moon declined repeated requests for a television interview ANDERSON: But what if the answer to both of those questions but tried to fight criticism he's too soft on North Korea in a was simply nothing? What can seem idealistic in some places can televised address. Moon Jae-in. For yet another year.Elysees. runs the company that carried out this survey. support is that he's not her. here is one SUNIL JOHN. "THE NEW KOREANS": He in this (ph) survey think this region is going in the wrong stood very clearly against her. I want to speak to the man who the issue. which is just 200 kilometers. famine. CEO.S. Becky. quote/unquote. also still. Becky? support for Moon -. has voters split. Instead. That gives you a sense of some of the famous Champs. its young. we'll be pointing a gun towards (APPLAUSE) them. from Pyongyang. last North/South Summit in 2007. which (END VIDEOTAPE) to be fair." your country can do for you. perhaps. Sunil John. And let's stay right here in its capital now. out on the street of Paris for you today. KENNEDY.on absolutely.it's got to be said in Europe to this president. So in a region where as many as HANCOCKS: Thirteen candidates in all. U. FORMER U.in the official election. we're going to take a look at the very politicians in the country after the scandal of the former enthusiastic reaction -. You know. Moon Jae. South Korea’s Elections yes. Park Geun-hye and her impeachment. president who had said that he is happy to go it alone on Of course. incredibly important election there in South Korea. in that both of them have in has dedicated supporters. one of the defectors last week claimed 3. That is part of the rationale that this candidate. terrorism. Paula Hancocks. and safe -.young people aged between alliance with the U. U. rich. even unemployment She denies all charges against her. thank you.the new Arab Youth Korea. using for seeking. but voting.S. on what is an tomorrow. HANCOCKS: Moon lost in the last presidential race to former Myself and the "Connect the World" team got a first look at this president Park Geun-hye. of the Trump administration. surveyed is so important because they are this region's Ivan. Ask what you can do for your says this former member of the elite. enthusiasm out there. appears to be a backlash against conservative later this hour. CNN. out of 22 different Arab nations the electorate had already cast their ballots in advanced across this vast area.that is how many well be the next leader to try and solve the problem of North young people look in the Middle East look at the United Arab Korea and also to try and start to build a relationship with a Emirates. AUTHOR. the conservative candidate from president.S. Ahn Cheol-soo. 27 Transcripts of Talk shows (CNN) Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 ANDERSON: Jim Bitterman is.S. Seoul. I was fascinated. His policy on governments of. with so many problems and so many feeling permanent. And here is what is in it. Park has been impeached and report. (END VIDEOTAPE) And I thought it was a brilliant move to dedicate this to the Arab ANDERSON: Well. This sort of survey is so important. the one exception. vying for the top job. a more diplomatic approach to He supports dialogue with Pyongyang. we're in Abu Dhabi. PRESIDENT: Ask not what "Our parents. . old supports negotiations with Pyongyang." he says. President DONALD TRUMP. CNN CORRESPONDENT: Pure And there is a surprising similarity between him and the position excitement at seeing the presidential frontrunner. And they no longer feel like America is their go-to for Park's former party suffered a political body blow from her safety. even those meant to and personality. just set the scene for us. fact he went to the same business school as U. Isa. A liberal candidate. more than 11 million people. seven out of 10 people are under 30. impeachment and holds a harder line against Pyongyang. A group of North Korean But again. "Through crisis management and a solid Survey. and past South Korean And he's enjoying a significant lead in the polls. is Moon is pro-engagement. Donald John Trump. a warped have picked up support for being the opposite of her. rifle to defend South Korea. more than a quarter of parts in the world.all threads in the Middle East's brutal mosaic. "I will not tolerate any military provocation from North And that is being measured by this -. old and young. And There is certainly. imprisoned. ASDA'A BURSON-MARSTELLER: I mean.

We from the Gulf countries said.is -. went all the almost -. Anderson. each about the other. Thank you. they are hugely optimistic about thank you very much indeed for joining us. two days after the election on November 10. 85 percent of that sample ANDERSON: Joe. So what happened? You're watching CNN. going in the right direction.what do the governments in this region take from red on the issue of Michael Flynn being the national security a survey like this? adviser. according to our So when you look at our top study. And again. and I think Middle Eastern and North Africa.and that. (By Editorial Team. top finding. obviously. you -. And that's JOE JOHNS. JOHN: Thank you. with that. it was nearly sources. you know. Algeria. But then you dig a little deeper.is your country going in the right direction? Donald Trump. the news (ph) the (ph) government has nearly halved from all the $700 surfacing just hours before what is a Senate panel will hear key billion to nearly about $350 billion.in the rich Arabian Gulf states. yes. I'm Becky But when you look at the sample. the Arabian Gulf countries -. Obama. just one finding. But young Then President Obama delivering a warning to then President- people in that age group. this went right to the top. for against the backdrop of the Russia investigation and questions example. You know.and that -. CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well. And we've been doing this study over the last brush approach. Michael Flynn. Morocco. why was it that Michael Flynn ended JOHN: Yes. It's worth a read. Middle East can't be seen in a -. yes. the largest revenue from meeting happened in the oval office back in November. And And that's why while this might seem obvious. blinking what do -. There's a lot of positive headline right there. conflict-ridden (ph) and somewhere in changing their views? And what we see this year is fairly the middle is North African countries. and then getting fired after that? when the outside look at the Middle East. after the Arab who's live for you this hour. JOHN: Yes. Tunisia. after he took the job. These are -. conflicts have risen -. JOHN: . that would be Michael Flynn.yes. I think the team is an important one because up still getting the job. The important new information is.three very distinct region. National Security Adviser. Fifty-two percent said. Both the president.in the country and the Iraq issue as way to the top. it is absolutely no surprise. going in the right direction. secure. but when you look things now. of course. CNN all over it. you know. national security adviser.the governments are under pressure. in the GCC. then the UAE.in 16 (ph) oil revenues. So the question that arises here. a Region Divided”. apparently. as well as the president-elect emerged from that meeting JOHN: Yes. our viewers know very well is if the system was. sir. So the value of the survey is. at the perceptions of these young people. 28 Transcripts Research Articles of Talkfor shows CSS (CNN) Essay Topics Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 There is no other part of the world that is as young as the So you know. very -. more -.the Syrian story this hour. because other people like Sally Yates had apparently And what sort of change should we expect? raised some questions. half the population feel optimistic about the future. with glowing representations. so many conflicts. We are learning that the warnings about the refugee issue. and their future. Well. So when you look at that.is how all know now was eventually fired by President Trump not long you've -. you know. to a certain extent region that is really divided in -.of change. the populous ones. That story is not going away. this can-do attitude by the ANDERSON: “Middle East. Elect Trump about the person he was considering hiring as So the other half.S. which is Levant and Yemen. campaign's ties to Russia. the kind of wider success.in how they see their current (ph). you're looking at Why didn't the administration listen to the entreaties of the this vast land of 350 million people as I said. Becky. who are pessimistic. It's not region. should be optimistic. there's pressure on governments. that mate economic issue where. So this meeting occurred JOHN: Yes.you've worked the formatting of this.you can see in the last six years ANDERSON: I want to get you back to what -. Let's get you straight to Washington. Becky. in fact. You're distinctively looking at nine years. the continuing conflict in Yemen. ANDERSON: . So what do you take -. Eighty-five percent feel that END they are going in the wrong direction.the crisis in -. as we do in -. ANDERSON: It was a pleasure. JOHN: I think clearly.is a concern. Becky? OK. energy as well. with the challenges as you have just he could to help the incoming Trump administration become a described. We'll be right back. testimony on Flynn as part of its investigation into the Trump ANDERSON: Talking about oil. ANDERSON: . Weekly Analysis) . who we ANDERSON: The Middle East region divided is how -. is -. That was "Connect the World. They were speaking of the best days ahead of them. well. there has been an warned Donald Trump against hiring Flynn.here in The meeting lasted about 90 minutes. you different from what we saw in the hey-days (ph) of the Arab know.so you see Spring in 2011 when people had a revolutionary trend. Joe? They have to prove their legitimacy to citizens. and then. of course. But when you Democrats when Trump was coming into office? All of this delve a little deeper into the findings. I think you hit the actually putting a lot of pressure. and not that affected by the Arab Spring. it was.with a broad- Middle East. or what we call the fertile crescent (ph) in Yemen is watching. we're going to leave you there. the level (ph). youngsters in this region. you're looking at a ANDERSON: That -. So when you look at that. how are young people The Levant and Yemen. there was that sense of revolution. too many of our viewers may seem very disappointed. What more do we know at this point. Spring.what is breaking after the Arab Spring. ANDERSON: If you live in this region. the diametrically the opposite. they have been tempered with. Sources say that the former President Barack Obama himself Also in the -. one question we asked young people is that how do about Russia interfering in the last election to the benefit of you see -. too. Egypt.to hear that this is a region divided with the Also President Obama indicating he was going to do everything GCC to a certain extent. the Libyan fired U." Thank you for you know. More from Joe Johns. by default.

1. MAGNA CARTA (1215) Rule and Should Rule. Laws should be written with reasonable clarity to Rule of law vs. – Equality before Law – No special treatment for different 8. 6. Predictability. Law must avoid Under the rule by law the law serves as a tool for the government while under the rule of law the law is prominent. is entitled to a fair and impartial hearing to determine their legal rights. A Peaceful Social Order is Maintained Through Legal sufficiently robust and accessible to ensure enforcement of Rules these protections by an independent legal profession. The law is known. 4. Lon Fuller’s view on Rule of Law Article 39 of the Magna Carta was written to ensure that the 1. 4. The law is superior to all members of society. dignity of all members of society. and Security. Reducing 4. Laws must be prospective in nature so that the effect If men were angels. Fuller stated the of law? Quite a lot. 3. legislative. 2. Magna Carta planted the seeds for the concept of due process as it developed first in England. Two Arenas: Between Citizens and the Government 3. respect for and feels confident about legal system. Law must not command the impossible. constitution as a general rule. Great Charter). A group of barons. 6. Introduction to Rule of Law Introducing Rule of Law of a crime committed before a criminal statute It is a political framework which creates a culture that creates prohibiting the conduct was passed. lack of arbitrariness. In his book. demanded Tradition Committed to Upholding the Rule of Law. Widely Shared Orientation Within Society—Among nor send upon him. stable. 4. Diecy. For example. 5. 2. 2. The law is just and protects the human rights and Willfulness and Arbitrariness. executive or legislative powers and individual judges base their decisions solely on facts and law of individual cases. and then in the United States. or By Requiring Compliance With Existing Law. Members of society have the right to participate in the creation and refinement of laws that regulate their (Vertical). the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control . can check against abuse of power. nor will we go upon him 1. Economic Development is Facilitated by Certainty. Laws must be published. According to Prof. 5. 7. and B) By judicial power. including government officials. Existence of a Robust Legal Profession and Legal supported the king in exchange for estates of land. King John of England signed the Magna Carta (or Judiciary. 5. The Morality of Law. and predictable. Official action should be consistent with the declared people – Predominance of Legal Spirit i. Laws must exist and those laws should be obeyed by accordance with the law. It recognizes that a person’s fate should not be in the hands of a single individual—here. Law must stay constant through time to allow the principles or it has three meanings as stated below: formalization of rules. liberty. Laws are 2. contradictions. which have been recognized as necessary for a society So what does this ancient document have to do with the rule aspiring to institute the rule of law. the king. No freemen shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised or Basic Elements in Establishing the Rule of Law exiled or in any way destroyed. except by the lawful judgment of his Citizens and Government Officials—That the Law Does peers or by the law of the land. the court cannot convict a person administered by men over men. Independent In 1215. Restricts Discretion of Government Officials. are sufficiently defined and government discretion Primary Benefits of the Rule of Law sufficiently limited to ensure the law is applied non- 1. Imposing Legal Limits on Law-Making Power.e. however. including Restraints on Government Officials. In Two Different Ways: A) government officials vested with executive. Legal processes are 3. all. and Security in arbitrarily. For Two Basic Reasons. no government would be of the law may only take place after the law has been necessary. In framing a government which is to be passed. A Second Function of the Rule of Law is to Maintain Order applied equally to all persons in like circumstances. or property of free subjects of the king could not be arbitrarily taken away. Enhances Certainty. Rule by law: avoid unfair enforcement. Fundamental Justice of the Requirement That the What makes up the rule of law? Rules Must be Applied Equally to Everyone According to Their Terms. 29 Research Articles for CSS Essay Topics Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 Research Articles for CSS Essay Topics  I. behaviors. Due process means that everyone 3. It following: demands that a judgment against a person be made in 2. the lawful judgment of the scholar Lon Fuller identified eight elements of law subject’s peers or the law of the land had to be followed. 5. Laws and Coordinate Behavior and Transactions among Citizens. principle of law Ideal characteristics of a society governed by the Two Functions of the Rule of Law rule of law 1. Presence of an Institutionalized. Judicial power is exercised independently of either the Predictability. 2. powerful noblemen who 3. rules of law contains three 7. Instead.the power of the for timely revision when the underlying social and government is limited political circumstances have changed. —ARTICLE 39. One Function of the Rule of Law is to Impose Legal 1. American legal life. 8. that the king sign the charter to recognize their rights. and Among Citizens (Horizontal). law also must allow – Supremacy of Iaw.

secured the right to counsel for indigent criminal executive. When we [Americans] talk about the rule of law. If people are unable to know and Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s quote also highlights another understand what the law is. Openness and according to certain laws and rules. Constitution addressed this problem by dividing power The Supreme Court’s opinion in Gideon v. people SUPREME COURT JUSTICE FELIX FRANKFURTER. .” The framers of the U. FEDERALIST PAPER NO. an law to maintain our social order is sometimes described as open and transparent system of making laws and. Amendment to the Constitution. the laws must not be rule of law functions because most of us agree that it is arbitrary. that independent from political pressures and influences when they make their decisions. opinion when they are called upon to determine what the law Justice Kennedy suggests that the rule of law has taken on requires. it is difficult to claim that a defendant has the parliament. Assume that people in your also remain vigilant to ensure the rule of law also serves the community decided that they didn’t want to be bothered by interests of justice. the laws. based on influences ensures that everyone has a fair chance to make our history of looking to the law to fulfill the promises of their case in court and that judges will be impartial in freedom. GIDEON V. If man can. was whether this guarantee of assistance required the state The rule of law does not depend upon a U. the powers exercise his or her constitutional right. INTERVIEW WITH pressured by a political party. a private interest. 51 every defendant stands equal before the law. and equality set forth in our nation’s founding making their decisions. 30 Research Articles for CSS Essay Topics Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 the governed.S. first. Our agreement as citizens to obey the Judge Wood’s comments highlight the need for. for if we throw them to the winds. At the same time.” Predictable results mean that people who act in the allowed to determine for himself what is law. of the executive and legislative branches are combined. the heart of the problem that even a government of law is WAINWRIGHT. that promotes equality. the respect of citizens The rule of law also requires that people can expect for the law will begin to erode. does not in itself guarantee a just result. An independent judiciary is promotes justice. If one man can be arbitrary. cannot use the law to guide their actions. which guarantees criminal Each branch of our government has some level of control or defendants “the assistance of counsel. in return for the benefits of social order. transparency are essential. JR.S.S.S. that the people should respect highest respect for law. conscience tells him is unjust. justice. and who willingly accepts the serves to bring all law into contempt. Judges should not be COURT JUSTICE ANTHONY KENNEDY.” At issue in Gideon oversight over the actions of the other branches. ensures that no one The decision in Gideon was grounded in the Sixth person is able to gain absolute power and stand above the law. and judicial). These elements of Dialogue. In a criminal trial. even if a police officer is not “THE RULE OF LAW IN TIMES OF STRESS” (2003) present to enforce it. COURT OF APPEALS JUDGE DIANE WOOD. This (1788) noble ideal cannot be realized if the poor man charged with crime has to face his accusers without a lawyer to James Madison’s quote from the Federalist Papers gets at assist him—JUSTICE HUGO BLACK. This means that. this is what Judge Wood implies when she says that “the laws must not be through an independent judiciary. we agree to live that are applied predictably and uniformly. As this quote points out. then tyranny. for example. but a society that operates under the rule of law must its citizens do not respect the law. laws an essential part of the social contract.S.S. Keeping the judiciary independent of these special meaning for the people of the United States. The rule of law is intended to promote It is very difficult for a nation to maintain the rule of law if stability. 335 (1963) ultimately “administered by men over men. SUPREME essential to maintaining the rule of law. people deserve to know why a particular obey laws that they can and will obey. our understanding of the rule of law in the United judicial decision-making ensure that judges remain States did indeed develop around the belief that a primary accountable to the rule of law. —MARTIN LUTHER KING. second. what “LETTER FROM BIRMINGHAM JAIL” (1963) becomes of civil government? —ELIZABETH CADY The words of Martin Luther King from Birmingham Jail STANTON (1860) remind us that there is a distinction between law and justice. I submit that an individual who breaks a law that To make laws that man can not and will not obey. . including lawyers who prosecute the state’s case. There can be no free society without law administered predictable results from the legal system. law. the state has many resources at its procedures such as “no confidence” votes and regularly disposal. This framework for government. That means first chaos. Judges also must explain their decisions in public written opinions. is in reality expressing the important in a republic. the continued traffic laws and began to ignore stop signs and traffic strength of the rule of law sometimes depends on individuals signals. 372 U. every same way can expect the law to treat them in the same way. and . —U. The key point is that every form of government been treated with fairness and impartiality and has been has to have some system to ensure that no one in the given equal standing before the law if the defendant must government has so much power that they can act above the face the state without a lawyer of his or her own. The ability of police officers to enforce the laws who are willing to risk punishment in pursuit of justice. The law. they cannot be expected to follow important aspect of the rule of law. As will be further discussed in Part II of the be appealed to a higher court for review. similar actions do not produce similar legal outcomes. The United States Constitution represented the first constitutions and laws have laid great emphasis on effort by a nation to establish a written constitution of laws procedural and substantive safeguards designed to that would bind the government and guarantee particular . UNITED MINE WORKERS (1947) does not exist. It is very penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice. The implement them should be secret. People must be asked to it.-style separation to provide legal counsel if a defendant could not afford to of powers. Wainwright among the different branches of government (legislative. or popular ABA PRESIDENT WILLIAM NEUKOM (2007). purpose of the rule of law is the protection of certain basic From the very beginning. As scheduled elections serve as a check on the party that controls Justice Black notes. If laws become law has been passed and why they are being asked to obey it. and in the next place oblige it to control assure fair trials before impartial tribunals in which itself—JAMES MADISON. important to observe the law.—U. In a parliamentary system. —U. we assume Judicial independence means that judges are that we’re talking about a law that promotes freedom. known as the separation of powers.and their decisions can documents. and a “rule of law” UNITED STATES V. impossible—or even difficult—to follow. would be overwhelmed and the streets of your community [N]either laws nor the procedures used to create or would quickly become a chaotic and dangerous place. even if it is uniformly applied.. defendants unable to afford legal assistance on their own. our state and national rights.

Rule of law requires henceforth became a symbol for free judiciary himself in his the unity of law which is mostly in the form of state law. Pakistan? The final and electronic media played an especially active and dominant important question is if the achievement of the rule of law which role in making this movement popular and successful. or chaudharys. The Rule of Law Problems in Pakistan: An Anthropological Perspective of the Daughter’s Traditional Share in the Patrimony in the Punjab (By Azam Chaudhary. Germany and why it journalists and academics participated in this movement. This article discusses the reveals that the most prevalent law of the country is customary traditional law and uses the case study of daughter’s law. rule of law in some countries. Quaid-i-Azam University. The same literature also structure and value system. human-rights activists. civil-society organizations.) restoration of the independent judiciary (the rule of law) a major Abstract agenda point in the 2007 elections and earned tremendously the This article is a contribution to the ongoing debate about public vote and sympathy as a result. is dispensed by pirs. implementation of the rule of law is achieving the unity of law. People from all sections of the society questions are: What is meant by the rule of law? Why there is Lawyers. The Chief Justice who implementing rule of law in Pakistan. etc. the because people practice law according to their social Islamic law and the customary law. The state law The official law follows values like individualism which are does not fit well with the existing cultural values and imported values/concepts of Western society . 31 rights to its people. jirgas. The is absent in others. 2007 by the whether local culture could be socially engineered to achieve this then military chief/President General Pervaiz Musharaf. several speeches stressed the importance of the rule of law for Pakistan. We know that the assumption. variety of forms like panchayts. This article is an attempt to discuss these and some lawyers launched a movement for the restoration of the Chief other questions with the particular focus on the relevance of Justice. view suit the local cultural logic and practices. If the state wants to implement rule of its law it has how could the implementation of the state law be achieved in to first implement uniform socialization in the form of such circumstances? The first necessary step for the universal formal (school) education. The daughters do not claim their shares in the official law and the customary law are two different things. The unity of law. The question is. informal meetings of Introduction We know from the relevant literature that there are at least three families. the rule of law is often linked to efforts to promote protection of human rights worldwide. Some requires fundamental changes in social structure is a desirable political parties like Muslim League (Nawaz) made the step? . The rule of law requires the implementation of the national traditional share in her parent patrimony to prove the above law or the law of the state (details later). It all started with the if customary law is undergoing a change more particularly dismissal of Chief Justice of Pakistan on Nov. This movement is often referred to as the movement culture for the rule of law in Pakistan. the state Pakistan. Professor. Some of the background for the rule of law. The state and the state law sometimes translated as Sharia or Islamic law) or even though do not acknowledge and accept the non-state laws as insurgency in Swat is often interpreted as the lack of the rule of laws but the reality is that the dominant practiced law in law. National Institute of Pakistan Study. practices. for instance. What is meant by the rule of law and how to achieve it has Pakistan is the traditional law. like for example. Today. Traditional law is found in a but never been properly discussed. The demand and introduction of Nizam-e-Adal (also law and the traditional law exist. The patrimony but have other rights and obligations which in my traditional law is said to functions according to the local values/culture of the people which is caste/kinship/tribe based. An important question in this regards is if the unity of law is The active debate about the rule of law is comparatively a achievable? To be able to answer this question we need to know recent phenomenon in Pakistan. Islamabad. This is broad types of laws prevailing in Pakistan: the state law. The many seminars and talk shows on a number of Pakistan is a legally plural society where completely different mainly news TV channels discussed the issue of the rule of law in and independent systems of law like the Islamic law.

” The social sciences are. The problem for anthropologist is not only unanimous in their views that: “the way a people settle that “the paradigmatic concept of law is … one and only law of disputes is part of its social structure and value system.” We also are aware the more important question is if these changes are desirable that: “most of the greatest success stories of the rule of law owed as destination. as well as legal The most problematic aspect of the ‘doable’ view in the rule of institutions – are relevant to the degree the rule of law law is that it is approached in a very what Krygier has called prevails with it. The ideal/kern relationship arguments about universal human rights” The natural law is a brother/sister relationship and not a husband wife theory assumes “the existence of a universal. The overwhelming science and rationality are actually implementing the customs of majority of the people in the Punjab particularly in the rural the majority and dominant groups/countries at the cost of the areas follow customary law which is that the daughters do dominated.” and kinship may not possibly work. very critical of any My view is that if we want to change. etc. the gap being largest in the to illustrate the whole debate. knowledge. and the developing countries culture is not irrational and illogical as it is presented in the particularly those having a colonial past like Pakistan is the unity of law and the rule of law debates. In other words implementing official share of daughter in the patrimony from their countries … ” In-spite of the fact that we know that means changing marriage practices. Being cultural relativist . as in the West (discussed in detail in later part of the article). The attempt to bring about exists between the law of the state and the local culture) the unity of law for the rule of law does not end in the national already exists. cultural contexts rule of law as Krygier and Mason define it is “a state of affairs. media. The idea that by reshaping its key institutions to match those that are change could be brought 56\ one area i. family patterns. individualism and capitalism is a preferable based on the assumption that ‘a country achieves the rule of law alternative to the ‘status’ based kinship society. Looking at the transnational impacts including the including jurists that the unity of laws does not exist in the colonial past the unity of law is deemed to end up in attempting developing countries like Pakistan. economic structure. multi-layered elements of various and that there are no methods discovered for detaching provenances. mores and practices. It is assumed that “Aid mind that the socially engineered changes do not only often providers know what endpoint they would like to help countries fail in achieving the desired results they may also frequently achieve – the Western-style. What is the problem for me as an anthropologist with this In short in debates about achieving the unity of law for the rule state of affairs called the rule of law? Let me start by saying of law the local cultures especially those of the minority groups that anthropologists have no problems if the unity of law (in become irrational. law of inheritance considered to have the rule of law. destruction or at least “law related practices … developed over long periods. norms and judgments”. rule-oriented systems they know lead to totally undesired ‘side effects’. The Orientalism related debates have brought forward kinship base has to be changed fundamentally. Because the the views that texts (laws) exist in contexts i. weak and minority. it confused law with morality. unscientific at worst an irritant or an evil the sense that no or at least no major and basic difference necessity that need to be removed. The difference between the developed countries attempted at the cost of the local cultures but to show that local like UK. the ideas of ‘universally valid reality’ and particularly the view that traditional law of daughter’s patrimony for implementing the this reality could be found out by the so called ‘scientific’ official/Islamic law the social structure particularly its methods. for instance. So in short “build them and without affecting the other i. Positivist theorists were which is said to be a relationship of three words – talaq disturbed with these ideas of the natural law only for its being pronounced three times . 32 Research Articles for CSS Essay Topics Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 The daughter’s share in the patrimony in the Punjab where degree of the gap or difference between the official law and the the author did his fieldwork has been chosen as a case study local culture or customary law. I am personally not very sure if the Western styled individual based ‘contract’ society with free market nothing to professional rule-of-law promoters. the nature of social structure they will come.” 12 the national state” but the idea that the unity of law is achievable There is a wide gap between the official/Islamic law and the and has to be achieved. with complex. Anthropologists are may be developing countries. and … with replacement of present (joint/extended) family and kinship little deliberate design to produce the results they have.” Having said this.e. that it was grounded on a mythical entity. at least since the last quarter of the 20th century. education.whereas the brother-sister “unscientific. it is important to bear in “breathtakingly mechanistic’ way. Having written this it is a fact accepted by all boundaries.e. or so called ‘facts’ from politics and ethnocentrism. In my view the social structure of the Punjabi society in general and Jurisprudence in my view remains the most conservative of all the rural Punjab in particular is such that for the the social sciences particularly ideas like the rule of law because daughters/sisters not getting a share in the patrimony is it is based on the same principles of rationality and universality socio-economically more beneficial than the legal half share found in the 18th and 19th century debates of natural law and (compared to their brothers) they have claim to. We know that even the to convert all the non-western laws into the Western law. Claiming the share by the sisters would mean of ‘justice’ and ‘right’ which is distinguishable from mere human taking away from brother and handing over to the husband enactments. rather than any particular set of institutions. cultures. To pluck system with a nuclear family making individual as supreme out of this dense thicket of institutions. not claim13 any share in the property of their parents. merely the formal rules or architecture of The question is not only if such changes are instantly possible legal institutions is simply to pick at leaves. This is “most evident today in current society is a kinship based society. My most developed countries in the world are culturally and basic focus in this paper is not to show how the unity of law is legal plural. Most aspects of a society – its balance of power. The Punjabi positivist principles. underlying system relationship. The notion is ideology. Germany. traditions.e. I would like to present the view below customary law practices with regards to the share of the that the attempts to achieve the unity of law in the name of daughter in the property of her father. and that relationship is an ideal of the Punjabi kinship relationship.

the social structure and kinship system of the Punjab the In order to make these provisions imperative and daughters/sisters do not claim their share.” She remarks further that: “…. He will make him else. unto the male is the because sister-brother and not husband-wife make the core of equivalent of the share of two females. I am of the view that women do not want to claim their share because they will end up as losers. Sahiban tells Mirza on their way how cruel and strong her enter Fire. compared to husband and wife which is a contract relationship. Therefore a practical approach should start by for securing their inheritance rights got a sympathetic verdict. law of inheritance for the women and the customary law. The question is how enforceable. If we want to bridge the gap we interesting detailed analysis of inheritance disputes from the have to learn the logic in the local customs – so to say to find record of the higher courts in Pakistan. hers is half the heritage. As has already been Allah chargeth you concerning (the provision for) your mentioned it means that the Punjabi society is a kinship based children: to the male the equivalent of two females. Mirza proudly told her his marksmanship with his bow and arrows. them. in view that almost no women receive their share? Answering The logic in traditional practice of daughter the self raised question she writes that the pressure from both inheritance family and society to forego one’s inheritance is so compelling for women that they are simply unable to raise their voices and There is a wide gap between the theoretical official/Islamic forced to settle oft of court. there is a provision for the Claiming share by the sister would simply mean taking from the collaterals: brother and giving it to the husband. If a man die system childless and he have a sister. Important for achieving both of them were married and lived in the same village and as a this idea is also realization that the gap between the practice first instance had conflicts with their brothers. Mirza Sahiban. in comparison to other areas of family law. The village where I did my officially do. and if society where brother-sister make the kern of the system there be women more than two. his will be a shame brothers were and that they would kill both of them if they found full doom. And whoso disobeyeth Allah and His Sahiban away before her family married her of to somebody messenger and transgresseth His limits. That will be According to the details relevant for us Mirza came to take the great success. men and women. where such will dwell forever. say: Allah hath Brother-sisters as kern Relationship in Punjabi kinship pronounced for you concerning distant kindred. I do not want to follow here the acknowledging the existence and relevance of several legal argument that dowry and other gifts to the daughter/sister are orders instead of ignoring them as the jurists at least equivalent or not of her share. she has met system of law. accommodating the local culture (legal pluralism) and adopt Shaheen Sardar Ali a prominent Pakistani lawyer and activist in a slow and steady long term approach to achieve the ideal the field of women rights and status in Pakistan provides us very (more details in conclusion). The prevalent understood in its own cultural context. God promises divine reward for abiding by them this kinship structure influences the not demanding of share in and prescribes divine punishment for disregarding them in the patrimony by the sister? First let me explain how it is the the following words of the Quran: sister and brother and not husband and wife that lie at the centre of the Punjabi kinship. and if there be one (only) then the half. She asks: why in spite of favourable decisions by multiple centers and by creating semi-autonomous fields for the courts there are so few cases for patrimony keeping the fact their implementation. The there be two sisters. During their further journey Mirza got . where such will dwell forever. She writes: “From 1947 the local wisdom instead of only looking towards the West – to date we find that whenever a woman has approached the and to accommodate it in the reconstruction of the state superior courts for protection of her right to inherit. 33 Research Articles for CSS Essay Topics Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 I am of the view that customary law as part of culture has its The practice in the Punjab especially in the rural areas is that the own logic and that this local cultural logic needs to be daughters or sisters do not claim any share. and he The brother sister relationship has to be understood in the light would have inherited from her had she died childless. A following small selection of verses from the Quran lay down My question is why this pressure does not function when the the foundations of the Islamic/official law of patrimony in same women go to courts against their husband for divorce and Pakistan. then theirs are two-thirds of the heritage. Whoso obeyeth Allah and famous love epics of the Punjab. central assumption of this paper to state once more is that and if they be brethren. This is in-spite of and official (ideal) should not be so big that it is impossible to the fact that all those women who have contacted official courts bridge. custody. His messenger. And if of the marriage rules and family system of the Punjab. At the end of the same Surah. practice is that the daughters/ sisters relinquish their patrimony rights especially landed property rights by signing away their Talking about legal pluralism in countries like Pakistan is inheritance to their brothers. with a very positive response. He will make him enter Gardens underneath which rivers flow. then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance. the quantum of cases This is a theory that can account for a situation in which raising issues of inheritance and succession rights for women is different value systems of somewhat equal moral validity can operate together by accepting the norms generated with extremely low”. The rule of the state law may be taken as an fieldwork only two sisters have claimed their inheritance and ideal to be achieved in the long run. They ask thee for a pronouncement. As a demonstration he successfully aimed at the peak of a flying pigeon. I want to start with one of the most These are limits (imposed by) Allah.

e. respect and trust in the Punjab. actually the house of her brother. for example. The foundations of this new relationship are paer de juti ae puri aie te palaie neh te badal laie”) laid down by the sister’s brother in the form of sweats. This is a person who is actually robbing that (sex of the already start crying or at least get moisture in their eyes when this topic is mentioned. asked to perform a challenging job that could include things particularly sons. If sisters have marriages. etc. on the one hand. Thus. This relationship between sister’s brother and her husband is very In contrast the relationship of sisters and brothers is of love. The other most loveable relationship in the think this love epic shows the ideals of the Punjabi kinship. the wives of brothers destroys the family which is ideally joint and extended. particularly the grandmothers.e. i. using crackers for making noises. otherwise she goes back to her parents’ house.e. for example. though Islamabad I asked female students as to who among them parents are more worried if their sons do not get children. i. through their wives. Bhaji is not the whole gift exchange but the sweats years. in folk wedding sister) what the Punjabi brothers protect even at the cost of their songs like: Dhian taee dhan praya be bawla tun piayar kiyun lives. The wife similarly fears of their own. classes at the Quid-i-Azam University. relating to economic status. A wife is considered an outsider who comes and quarrels or difficulties with their husbands. The issue of the daughter’s enemy. She therefore does not want her sons These sweats are meant for distribution in the sharika. These are the sweats a woman brings from her parent establish an independent household. This is face the same. The maternal grandparents. There are similar songs of biradari are of equality. being divorced and robbed of her dowry including the costly golden jewellery. Both parties exaggerate in translated as ‘sweats’ and Vartan as ‘distribution’ or ‘dealing’. Only by becoming ceremony. hawaili and thara. the village that the men of honour and prestige spend little Thus women in the Punjab loose their sharika (biradari) after time at home with their women folk. They come to their marriage and become a part of their husband’s sharika. education. particularly of sons. The one time and divorce’) and woman is often compared to shoes which brothers. Thus. which is actually also her sharika. In case parents start preparations for their daughter’s departure. i. average ranged between zero and one among ten female students. Sahiban’s love for her brothers of these might be ideals but they shape the nature of Punjabi society. In the worst case the relation of husband One could also argue from a different point of view that the and wife is said to be a three words relation (‘divorce. for her in-laws. far away from toys and joys’).e. before they are given the hand of the That the relation of brother and sister decides the nature of the bride. All the social networks are used to reach the truth. This may be observed at the time of marriage becoming wives in the Western sense. the whole you fell in love them oh father’). i. Thus.e. This is a very age. From daughters/sisters the women directly the groom and the family of the bride is of antagonism and become mothers – consanguine relatives . or a challenge in riding. I that to her brother. become sharik (enemy) in the one wears if they fit. drums. If the husband dies. etc. matters. patrilineage at the extreme end i. Vartan Bhaji consists of two words: Bhaji is usually marriage are also full of mistrust. Punjabi kinship system is of mammon i. Much head of all the arrows. the was a ‘marriage by rob’. fraternity hence of competition that daughter’s complains of married of to places far away from eventually turns into enmity. The relation of Vartan Bhaji the homes of their father and brothers: Bawal da baira shad . joint family of her sons. The groom’s party enters the village of the bride mothers. it is a common value in patrilineage of her husband. solving a puzzle. saying. right after their birth. Women even after their marriage call their natal sakyan bhayan (‘the alien come into the house and make the villages and families as their ‘real’ (sada pend or sada ghar) brother fight each other’). Original Punjabi saying goes: “Aurat te form of their sons. would demand her share of the patrimony? The response especially male. Paradoxically though daughters and sisters are called when Punjabis introduce somebody as ‘our guest’ (prouhna). are In several M. mother’s brother. like shooting at a difficult aim. Punjabi family and society is also evident from the system of gift exchange called Vartan Bhaji in ethnographic literature on the Marriage negotiations that take place before the actual Punjab.without ever mistrust. The groom and his people could be woman will be kept in that household only if she has children. no biradari or sharika places like dera. elaborate system of gift exchange that Eglar called ‘dealing in This mistrust continues after the marriage. famous for their love of the children of their daughters. The closest relationship for a woman in the Punjab is overtook her love for Mirza or even love of her own life. try to disintegrate the house.e. at least the first relationships’. Sc. The sisters in the Punjab continue to dominate the The daughters continue affecting the life in the houses of their houses of their fathers and brothers long after their brothers at least as long as their parents live. women get their place in the shooting in the air. goes a most important guest for any Punjabi family. ‘guests’ (prouhnian) at the homes of their parents. The relation between the family of villages and houses. combined ‘dealing in or distribution of sweats’. 34 Research Articles for CSS Essay Topics Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 tired and they stopped for a rest where Mirza fell asleep. the sister’s husband is the person turns into wax for daughters and sisters’. patrilateral aina paya be bawla (‘Daughters belong to the others why did parallel cousins. The Bhaji relationships between brothers. The term for wife’s brother is sala which is actually also departure is so emotionally charged in the Punjab that people an abuse. divorce women actually lay the foundation of the sharika. to be intimate with their wives. As ke wieran tu door challi … (‘Going for away from the courtyard soon as Sahiba saw her brothers approaching she broke the of the father and brothers. riding cars resembling an attack on the village as if it Now a woman can hardly be divorced. of any trouble for the sister or daughter he becomes the worst marriage. beating household of their husbands. This is homes only for short whiles and even eat preferably at men’s why people say that women have no zat. obedience. ‘The most cruel ambivalent. This is most clearly the case in exchange expressed in proverbs like: Ooan prayan jayan laraon marriages. The mother-in-law fears that the bride wants to only. As a matter of fact. they mean that he is their sister’s or daughter’s husband.

the traditional rights of the daughters/sisters in Men acquire the skills and sensibilities which make them the Punjab are compatible with their position and role in the acceptable to their fellows. Thus. however. no traffic in sight set my foot to cross the street. In other beyond the financial powers of even the biggest and richest words if a women claims her part of inheritance she will have organizations within society. This. The loyalty to the words she becomes a brother instead of a sister. glass. definitely move only at a slow pace. a result has made the informal socialisation by the family and However. The women return to the family of their production and reproduction of men outside the local intimate parents/brothers in case of the death of their husbands in unit” furthermore this exo-socialization is “universal. I said to become ‘daughters’ of the brothers after the death of have observed with amusement people washing their plastic the parents. and then transferred to daughter-in-laws. What she has to sacrifice against indispensable and expensive. husband and sons. Her parents and brothers bring inorganic. rule of law in Germany from my fieldwork experiences there. sometimes strengthen the check). smokers in non-smoking zones “Nichtraucher” wives but is dealt with by their mother. The sisters are know even minor details about the contents of one’s garbage. This educational infrastructure is large. I looked first right then left and having found enemies in the form of cousins. The most celebrated occasion is the marriage of the garbage is sorted into different categories like organic. The best examples daughter the parents go loaded with gifts for the whole come from the household waste management. i. This is particularly important for her in a society where women can be divorced without any claim on the property of This education that Gellner has named ‘exo-socialization’ is “the their husbands. father or brothers (no smoking). or bicyclists going astray to the pedestrian themselves. birth of sons. by being handed of the daughter in the property of her father. without societies. Depositing the garbage into the wrong container or first daughter. etc. Astonishingly some two in short every time the daughter/sister visits her family. compost. and families living in what is known as nankishak and which covers almost the different apartments of a building share common garbage biggest part of the bride’s dowry especially the marriage of containers. such as the big industrial to do it at the cost of her relationship with her stem family. brothers. kinsman is superseded by the loyalty to the state. or later on the sad occasions of parents’ deaths. marriages of brothers. and generic” and is “now the norm” in industrial examples and possibilities of women to live alone. wives. and which make them ‘what they are’. linked the state and culture which as men who are her fathers. Punjabis say that brothers are never garbage before throwing it into garbage containers. for example. The focus of the socialization here is making law of Pakistan. This short introduction and discussion I believe should enable Let us go back to the case of Germany to see the impact of state us to better understand the problems relating to the rule of socialization. It is my over by their kin groups (normally nowadays. their as she approached the old man who could barely hear but circumcision. case the couple was still childless. In other socialization that has been mentioned above. of course their assumption that the daughters do not claim their nuclear family) to an educational machine which alone is official/Islamic share in the property of their capable of providing the wide range of training required for the fathers/brothers because what they have to give up is more generic cultural base. cried somebody from the group. “Rooot! (Red!). This starts already from . meters free space on the right side was available as well as over a meter on the left side of the bicycle path. In his view: In my view. They also bring gifts for their sisters-in-law is achieved through state run formal education in industrial and brothers’ children but they receive many times more. an expression which can be translated as man walking on a bicycle path. paper. A young lady came riding a ‘giving to the daughter’. Household family. a woman who claims her legal/Islamic share of her open society identical or insignificant compared to the exo- parental property decides for such a fate for her. She rang the bicycle bell constantly and started shouting festivals (Eids). This does not mean sisters ‘homogeneity’ of views or what Geertz has called ‘civil sentiment’ do not give gifts. On occasions such as religious bicycle.e. Here lies the crux: Wives are strangers between the brothers A small group of pedestrians waited on a red traffic signal when and due to competition and mistrust the brothers become I reached the spot. 35 Research Articles for CSS Essay Topics Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 between brothers and biradari brothers are dealt with by the The rule of law in Germany: Some observations women. i. There are hardly any standardized. Once I witnessed an old called Thehi Tehan. corporations. The State/Islamic law reserves the share society. The lady stopped and Every time there is a celebration in the family of the married insisted upon the privilege of her bicycle lane. Gellner called this state of affairs in the industrial society ‘the Mumluk The next section brings a brief sketch of the prevalence of the conditions becoming universal’. Its maintenance seems to be quite her legal share is her relationship to the natal family. The gifts which the sisters/daughters get are portion: “Fussgaengerweg!” (footpath!).e. which fit them to assume places in family and society. When the brothers establish their own garbage not sorted out leads to a number of disputes. you often hear people shouting Bhaji with sisters/daughters is. not operated by the at. in his views. children of the daughter. Hence all brothers are like fathers and Gellner provided us a detailed account of how a relative therefore they give Theh Thehan. children independent individuals in life. societies. younger than their sisters and that the elder brothers are like fathers to them. This was by no means an Married sisters also get their share of the Bhaji that their exception (in the sense that I was a foreigner though that might brothers’ wives bring from their brothers’ or fathers’ houses. than what they would get. Shocking independent households or when the parents are dead the for many will undoubtedly be the revelation that the neighbours role of father is taken over by the brothers.

the ancient origin. In most of the private schools for powerful. Most of the government-run schools still highest level in the area. courts. One might hear one of the parents. In the social context of unity of law which is achieved in the form of state law. appear to be teaching as if in the middle.). The informal local individualism. is known as Swara or Vanni and is an age-old practice in the tribal areas of North West Frontier Province. as is and where it is against their values. can divide these forms of socialisations in Pakistan into two Exceptional is perhaps that the Supreme Court of Pakistan took a main categories. According to the report a famous kinship system. In sharp contrast to industrial societies like Germany.is almost absent in police declaring that their daughters have been abducted. And practiced law in Pakistan could be safely said to be the Jirgas/panchayats are everywhere – in a literal sense. i. killed (in so never complete and there is always a degree of prevalence called ‘honor killings’). and was its ban effective? According to the local custom the consent of Discussion and Conclusion women is not sought for their marriages. Many couples independence. Women who arrange their own marriages are with the help of a case study of daughter’s patrimony in the considered almost whores. aged and respectable personalities. The interesting aspect of this case was that a Member of the National Assembly. want to ban Swara. They register cases with the defined and well known laws – state law . except when sometimes the women are then Pakistan falls in the very low degree of prevalence ready to go back to their families and declare in the court that category of the rule of law countries. The decision of the court government/quasi government jobs. Similarly the The giving of girls in marriage to end blood feuds. The meetings of the Jirgas/Panchayats seem to follow the colonial agenda of producing clerks. The government of Pakistan may phenomenon is not limited to the daughter’s patrimony alone. peer groups. etc. and the formal. whenever customary law. kinships. decisions of the courts very often remain different from the prevalent customary practices. The next day there was a private/public educational institutions {religious schools “province wide crackdown against the jirgas by the police”. and the families of such women loose all honor and Punjab. be given in marriage to the aggrieved family. peers and the society at large . 36 Research Articles for CSS Essay Topics Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 the birth on. official law if differentiation and cleavage rather than homogeneity. both in terms of style and content. Moreover. Babies get their own beds. or the like. the Supreme Court cannot Pakistan is legally plural having state law. kinship. etc. The rule of law if defined as dominance of the well respect among fellow villagers. study what did the Supreme Court of Pakistan ban. socialisation furthermore differs from group to group and Nothing against them but since they are not according to the local values hence they remain rather an empty slogan. People learn to live independently and are not have been killed in-spite of the verdicts of the superior courts. Pakistan for the reverse in case of the so called love marriages. This vacuum is filled by the state through Jirga (council of village elders) in Sindh met to decide an old socialization that we called formal socialization (schools. formal discussion with these parties. and most of their decisions are compromises arrived at after ages. there the District Mayor and the Tehsil Mayors (all of them are are several different forms of socialisations prevailing supposed to represent the state and uphold the state law) were simultaneously in post-colonial societies like Pakistan. This unimplemented in Pakistan. influential.is markedly different under ‘laboratory conditions’ following the western values of from formal or state socialisation. We wrote in the case of daughter’s share in five people meet to decide something this is a panchayat/jirga. The are made on the request or by the consent of the parties involved madaris. Such marriages are conducted in secret. This is by no means an exceptional case. region to region. but enjoys the . further. The dominantly either fixed permanent members or written proceedings. without and Islamic law being practiced here. such practices. cancelled the verdict of the jirga. it is found in many other fields too. parallel system. It is a duty at one level and a prerogative at another of the family or parents to marry This article discussed the rule of law problems in Pakistan off their children. imparted at the that it was an illegal. when they are found. The families of the women are ready to are considered those where partners have maximum go to any length for acting upon their custom. private and government run school systems}. suo motu action. blood feud. mostly the father. Coming back to the case the case in industrial society. and government schools . disintegrates the family and destroys and blood feuds in Pakistan. Furthermore. universal human rights. In the example. bedrooms. toys. and honor killings. madrasa. (madaris). i. the patrimony that the theory of the official law is very Besides that. We members of this jirga. The decisions of these panchayats/jirgas in my view reflect the school education is acquired primarily to secure values/traditions/culture of the people. and declared society as large. if parents are ready to marry off their daughter to somebody without her consent. informal (family. As a whole we could say that the main characteristics of education in Pakistan are cultural The fact is that people do not accept laws. women right. Daily newspapers frequently After reaching 18 years of age the pressure starts growing to report stories relating to the marriages where the customary leave the parents’ house and those who do not manage it in practices still prevail despite ruling of the Supreme Court of time may be called Muttersöhnchen (‘weaklings’). This socialisation Another important area to mention is related to honor killings produces individuals. usually of education imparted at the different formal institutions . The panchayats/jirgas are headed by diversified in nature.that which West and which as Moore wrote “examine one distinct dispute may be considered ‘real’ socialization . The rule of law requires their absence resulted from abduction. ready to give up their independence. There is no universal education in Pakistan. the medium of instruction is English and the above case the jirga included political leaders from almost the syllabus is imported. These Pakistan and if defined as a state of affairs which is almost couples are hunted down and. The socialisation in the is made keeping in view the laws which have their origin in the families. etc. private schools.e. Vanni.is very Sindh and Balochistan. jirgas are constituted informally. customary law prevent it. In its verdict the jirga ordered some innocent girls to Universities) that is rational even scientific. saying ‘was sucht er hier noch’ (‘what is he doing here’)? The We know from other enumerable cases that the court verdicts successful partnerships or marriages now a days in Germany have almost no validity.e.

For the start the first most important step and some women’s organizations. computers. (To deliver message) 14.“ Fal Yaboodu “ means ? They should worship (Surah 3. The change of system is best achieved if the forcefully to reach the rule of law. The society at large still is to make the base of the state laws polycentric and plural so approves the traditional customs.U. Banu Thaqeef was located in? Taif 5. SUA. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhind was born at? Sirhind which he neither displeased nor prohibited 2. Anjuman-e-Himayat Islami was established in? 1884 12. 20. Which wives Hazrat Muhammad (P. 37 Solved Past Papers Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 support of only a small section of the society. NASR ? Battle against Musailma Kazaab in the reign of Abu Animals of Hazrat Sulaiman (A.B.BU.A 10. etc. less than cultural logic of this practice. Slatul Istasqa is the prayer for? Rain 16. It takes a long time to change the kinship and social holds culture for old. Last Ghazwa of the Holy Prophet (P.H) was? 19. “Fee. Surah Ghafiroon is the second name of which Surah ? Surah Ghazwah-e-Tabuk Mumin 9. should be done? The views about the lack of the rule of state Legal pluralism means acknowledging the plural base. socialization of the people and taking care of their social and equity. Four Sacred Islamic months? Dhil Qaad. Hadith-e-Taqriri means? Something done by MCQs of CSS Pakistan Affairs Paper 2015 Companion in front of The Holy Prophet(P. we have to bring about a change in the social and kinship This group considers culture only relevant as a hurdle and system. They health securities which are at present performed by the kinship further believe that the state needs to implement laws and social system. The Holy Book bestowed upon Hazrat Essa (A.S. anti-development and system of a people. We have already technical reasons. the occupiers took charge of hurdle is the gap between the state laws and the culture – education and transformed schools into transmitters of the following the old wisdom where there is a will there is a way. Amin ul Ummat is the name given to which Sahabi? Hazrat 2.e. Jadul Anbia is the name given to which Prophet?Hazrat 1.A 8. The change in the kinship and social system can the state law as theoretically the only law in its present be achieved if the state takes over responsibilities like nature following the ideals of the universal values of justice. The total number of Prime Ministers till 1958 ? Seven 11. anthropologist who see the main problems of the rule of law Krygier and Mason wrote that about Germany and Japan: in the difference between the state laws and the local customs. 1.Jeedahaa” means? Around her neck (Surah 3. In my view this system developed over a long anti-modernization therefore at best needs to be removed.S) Bakr R. basic human rights. If we want to change this custom required personals like judges. that local culture is accommodated. Sermon of Hajj is delivered in ? Masjid Nimrah 18. fairness. conservative. Masjid Nimrah is located in? Arafat. It is important that the local culture is treated at par with the official law. Ideology means? Science of Ideas Quraish) 4. shown with the example of the traditional practice relating to They believe main problem is the lack of technical facilities daughter’s share in the patrimony that there is an internal which includes lack of courts rooms. circumstances. The lack of technical facilities is important but the main “In post-war Germany and Japan. Who compiled Quran in the era of Abu Bakar Siddique ? Abu Ubaidah Bin Jarrah Zaid bin Thabit 15. YAU’Q. “An-Nafsaat” means? Women who blow (Surah . primarily NGOs gap between the two. attitudes that the Germans and Japanese would need in order to In the long term we need to change both the official law and sustain and give substance to the new institutions being built.H). YAGHOOS. What is Sahihain? Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari Lahab) 4.B. Makkah 17.Yammah was fought against ? and in the reign of? 7. My view is that The important question to conclude the discussion is what social engineering is most effective if done in piecemeal manners. defining law in Pakistan could be summed up in two groups: different sub-fields and giving them some autonomy for First group is of the view that lack of the rule of law is due to following the culturally suitable practices. police. What are WUD .” the customary practices to minimize if not totally bridge the Solved Past Papers Solved MCQs of CSS Compulsory Papers 2015 MCQs of CSS Islamic Studies Paper 2015 Falaq) 13. This group consists of mainly the jurists.H) fathered Muharram and Rajab offspring? Hazrat Khadija R. Dhil Hajj. The literal meaning of “Wahi” is? Peghaam Ponhchana Ibrahim A. period of time and is suitable to the prevailing local This group prefers continuity of the present state of affairs i. women rights. Jang-e. state takes into her hands the education of it citizen which has to be uniform and universal as was mentioned by Gellner in the The second group consists of social scientists mainly case of industrially developed societies mostly of the West.U.S)? Injeel 6. and their low salaries.

Genes in higher organism are located in: Chromosome. The largest concrete dam in the world? Grand Coluee 12. The solid and liquid can be separated by the process of: Syed Ahmed Khan Filtration. The fuel used in rockets is: Liquid Methane. The change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving India and Pakistan? Lord Mount Batten. Operation Desert Shield was launched by US to defend 17. Gall bladder is part of which system: Digestive. Protein content of edible part of egg is: 12% Dam(It is the Dam on the Columbia River in the U. Imminent: Impending 9. The source of energy for brain is: Ketones. Chemical name of Table Salt is: Sodium Chloride. 1954) 11. Galelio invented: Telescope 8. 3. Friction can be reduced by changing from: Sliding to 5. The composition of Sun is: 90% Hydrogen and 10% (1958 ) Helium. Islam means to? Obey 18. 1. Clumsy: Dexterous rolling 6. Which material conducts heat and electricity: Metal. 1947 India 8. Fiduciary: Trustee 12. The infrared radiation from sun are strongly absorbed by: 7. 17. 11. Weather. Who wanted to become the joint Governor General of both 3. Astute: Shrewd Particles 4. Lauded: Disparage . 2. Rational interests persuaded by individual causing ANTONYMS: collective destruction is called tragedy of: Common 1. Afghanistan MCQs of CSS English Composition & Precis Paper 2015 6. Humidity depends upon: (Temperature. 10. 5. was assassinated in the age of: 39 21. relative to its source is called: Doppler’s Shift. Irregular: Prevailing 16. Flagrant: Glaring 8. All of these) 3. 4. What is disease? A disorder of structure or function in Washington) a body. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan retired as a Judge in? 1876 impair a person’s ability to perform every day. Book of Kings commonly known as “Shahnama” was 6. 2. How Asthma is provoked? (i) Combination of genetic Qasim invasion ? Alore (the medieval name of the city of and environmental factors (ii) Allergy (iii) Genetics Rohri ) 15. E and K. What was the Capital of Sindh during Mohammad Bin 14. Fat soluble vitamins are: A. Latitude of a place expresses its regular position relative to: 6. 13. Who was the First Student of Deoband? Maulana 6. 12. Operation Gibraltar resulted into which war: Pakistan- 11th August. D. International Peace Day is celebrated since:1982 20. Poignant: Intense world peace is called: Hegemonic Stability 10. Which finest filament grows from skin: Hair. All 15. Who dissolved the first constituent assembly of Pakistan? 10. The largest part of Hydrosphere: Pacific 4. World Water Day is celebrated every year on: 22 March 1. Metal used to galvanize iron is called: Zinc 5. Prognosis: Prediction 11. Mangla Dam is situated in which province? Azad Kashmir 4. "The Reconstruction of Religious Thoughts" in Islam is 2. For water purification Alum is used to remove: Mud 3. Milk is pasteurized because: To kill bacteria. Ozone Layer restricts: Ultraviolet Rays SYNONYMS: 7. Arthritis is: (i) A condition that affects joints (ii) Is Mahmoodul-Hasan more common among adults (iii) A disease that can 14. (Mirpur District) 5. Philandering: None of these (Unfaithful) 13. The ready source of energy for athletes is: Carbohydrates. state of 13. 18. Averse: Reluctant 10. When did the First Constituent Assembly of Pakistan Water bodies address? 20. The thinking part of brain is: Cerebrum. 19. low lying land adjacent to an ocean: Costal 9. 38 Solved Past Papers Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 5.S. Pungent: Sharp written by: Firdaus Tausi 7. Important: Trivial Location. Galileo discovered that falling bodies have same: written by? Allama Iqbal Acceleration. Contingent: Conditional 14. 16. Operation Enduring Freedom was launched by US in: 22. Who was presiding the meeting of Muslim League when it (Source: CSS Forum) was decided that Muslim League will established? Nawab MCQs of CSS Everyday Science 2015 Waqar ul Mulk 1. Dengue is caused by: Family of viruses that are Declaration? Lal Bahadur Shastri transmitted by mosquitoes. Who was the PM of India at the time of Tashkent 7. Altah Hussain Hali has written “Hayat-e-Jawaid” on? Sir 8. An area of flat. Martin Luther King Jr. Ecology Deals with: Environment 2. 24. First Martial Law was imposed by? Iskender Mirza 9. The concept that a single dominant power can maintain 9. Which country opposed Pakistan’s membership of UN? Equator Afghanistan 19. Saudi Arabia in year:1990 18. 20. Spending: Revenue 17. Accessory gland of digestive system close to duodenum is: Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad(October Pancreas. Suez Canal was nationalized by Egypt in: July 1956 19. MCQs of CSS Current Affairs Paper 2015 16. Veteran: Novice 15. Who was against Luckow Pact? None Plane.

Voucher may be : Payment bill. Which event occurred first : American War of 13. Widow’s Tears is the name of : Plant 35. Stone Age is also called : Palaeolithic Period certain time 66. Hurricane effected eastern USA in 2012 : Sandy 69. in economic affairs 79. Annuity is : Fixed payment which is paid after 65. Number of working children in confidence in another : Belief Developing countries : 250 millions 48. Wheel is a symbol of : Progress 30. Before independence Sylet was part of : Assam 60. What is viticulture: Cultivation of grapes 34. Neglect: Nourish 8. The Biggest city in Great Lakes : Chicago 52. Brazuca is the name of : Football used in FIFA 2014 84. Inca Civilization started in : South America 53. Name of Libyan King deposed by Colonel Qadaffi : King 73. Bread for world is organization is located in : Washington 40. Pedagogy is the science of : Education 27. Longitude zero degree crossing Greenwich : Meridian information & experience : Learning 5. Yangtze River passes from : only China : Copernicus 24. Parliament of Denmark : Folketing Picot Agreement 82. Which statement is false : “Constitution conventions Ethiopia and Somalia. Thomas Cup is associated with : Badminton 20. Action based on the action's adherence to a universal rule or 6. What is meant by EQUINOX : Day and night are equal 33. Which statement is false : “Legislation is inferior to Cooperation) : Singapore judiciary” 54. Praise: Censure 9. Which country is located in Levant Region : Syria condition 57.8 km stars 59. According to ILO index. Confuse: Lucid PMS General Knowledge Paper 2014 1. The mental act. 43. Southern Cross which is a constellation consists of : 5 58. Decibel is the unit of : Intensity of Sound more than: 09 hours per day and 48 hours per week. Who invented Bicycle : Kirkpatrick Macmillan 31.C . Iran. Economic crisis of 1930s originated in : USA 16. TOTAL AREA of Australia? 7. 18. Cowardly: Bravely 10.024 km 32. _____ pointer arises when address of a deleted object is used 11. The largest state by electorates in the United States region 62. Bank receipt and 70.Bastille Day is celebrated in Which country? France : Dangling 12. Stock Indices of Tokyo are known by : Nikki 64. ASEAN was formed in : 1967 19. Mobile phone uses: Radio Waves 44. Which scientist is known as father of astronomy 23. Kalahari Desert is situated in : Botswana govt. Literally the word ethics stands for : Study of Morality 8. Countries included in “Horn of Africa” : Eritrea. The Arab League was formed in : Cairo 80. 81. Djibouti. Father of French revolution : Jacques Rousseau 21. the Bastille Day is celebrated on : 14 July is : California 63.692. it is called : Bearish 2. Which vitamin is received from sunlight : Vitamin D rules : Deontology 7. Baltic State : Estonia Idris 74. The Headquarters of EFTA : Geneva 39. Treaty about fragmentation of Ottoman Empire : Sykes. Change in individual’s behaviour acquired through 4. The country having highest GDP in the world : USA 83. What is meant by “Laissez-faire” : Non-interference of 78. When stock market is going down. For how many years did Nelson Mandela remain in D. From where Arab spring started : Tunisia 68. Sui generis means : Unique 45. Labour Law of Pakistan forbids a work from adult worker 42. Rand is the currency of : South Africa 46. The famous painting sunflower was made by : Van Gogh 15. Parliament of which country is called as Diet : Japan Wages list 71. are not binding upon anyone” 55. Divine Comedy was written by : Dante Alighieri 22. In France. Yasser Arafat was died in : 11 November 2004 51. condition or habit of placing trust or 9. The headquarters of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic 17. The largest ethnic group not having a separate state :kurd 47. One Megabyte is equal to : 1000000 bytes 28. 39 Solved Past Papers Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 7. Which Article of Constitution 1973 forbids slavery: Article prison : 27 years 11 41. Baikal Lake is situated in : Russia 77. In 1774 Oxygen was discovered by : Priestley 26. First Asian Secretary General of UN : U Thant 38. Currency of Portugal : Euro 37. The hottest planet is : Venus 10. The Author of “New Deal” was : president Roosevelt 36. East of Eden written by : John Steinbeck independence 14. Restitutio ad Integrum : Restoration to original 56. The “Swaythling Cup” is related to : Table Tennis 25. Straits of Hormuz : Oman. Length of Great Wall of China : 8851. UAE 50. Hobson’s choice : No choice at all 67. Which sea is located in Central Asia : Aral Sea : Oliver Goldsmith 76. Euphonious is the opposite of : Strident 61. "Where wealth accumulates and men decay is quote by" 75. The element required for solar energy conversion : Silicon 3. Kyoto Protocol talks about : Pollution 72. Maple Leaf is the national emblem of : Canada 29. Servile is opposite of : haughty 49.

The price of gold as well as silver ____ risen: Has. ‘Aeroflot’ is the airline of: Russia. Which country is called the ‘Cockpit of Europe’: Belgium. 8. 1. “Diet”: Japan. 6. The Defence Secretary of United States is: James Mattis. the brave 30. 5. Although the Rajput army was outnumbered. The European Parliament granted GSP Plus status to Fill in the blanks with suitable phrase Pakistan on: December 12. Fill with appropriate preposition 42. 38. He is very popular ____ his employees: With. Math 51. A large majority of students ____ absent from the college 35. Marshal. Pakistan: Al-khalid. Name the Captain who received the latest Nishan-e- 17. Population Activities (UNFA) are at: New York. was frightened ____: At his wits end. 1000 is invested at 12% interest and interest is organization are based at Vienna. then the quantity of the water to be members of Commonwealth meet: Biannually. Name the only Chief of Staff who resigned from his post: against you: In. If you persist ____ your views. Cockpit of Europe is : Belgium 98. 37. What is new name of Leningrad : Saint Petersburg thoughts” : Shelly 90. What is the highest official rank in Air Force: Air 11. 47. Highest military award of Italy :medal of valour 100. Who created famous character of "Dracula" : Bram Stoker 91. 14. further added is: 60 litres. 18. Are you conversant ____ accounts: With.m. Greece. What is the Parliament of Denmark: Folketing. 25. Land of Seven Hills is : Rome 99. Your Son had promised to call you to USA____: Hadn’t 34. The president of Iran is: Hassan Rouhani. 9. Who heads Pakistan Navy: Admiral. The surface area of cube is 216 sq. The building was so old and dilapidated that it was Washington. the doctor. Timid by nature. Sitara-e-basalat. He is very keen ____ going abroad. For. Contours are the line connecting places having : Equal 87. 16. The host of first Olympics in 1896 was: Athens. When the post of Chairman Joint Chiefs of staff was started: 1976. Kamal Sher Khan. He was warned ____ the danger quite in time: Of. 1123.60. 19. Who designed Pakistan’s flag: Amiruddin Kidwai. for higher studies: 36. 39. the ratio of milk and water 2:1. Which of the following country’s Parliament is called he. of poverty and hunger in the world. I am sorry I have to go back ____ my promise: On. In the year 1774 Oxygen was discovered by: Priestly. Saeed ____ 31. at. 33. 41. 48. What you have done ____ no excuse: Admits 40. What is the highest military award of Italy: Medal for yesterday: Was. In human body where are flat bones: skull and chest both have flat bones Solved FPSC Assistant Director Federal Government Organization (Intelligence Bureau) Paper 2015 English 29. Who is the only Civilian Martial Administrator in the Of. his poor cousins: Looks down upon. This girl is lost ____ all sense of shame: To. Having earned a lot of money in business Mr. What is its volume: (UNO) are located at: Hague (Netherlands). 50. valor. Aeroflot is airline of : Russia 96. 32. Please open the book ____ page 10: At. America's cup is associated with which sport : Yachting 93. 26. The headquarter of European Court of Justice (ECJ) are situated at: Luxembourg. If 24. ANSA is the news agency of : Italy 95. You are not justified ____ laying the blame my door: In. What is Viticulture: Cultivation of grapes. If there is no atmosphere then colour of the sky: Black 86. The tune of National Anthem is based on: Eastern music.A Bhutto. The headquarter of the International court of Justice 52. The headquarter of all the following international 53. 2. 15. Football World Cup of 2010 won by: Spain 94. 27. In a mixture of 60 litres. country: Z. He came and sat ____ his wife and son: Between. in public life: 45. The Currency of Latvia is: Euro. 7. 46. Tegel is the international Airport of : Germany height 88. When the post of C-in-C was converted into the post of chief 10. 22. “Our sweetest songs are those which tell us about sadist 89. The headquarters of United Nations Fund for Programmes general refused to____: Give in. 2013. Which one of the following tanks is being produced in 20. is based in: 4. ‘Broadway Street’ of USA is famous for: Cinema halls. who was alone in his house of staff: 1976. Jahangir Karamat. you will turn everybody 44. not____: Habitable. “Bread for the World” institute which focuses on problems 3. The heads of Government of the countries which are this ratio is to be 1:2. Broadway Street of US is famous for : Cinema Halls 97. what will be the total amount the Nations Development Programme. White goods are: Durable materials 92. Haider: Capt. end of the year: Rs. 216 cu/ m. What is the highest non-operational Military Award: 13. If Rs. General Knowledge 49. 12. 28. 43. Send the book ____ my address: To. 40 Solved Past Papers Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 85. except: United compounded half yearly. Everybody complaining ____ corruption. 21. 23. .

78. Against whom Titu Mir waged war and succeeded: 63. On the spur of the moment___: without getting any 18. 75. To cut the Gordian knot___: to solve difficult problem 14. If 70 men can build 4 houses in 12 months. Mujahideen captured Peshawar after killing Yar 59. 56. How long would it take A to do ranks of army of Sayyed Ahmad Shaheed and caused some the work: 15/2 days. 650 per 74. how much is Y paid per week: Rs. To take bull by the horns___: to face danger What is most suitable phrase? 10. Waliullah Dehlvi. Embarrassed 5. under command of Sher Singh and was martyred along 58. In 1831. Pipe A can fill a tank in 5 minutes whereas B can fill it in 6 91. The actual name of the Akber. In the sequence 462. 68. The actual name of Ibne Sina was: Abu Ali Al-Husayn. A. Normal blood pressure of a man is: 80/120 mm Hg. how many men 90. 420. Receipt 4. 28. then 6 men of reforming Islamic culture and social order: Shah and 8 boys shall take: In 6 days. 39 : 34 93. At one’s beck and call___: at one’s service 11. 94. 720 minutes. Who sent French general against the Mujahideen: per cent of 200. square root. 31. Which of the following statements is false about vitamins: 95. Voracious___: greedy . name of the sufi and saint: Hazrat Mujadad Alif Sani. X stands for: 342. How long it will take both pipes. 100. Musa Bin Nusair was Governor of: Africa. 79. working AD) together to fill it: 30/11 minutes. B can do it in 6 days 84. Sarhandi. Muhammad Khan in: 1830. 92. If 3 men and 6 boys can do a work in 20 days. Al-andulus was conquered by the Arabs in: 711 AD. Hazrat Mujadad Alif Sani was a saint and mystic of the: men. 96. To win laurels___: to win an honour 1. FPSC Inspector ASF (Airport Security Force) Paper 2015) English 9. how many men Karishana and Kaliprasanna Mukerjee. When there is a decrease in the concentration of oxygen in week by their employer. A or B be 20% and 10% respectively. 64. 73. At this juncture who took the task 67. Berbers belonged to: Morocco. What is it: 2. Science 71. Which of the following is body builder: Proteins. If 40 men build 4 buildings in 12 months. Satellite 6. To pay ducks and drakes with money___: to squander 16. To hit below the belt___: to make an unfair attack Select the alternative 7. 61. If 50 men can do a piece of work in 8 days. of Muslims deteriorated. 99. Gibraitar is named after: Tariq Bin Ziad. the rate of breathing: Increases. 66. 41 Solved Past Papers Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 54. 97. What will be the new ratio: group. Ten per cent of twenty plus twenty per cent of ten equals: 2 83. 250. it gives energy. Two trailes X and Y are are paid a total of Rs. Which one of the following figures will generate a cone 76. 33. Rana takes leave then and Soban work Pakistan Affairs for eight more days to complete the job. B and C can do a work in 2 days. Syed Ahmad Shaheed came in to war against Sikh Rana take to complete the entire job alone: 10 days. ‘Rh factor’ is related with: blood transfusion. would be required to build 6 houses in 4 months: 180 86. The square roof of the cube of this number is the cube of its with his many companions at: Balakot. Against one’s grain___: against one’s nature Tick the correct spelling 2. when rotated about one of its straight edges: A right 77. 7. harmful radiations: Lungs. 306. 65. 57. how many men would 87. It is not 1 and it is less than 6. After Aurangzaib’s death the political and religious affairs scale is: 310. X. will finish it in 10 days: 16 men. Pertinent___: relevant time to think 19. what was the be required to dig 6 holes in 4 months: 360 men. Vacuum in a bold manner 15. How long would 81. the Mughal emperor was: 72. how many men 88. 36. The function of pacemaker is: Initiation of heartbeat. The real name of Mujadad Alif Sani was: Sheikh Ahmad will finish it in 10 days: 12 men.triangle. 85. carbohydrates: Starch and sugar. If 20 men can do a piece of work in 8 days. 70. how many men leader. Ranjeet Singh. Iqbal paid great tribute to a sufi and saint. O. 80. Ranjeet Singh tried to create disturbances anomg the and C can do it in 5 days. Rana and Soban work together on a job for four days and complete 60% of it. Which of the following groups of compounds constitute Jalal-ul-din Muhammad. angled. If X is paid 120 percent of the sum the blood. 60. When five prayers become farz: 11 Nabvi. The normal temperature of human body on the Kelvin 89. he: Can be given blood of AB. If a patient has blood group AB and needs blood If the percentage increase in the number of boys and girls transfusion. Shah Waliullah Muhadis Dhelvi was born in: 1703. A dark house___: an unknown genious 13. Bimirstan means: Hospital. Exorbitant___: Excessive 8. would be required to build 6 house in 4 months: 315 men. If 80 men dug 4 holes in 12 months. Islamiyat 69. 82. Daunt___: overpower money 17. Hazrat Umar Bin Abdul Aziz died on: None (February. Naqshbandi order. paid to Y. leaders to quit his party who were the leader: Pathan 62. The smallest blood vessel is called: Capillary. Which of the following human organs is less susceptible to 98. Abu Nasir Muhammad Al Farabi belongs to: Turks. The ratio of the number of boys and girls in a college is 7:8. 380. Deceive 3. Bad blood___: ill feeling 12. 21:22. 55.

What Annual payment will discharge a debt of Rs.5 46. How many Sahaba were martyred in battle of Badar? rectangular plot on the inside. The first foreigner to receive Bharat Ratna was___: 59.it will amount was___: July6. The rectangle? ___: 54 feet km 70. 330 Math Science 51. 500 Each installment be? ___: Rs. Find the positive square root of 2025. The date of operation of first open heart surgery in India in 5 years . A hydrophone is: ___: An instrument to detect sound with the same interest rate. how many of the sky___: Black Were wrong. 2550 to be paid back with compound 500are sounded interest at the rate of 4% Simultaneously. If the area of a rectangular plot increases by 30% while its chiefly because these breadth remains. Thompson Installment? ___: none of these 27.000. 33. Uganda Find the total cost of the construction. A boy deposited Rs. Green which is located in___: England : ___: 13 38. If a sum on compound interest three times in 4 years. Percentage loss? ___: 14% Petersburg 64. 41. Merruit 3440 Islamiat 60. A man borrows Rs 12500 at 20% compound interest. The best way to tackle local environmental problem is ___: none of these to___: provide environmental 58. ___: data 34. ___: 15 23. A typist uses a sheet measuring 2ocm by 30cm lengthwise. ASEAN was formed in: ___: 1967 What is the amount at the 50. 200. Remorse___: repentance 54. under water The sum will become 27 times in: ___: 12 years 72. then 71. A boy had twice as many sums wrong as right.25 prize for___: peace 55. 2500 which he was bought for 39. Masjid Zu Qiblatain is situated in___: Madina 62.001 45. what is his %? Politician? ___: Abdur Rehman Bin Khaldun Loss? ___: 64% 40. The committee of the Norwegian parliament awards the 5% compound interest? ___: Rs. The conservation hawks and owls is important to mankind 57. Find the interest on Rs. The first Winter Olympic Games were held at___: Pays Rs. What will be the cost of gardening 1 meter broad boundary Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan around a rectangular plot 31 Indian Rebellion of 1857 War of independence on 10th May Having perimeter of 340 meters at the rate of Rs. then 29. The electron was first identified by___: J. 50 per square meter. Justice. Akber sold his old gun Rs. If there were no atmosphere what would be the colour of suns in all. and 53. The rate of construction is 33. Tehrir Square is situated in___: Cairo inadequate 35. River Nile originates from___: Lake Victoria series? 48. What is the new name of Leningrad? ___: St. The blood pressure of a young male human being is ___: 56. 42 Solved Past Papers Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 20. 40. 1959 To eight times itself at the same rate of interest in. 1025 General knowledge due in 2 years at the rate of 21.Thant 68. for 2 ½ years at 4% per year? 49. The voice of a mosquito is quite distinct from that of lion 52. Which of the following is the land locked country___: Rs. 2500. A man Borrows Rs.000 Sq.same birds eat___: many harmful rodents What will be the ratio of the areas of new and old figures? 28. At the 120/80 end of every year he 25. Ali sold his old car Rs. 2000 as part repayment. 43. “Our sweetest songs are those that tell us of saddest 66. 300 in the saving bank which pays an thoughts.” These words are interest of 5 ½%. which of the following Rooseveit could be the perimeter of 48. The author of the “New deal” was. 300. 1352 . 10 per from the town of___: square meter? ___: Rs.J. Which Surah of Quran has Bismillah twice___: Al Namal 63. What is the total area of Australia? ___: 7. Find the frequencies that will e heard by Per annum by the end of 2 years in two equal yearly the year: ___: 100 installments. the Bastille Day is celebrated on___: 14 July 50. A sum of money placed at compound interest doubles itself 22. Decibel is unit used for: ___: Intensity of sound Of 2 ½ years? ___: Rs. 45. He was bought it for Rs. philosopher as well as Rs. Attributed to. ___: 16 44. The 1st Asian Secretary General of United Nations was: 67. What is 2% of 400? ___: 8 ___: U. 400.___: Shelley How much interest will be get in one year? ___: 16. m. 2 meters broad pathway is to be constructed around a 32.___: Presidant 69. The first attempt in printing was made in England by___: percent of the page used for William Caxton Typing is: ___: 64 30. The musical notes having frequencies of 300. education to the local people and create If a margin of 2cm is left awareness On each side and a 3cm margin on top and bottom. ___: 7 The area of the plot is 96 sq. Which choice supply the missing figure in the following 36.891. How many will . 300. 551. One side of the rectangle is 22 feet. 24…. ‘White goods’ are___: Durable consumption goods 65. The element of an electric stove made___: nicrome years 24. Who was a Historian. 400. 37. Rs. In France. 100/100000= ? ___: 0. Binghazi is a city of___: Libya 61. 30. ___: 15 47. If he had 25 43. How much does he still Chamonix (France) owe after three such 26.000 What is his 42. The least number of complete years in which a sum of because: ___: The money put out at 20% Frequencies of two sounds differ widely compound interest will be more than doubled is: ___: 4 73.

acknowledging State sponsorship here. notwithstanding’. the two sounds differ Bin Qasim was fought on: By: ___: 1 bel ___: 28th Oct 712 75. as also ‘their circumscribed knowledge of preceding a final settlement over Kashmir. Since then. which made them ‘reject partial solutions’ when being dubbed a traitor’. Musaliama al Kazzab was: ___: False Prophet ‘nation’? : ___: Allama Iqbal 97. ‘Pakistan has been strong in rhetoric without Mumbai attack were ours but the operation wasn’t the ISI’s). . Which son of Raja Dahir embaraced Islam? ___: Jay Logitudinal wave motion Singh 76. runs the risk of history’. “History of Medieval Islam” was written by: ___: battle Sunders 84. India. The Velocity of ___: 1000 to 1026 Sound in air will be: ___: 1200 ft/second 90. wake of the Osama bin Laden raid to avert a military takeover Moving to ‘Kashmir’ as ‘Pakistan’s Jugular Vein’. Babul-ul-Islam is celebrated every year in Pakistan on: meters/second ___: 24th July 77. The Mongols defeated: ___: The Abbasids Pakistan Affairs 93. lead him to aver that of ‘lack of strategic thinking’ ‘on part of Pakistan’s soldiers and ‘any Pakistani suggesting normalization of ties with India. Without openly contains novel academic research or much anecdotal reflection. Kamal Mustafa was born in the town of: ___: Salonika Valley as for north as: ___: Multan BOOK REVIEWS I. the National goal which Rashid later came to be known as 94. He also blames India for ‘promising. seeking help of the Obama administration in the narrative. military planners’. Sulaiman. No sound can be heard in: ___: Complete vacuum 92. The impact 91. New Delhi. A tunning fork having a frequency of 300 has a espeditions in India between: wavelength of 4 ft. ambassador to Pakistan Paul Alling. Lt Gen (Retd) Kashmir’ ‘sixty years ago’. ‘proliferation of Kashmir-oriented jihadi Starting in promising vein from Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad have March 1948 ‘beach-walk confidences’ shared with then US eaten away support for Pakistan’s position internationally’. Bait-al-Hikam was established by: ___: Harun al- 81. Muhammad bin Qasim on arriving Sindh established and 99. Velocity of sound at 0C in air is approximately: ___: 332 87. Carl Brockeimann is the author of: ___: History of Pakistan? ___: Allama Iqbal Islamic People 82. Armistics between Turkey and Allies too: ___: 1919 controlled the Indus 100. What was the fate of Abdullah bin hiyan? ___: Died in 98. Haqqani talks of the civilian government in Pakistan). When a stone is dropped into a lake from the top of a tower Islamiat 400 ft high. Which of the following does not affect the reverberation 88. According to Laplace sound travel in air as: ___: 86. he magnificent invaded Vienna in: ___: None 83. appearing to have a well-considered’ plan B. ostensibly drafted by provides a broad. India vs Pakistan: Why can’t we just be friends? Husain Haqqani Juggernaut Books. offered. 2016 Apart from the rather melodramatic disclosure of former and finally cancelling a UN-organised plebiscite in Jammu and Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI) chief. persisting ‘human rights violations Ahmed Shuja Pasha admitting that “log hamare thay. Muhammad Ghauri stabbed to death in: ___: 1206 A. Haqqani operation hamara nahin thha” (the people involved in the 26/11 believes. The decisive battle between Raja Dahir and Muhammad another. Sultan Muhammad Ghaznavi carried about seventeen 78. Haqqani does which could satiate the palate of sensation mongering grudgingly admit that ‘moral or legal arguments audiences here. ‘once Kashmir Husain Haqqani’s new book on India-Pakistan relations hardly was engulfed by militancy during the 1990s’. if somewhat sketchy and selective historical Haqqani. Haqqani mentions his Perhaps his own travails in his short-lived role as Pakistan’s founding father’s lament about failure to establish ‘normal’ ambassador to the US after the `Memogate’ catastrophe in relations with India. 43 Book Reviews Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 74. His introductory chapter on why ‘we can May 2011 (a controversy revolving around a memorandum either be more than friends or become more than enemies’ addressed to Admiral Mike Mullen. then putting off. If the intensity of one sound is 10 times the intensty of 85. whose calm in 1930 made the Indian Muslims something 95. and the extensive militarization’ there. the Magnificent was an: ___: Ottoman Will be heard after how many seconds? ___: 5 Caliph 80. of how conflict evolved in both countries. The one of trusted commanders of Muhammad Bin Qasim time of a room? was: ___: Hakim Shaibani : ___: Frquency 89. 79.D. The Ottoman dynasty fell in: ___: 1924 more than a community a 96. Who set before Indian Muslims. Sulyman.

Haqqani reiterates. Throughout the 1990s. Nishan-e-Imtiaz. ‘that Pakistan must undermine India before India does to reduce its stockpile before Pakistan could reciprocate’. Today. ‘Still. foreign The author has. The writer is. The ISI’s view Pakistan’s Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs remains that ‘jihadi terrorism only counters the R&AW’s Sartaj Aziz’s March 2016 statement averring ‘India. deception and violation of us). Haqqani points out. though he cites only its English translation. by and large. that Haqqani penned this book in became a matter of pride’.119-120). Nawaz Sharif mistakenly signed off on the Misunderstanding’ (Public Affairs Books. Haqqani being an issue in the subcontinent’. He poem. Haqqani Haqqani notes that ‘in Pakistan’s case. And that in this context. ‘Tum Bilkul Hum Jaise Nikle’ (you turned out just like tellingly points out. rightly. and that no foreign policy can unfortunate event for both the countries as well as for South succeed unless it enjoys the support of the people. Pakistan’s generals remain military officer was adamant about using the nuclear option as fundamentally wedded to the idea of irregular warfare’. Foreign Affairs when Pakistan was confronted with crucial According to Kasuri. While execution by a former Pakistani Foreign Minister. the United States. he. the same to Pakistan. Pakistan enthusiasts it may be worth a read. but she had shot it down. that ‘ideologically narrates the interesting experience of an American journalist. nations to make a fresh start! (Article in The Atlantic: `A engendering lawlessness and making Pakistan ‘a potential modest proposal from the Brigadier’. it is to adapt to actual events as they Kasuri ventured into (re)starting the peace process with India. ‘constantly Presidency for life’. ‘This puts Haqqani flags ‘a bit of James Bond stuff’ wherein Pakistan’s Pakistan on the defensive instead of making it feel respected Ambassador to Germany Jamshed Marker openly reminisced and self-confident’. Pakistani Amanullah. is the biggest threat to the region and urging India exists. Military Operations (Carnegie Endowment. India) Neither a Hawk Nor a Dove-An Insider’s Account of Pakistan’s Foreign Relations including Details of the Kashmir Framework Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri. or be as Foreign Minister. ever since. he saw India as the font of all Pakistan’s problems. about Pakistan’s well known clandestine nuclear procurement Haqqani ends with an evocative reference to Fehmida Riaz’s endeavours to diplomatic correspondent. of the view that there needs to be some connection To set the context. it is unlikely that terrorism will stop Unlike scientists in other countries who avoid politics. as they ‘insist on describing Pakistani identity as not been honoured enough and should have been elevated to inherently communal’. Indians too are to was later awarded’. Kasuri is indebted to and inspired by President Musharraf appointed Kasuri to head the Ministry of Henry Kissinger (p. and dilemmas and corresponding efforts for peace since the that ‘unless Pakistan and India resolved their differences on the . During his tenure provide a shoulder for the people to cry over indignation. Calcutta (Pages 70-71) but who expected India’s motivate jihadists. reiterate the need to dispute the two-nation theory’. It is a pity. Haqqani is less certain Pakistan. 44 Book Reviews Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 Talking of Pakistan’s nuclear quest (Chapter 3). Khurshid doing so. Haqqani Haqqani does acknowledge though. As long as this belief terrorism. it is a disappointing work. While chapter. Pakistani Pakistan’s highest civilian award. The international pariah’. and termed its discontinuation as an political and economic situation. perhaps. (practices and interpretations of Koran) as a justified way to Bombay. motivated jihadi militancy is not a tap that can be turned on or Peter Landesman. many reprisal. contends. Khan told Haqqani ‘he had blame. Pakistanis realise that the country’s embrace of terror as This would result in massive deaths but enable children of both strategy has rebounded. official media encouraged discussion of Ghazwa-e-Hind’ hadith Amanullah not only wanted to nuke Indian cities – Delhi. in August 1996. joyous over hope. Benazir once told Haqqani which was justifiably predicated on his two previous that Pervez Musharraf had come to her with a similar plan in outstanding works: ‘Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military’ 1995 when he was Director General. happen or are likely to happen. haste. One hopes it Haqqani says clearly that serving Pakistani troops crossed the will not detract from his standing as an academic of repute. Rather. who came across a slightly depressed Brig off by governments at will’. sticks to the mainstream official Mahmud Kasuri (2002-07). In many ways. the objective of foreign policy is not to quandaries on multiple foreign policy fronts. ‘for Pakistanis. publically owned this as a flagship policy of a typical nation state is directly related to its domestic achievement of his tenure. has become a victim of two parallel and contending Haqqani met Dr AQ Khan when the latter was ‘aspiring for nationalisms’. endangering lives of Pakistanis. Karachi: Oxford University Press The book is a treatise of Pakistan’s foreign policy and its Partition till his assumption of office as Foreign Minister. First person narration throughout version of historic diplomatic processes (p. head of Pakistan’s Military Intelligence in Sindh. he refers to Pakistan’s identity as a separate nation’. For his the text reinforces the autobiographic intent of the writer. besides handling the post-9/11 quagmire. the India-Pakistan relationship serving as Adviser to Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in 1996. for venture or was never fully informed of its scope’. and. Line of Control in Kargil in 1999. Still. destroying Lahore and Karachi. not operations to weaken Pakistan’s ideology’. vision of foreign policy. Kasuri summarises Pakistan’s security between foreign policy objectives and ground realities. 2013).77-86). in 1999. Conflict Studies. Mariana Baabar. Under the military’s influence. To buttress his argument. treating India just as a suggests that a similar mind set still prevails among Pakistan’s neighbour has proved difficult because of India’s centrality to top security planners. according to Haqqani. Asia. 2005) and ‘Magnificent Delusions- (DGMO). which he nationalism has evolved as ‘anti-Indianism’. The chapter on ‘Terrorism = Irregular Warfare’ narrates old (By Rana Banerji: Published in Institute of Peace and facts and cites secondary data to recount known positions. March: 2002). by Shabana other countries’ laws in this nuclear quest to equal India Mir. and an Epic History of ‘whether. Pakistani nuclear scientists ‘became active Dwelling on ‘The shrinking space for Friendship’ in his last proponents of Islamic and anti-Indian state ideology’.

including Northern Areas of Pakistan and ‘despite our desire to Notwithstanding. It was good idea as long as it did not it Kashmir or Pakistan-U.155).339). Afghanistan. both in Pakistan and India. be the people of both sides. This is indeed a realistic is not acceptable to Pakistan. attended by Prime under the good offices of Turkey. provided an opportunity for holding European Union. the judgment. and Britain (pp. Thus.749-775) bilateral talks that led to the initiation of the Composite also do not disclose anything new.337). 45 Book Reviews Weekly Analysis May 4th 2017 basis of a just peace. The in a candid way by stating that there is no country in the world objective was to have Pakistan declared a terrorist state’ that has greater stake in a peaceful stable and prosperous (p. At that time. and nothing previously unknown is acceptance that it must end. they The book also details Musharraf’s much touted ‘out-of-the box have benefited. According to Kasuri. He is of the view that excessive partisanship of irrelevant. He also handles relations with Russia (pp. The related to Indo-Pak relations has often averted the two writer claims that resolution of the issue of Jammu and countries from resolving their issues. then. and whenever their relationship has been thinking’. the interests of both countries have been hurt. Kasuri is of the view that ‘there is recognition by Later. (b) of convergence and the need to maintain a truly robust accepting the centrality of Kashmir. and Saudi significant movement on the issues that were of concern to Arabia (pp.545). The CD framework with relationship with China quite elaborately (pp. He the Indian side had dug its heels that there could not be any narrates Pakistan’s relations with Turkey. and a Joint Mechanism be setup comprising elected political parties. though arriving at a solution acceptable to all the three stakeholders’ in a roller coaster manner. issue.189). which ‘Kasuri the politician’ could not afford.705-712) preparation for failure of the summit. His necessity of bipartisan support for resolving major issues narration of meeting with the Israeli Foreign Minister is between the two countries’ (p. both the matter accurately. With this objective in view. His ‘four point proposal of (a) despite difficulties Pakistan and the U.S. The Kasuri era’s unsuccessful back channel It was therefore agreed that the level of self-governance [in initiative on Kashmir did not go down well amongst the Kashmir] will be same in both sides. After charting the chronology and complexities of this and Pakistan] because of a nuclearised South Asia and their relationship. due to sensitivity of the lines which could be exploited by others’ (p. If so. The meeting took place on August 31. He terms that encounter as ‘A politically risky The 12th South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation enterprise’ (p. This imposes a great to President Musharraf for the Agra Summit.669). we decided to show that street mood and opposition parties. in 2007.K responsibility on Pakistan to do all that it can to bring about Advani’s urging. Details (p. In fact. acceptable to inhibitor of bold initiatives by the handlers of foreign policy. BJP government found it expedient to blame Pakistan The book also illustrates Pakistan’s relations with Afghanistan government out of domestic and political compulsions. of both sides. However. in a departure from its stance of not dealing with a all sides that Pakistan has the ability to help ensure a final military ruler.342). yield some flexibility on the subject’ (p. Japan. Pakistani public. Kasuri points out. he might have ventured to write this in legislative. The agreement also impelling negative influence on forward traction of India. He discusses Pakistan’s Dialogue (CD) process a month later. He suggests that.S. India and the Kashmiris.161). and (d) assessment since this relationship is destined to endure. Kasuri drives home a pertinent conclusion separate this region from the rest of J&K. revealed in the book indicate that Pakistan was well on its way Indians made it clear that any solution would include all areas to appease India without accruing worthwhile reciprocity. for the Kashmir was just round the corner. and hence non-starters. There is a chapter dedicated to The Foreign Office elaborating Kasuri under the tutelage of President Musharraf followed a the way diplomacy is conducted by Pakistan has sections on line of action that could have ended up in freezing the status ‘Media and Public Diplomacy’ and ‘Role of Personal . Iran. strategic faux pas. (c) eliminating whatever bilateral relationship’ (p. (SAARC) Summit 2004 held in Islamabad. interesting.181). borders Pakistan relations. mainly on L. Bangladesh. This failure highlighted and Gulf countries in a cursory manner (pp. on core issues members from each of the two units of Kashmir (p. were mutually contradictory. it was agreed that maximum self-governance would be granted hence. countries have engaged with each other meaningfully. inconclusive Agra Summit and attack on the Indian Parliament came as divine intervention and saved the day for Pakistan in 2001 leading to nearly a year-long deployment of over one since Congress had no interest in carrying forward the million troops on the Pakistan-India borders. both countries have developed major fault quo on Kashmir. Kasuri is of the view that ‘whenever the two interests in Afghanistan (p. The duo giving strategic concessions to While discussing the pre-normalisation process with India.119). the silk whatever peace process has or has not crawled forward since route/economic corridor. however. the Line of Control should be made circumvent. ‘the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) initiative. then the Indian side was grossly foolish not governments should break open the straitjacket imposed by to cease the moment and capitalise on the Musharraf-Kasuri domestic blow-back effects. Grand public standing in deviate from the well-established parameters. relations. His notion of setting aside the UN resolutions on strained. China-India factor etc. Pakistan has been unable to capitalise preliminary back channel for maintaining confidentiality - on its strategic importance and the gap between public away from media glare to preserve it from derailment aspiration and official foreign policy has been a perpetual attempts. 2005. are likely to find areas initiating a dialogue. the change of government in India. The idea was to hammer out a draft. 705-733). If he is reporting the sake of substantial and sustainable progress. Pakistan’s relations with the Minster Vajpayee. and judicial areas to each of the units book in an attempt to clear the dust. relations When I assumed the Foreign Minister’s office. (p. he has failed. Kasuri blames ‘lack of sufficient revealed. the Pakistan is emotionally entangled in historic wrangling and details of the draft agreement reveal horrific details to the peril anyone making the effort to cut lose from this is quickly termed of Pakistan: as a sell-out. various brand names continues to be foundation stone of covering topics like provision of nuclear power plants.713-738) in the context of common religious and Pakistan unless there was sufficient emphasis on terrorism and cultural linkages.739). executive. the Americans under the caption Pakistan and the United States: ‘The Odd were working behind the scenes to ease tension [between India Couple’. Kashmir was indeed a faux pas. Prime Minister Vajpayee extended an invitation settlement or to sabotage one.675-699). which is a formidable obstacle to could not be redrawn. stipulated that J&K could not be made independent. governments of India and Pakistan decided to add a According to the author.S. India without accruing a ‘quid pro quo’ was a gross error of Kasuri narrates details about the post-Kargil tensions. that: A chapter has been dedicated to the Pakistan-U. The Summit remained inconclusive because conditions of peace and stability in Afghanistan’ (p.

and their division into chapters.470). Barring the portions of the text aimed at self- ‘correct perceptions’ amongst the people of neighbouring aggrandisement and absolvement. the writer remains adamant Kasuri dispels the impression that the Pakistan Army is an that progress achieved through backchannels should not go obstacle to peaceful relations with India and reiterates that the waste. national interests vis à vis India. This chapter fairly illustrates what driven account of his pursuit of ‘peace’ with India amply Pakistan has and has not been able to achieve through indicates his underlying guilt and repentance. The chapter offers valuable insights not wish to acknowledge. Quality editing causes irritants. relations. He is of the view that a potent National could have trimmed the volume substantially. which he does diplomacy. Islamabad Policy Research Institute overshadowed by official narratives on various aspects of (IPRI). repetitions are not infrequent.) Khalid Iqbal. ‘Army wants a just and equitable peace with India’ (p. the book fills a critical void in the literature issue (p. and is an effort to justify researchers. sections institutional culture prevalent in running the government that and sub-sections. the work is mainly focused on Pakistan. regarding Pakistan’s foreign policy and conduct of external Kasuri says that the purpose behind writing the book was to affairs. the book can serve as nations. 46 Relationship in Diplomacy’. instead of apologising into the ways this institution has evolved since Sir Zafarullah to the nation on taking such a non-serious course on core Khan’s days. Pakistan Pakistan’s diplomatic outreach. he concludes that it is the non.S. . tenure as Foreign Minister. some of the controversial decisions made during the writer’s Reviewed by Air Commodore (retd. Security Council under the Chief Executive could resolve the Notwithstanding. Since the scheme of the book is a collection of compact and About civil-military relations.486). Unfortunately. However. reference material for amateur as well as seasoned India and Pakistan-U. exhaustive essays. how and why. The 225 page long obsession. The rest is fill-up material Consultant. .

47 .

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