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Prepared/Edited by Zulqarnain Sewag

Good Governance is a Myth in Pakistan


1. Introduction
2. What is meant by Good Governance?
3. What is meant by Myth of Good Governance?
4. What are the elements of Good Governance?
Participatory good governance
Consensus oriented decisions
Following the Rules and regulations
Effective Administration
Efficient utilization of Economic Resources
Responsiveness of Government
Equity and inclusiveness
Accountability of all tiers of society
Transparency in dealing
5. State of Governance in Pakistan
(From Inception to Date)
6. Is good governance actually a myth in Pakistan?
7. How Good Governance is Myth in Pakistan?
a. Lack of righteous leadership
b. Fears for the decentralization of power
c. Collapse of administrative structure
d. Scarcity of managerial and technical skills
e. Nepotism and lack of merit system
f. Red-tapism
g. Judicial Incapacity
h. Negative role of Media

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i. Sectarianism and Militancy

j. Kitchen Cabinets
k. Absence of rule of law resulting in poor law and order situation
l. Flaws in policy making and its implementation
m. Lack of transparency in the system
n. Rise of corruption
o. Poor accountability and audit
p. Political chaos
q. Discontinuity in political regimes and involvement of army
r. Anarchy caused by non state actors
s. Institutional Tussle
t. Reactive Foreign Policy
u. Feudalism
8. Misgovernance Myth has destabilized the Country
9. Can this myth be reverted to reality?
10. Why not? Ways.
a. Attention towards economic development
b. Rule of Law
c. Delegation of power through local government system
d. Mixing technocracy and bureaucracy in Public Administration
e. Accountability of all public and private institutes on the whole as well as
at individual level
f. Glimpse of hope
11. Conclusion


Good governance is generally conceived as the exercise of economic, political

and administrative authority in the public and private sector to manage country affairs at
best to improve the quality of peoples life. Unfortunately, Pakistan lacks practice of good
governance and is dwindling towards socio-economic crisis since its inception. Honest
and diligent officials are frustrated with the cost ineffective system; populace is faced

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with political and bureaucratic system which is neither accountable nor responsive to
need; the entrepreneur is faced with set of policies which contradict each other or
counterproductive. This system has taken the shape of a system which promotes directly
or indirectly corruption, instability in all walks of national life. Resultantly, good
governance has becomes a myth. Pakistan and its constituent provinces must bring a
radical change in a way to ensure presence of good governance in all areas of life
otherwise this dark cloud of myth will become thicker and thicker.

Paragraphic Statements:

1. Introduction
2. What is meant by Good Governance?
Good Governance is generally conceived as the exercise of economic, political and
administrative authority in the public and private spheres to manage a countrys affairs at
all levels to improve the quality of life of the people.
3. What is meant by Myth of Good Governance?
4. What are the elements of Good Governance?
Good governance is composed of following elements
Participatory good governance
In a good governing state, all the influential members are on board while making
a policy.
Consensus oriented decisions
Consensus being an important factor is built up among leading and opposition
parties while taking decisions regarding the perpetuality of the state.
Rules and regulations
One of the key elements which ensure states ability to work efficiently is the
implementation of rule of law in every field of life.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Ruling bodies introduce effective reforms for development and are also efficient enough
to execute them appropriately and timely.

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Government should be readily responsive to everyones views, objections and

disasters faced by the nation.
Equity and inclusiveness
Good states ensure well being of society by paying equal attention to the every member
of state and providing him justice without any indifference.
Accountability cells are necessary to ascertain state performance up to the mark,
therefore, all the governing members should be accountable to public and important
stakeholders of the institution.
Steps taken in favor of community development should be transparent and
information regarding these steps should be easily accessible to all concerned people to
avoid corruption.
5. State of Governance in Pakistan
Pakistan has been through multiple governance crises since its inception to date
because of corrupt leadership, lack of objective based policy, accountability and
inconsistency to implement any measures.
(From Inception to Date)

6. Is good governance actually a myth in Pakistan?

Prosperity, happiness and harmony among people are a sign of good governance which is
not present among Pakistanis thats why good governance is considered as a myth in
7. How Good Governance is Myth in Pakistan?
There is plethora of reasons behind this myth of good governance in Pakistan.
a. Lack of righteous leadership behavior

Pakistan is unlucky to get a farsighted and honest leader after the death of Quaid
till now to lead it towards success.
b. Fears for the decentralization of power

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Present leadership is afraid from decentralization of power thats why

many important civilian decisions are enormously affected by non-governing
c. Collapse of administrative structure
Administrative structure in Pakistan is outdated and not revised as did by
the developed world.

d. Scarcity of managerial and technical skills

Our management system does not compete with good governed states
because of lack of management and advance technical tools and skills.
e. Nepotism and lack of merit system
Main evil behind poor governance is recruitment of people by favoritism
and nepotism against merit.
f. Red-tapism
Practice of red-tapism is common among government offices, corporations
and other large organization, which often made route of efficiency hard and
indirectly has become an important cause for the collapse of governance.
g. Judicial Incapacity
Judiciary is an important state centered institution to provide justice on
time but in current scenario this is not fulfilling its duty in provision of impartial
justice especially on the law and order issues.
h. Negative role of Media
Media is not playing its due role for pointing out flaws of systems but it is
exaggerating on unimportant issue and causing hue and cry among people which are
leading to poor governance.
i. Sectarianism and Militancy
Sectarianism and extremism are major threats to good governance as they bow the
seeds of anarchy.
j. Kitchen Cabinets
Kitchen cabinets being conceited and haughty in their aims have always
benefitted themselves on national cost.
k. Absence of rule of law resulting in poor law and order situation
Absence of rule of law in state is another reason of restlessness and chaos in state.
l. Flaws in policy making and implementation

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One of the grave issues behind poor governance is inability to form an objective
based policy and then its implementation.
m. Lack of transparency in the system
Our current system provides many paths for escape to black sheep because of
absence of transparency in system.
n. Rise of corruption
Lack of accountability and transparency is directly proportional to corruption
thats why greater the absence of accountability, more the corruption in system and more
the governance victimized.
o. Poor accountability and audit
p. Political chaos

q. Discontinuity in political regimes and involvement of army

The discontinuity of political regime of Pakistan from 1947 to till now have
between civilian institutions and military has caused a key damage to good governance.
r. Anarchy caused by non state actors
Various non-state actors are also playing malicious role in destroying political,
economical and social fabrics of state by spreading violence and fear.
s. Institutional Tussle
When institutions surpass constitution, tussle among them is generated and same
is the case of Pakistan.
t. Re-Active Foreign Policy
Pro-active and shrewd foreign policy of a country assures its success at
international fora but it has always been reactive in Pakistan due to non-visionary
u. Feudalism
8. Governing Myth has destabilized the Country
9. Can this myth be reverted to reality?
10. Why not?
a. Attention towards economic development
b. Implementation of rules and regulations

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c. Delegation of power and local government system

d. Involvement of technocracy along with bureaucracy in the public sector
organizations is the need of the hour
e. Privatization of certain departments
f. Accountability of all public and non government organizational institutes
on the whole as well as at individual level
g. Strictly following of memoranda of understanding between the aide party,
if any, and the government
11. Glimpse of hope

12. Conclusion
There is no exaggeration in it if we say that the current social, economic and
political situation of Pakistan is the result of poor governance exercised by the rulers
since her inception. The progress of a country depends upon the decision making, policy
formulation and its implementation. It is a universal rule that every political party makes
roars of introducing reforms for the betterment and prosperity of the society before
coming into power and so is the case with Pakistan. We cannot deny the fact that the
construction of the building of a country is based on the pillars of good governance and
no such pillars are available so far in Pakistan. At the same time, it is very important to
divert this myth of good governance into reality and, without any iota of doubt, it is very
much possible. Otherwise, one should be ready to face the adverse effects of such a black
governance system.

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Crisis of Good Governance in Pakistan

Good governance is a prerequisite for social harmony, public order, political stability,
economic prosperity and certainty about future. It delivers the fruit of progress and
development evenly to all and sundry. Good governance is required at all levels of
society and state.

Essentials of good governance

Promotion of national cohesion
National integration
Institutional supremacy
Independent judiciary
Constitutional supremacy
Rule of law
Political stability
Educational opportunities
Socio-economic development
Equal distribution of resources
Welfare state with provision of social securities
Strong writ of the government on all fronts

Situation of governance in Pakistan

Forces of disintegration -- stronger than forces of cohesion
Weak writ of the government
Absence of independent judiciary
No rule of law

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Political instability
Interprovincial conflicts
Unequal distribution of resources
Pakistan presenting a picture of extreme bad governance on all national fronts
What are the Causes governance crises in Pakistan
Political causes
Parliament, a toothless tiger
Political instability due to constant military interference
Issue of provincialism on revenue, resources and demand of provincial autonomy

Administrative causes
Bureaucratic hold on all institutions
Political interference on bureaucracy
Corruption, mother of all evils
Absence of culture of accountability
Mismanagement of resources
Pakistan, a soft state because of inability of implementation of policies due to lack of
Economic causes
Fragile economy - FDI shrinking on account of terrorism and political instability
Crisis of energy, food, water
Corruption from top to bottom creating burden on the government exchequer

Social causes
Poverty 40 per cent population living below the poverty line (UN reports)
Over population -18.6 crore
Illiteracy leading to socio-economic backwardness

Pakistan is in dire need of truly capable leadership
Strong anti-corruption campaigns strengthening National Accountability Bureau

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Strict accountability of all government servants in particular and common masses in

Investment in socio-economic development
Allocation of seven per cent GDP for education
Three per cent for population control
Three per cent for poverty alleviation
Generation of new employment opportunities
Equal distribution of resources
Ensuring freedom of press

Sectarianism and Extremism have put the Peace of Pakistan at Stake

What is Sectarianism?
What is meant by Extremism?
What do we mean by Peace of Pakistan?
History of Sectarianism and Extremism in Pakistan
Internal Factors
Constitutional amendment 1974
Zias Islamization Policy and conflicts between sunni and shia based Sharia laws
Formation of religious parties: Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Sipah sahaba, Tehreek-e-
Taliban Pakistan etc
The contents of teaching syllabus in schools
Fanatic behavior of orthodox Ulema

External Factors
Islamic revolution in Iran
Funding by Saudi Arabia and Iran
Soviet union , USA and Afghanistan

How Sectarianism and Radicalism have overpowered Pakistan?

Politico-religious differences
Conflicts between Non-Muslims and Muslims

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Sunni-Shia Conflicts
Conflicts between Sub Branches of Sunni i.e. Bralevi, Deoband Etc

Role of Taliban and Al-Qaeda (Main Actors)

Role of Madrassahs
Extremism is becoming social behavior
Are these the real threats to Peace of Pakistan?
How Peace is destroyed by Extremism and radicalism?
Extremism is the Root of all Evils in Society
Lack of Tolerance Among Citizens
Social Unrest
Killing of Innocent People
Socio-Economic Crisis
Fears of Civil War
Fear of Country Division on Sectarian Basis
National Disintegration
Uncertainty Among People
Loss of Trust(Deterioration of Moral values)
Poorest Law and Order Situation(Anarchy)
Fragile Economy
Political Chaos

How peace can be brought back into society?

Good Governance
Excellent Security policy and its strict implementation (Anti terrorism Laws)
Education for all
Productive Role of Media
Free, Impartial and Immediate Justice
Reforms in Madrassahas Curriculum and Working
Flawed laws and legal loopholes should be removed
Foreign Aid to Extremist group should be eradicated

Sectarianism free Pakistan and Prosperity


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Disaster Management and Government Preparedness

Introductionthesis statement
Throughout the national history of Pakistan, disasters whether they were man-
made or natural have always been least managed and have resulted in mass destruction
and general poverty due to bad governance.
What is meant by the term disaster?
What is meant by Disaster Management?
What do we mean by Govt. Preparedness?
What are the types of Disaster?
Natural Calamities
Man-made Disasters
Military Operations
Process of Disaster Management
Scientific and Effective Planning
Emergency Ration Storage
Early Warnings
How so far our govt. has fulfilled the pre-requisites of Disaster Management?
Why our respective governments have failed to lower the intensity of disasters?
Role of Disaster Management departments

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Is there need of an Impartial and Autonomous Body for Disaster Management?

Disaster management and role of
Pakistan Army
Civil Society
Is currently our Govt. Prepared to tackle any Disaster?
If yes.up to what extent
If not then why?
How she should get herself prepared?
How Western countries are better built after a disaster?
Proper disaster management and prosperous Pakistan

The Dream of Economic Self-Reliance of Pakistan

What is meant by Economic self reliance?
State of economy of Pakistan (an overview)
What are the hurdles in our way of becoming economic self reliant?
Incompetent Leadership
Low Tax to GDP
Flawed Economic Polices
Mega Corruptions
Political Instability
Agricultural Backwardness
Industrial Sluggishness
Limited FDI
Deteriorating Law and Order Situation

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Gravest Water and Energy Crises

Brain Drain
Natural Disasters
Lavish Expenditures of Govt Functionaries
What are the impacts of economic dependence?
Political Impacts
Social Impacts
Religious impacts
Cultural Impacts
Economic Impacts
Security Impacts
How to reveal the dream of Economic Self-Reliance?
Competent and Far-Sighted Leadership
Good Governance
Alienating Water and Energy Crises
Broadening Tax Base and Net
Practical Slogan of Trade not Aid
Agricultural Revolution
Progressive Industrial Sector
Encouraging FDI
Excellent law and Order Situation
Enriching the Masses in General and Technical Education
Political Shrewdness, Stability and Maturity
Disbanding Corruption
Proper Human Resource Retainment, Management and Utilization
Controlling Capital Flight
Disaster Management
Practicing Frugality by the State Functionaries
Prosperity all over if we achieve the state of Economic Self-Reliance


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In the contemporary world economy is going to be treated as a religion. The time
has gone when the superpowers were weaponry and mighty land powers. This is the era
of economic independence, self reliance and good economic governance. At this juncture
of history, those countries are superpowers which are economically independent,
sovereign and self reliant. The story behind the success of western powers, the developed
world is their economic independence and self reliance. But unfortunately, situation in
Pakistan is totally adverse. Reason is very simple, Pakistan is rich in natural resources but
poor in their management. Sixty seven years have passed since inception but none of our
system is truly organized and developed. Resultantly, we are facing countless problems in
every sphere of individual and national life. This is high time for our policy makers to
devise such policies on war basis which could make our country economic self reliant
and put it on the path of peace, progress and prosperity.

The Challenges for the New Democratic government

1. Introduction
a. Democracy defined
b. Democracy in the light of United Nations

2. Basic ingredients of Democracy

a. Participation of Public
- Free access to women to participate in electorates.
-equal rights for rural and urban populace in raising their voice for their
b. Rule of Law
-Institutions be powerful than individuals.
-deliverance of timely justice

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c. Fair and egalitarian distribution of national resources

- designing financial policies in keeping view of all the segments of
- Eradicating the wide chasm of class culture.
d. Protection to minorities
e. Independence of Judiciary and free Media
f. Smooth transfer of Power
h. Guaranteed provision of Human Rights across the Board
3. A look into the Political history of Pakistan
a. Different Era of Military Rule and Twisting Democratic governments.
b. Role of Bureaucracy and Judiciary in both Military and civilian governments
4. Current Scenario of the new Democratic government
5. Major Challenges for the new Democratic government
a. Overcome the shortage of Energy Resources
b. Re-analyze the impacts of Provincial Autonomy on the Federal Structure.
c. Re-design the share of provinces in the forthcoming NFC Award.
d. formulate the National Security policy to counter threats of terrorism .
e. Shape the Foreign Policy of Pakistan according to the Requirements of
changing regional and global issues.
f. Dealing with the threats of Separatist in Baluchistan and Sindh
g. Conducting Population and humanitarian analysis.
h. Plug the loop holes in the financial and economic Policies.
I. Make practical short and long term strategies to overcome deadly floods.
j. Crush the suspicious moves of Military interference in the Political matters.
K .Rejuvenate all the ethnic and lingual communities towards the platform of
progress and prosperity of the country
l. Improve the image of the country in the World comity.
m. The change of command in civilian and military institutions.
n. Setting up Local governments.
o. Create employment opportunities for the Youth bulge
6. Suggestions to meet the challenges

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a. Implementing the Rule of Law in letter and spirit and ensuring constitutional
b. Incorporating Opposition into the decision making for National Interests.
c. Conducting free and fair elections for local bodys government.
d. Designing No Aid only Trade policy for regional and global partners.
e. Taking best endeavors to remove the menace of Corruption, favoritism and
nepotism in selecting heads of Public institutions.
f. Shunning the practice of targeting opposition leaders in fabricated Cases and
g. Addressing the threats of separatists with 3D; dialogue, diplomacy and
h. Redesigning the Public Services commissions at provincial levels and
incorporating Public corporations under the Provincial Public services commissions.
i. continuing the programs and policies of the last government till completion of
Infrastructural and economic projects that provide benefits to the masses.
7. Conclusion

Role of Media

Freedom of conscience, of education, of speech, of assembly, is among the very

fundamentals of democracy and all of them would be nullified if freedom of the press be
successfully challenged. maintained US president Roosevelt.

Aspect: Role of media in society

1. Introduction
1. What is media?

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2. Media in old days its ways and objectives

3. Growth of media corresponding with the growth of society
4. Quantum shift of media from oral to written with the discovery of print media
5. A glimpse of different civilizations and media
6. When the tribes merged into city states; the role of media also changed
7. The media ups and downs
a. the voice of the rich and influential people
b. the voice of rulers/ kings
8. With the emergence of democracy what was the changed crept into the role of media
9. Modern world media and democracy
10. Where the democracy is suspended the role of media is changed accordingly mostly
due to pressure of government (dictators)
11. Development of media renaissance, development and science
12. Societies developed, developing and underdeveloped vis-a-vis the role and
development of media
13. When does a medium become the tool of change?
14. Is the media really influential enough to bring the change in society?
15. What are the factors which make the media influential?
16 which section of society does the media influence gravely
a upper
b lower
c middle
17 the ways and means which the media employ or can employ for bringing the change in
a. different sort of programs
b. news
c, reports
d. again and again coverage
e. discussions
f. dialogues
h. stories

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i. satirical programs
j cartoons
k. using specific words or language
l. the role of anchorperson
m. dramas
n. documentaries
o. dressing
18. The areas in which media can bring change
a. political
b social
c religious
d cultural
h economic
I scientific/educational
19. Media and political change
a. effecting different decisions of the government
b. favoring any one institution of the government
c. governments domestic and foreign policies
d. governments developmental projects
h favoring different sections of society over each other
I can influence treasury and opposition benches
J may influence legislation
K may influence one party or other one
L may influence canvassing and voting
M may provide food for thought for government
N may favor any system of the government
O may favor left wing or right wing parties
P may favor liberal, conservative or secular parties
20. Is the media always neutral and objective in bringing political change?

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21. What are the forces which determine the policy of the media------different
channels/newspapers owned by different owners with different ideologies, with different
sources of funding?
22. Different agencies may also find their agents in media
23. world powers ---- media ---- domestic political change and foreign political change
24. To what extent world powers are befooled and guided by media and its global
political impacts
25. Can we make the media really neutral? the portrayer of only the truth? If yes then
26 media and social change
a behavior of the people
b relationship among the people
c. media and health
d. consciousness about different diseases
e. advertisement
f education
g quality of education
h different educational movements of the world
i syllabus
j the situation of educational institutions
k university college school
l education in rural areas
m education in jail
n. education for special people
o. Education of women
p issues of women and media
q Education
r economic empowerment
s domestic violence
t gender biasness
u. media in the wake of natural disasters

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27 moral issues and media

a decency
b. honesty
c. integrity
d. diligence
e. discipline
f. truth
g. respect
h. development of social values
i. cleanliness
j forbearance and tolerance
k harmony between different
I factions
Ii races
Iii sects
Iv linguistic groups
28. to what extent media does promote social change and in which context
29. is the change natural, induced or imposed?
30. globalization/social change and role of media
31. Different groups foreign and indigenous media and social change and reaction of
32. Religious change and media
a. discussion among different divine religions
b. through discussion among different religions development of understanding
c to lessen the friction among different religions- Islam Christianity Judaism and
d. through religion to bring the world together in the wake of globalization
e intra-religious harmony
f. religious duties and special programs on media
j death and birth anniversaries of religious figures
k. religion modernity and media

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l. blind religious beliefs and role of media

m. true picture of religion and media
n. concepts and practices
o. role of so called mullahs/Sufis
p can media be not biased in the matter of religion?
33. Cultural change and media
a. dress
b. diet
c different festivals
d art
e music
f architecture
g literature
h traditional culture vis-a-vis modern culture
I culture media and synthesis
34. Media and economic change
a. advertisement
b. business opportunity
c. fashion industry
d chemical industry
e housing industry
f food industry
35. Media and public opinion
36. To what extent media can bring the change in the life personal and social of an
37. Media sensational news and individual of a society
a children
b youth
c old
d. women
e professionals

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38. media- a serious thing or an entertainment or pleasure time

39. Here is the media pushing the world- towards construction or destruction
40. Are we mere changeable entities before media or thinking and responding beings in
light of our own consciousness?
41. Media in 21st century
42 to what extent can we rely on media for secure peaceful and prosperous mankind

What Is Media?
Functions Of Media
Creation Of Awareness
Strengthen Democracy
Promotion Of Tolerance And Understanding
Attract The Attention Of Policy Makers
Strengthen Relations With Other Countries

Effects Of Media
Positive Effects
i) Political Analysis
ii) Economic Debate
iii) Social Awareness
iv) Religious Clarification
Negative Effects
i) Political Gimmick
ii) Social Evils
iii) Deteriorating Religious Impressions

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Media In Pakistan
Challenges To Media In Pakistan
Causes Of Controlled Media


It is often said that world has become a global village. It is media that has shrunk the
world into a village. Telecommunication, TV, radio, and now computers have reduced
distances and brought the countries of the world closer to each other. Free media is the
integral part of democracy. It acts as the custodian of democracy and facilitates the
decision-making process. It has become the voice of the masses. Indeed, it is instrumental
in shaping the public opinion. A society with restricted media is just like stagnant water.
Such society breeds only ignorant minds. People remain ignorant of events, ignorant of
their rights, their duty tot eh state, their needs and the role that they can play for the
betterment of the society. Macaulay called the Press as the fourth pillar of the state. With
the advent of new technology the media has gained new dimension and great strength. It
has transformed the present age into information explosion. But unfortunately, especially
at this juncture of history media is not playing the role it was created for. It has become
more exploiter than the builder. It should be yoked under the moral and legal codes for
impartial, unbiased and justifiable role for the perpetual succession of the society both
national and international.


Communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data,

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promotional messages are disseminated are called media. Media includes broadcasting
and narrowcasting channels such as, TV, radio, telephone, newspapers, magazines,
billboards, fax and internet.

With the passage of time, media has become the member of our society. It has firmly
entrenched its roots in our life and now its hard to survive without in this modern age.
Media plays many important functions in the present age ranging from political to
educational. Lets analyze its major functions.

Media is a powerful weapon. It creates awareness and consciousness of rights, duties and
responsibilities among the people. Through it, people and government become cognizant
of the future challenges.

For a democracy to flourish, a free and strong media is prerequisite. Free and fair media
is considered as guardian of democracy. It ensures free and fair elections, accountability
and transfer of power. Autocratic rulers and military dictators always have a deep
abhorrence for a media as it exposes their illegitimacy, corruption and ineptness.

One of the biggest problem that world is facing today is intolerance and mutual mistrust.
Intolerance makes the society jungle. World needs a big change. Media, being as much
powerful source today, plays its part by promoting tolerance and mutual understanding.

Media is the only source now which is easily accessible to all walks of people through
TV, radio, newspapers, internet and now mobile phones. People express their problems
and grievance through media which attract the attention of policy makers. In this way,
media shapes the public opinion as a means of exerting pressure on government and
policy makers.

Media, through its various trends, colors and lifestyles, has brought the nations closer to
each other. It depicts the religion and culture of the countries. It creates social harmony
and understanding and promotes brotherhood.

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Last but not least function of media is that it provides entertainment and recreational
activities. Without entertainment society will suffocate. People will become
psychological patients. Cinemas, films, TV channels, radio and internet provide
entertainment for healthy and smooth life.

Media is the mirror of a society. It reflects the true picture of it. Hence, it affects the
society in different ways. It has both positive and negative impacts. Lets evaluate its
effects on different aspects of life.

First of all, we would consider positive effects of media on society. It provides effects on
society are as under:

Media is a powerful and effective political agent. It raises the voice of the masses and
acts as the interpreter of society. It keeps an eye on each and every action of the
government. It not only points out drawbacks and lapses in the works done by the
government but also suggests methods to improve them. It brings expert opinions through
various debates and provides the government a guideline to follow. It also brings the
performance of the ruling government to the masses and acts as agent of change. It is
further helpful in shunning undemocratic and unconstitutional actions by military
dictators and civilian rulers.

Furthermore, media also plays a very vital role in economic sphere. It attracts the foreign
investors by showing governments projects internationally. It is also a great source of
purchasing and selling. One can do all ones business just sitting at home through
internet. It keeps its viewers in touch with the new trends in business and products
through advertisement. Changing prices of the essentials are not a hidden matter now. It
also presents the performance of stock exchange which keeps the investors updated.

As far as social sphere is concerned, it has brought the people of the world closer to one
another. It changes moods and behaviors of people from conservative liberal. It purifies

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the society from superstitions, evils and fake stories by presenting bold topic through
channels and talk shows. It has upgraded the living standards through new household
styles. It opens new avenues of success for the youth. It is highly productive in molding
the characters and morals of the young generation. Entertainment provided by it has filled
the lives with the colors of joy and happiness.

Media is also not behind in religious sphere. It presents authentic information through
competent scholars. It seeks answer of publics questions which remain unheard and
unexplained. It also highlights religious events like Moharam, Eid, Miraj and the Holy
Ramadan. Moreover, sectarian disharmony is minimized by putting forward the views of
competent scholars and enlightened Ulemas.

Now, lets scrutinize the negative effects of media.

Blackmailing by the media persons to get personal gains.

Sensationalism of news to get cheap popularity.
To show one as evil and other as liberator continuously repeating the comments and
Vulgarity due to inflow of foreign culture. The English and Indian channels are
affecting the moral of the youth.
Time wastage due to constant watching the dramas.
Simplicity is diminishing due to more materialism.
Generation gap is increasing.
Weakening religious impression due to foreign culture.

In Pakistan, the responsibility of media is much more than any other media in the world.
Pakistan needs a big change and as now media is the only powerful source to bring this
change. Pakistani media must understand that it presents a country which is of a high
importance not only for Islamic World but also for the peace in the whole world. It
depicts the culture of Pakistan. It must present the true picture of Islam before the world.
In Pakistan, most of the channels of media are highly politicized. Some of them are

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highly Islamic and others are of highly ultra-mod. This shows the existence of two totally
different types of media in Pakistan which is creating a cultural gap This gap has divided
the society into two fragments one with fundamental thought and others of secular
dispensing. For a peaceful and healthy environment, media must shun such differences
and preserve real culture of Pakistan.

Media in Pakistan, though free, has many challenges to face. It has many hurdles in its
way. Some of the challenges that our media is facing are:

In violence stricken areas like FATA and Baluchistan, the journalists are terribly
vulnerable for example in 2008, 12 journalists were killed and 6 in 2009. It has curbed
the free flow of information.
Pakistan is facing a conflict between conservative and secular approaches. Therefore,
media is cautious in debating on such sensitive issues.
The government indirectly restricts media by withholding advertisement.
PEMRA frequently threatens to cancel the license. Other agencies of the government
also pressurize the media.
Monopoly of media by big groups is thwarting the expansion of smaller channels.

Pakistan has never been an easy place for media to live in. Every ruler whether it is
military or civilian has always curbed the media. It is because they want to promote and
protect their vested interests. And it is only possible in the absence of free media.
PEMRA Ordinance promulgated by Musharraf government in 2007 is one of examples of
such restrictions on media. Moreover, the causes of controlled media are as under:

In Pakistan, not only the dictators but also the civilian took unconstitutional steps and
covered their own corruption along with their associates. Internal corruption of judiciary
all was only possible with a curbed media.
Media has been the fear of every dictator after taking over the government.
The illiterate masses are exerting zero sum pressure on policy makers.
If a party or institution invests in the media, it wants to see its own vested interests to be

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reflected. The views projected by the media are not necessarily of the public or of the
employers. Rather, the views of the investors are reflected.
Corporate barons who have a large chunk of the Pakistani media obey the official orders
to get monetary benefits.
Journalists have been intimidated and humiliated by the occupants of power. Everyone
wants the journalists to obey their orders.
Government must realize the importance of media in this modern age. She should ensure
the freedom of media. Article 19th of the constitution of Pakistan, 1973, guarantees the
freedom of speech, expression and the press. Government must use media as a source to
promote good governance. Here are some suggestions to be followed:
Let the media introduce an internal and external checks and balances.
Accountability of media be ensured.
The aim of media activism should be to strengthen the weak and vulnerable segment of
Media must help stabilizing the national institution and socio-economic, political and
administrative structure by pointing out drawbacks and appreciating the good works done
by government.
There is a cultural invasion from the West and Indian TV channels and cable TV
networks. Our values are being attacked and are in danger. Media must build our
confidence and faith in our values.
We as viewers must mend ourselves, so that we may not be carried away with the media
Media must help sustain confidence in our national institutions such as parliament,
armed force and or social structure.
The feelings of despondency, frustration and deviant behavior need to be neutralized.
Only an effective media can do this.
The sudden boom in the media has led to serve shortage of trained manpower, so people
must be appointed to the positions with more journalistic experience than they really
The print and broadcast media must make every effort to ensure that their coverage is

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factual, balanced and informed. Live pictures must be responsibly broadcast.

Media can help stabilize and strengthen the country by playing educational and
informative role. It can impart knowledge to the masses as knowledge is power and only
a well-informed society can develop a positive approach towards life. The objective of
media freedom can be realized only when public trust and confidence reposed in the
media is respected and protected. Media itself can act as a true watchdog and keep an eye
on the government on the behalf of the public. Media is fourth pillar, watch dog, agent of
social change, influencer, educator, informer, entertainer, guardian of democracy and
many more. These titles clearly define the role of media in society. A vibrant media is
need of globalised society. Media become crucial like food and clothing likewise it is
playing many integral roles in society. Both print and electronic media provides
important functions of influencing public opinion, informing with recent developments
on all issues, surveillance, determining the political agenda, criticism, awareness, and
social & moral development of society. Though media performs crucial functions in a
society, but sometimes its role proved negative which must be practically restricted. It
would not be wrong to say that media is playing vital role to keep the society balance.

United Nations: Its Hopes and Hurdles

1. Introduction
i.General Assembly: A Parliament of Worlds Sovereign States.
ii. Maintenance of peace in conflict ridden areas.

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iii. Protective Environmental Issues

iv. Prevent from Nuclear Proliferation and Nuclear Disarmament
v.Economic Assistance
3. Operational Hurdles
i. Security Council
ii.Veto Power States
iii.SC Acts Like Bicameral House(senate) with vested Powers
4.Suggestive Measures
i. Empowerment of General Assembly
ii.Elimination of veto Status
5. Conclusion

The UNO Has Failed to Measure up to the Demands of its Charter

Even little wars are dangerous in a nuclear world. The long labor of peace is an
undertaking for every nation - and in this effort none of us can remain unaligned. To this
goal none can be uncommitted John F. Kennedy

Charter Preamble
Aim and purpose of charter:
Major issues remain unresolved
Poor states ignored
Root Cause Prevention Efforts

The picture of the United Nations in meeting the demands of its charter is bleak as
the UNO has miserably failed to meet its charter demands. The world body is deeply

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under the influence of the United States, the chief financial donor to the United Nations.
The UNs financial dependence on major powers has contributed largely in the world
bodys failure to act in a neutral and unbiased manner. A decade or so back, it was Japan,
UK, France and Germany which helped substantially along with the US to bolster the
fiscal kitty of the UN but slowly all these states drifted away leaving the US to remain
almost the sole power to meet the finances of the world body. Such a situation is
unfortunate as the United States is dominating the world body today. UN has not fulfilled
its due role it was created for. Analytically, it is failed to ensure peace and security in the
world though much successful regarding solving social problems of the masses.
Critically, UN has totally failed wherever and whenever are or were the Concerns of
Muslim world and marginally successful when are or were the western and American
interests. This is high time for UN to restructure itself and reform Security Council
restoring the confidence of Muslim world and other aggrieved states as well as be
impartial and judicious avoiding dubious role.


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1. Introduction
Thesis statements:
1. Lack of education lies the base of all our social, political and economic
problems yet it is one area that has constantly been neglected by those in power and the
right of education has been denied to the masses generation after generation thus creating
social disparities and crippled economy.
2. Educational system throughout the history of Pakistan has been remained
at its lowest ebb and least priority due to multiple factors. This is need of the time to
make Pakistan well versed in technical, scientific and general education on war basis for
sovereign and perpetual footings.

2. Levels of Education
A, primary level of education
B. Middle level of education
C. Secondary level of education
D. professional level of education
E. higher education
3. Sectors of Education
One paragraph describing Private, Public, Government and Madressah mode of
4. Streams of Education
A Comparison among western mode of education with government run schools
and religious seminaries.
5. Loop holes in the Education system
A.rot and out- dated Syllabus
b. Poor quality and methods of teaching
c. Absence of well trained teachers
d. Lack of focus on Technical education
e. Negligible vision for Agricultural Education
f. Poor infrastructure and facilities in the Educational institutions

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g. Teacher absenteeism and prevalence of ghost schools

h. Mass brain drain due to large scale Unemployment
i. Absence of culture of Research and Development
j. Improper funds and Scholarships to utilize the talent
6. Remedial measures to plug the loop holes in the Education System
a. Comprehensive literacy and poverty reduction Program
b. Expansion of primary elementary education
c. Introduction of technical stream at the Secondary level
d. Improving the quality of Education through teacher training
e. Higher education sector reforms
f. Public-Private Partnership
g. Innovative Programs
h. Secondary education commission
i. Uniform Modern Syllabus
7. Conclusion

Education in Pakistan
1. Introduction
1. Awareness in public
2. No better utilization of Education (unemployment)
3. Poverty and education
4. Different concepts of education prevailing in people
5. Different system of education
English , A level, O level
Urdu, public schools
Arabic, Madrassah
6. Difference level for different section of population and hence different utility
7. Highest opportunities for advancement (in competition) for English school students.
8. Urdu-mostly low scale jobs (Cant get their children educated from highest institutions
especially English medium-hence a cycle continues.
9. Poor and middle class children (lower stature)

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10. Quality of education in Urdu medium

Number of schools
Number of teachers
Quality of teachers
Mostly children have to work after schools.
Low capacity to compete
No modern technology of teaching
Teachers iron rod
Schools away children in heat or cold fall sick.
High rate of drop out
Bad company spend most of time outside the home.
People dont send their children to schools; prefer to have them engaged in work
for some earning for their large families.
Fee, books, uniform shoes etc.
No supervision at home for school work.
Poor health of the students hence study is affected.
11. Madrassahs
Basically trained in religious studies
Achronistic syllabus
No scientific knowledge
No knowledge of English language
Poor or no use and awareness of modern technology
Just trained for Namaz, Nikkah or Jannaza
Dependent upon the source of funding
Hijacked by different donators, sponsoring machines of their ideology
Myopic views of life and world
No integration of students in normal educational system of the country

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The poorest people in the Madaressah.

Jihadi culture of Madressahs
Sectarianism in Madrassah
12. English medium institutes
Not affordable for common people
For upper classes
Modern syllabus
Different techniques for teaching the students
Create competition among the students
English medium culture
Mushroom of English medium schools from last two decades
Issue of space
Charge high fee
13. Issues of Syllabi
Not tuned with time
According to the level of students
How is it design
The method, procedure and time period to revise the syllabus
Members of board who revise syllabus
1. Educationist
2. Academicians
14. |Medium of Instruction
a) Mother tongue
b) Urdu
c\) English
Which is best?
To which level the teaching in mother tongue is better and where we should turn
towards urdu or English?
Comparison with other countries
Serious study and debate require

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15. Issues of examination and evaluation

What should be the ways of evaluation
Annual system
Semester system
Objective or subjective questions
\Or mix of both
If mixture what should be the percentage of objective and subjective questions
The system of checking the papers
Computerized checking
a) Arbitrary
b) Special guideline and training for checking
16. Issues of science subjects
Quantity and quality of teachers
Quantity and quality of labs
Availability of fund
Availability of equipments and chemicals
Availability of electricity
Culture of experimentation
Traditional concept of people about science
17. Issues of college education
Number of colleges as per population
Number of lecturers as per students
Choice of bright students
a) Pre-medical
b) Pre-engineering
Social sciences second grade discipline

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Healthy activities
a) Literary
b) Cultural
c) Sports
Issues of hostel for ruler students
Issues of fee
18. Issues of university education
Politics in university
Political and religious organizations
Mashroom of universities but quality?
19. Issues of Research
Topics for research
Research culture
Resources for research
Research and linkage with industry
Modern research techniques
Foreign and indigenous scholarship programme and appraisal.
20. Issues of education of women
Number of institutes for women
Economic barriers

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Cultural barriers
Behavior of parents especially in ruler areas
Womens preferred professions
a) Education
b) Medical
Issues of coeducation
End of scope of education after marriage
Loss of Govt investment
Different Islamic groups and education of women in Pakistan
21. Policies of Government
Fund allocation
Educational policies
Establishment of new universities and research institutes
Parha-Likha Punjab
Punjab educational foundation
Teachers on contract
Free books
Stipends for girls
Refreshment: milk and biscuits
Special attention towards girls education
Public private partnership
Different monitoring system
Introduction of tenure track system
22. Issues of teachers
Low salary
Poor facilities
a) Accommodation transport
No carrier security
Political interference in transfer posting

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Low promotions
Rough behavior of teacher with students
Poor knowledge of subjects
No proper evaluation of students
Traditional methods of teaching
No refreshers courses during the service
23. Why do as a nation we not give highest value to education
24. When a religion stresses on need of education, why do we shun from education
25. Who are responsible for sorrow state of education?
a) Educationist
b) Institutions
c) Administrators
d) Politicians
26. Why poor funding for education?
27. Side by side with scientific and social sciences- is there no need for technical
Why least attention towards Technical and Vocational education
28. Without Education can we progress
a) Economically
b) Socially
c) Politically
d) Religiously
29. Where do we stand educationally with respect to the rest of the world?
30. The ways to promote education in Pakistan
31. New challenges and education
a) Terrorism
b) Political chaos
c) Sectarianism
d) Global warming
e) Factionalism

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32. Future of education in Pakistan

33. Conclusion

Gender Discrimination
Introductionthesis statement
Gender discrimination in Pakistan is distinct at each and every level and at each
for a. discrimination is embedded in our social, cultural and religious percepts.
What is GD?
GD and developed world
GD and third world
GD and Muslim world
GD and Pakistan
On what standards we measure GD?
Social values
Cultural norms
To what extent it is prevalent in our society?
GD at
Individual level
Family level
Society level
Local level
Provincial level
Federal level
GD in different departments?
Health, education (students and employees)
Services, businesses

GD in
Rural areas
Tribal areas
GD in provinces
Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Kpk, Ajk, GB
GD in the organs of the state
GD in Law
Discriminatory laws
GD and

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Civil societies
Religious parties
GD and our National History
Zias Draconian Era
Mushrafs Enlighten Era
Why is GD said to be threatened by
Cultural practices
Religious matters
Norms, values, customs, rites, rituals
Is there and end to GD in Pakistan?
Future of GD?

Women Empowerment/Inequality
1. Introduction
2. What do we mean by Women Empowerment?
3. What do we mean by inequality?
4. importance of Women Empowerment
5. Historical background about Woman Empowerment in the world
South Asia
Arab world
Developed world
Status of Women Empowerment in Pakistan
6. Woman and UN
7. God and Social Stratification
8. Is Woman Empowerment just a roar or real?
9. Rights of women
Spiritual rights
Economical rights

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Social rights
Political rights
Educational rights
Cultural rights
10. Modes of Violation of women Rights in the Developing World
Female genital mutilation
Honor killing
Karo kari
Forced prostitution
Forced marriages
Forced abortion
Harassment by Morality Squads
Health issues
Verbal abuse
Acid throwing
Political killings/ imprisonment
Dowry issues
Punishment on giving birth to daughter
Love exploitations
Victims of gender discrimination in society
Low importance on women education
11. How to eradicate this menace
I. Following of UN Charter
II. Human rights organizations due role
III. Education and awareness programs
IV. Health reforms for women
V. Tacking the socio-economic problems of women
VI. Moral support
VII. Role of media
VIII. Role of civil society
IX. Solving the issues of unemployment, poverty
12. Conclusion

The first woman was created from the rib of a man. She was not made form his
head to top him, nor from his feet to be trampled on by him but out of his side to be equal
to him.
(Men and Women Quotes)

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Being a woman is terribly difficult task since it consists principally in dealing

with men.
(Joseph Conrad)
Violence against women is the manifestation of historically unequal power
relation between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination
against women by men and to prevention of full advancement of women.
(UN declaration 1993)
A man willing to work, and unable to find work, is perhaps the saddest sight that
fortune's inequality exhibits under this sun.
(Thomas Carlyle)

I do not think I ever opened a book in my life which had not something to say upon
woman's inconstancy. Songs and proverbs, all talk of woman's fickleness. But perhaps
you will say, these were all written by men."

"Perhaps I shall. Yes, yes, if you please, no reference to examples in books. Men have
had every advantage of us in telling their own story. Education has been theirs in so much
higher a degree; the pen has been in their hands. I will not allow books to prove
anything. ( Jane Austen, Persuasion)

The basic message of every divine message is always there to make a man man.
All are equal in the divine sight. But we men, having beliefs in the commands of divinity,
do not materialize them. These differences have made our green world a bloody some.
Women Empowerment around the world is an important indicator to understand the
global well-being. Despite tremendous changes of the 20th century, discrimination and
violence against women remains fully rooted in cultures around the world. The most
widely cited reason for gender inequality is the developing countries relates to the social
customs, values, traditions and beliefs. Social exclusion, honor killing, harassment in
offices, feudal exploitation, female genital multination, restricted mobility and early
marriages are the issues that deny the fundamental rights of woman. Although it is a

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global issue but it is more prevalent in the developing countries where inequalities
include both discrimination and un-empowerment of women.

The question on how gender inequality shapes peoples life is on one that has been
echoing widely through minds of modern society in recent decades. The biological
difference between men and women constitute as one of the main reason this inequality.
The males were always branded the breadwinners of the family, whilst a females place
was remained at home. Throughout the history, Women keep of fighting for their equal
rights, opportunities, place and treatment. Although womens inferior status to men exist
in almost all developing countries like India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan,
Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Burma and also in central Asian states but the reasons,
intensity, shape and manifestation differ seeing the circumstances quite substantially as
we move from one socio-economic class and region to another. The inability of women to
make their own life choices that is the root of many injustices they suffer.
The afflicted world in which we live is characterized by deeply unequal sharing of the
burden of adversities between women and men. In ancient times and even now at some
places women are known as the root cause of all evils. Top of the list are the socio-
economic constraints that compels a woman to even sell herself knowing it will never
recover again.
What do we mean by Women Rights?
[M]en, though they know full well how much women are worth and how great
the benefits we bring them, nonetheless seek to destroy us out of envy for our merits. It's
just like the crow, when it produces white nestlings: it is so stricken by envy, knowing
how black it is itself, that it kills its own offspring out of pique.
( Moderata Fonte, The Worth of Women: Wherein Is Clearly Revealed Their Nobility and
Their Superiority to Men)
According to Oxford dictionary, Womens Rights are the rights that promote a
position of social and legal equality, of women to men.
They are the rights, claimed for the women, equal to those of men, as regards to
suffrage and right to vote, as regards to property, etc.

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The start of mankind was from Adam and Eve (May peace be upon them). Eve is
the first woman and mother of the human race; God created Eve from Adam's rib and
placed Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Women have been given the equal status
from the day start. But women in the developing countries have been suffering from
many issues and problem in the past, though this sticky situation in the society has not
been fully rooted out, but almost melt down. Women are still yearning to get their equal
rights in the society in almost all the developed counties. Women had to go through many
aches from the day of the birth till they die. In Third world countries people had been
very much conservative and narrow minded towards giving equal status to their women.
However, in Muslim society women remained impregnable in contrast to other societies
and religions. History has seen many changes and one of those changes was the
restoration of the rights of the women in the society. Only in the last hundred years,
women have been seen rightfully as equals to men. History, however, is not recent, and
there are numerous examples to how the female gender was given inferior status to
males. Surprisingly, the evolutions of women's rights were not particularly in
chronological order. In different times and different societies, the status
of females advanced or retrogressed depending on a variety of reasons. Women have
seen some good days where they ruled and run over the states like Razia Sultana, Jhansi
Ki Raani, who were brave and courageous as well. Women have seen rise and fall in the
war of getting their rights and got success majorly yet it needs more to be improved.
Because in recent times woman of developing countries is facing suchlike issues from the
birthday to the day of death. Though todays woman is not like the ancient one. But still
she needs more awareness, education and moral as well as real legal support to stand up
side by side to contribute in such a festinating time. This fact should be acknowledge that
females have excessive ability to face the critical situations and challenges as they have
the quality to resist with greater patience then that of males.

What do we mean by Inequality?

In a world of increasing inequality, the legitimacy of institutions that give precedence to
the property rights of "the Haves" over the human rights of "the Have Nots" is inevitably
called into serious question.

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(David Korten)
When the gap between the rich and the poor is so huge that you cant help pointing it out
thats when you risk being labeled a pervert.
(Benson Bruno)
The disposition to admire, and almost to worship, the rich and the powerful, and to
despise, or, at least, to neglect persons of poor and mean condition is the great and most
universal cause of the corruption of our moral sentiments.
Adam Smith
Scottish political economist (1723-1790)
Inequality is basically a difference between the realization and provision of rights.
Ineauality means shortage, limitization, difference in power, status, value, importance,
say, affairs, dealings, consultancy, and share and work etc.
Historical background of women status in developing countries:
As of today, we do not need expert reports by the authoritative analytical institutions to
realize that the reasons for such a situation in our community lie in global inequality,
poverty and illiteracy.
(Nursultan Nazarbayev)

Our inequality materializes our upper class, vulgarizes our middle class, brutalizes our
lower class.
Matthew Arnold
English essayist (1822-1888)

In ancient times, before Islam women were treated in worst manners, their rights
were shattered, they were not given any respect in the society, and female infants were
lively buried as they were considered as a symbol of disgrace in ones family. They were
considered as slaves, property or just autoerotic objects. But in Islam women were given
equal rights in the society. And awarded more respect that in any other religion or society.
Muhammad (PBUH) put the example by giving respect to his own daughter Hazrat
Fatima (A.S) by standing up and stretching his own cloak for her honor signifying the
high status of a daughter. In other civilizations like Egyptian civilization, women had the

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equal rights in all necessary parts of life. Yet there had been some discrimination
prevailed in all the times of the history to deprive the women from their rights. They had
to abide by many restrictions which were physically and morally awful to them. As time
passed and society modernized, many changes took place which brought several positive
moves in favor of women rights.
Women is South Asia
Can one preach at home inequality of races and nations and advocate abroad
good-will towards all men?
(Dorothy Thompson)
Culturally and historically, South Asia is remained bleak in terms of women
rights. In Hindustan woman was presented as the root cause of all misdeeds and was
burnt alive with the death of her husband. In Pakistan and Bangladesh she has always
been remained the victim of so-called mullahs and tribal leaders as well as in villages she
is exploited in the hands of feudal lords. Same is the case with the other countries of the
South Asian states. Member countries of the SAARC have remained at their lowest ebb
in empowering the woman but in the current era a ray of hope is hoping the hopes of
hope hoppers.
Women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Nepal
Being the similar culture, rites, rituals and traditions in the South Asian countries
especially the India and Pakistan, the treatment of women both at household and offices
is similar up to a greater extent. Same type of laws and traditions are found here and
there. Hindustan where once the woman was burnt alive with the demise of her husband
and considered the source of all evils is still struggling for her rights. Situation of woman
in Pakistan is also not hidden. Tribal belts and villages of all the provinces show the hot
and hard lined treatment of the women in the hands of ever dominating men. But the
situation differs in the metropolitan cities where writ and rule of the law is strong and
awareness is every where like a forest fire. Women are never considered women in the
history of Afghanistan. They are always remained there confined to the house walls.
Bangladesh being the former part of Hindustan, then Pakistan and then being the separate
entity is not differ from the parent countries. Women have same fate there. Nepal being
the immediate neighbor depicts the unequal treatments of women in her society.

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Woman in Arab world

Arab world, a world of cruel and illiterate people, who used to burry their daughters alive
before the advent of Islam are still dominant in terms of women rights. Arab countries
from Yemen to Egypt and Palestine to Libya do not differ in the treatment of women. In
real sense the mindset of the Arabs is not changed. It is almost same as it was centuries
ago. Basically it is the mindset, a set of beliefs which shows the practices of the people.
Mindset of a person truly depicts the personality of the keeper. Recent Arab uprising is
one of the major examples of this uproar.
Women Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia, where the Islam was ad vented, and women due rights were first
propagated, is still denying rights to women. Women are still fighting for their rights.
Issue of driving for woman is a hot issue of the day. Women are not allowed to drive or
ride on bike and men are not allowed to drive other than the closely relatives. The
kingdom is facing a dilemma of how to get 367000 girls to school on buses that can only
be driven by men. If any movement is started in this regard in the kingdom, it is
forcefully shut down by the authorities.
Women and UN
The form of law which I propose would be as follows: In a state which is desirous of
being saved from the greatest of all plaguesnot faction, but rather distractionthere
should exist among the citizens neither extreme poverty nor, again, excessive wealth, for
both are productive of great evil . . . Now the legislator should determine what is to be the
limit of poverty or of wealth.
Greek philosopher (427-347 B.C.)

Sidelined once, women of the rejected and denied world are now gaining
momentum within the UN system. If there were no UN, it may take more a century for
woman to get her rights.
Milestones at UN: A Glance

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Women of the world have always fought to defend their rights within the global
decision-making body to be there in the United Nations since it came into being.. These
are given some milestones of the movement for equality within the womens savior, the

o 1946
o Commission on the Status of Women created; independent entity in 1947.

o 1947
o Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed
Conflict adopted.

o 1975
o First UN Conference on Women in Mexico City; annual meeting as of 1987.

o 1976
o UN Development for Women is created; becomes UNIFEM in 1984.

o 1979
o Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination (CEDAW) adopted.

o 1994
o UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women appointed.

o 2000
o UN Security Council Resolution 1325 mandates gender lens on conflicts.

o 2006
o High level panel on coherence named to study gender reform of UN.

o 2010
o UN approves creation of UN Women as new agency.

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God and Social stratification

God touches and moves, warns and desires all equally, and He wants one quite as
much as another. The inequality lies in the way in which His touch, His warnings, and
His gifts are received.
(Johannes Tauler)

If it is as evil to do lechery as the Bible and the Lord Himself tell us, then who is the
more blameworthy: the one who instigates it, or the one who doesn't so much do it as
suffer what men do to her? You know very well that it is the male who does it, and
whoever says otherwise is wrong and is lying through his teeth, unless he has no teeth --
and would to God he hadn't.
(Anonymous, the Southern Passion)

Gender inequality or Social stratification

Gender stratification is basically the structured form of social inequality in which
a ranked group of people who brings about unequal financial rewards, such as a persons
income, and power or property, that is normally brought upon by money in a society. This
system comes in many different ways and forms. They may be slavery; castes, social
class, race, and gender are just few of the issues that are afflicted by this system. Gender
inequality or also known as gender stratification, is actually the unequal distribution of a
societys wealth, power, and privilege between the tow basic genders females and males.
It is crystal cleared from the reported reports that the majority of the women are the
oppressed as in turn the men being the oppressor. The idea of the oppressed and the
oppressor is against the justice of God. He created all the human beings on equal grounds
with same importance and status. That is why none of the divine religion denies the
women rights and status but the followers of that religion do being the part of their beliefs
but not of actions. Therefore, in the sight of God, all people whether male or female,
black or white are equal. No one has greater importance but those who practice piety.
There are we men who practice this impractical but it is not the commandment of
God. God is just and preaches just and equity.

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Inequality of women is just a roar or real?

Inequality of women is about the deprivation of fundamental rights not being
properly dedicated to the women. It is real to some extent but there has been a rapid
change since past few years in most of the developing countries. The problem is that once
we compare the so called women right in western countries with eastern countries we
come to know that the western talk of womens liberation is actually a disguise from the
exploitation of her body, deprivation of her honor and degradation of her soul. The
Western society has actually reduced women status to concubines, to mistresses, to
society butterflies, which are mere tools in the hands of sex marketers and pleasure
seekers, which are disguised behind the colorful screen of art and culture. West is the
trend setter of this abuse. Once we talk about the developing countries. Every country
adopts and catches the ideas and practices being done by any developed nation. This evil
has also been transformed from the developed countries those are now penetrated in the
society of developing countries. Women in underdeveloped countries are awarded with
more safety and social respect as compare to the developed countries, which a women
deserves to have but still they are desperate to get their rights which should be equal to
men. But the brutal cases are now a days going to be reported about the womens in
equality. That is why human rights activists are more active now days regarding the
women rights.
Mukhtar Mai: A Case Study
Women have served all these centuries as looking glasses possessing the magic
and delicious power of reflecting the figure of man at twice its natural size.
( Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own)
Mukhtar Mai, 30 years divorced women, belonging to Gujar family from a
Village in Jatoi, Muzaffar Garh being the district in the Southern Punjab, Pakistan, was
one day in mid 2002, caught, trapped and gang raped by four men named Abdul Khaliq,
Allah Ditta, Fayyaz Hussain and Ghulam Farid, on the issue of her 12 years brother,
Abdul Shakoor who was alleged in a matter. The decision was taken to the local
Punhcayat and it made the traditional conservative decision justifying the Mais rape as
good. But thanks to the media which highlighted the issue and the roar was roared in the

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deaf ears of the respective areas bureaucrats as well as the upper courts and politicians.
As a result a so motto action was taken, case if was exploited by the local police station
but she was granted justice by the court and the culprits were caught and punished.
Although they are recently released in December, 2011 fulfilling there time in the Jail.
Actually this was the issue that was highlighted by the media and as result a victim got
justice otherwise there a countless incidents in the jurisdiction of South Asia that are
hardly reported and justified. Countless such incidents are exploited by the local
Punchayats, feudal lords and politicians, deciding against the wishes of women creating
inequality not only in Pakistan but the whole South Asia.

Naseem Bibi: A Case Study

Eyes glimmering with worry, Tasleem Bibi peered through the slits of her pitch-
black veil. Seventeen years earlier, her father ad struck a devilish deal to stay out of the
Jail. A rival family was demanding that Tasleem marry to their son. Her hand in marriage
had been promised when she was just five years old. Her father was accused of killing
another man in a bitter land dispute. To keep the case out of court, her family agreed to
high price and five women.
She is the victim of Vani, an ugly tradition where young women are traded
between the rival families in resolution of their disputes. Although, it was outlawed a few
years back, vani is still prevalent in the conservative pockets across Pakistan.
The woman is traded like an animal. Once married, she is little better than a slave.
A vani wife is treated like dirt; the men wear her like a pair of shoes. Most of the
defenders of this bleak custom, being the pessimistic tribal elders, say, this way prevent
bloodshed between the warring clans.

Gender Inequality and Its Types

Everyone has an equal right to inequality.

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(John Ralston Saul)

Women inequality has many faces and manifestations from region to region, customs to
custom and country to country. Normally there are counted seven types of inequality.
1) Mortality inequality:
Mortality in equality which is based on the matters of life and death and shows
the predominance of the male sex is going to be common especially in developing
world. It is mostly found in the regions of Africa, china and south Asia.

(2) Natality inequality:

Under this type of inequality boys being neo-Nate is given more importance than the
girls. People wish to have their children more as boys and special focus is given on the
first child born to any couple. It is seen that women are delivered divorced it they fail to
give birth to a mail child. For this purpose selective and coercive abortion is forced
compelling a woman to please the wishes of males.
(3) Basic facility inequality:
In this form of inequality women especially girls are denied the basic necessities
of life. Education being the prime need and demand of the time is fully conferred on male
child but Toto denied to a female child. Afghanistan is on top in this matter.
(4) Special opportunity inequality:
In this type of inequality women are denied the opportunities e.g. of higher education
and high job trainings.
(5) Professional inequality:
Professional inequality is based on denying the due job and work promotions and job

(6) Ownership inequality:

It comprises the inequality in the inheritance and properties. Islam granted this right to
woman but the followers of Islam are not fully inclined to give due share to woman
except the Shia Muslim Sect. Hinduism and some other religions also do not grant this
right to woman.

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(7) Household inequality:

In houses biasness is found among the members of the family and a male child in any
perspective is given more preference than a female child.

Types of Women Rights

It is a wise man who said that there is no greater inequality than the equal
treatment of unequals.
Felix Frankfurter
Women must have their basic spiritual rights so that they can easily practice their
religion with their own will and freedom. Women must have their economical rights they
can share the burden of their family and contribute to the countrys economy. Women
should have their social rights because the equal members of the society and they should
the equal freedom and availability of the opportunities which are available to men.
Women should have the equal educational rights so that they can get the similar
educational facilities available to their opposite gender. Likely women must have the
legal rights which can protect them from all social evils. Women should have the right to
vote with their own will and should have reasonable representation in the politics.
Modes of Violation of women Rights in the Developing World

The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal.

Women in developing countries have been facing with severe challenges. There
are a lot of social abuses and customary restrictions imposed on them even in todays
society as we are in 21st century. Problems as, female genital mutilation which is a
custom in Somali), killing for the sake of honor is common in developing countries like
Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India (case is quoted where Shafilea Ahmed was the victim of
a suspected honor killing. The 17-year-old's body was found months after she had
returned from a trip to Pakistan in 2003. On the trip she drank bleach. The coroner said he
saw it as a 'desperate measure' to avoid a forced marriage). Force prostitution is different
countries is very common, where parents or husband forces the women to sell the body
unwillingly. Selling of women (case is quoted where: In 1983, Zana Muhsen and her

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sister Nadia, from Birmingham, were pushed by their father to visit Yemen and forced to
marry. Zana, now 35, escaped eight years later. Her father had sold her for a few thousand
dollars. The experience is recounted in her book; 'Sold' Slavery is also common in Arab
countries where women are treated as the slaves of her husband. Same is the case in some
of Pakistan rural areas where women are treated as property, forced marriage (case is
quoted where Narina Anwar, 29, and her two sisters claim they were tricked by their
parents into going on a family holiday to a remote village in Pakistan, where they were
held captive for five months in an attempt to force them to marry three illiterate villagers.
These girls were later rescued as they contact the police and media). Karo Kari is also a
customary tradition in the tribal areas of Pakistan; Karo Kari is the form of honor killings.
Every year several women are murdered in the name of honor by the male family
members (and these are only the registered cases. On 11th June 2000, four women and
one man were killed in the Dera Jamali village in Sindh. Last year on the same dates a 13
year old girl, Sara, was subjected to this honor killing in Goth Khosa. Two young boys
Imtiaz and Arshad were also killed in the same case. The boys had never met the young
girl in their lives. But the brother of Sara declared it an honor killing to get less
punishment in law. This law also gives some leniency to the killers in such cases. He
actually wanted to grab the land of these boys and used this accusation to kill the boys
along with his sister. Secondly In the village of Moratha there was a case of Karo Kari
(honor killing). The motive of the killing was that the murderer wanted to marry a
married woman. He killed the husband of that woman and his own innocent sister and he
was released from jail after a few months). In the underdeveloped countries, forced
abortion, restricted freedom of movement outside the house, harassment by morality
squads, infanticide, rape (Mukhtaran Mai scandal), health problems, Acid dropping on
the faces, verbal abuse, less emphasis on women education and the discrimination of
being women in most of the social matters is common in very common. Political
killings/imprisonment is also very common (Dr. Afia Siddiqi, who was sentenced to jail
for 86 years , on an accusation of attempt to murder) and the women in Jammu and
Kashmir have been the worst victims of Indian state terrorism during the past 22 years
where approximately 15000 women have been martyred due to the state terrorism.
(Report on Women's Day on March 08). The common reason being found is that the most

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of developing countries have the male dominated society and the women being lower in
power have always been victimized in all the aspects.

Is there any brighter side of women rights in the developing world?

Despites of the deprivation and pains of getting the equal status, todays women
are cherishing and enjoying their life more than their status which few are fighting for.
Women have got the equal rights in all sectors and parts of the life in most of the
developed countries which were not vested to them in past. They have become the
symbols of the society; they have got the equal rights in every walk of life. They are
being given special quota in jobs which confirms their selection beyond the merit. They
have been facilitated with separate and Co-educational institutions in most of the
developing countries, where they can study according to their own choice without any
restrictions being imposed on them. Women have got the right to vote and not only this
they have got the facility to join the politics and represent their gender too. We have the
example of Benazir Bhutto, who was the first youngest lady P.M of Pakistan; Bangladesh
had his lady prime minister too. Suu kui and Sonia Gandhi are also the other prime
examples while discussing the bright side.
Women have participated in Showbiz and become the modern and liberal due to
their freedom they have got. In recent days we have a scandal of Veena Malik, who has
probably done an act of giving a nude photo shoot which is against her religion but she
has done that due to the freedom she has got and society has accepted in silently either
she committed that act or not. Furthermore, Women have been educated than the past,
this is not the case in all the developing countries but in most. In Pakistan literacy rate is
already very low, but still women are much efficient in contributing the literacy rate by
getting more education. The trend to get women educated is changing positively then the
How to Eradicate This Inequality:
Under-representation of women and other inequality among researchers is a
problem that will not solve itself as women acquire competence.
(Tarja Halonen)

It is the belief that extremes and excesses of inequality must be reduced so that each

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person is free to fully develop his or her full potential. This is why we take precious time
out of our lives and give it to politics.
(Paul Wellstone)
Inequality of women rights has been consistently under consideration in all the society in
the past century and has got maximum results, Women rights have been protected in the
Charter of United Nations 1948. Where it is stated, the charter of United Nations forbids
discrimination on the basis of race, sex, language or religion. Furthermore there are
several human rights organizations which are actively working and fighting to protect the
women rights especially in the underdeveloped countries. Moreover educational
programs for women have been ongoing for last many years which have got success in
creating awareness in women towards getting their fundamental rights. Several health
reforms have been in action to fights with the dangerous diseases especially breast cancer.
Gender inequality in education may hamper growth through its impact on child health.
Better educated females have healthier children, which have been found to increase
growth in the long run as said by Napoleon Bonaparte. Media has played a vital role by
providing a bridge to pass on the actual information and facts of the society where
women were deprived of their rights. Media has contributed a lot by plays T.V dramas,
films, talk shows, which has created awareness in the society about the rights of the
Provision of Education to Masses
Eradication of socio economic constraints
Awareness about the hazard of sex abuses in literature
Community based programmed
Overcoming the issue of poverty by giving due share to women in the
Safeguarding women at work place
Enacting strict laws and their full enforcement
Providing jobs to women to overcome the issue of inequality by making
the women economically strong
Making the customs, rites and rituals women friendly
Giving women a due political representation in local, provincial and
national Bodies/Assemblies
Giving women a due share in national decision making process
Equal representation of women at each and every forum to negate the

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concept of inequality
Protection of women rights through Police and Vigilant teams
Making the best health care centers for mother and neo-Nate
Recruitment of women as judges, bureaucrats, land registration officers,
and police officers.
Giving due share to women in inheritance and properties
Using media as an instrument and propagator of women rights
Due role of civil society
Due role of the Religious leaders of any religion
Government special loans to empower the women

There is always inequality in life. Some men are killed in a war and some men
are wounded and some men never leave the country. Life is unfair.
(John F. Kennedy)

Women rights have been infringed and victimized in different orders and in
different periods. Today Woman is much securer then it was in the past. Still the need is
to improve the areas where the developing countries should concentrate, like the
education of the women, steps to eradicate poverty from the society so that the basic
needs should be fulfilled. Women should be encouraged to come ahead in all the field of
life, because the only key to success is that there should be no discrimination between
male and female, so that the society may prosper and develop in smooth ways. Otherwise
no country would be able to stand in the row of developed nations.



Status of Women in Pakistan

-Historical Background
Role of women in Pakistan movement

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Why are women not equal to men in Pakistan?

Are women of rural areas equal to men in Pakistan?

Are women of urban areas equal to men in equal in Pakistan?

Our religion Islam promotes equality between men and women.

Why people of Pakistan shun it?

-How can we make women equal to men in Pakistan?

Protection of their rights.

Role of Mullahs and Extremists.

-Women can be made equal to men in the following fields:


Policies of Government of Pakistan to make women equal to men.

Impacts on the society, if women become equal to men in Pakistan.

Biological and physical difference between men and women.




Although male chauvinism pervades in Pakistan yet it is not impossible to make women
equal to men in our state. Women can and should be equal to men in Pakistan; certain
reforms should be introduced in various fields in order to achieve the required objective.

If one looks into past one may realize that women played significant role in Pakistan
movement. The eminent personalities like Fatima Jinnah and others stood side by side

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with men in attaining Pakistan ,so why it is impossible for women to stand equal to men
after the independence? Even the founder of Pakistan regarded all citizens equal. As
Quaid-e Azam remarked:

You are free you are free to go the mosques, you are free to go the temples,
you are free to go to any other place of worship within the state of Pakistan. You
may belong to any class, colour or creed that has nothing to do with the business of
the state. We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens,
equal citizens of Pakistan.

Women at present are not equal to men in Pakistan because of lack of awareness,
backwardness in the field of education and deprivation of the religious and moral
education. Therefore, it is the need of hour that certain changes should be introduced in
order to make women equal to men in Pakistan. One may analyze from the following
example that women are lagging behind men in various situations. Both men and women
are working hard and burning the midnight oil to pass the competitive exams. They both
pass the exams with flying colours. Man has a free choice to chose the group in which he
wants to be allocated but women has to abide by her fathers choice or if she is married
then according to her husbands choice. Unless and until these conditions are present,
women and men cannot be equal. Thus to achieve our objective, these condition should
be changed.

The creator of the heaven and the earth. He has created for you the pairs from
among yourselves. Al Quran.

In rural areas of Pakistan, illiterate women are working with men in fields. They are
deprived of their basic facilities. However they should be provided education and other
basic necessities to meet up the demands. Hence it is the need of hour to make women
equal to men in Pakistan.

In urban areas, no doubt women are becoming independent. They are doing jobs and
earning their own livelihood. But women and men cannot be made equal unless and until
revolution occurs at all levels of the society.

Pakistan is an Islamic state and Islam has given women an equal status to men.
Treat your women men and be kind to them as they are your partners and
committed helpers.
Islam considers women equal to men even in the deeds they perform. As Holy Quran

Those who do deeds of righteous be they male or female, they will enter paradise.
Islam has given women equality to men in fields of education, property, economics and

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Whatever is left by parents and the nearest relatives, there is a share for man and
there is a share for woman, whether the property be large or small. Al Quran.
Islam also gives women the right to marry of their own choice like men. Even if after
marriage women want divorce, they can. Hence there is no discrimination between men
and women according to Islamic laws.

People in Pakistan are poor; they are backward in the field of education and have no
thorough study about religious education. Thus by promoting false teachings of Islam,
they are degrading women from the status that has been given to them by the religion.

Pakistan however, is an Islamic state but still the true Islamic teachings are not yet
implemented in Pakistan. It is the need if hour to make certain amendments and abide by
the accurate Islamic principles so that women in Pakistan should become equal to men.

Women rarely participate in defence forces of Pakistan. They are not sent to schools,
colleges and universities. Women can be made equal to men in Pakistan by bringing
reforms in various fields. Equality between these mortals can be made in employment,
education and independence. The rights of the women should be protected and
safeguarded. Therefore in order to make them equal to men, women should be

It is obligatory for all men and women to attain education. Al-Quran

The role of mullahs and extremists have also played due role in making women
deprived of their basic rights. These extremists donot have thorough education of
religious knowledge. They consider women to be a corporeal object and deprive them of
their basic facilities. They are promoting the doctrine of Parddah in order to achieve
their own vested interests. The current situation of Swat and other Northern areas can be
cited here as an example. The flogging of women and the schools that have been blown
up are further creating a scenario in which these women are lagging behind men. These
circumstances should be changed in order to give women an equal status to men.
However , our army fighting in these areas prove that government of Pakistan are trying
their level best to empower women equal to men and to shun the fake rules as soon as

Women can be equal to men in the field of politics. They can contest the elections.
They can represent people of their respective areas. They can be elected as a member of
parliament, legislative assembly, provincial assemble and Senate.
Similarly, men and women are considered two wheels of a vehicle. The equality between
both of them is necessary for a healthy society. If a mother is educated, the next
generation will also be advanced and well developed.
As Napoleon remarked:

Give me educated women; I will give you good nation.

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Women can also be given equal status to men in field of economics. They should be
allowed to export and import. Moreover they should be given due participation in
management of industries and factories. They should be given free will to choose the
means to earn their livelihood. They should be given the right and share in the inherited

To men is what they earn and to women what they earn. (Al-Quran)

Government of Pakistan no doubt, is trying their level best to eradicate the differences
between men and women. The concept of Islamization and the Women Protection Bill
that have been introduced by different governments in the past showed that Pakistan has
been and is even now formulating such policies to elevate the position of women and to
maintain equality between the two genders.

If women are equal to men in Pakistan, the society will be more developed and
advanced. Pakistan will make progress by leaps and bounds. Pakistans next generation
will be educated. Our country will soon set an example of the state where true Islamic
teachings are being practiced.

Women are biologically and physically different from men but this does not mean that
women cannot be equal to men? Women like men may not perform all the activities
during her pregnancy. But this does not state that women are inferior to men.

Pakistan is a democratic state and an Islamic state. Democracy governs the rule of law
and equality between the citizens. Similarly Islam also regards women to be equal in
status to men. Thus if Pakistan implements true Islamic and democratic principles,
women can be made equal to men in various fields of life. Media should also play
significant role to create awareness among Pakistanis to achieve the respective goal and
mission. Hence women can be made equal to men in Pakistan.

Corruption and Stability of country

1. Introduction
i. Stability and corruption
ii. Corruption its meaning
2. Types of Corruption:
i. Political Corruption
a) NRO type decisions
ii. Judicial Corruption
iii. Bureaucratic Corruption
a) Bribery
b) Jobbery

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iv. Corporate Corruption

a) Trade
b) Commerce
v. Moral Corruption
a) Lie
b) Theft
c) Robbery
d) Dishonesty
e) Adultery
vi. Social Corruption
a) Injustice
vii. Technical terms
a) Data corruption
b) Software corruption
c) Hardware corruption
3. Causes of Corruption
i. Absolute power of Institutions
ii. Power Game
iii. Military Regime (in case of Pakistan)
iv. Peer pressure
v. Pressure of High Officials
vi. Influence of executive and legislative branches
vii. Social tolerance of corruption
viii. Fear of retribution
a) by politicians
b) by powerful public persons
c) by media etc.
ix. Poor training and lack of rewards for ethical behavior
x. Collusion
xi. Inadequately monitored administrative procedures
xii. Economic Factors
a) Poverty
b) Low salaries
c) Greed of wealth
d) Difference among the sections of Society
xiii. Social factors
a) Uplift of status
xiv. Over regulation
xv. Increase in population
xvi. Scarcity of resources
xvii. Less role of women in development activities

4. Effects on Stability of Country

i. Collective Effects:
a) Decay of National Fabric
b) Internal implosion

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c) Death blow to Good Governance

d) Hindrance in development
e) Low quality of development
f) Non-Implementation of government plans and policies
g) Mistrust of other nations
1. Lack of business partnership
2. Low or no FDI
3. Low or no Exports
4. High Imports
h) Weak Economy
i) Weak Defense
j) No technological development
k) No industrial development
l) No research based culture
m) Hindrance in spreading education
n) Misuse of Resources
1. Natural Resources
2. Human Resources
o) Frustration among the masses
p) A path of non-cooperation
q) Cause of hatred
r) Social & Cultural effects
1. Negative minded society
2. Ill mannered society
3. Fear of insecurity
4. Putrefaction of Culture
5. Hindrance in Social Interaction
s) Injustice
t) Intolerance among masses and population
ii. Individual effects
a) Weak Personality
b) Tension
c) Stress
d) Cause of Family Breakage
e) Echo of conscience
f) Revenge in mind instead of Development
5. Remedies:
i. Determination of government and people to curb Corruption
ii. Rule of Law; Supremacy of Law
iii. Justice easy and equal to all.
iv. Independence of Judiciary
a) Selection and promotions of Judges
b) Control over budgetary procedure
c) Disciplinary procedure for Judges
v. Accountability
a) From top to bottom

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b) Not for personal revenge but fair

c) Castigation of Fraudulent and defaulters
vi. Economic reforms:
a) Economic reforms for Lower strata of Society
b) Control on Inflation
c) Adequate rise in salaries
vii. Removal of political and executive pressure from Officials
viii. A check and balance system among Executive, legislature and judiciary
ix. Reward system for the honest and best performer
x. Proper Education at all levels
xi. Overhauling of Political System
a) True representation of polloi/ public
b) Removal of feudal lords from Government affairs
xii. Removal of discretionary powers of Bureaucrats
xiii. Equal educational and employment opportunities
xiv. Assurance of Merit in all fields
xv. Tolerance at individual level and social level
xvi. Implementation of Islamic values in true spirit
6. Conclusion

Corruption and Stability of Country

As the infection makes the body impotent, fragile, dilapidated and exposed to risk
of collapse, corruption plays the same role towards the stability of country. Corruption is
a syndrome which destroys the fabric of nation. Corruption and stability are two opposite
things. Where there is corruption there will be no stability.
Root word of corruption is corrupt which means to destroy or utterly broken,
while stability is from stable which means firm, balanced and not likely to change.
Stability is vestibule to prosperity while corruption is a course of perdition.
In this essay we will define corruption, the types of corruption, their causes, and
their relation to instability of a country. In the end we will suggest some remedial
measures for the abstention of this leviathan.
General understanding of corruption is lack of integrity or honesty, use of a
position of trust for dishonest gain. Corruption may refer to infection, venality and
jobbery. It is also called as putrefaction, the process of decay or decomposition.
Corruption threatens good governance, sustainable development, democratic process, and
fair business practices which individually and collectively lead to the instability of a
After understanding the meanings of corruption we should have a birds eye view
on the forms or types in which the syndrome of corruption shows its symptoms.
First of all is Political corruption. It is the dysfunction of a political system or
institution in which government officials, political officials or employees seek
illegitimate personal gain through actions such as bribery, extortion, etc. It also includes

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the steps taken by the political parties after entering into the corridors of government. If
we take an example of Pakistan NRO is one of the best examples of political corruption.
Corporate corruption.
Putrefaction, the natural process of decomposition in the human and animal body
following death.
Data corruption, an unintended change to data in storage or in transit.
Corruption (linguistics), the change in meaning to a language or a text introduced
by cumulative errors in transcription as changes in the language speakers'
Bribery in politics, business, or sport

4.corruption - moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles; "the luxury
and corruption among the upper classes"; "moral degeneracy followed intellectual
degeneration"; "its brothels, its opium parlors, its depravity"; "Rome had fallen into
moral putrefaction"

"Something is rotten in the state of Denmark" [William Shakespeare Hamlet]
"All rising to great place is by a winding stair" [Francis Bacon Essays]
Power makes corrupt while absolute power makes absolute corrupt
"One rotten apple spoils the barrel"

Corruption in Judiciary/Judicial System:

Justice delayed is justice denied & Justice rushed is justice crushed

Corruption in the judicial system distorts the proper role of judge, which is to protect the
civil right and liberties of the citizens and ensures a fair trail by a competent and impartial
under influence of executive and legislative branches
social tolerance of corruption
Fear of retribution by Politicians and powerful public persons, media etc.
Low judicial and court staff salaries
Poor training and lack of rewards for ethical behavior
Collusion among judges
Inadequately monitored administrative court procedures
Enhancing the independence of judiciary
o Selection and promotion of judges
o Control over budgetary process

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o Disciplinary procedure for judges

Enhancing competency on external control
Pakistan is 42nd in Corruption Index

Corruption has emerged as cancer in the society. It has very significant effects on
the devastation of politics, public sector, private sector, international relations, poverty
alleviation, and development, access to information, education, judiciary and legislation.
In other words it catastrophically affects each and every filed of life, from an individual
to a family and from a family to whole nation, which leads to instability of country. It is a
cataclysm which has destroyed many nations in the past, and is still very fatal. It is
capable of wiping the whole nation out of this world and hence along with the institutions
it is incumbent upon every responsible citizen to perform his ultimate role to curb
corruption. Being Muslim it is our duty to obey the commandments of Allah which are
vivid in this regard. Allah destroyed the nations in the past which were indulged in
corrupt practices and Allah loveth not the corrupt folk!

Corruption in Democracy: (an article from DAWN)

The common understanding is that most opinion polls or surveys are either
unrepresentative or biased. When they are not, their findings could be reflecting more of
a passing sentiment than durable public thinking about governments, persons or
But still there are surveys which seem to endorse the views generally expressed in the
mass media, in elite circles and bazaars or in the cabals of dissidents. That can be said
about Transparency Internationals most recent survey on corruption in Pakistan. While
the findings of the survey that corruption had grown four-fold over three years (2006-09)
can be disputed, one would be hard put to deny that, in the public perception, the
countrys civilian governments have been more corrupt than the military and, further, that
the political nazims administration has been more corrupt than that of the bureaucratic
deputy commissioner.
The higher incidence of corruption in civilian governments doesnt necessarily imply that
their heads, ministers or legislators were also corrupt or connived at corruption. But
surely they were all eager to reward their own men for the privations they suffered in the
campaigns launched to dislodge military rulers.
When Benazir Bhutto swept into power in 1988 along came a horde of youth claiming
jobs, plots and other favours for standing by her side during her long years in jail and in
the political wilderness. Whatever their contribution to her victory in elections and before
that the sacrifices they had made to try and save her father from the gallows, their
expectations were unreasonable and could not be met by remaining within the bounds of
law and propriety.
As chief secretary of her government in Sindh then, I recall a second-rung woman leader
of her party turning up to demand a plot in expensive Clifton, not being content with one
in a lesser area. An absconding district engineer demanded to be made chief engineer as
the price for his loyalty. A junior finance official aspired to head the countrys biggest
bank. All that was argued, but she could never bring herself round to tell a youth who had

Important Essays Zulqarnain Sewag

set himself on fire for her sake that she couldnt give him the job he wanted. Every
request, every approach made to her was for a favour, not equity.
Courtiers and cronies laid siege to every other political leader before and after Benazir
Bhutto. The military commanders did not, nor would they easily succumb. The governors
of Sindh in Ziaul Haqs regime with whom this writer was called upon to work as home
secretary and in other capacities had no debts to pay or sacrifices to recognise. Gen
Mohammad Iqbal Khan would routinely ignore or defy any suggestion coming from the
rapidly-politicising chief martial law administrator that was improper. Gen Abbasi was a
stickler for the rules. In my five years with them I hardly ever felt compelled to act
against the law or propriety.
The governors in Gen Yahya Khans regime Admiral Ahsan, Air Marshal Nur Khan,
Gen Atiqur Rehman and Gen Rahman Gul were austere men of integrity who followed
the rule of law, sought no favours nor dispensed any. While they must not escape their
share of responsibility for the disaster that then overtook the country, if ever the
administration was free of corruption and pomp in public life it was then. It hasnt been
since no matter whether the government has been a civilian or military one.
The comparison of corruption in districts under nazims and the deputy commissioners
proceeds on similar lines as those under political and military governments. The nazim is
the nominee of a political party. The deputy commissioner is a career civil servant. The
nazim is accountable to his party boss, the deputy commissioner to an official hierarchy.
The DC does come under political pressure but the nazim is himself a politician.
Gen Musharrafs expectations that the nazims would be non-political, loyal to him alone
and ultimately form the backbone of his own party were not fulfilled. Every nazim used
his power and the funds he received from the centre to advance the interest of his own
party leader and not that of Musharraf. That is, however, not to deny any development
that took place under the nazims to the benefit of the community at large. But, as they
say, the other side of the coin of development is corruption. The nazims indeed used their
power and money unchecked by any public agency or auditors.
The deputy commissioner, on the other hand, works under surveillance and has a choice
to take another job if he cannot remain neutral a choice not available to the nazim. It
would, however, be undemocratic and inadvisable to wind up the local councils only
because the nazims cannot be neutral or equitable. The ministers and legislators are
against the district governments not because of their maladministration but because they
are losing their foothold in their own constituencies. Politics, as is well known, is local
and sustained by jobs and not by making laws.
Leaving aside the question of corruption being more or less under the nazims or deputy
commissioners, the objectives of community participation and neutral administration can
both be met if development in the districts is entrusted to the nazims and regulatory
functions to the deputy commissioners as coordinating heads of the provincial
government. At any rate, the present system in which all functions vest in the nazim is not
The nazim of Karachi was heard complaining on television the other day that he could
not prevent encroachments in Gutter Baghicha because the police wouldnt come to his
help. Surely, he knows that both under the local government and police laws he is
responsible for law and order and the chief of the district police is also answerable to

Important Essays Zulqarnain Sewag

Deputy commissioners had no better control over the police under the colonial laws than
the nazim now has in Musharrafs system. No deputy commissioner, however, could ever
disown responsibility for encroachments. This writer was deputy commissioner of
Karachi 40 years ago for four years. Those were not the best of times for the
administration and Gutter Baghicha even then was a favourite target of professional
encroachers. But they were able to nibble at the edges and no more. Losing 400 acres to
them in four years signifies total lawlessness or connivance neither should be