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Logic of Phantasy 18

Jacques Lacan

雅克 拉岡

Lacan Seminar 14:

The Logic of Fantasy 5

逻辑的幻见

Seminar 5: Wednesday, December 14, 1966

But, moreover, this of course is only a step along the road, after which there opens out a parenthesis, to

give you all the motives for this that would allow me, thus, to specify the interpretation-effect. You should

clearly understand that I said truth-effect, that the truth of the interpretation can in no way be prejudged,

I mean, whether, until further notice, the index "true" or "false", may or not be affected to the signifier of

interpretation itself.

而且,这当然只是沿途的一步,过了这一步,一个插曲展开,给你追寻的所有动机。这样,我才能够为你

们指明这个「解释的效应」。你们应该很清楚地了解到,我说的是「真理的效应」。我的意思是,解释产生的真

理根本无法事先判断,无论「真实」或「虚假」的指标有没有受到解释本身的意符的影响,要到后来才会知道。

This signifier up to now was only an additional signifier or even a signifier too many, as such, signifying,

until it arrives, some lack, some lack, precisely, as lacking in the Universe of discourse. I only said one

thing, which is that the effect is going to be a truth-effect. But it is not for nothing either that I put forward

certain things, as I am able, each one in its turn, as one sometimes pushes a flock of sheep.

迄今,这个意符只是一个「增加的意符」,或是一个「唯我独尊」的意符,一直在意符化,直到它到达某个欠

缺,确实是某个欠缺,真理论述的欠缺。我只说一件事,这个效应将是「真理的效应」。但是这並非是白费力

气,当我盡我能力,提出某些情,一样接连一样,如同催赶一群绵羊。

And that if, last time, I made the remark, the remark that in the order of implication, qua material

implication, namely, in so far as there exists what is called the consequence in the signifying chain,

which means nothing other than antecedent and consequent, protasis and apodisis, and that I pointed

out to you that there is no obstacle to a premise being false provided its conclusion is true, for it to be

classified with the index of truth.

上一次,我讲过这样的话,在涵盖的秩序上,作为材料的涵盖,换句话说,存在有所谓的意符锁链的「结

果」。那就是「前提」、
「结果」、
「条件子句」、
「结果子句」。我跟你们指出,前提是虚假,並无碍於产生的结果是

真实,它还是可以被归类在真理的索引上。

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Suspend your spirit, then, on what I called the truth-effect, until we know a little bit (14) more about it,

are able to say a little bit more certainly what is involved in the function of interpretation.

对於我所说的「真理的效应」,我们暂且搁置一旁,因为对於解释的功用所牵涉的问题,目前我们所知不多。

容我们更加确定后再来谈。

Now, we are going to be led simply, today, to produce something that concerns the cogito. The

Cartesian cogito, in the sense that you know it, is not all that simple, since among the people who

devote to the work of Descartes - or who have devoted - their existence, there remain very large

divergences, as regards the way in which it ought to be interpreted and commentated.

现在,我们将转向来讨论跟「我思故我在」有关的问题。笛卡尔的「我思故我在」,据我们所知,並不那麽简

单。对於专注於研究笛卡尔着作的人,或专注於研究笛卡尔的人,关於着作应该如何解释及评注,各家学

说纷纭。。

Am I going or am I doing up to the moment something which would consist in involving myself, I, a

specialist .. non-specialist (laughter), or a specialist in something else, involve myself in Cartesian

debates?

目前,我要从事的问题,是在於要把我自己也牵涉进去吗?我牵涉到笛卡尔的辩论,是作为一位专家?或

是一位非专家(笑声)?或是在其它某方面的专家?

Naturally, after all, I have as much right to it as anybody else. I mean that the Discourse on method, or

the Meditations are addressed to me as much as to anyone. And that it is appropriate for me, on any

point that is being dealt with, to question myself about the function of the ergo, for example, in the

cogito, ergo sum. I mean that I am permitted, as much as any one else, to highlight that in the Latin

translation that Descartes gives of the Discourse on method, very precisely in 1644, there appears, as a

translation of the Je pense, donc je suis: Ergo sum sive existo; and on the other hand, in the

Meditations, in the second meditation and, just after, he feels some enthusiasm, he compares to the

point of Archimedes, this point from which one may expect so much, he says: "If I have only touched, if I

have only invented (invenero), this minimum, which includes something certain and unshakeable

(certum et inconcussum)", that it is in the same text that he formulates (this formula which is not

absolutely identical): Ergo sum, ego existo.

当然,我畢竟跟任何其它的人一样,都有权利评论。我的意思是,「方法论」或「沉思录」的读者可以是我,

也可以是别人。对於正在讨论的任何一点,我有资格置疑我自己,关於「我思故我在」里,「自我」的功用。我

的意思是,我跟任何其它一个人一样,被容许强调,在笛卡尔给予「方法论」的拉丁文的翻译,确实是在

1644年,有一本 Je pense, donc je suis: Ergo sum sive existo 的翻译本。在另一方面,在「沉思录」,在第

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二本的沉思录,他感觉到一些热情,相当於阿基米德「我找到了」的狂热,是我们可以预期的。他说:「假如

我只是碰触到,假如我只是发现到,这个包含某件确定而不可动摇的最小的东西。」就在相同的本本里,他

说明(这个公式並没有绝对一致):我思故我在。

And that, finally, in the Principles of the search for truth by natural light, it is: dubito ergo sum; which for

the psychoanalyst has a completely different resonance - but a resonance in which I will not try today to

engage myself in, it is too slippery a terrain, to ... (with the current habits, those which allow people to

steak about M Robbe-Grillet by applying to rim the grid of obsessional neurosis) (laughter) -presents for

psychoanalysts too many dangers of tripping up, or even of ridicule, for me to go far in this sense.

最后,在「追寻自然之光的真理的原理」,他说的是:「我怀疑我的存在」。对於精神分析师而言,这句话有

着完全不同的迴响,但是今天我並不是要专注讨论这个迴响,那个一个不容易掌握的平台,对於精神分析

师而言,继续前进有太多遭遇绊倒,甚至狼狈不堪的危险。(以目前的风气,如格惹列被当着是偏执狂的

精神病患予以囚禁,我们还是迴避这个问题为妙。)

But on the contrary, I underline that what is involved for us is something which offers us a certain choice.

The choice that I am making, on this occasion, is the following: to leave in suspense everything that a

logician may bring up in terms of questions around the cogito ergo sum. Namely, the order of implication

that is involved. If it is simply material implication, you see where that leads us. If it is material

implication - according to the formula that I wrote the last time on the board (and that I do not mind (15)

writing again provided I am given the space) - it is uniquely in the measure that the second proposition

of implication - I am - would be false in so far as the therefore indicates it, that the link of implication

between the two terms could be rejected. In other words, the only important thing is to know whether if

the I am is true, there would be any difficulty in the I think being false - I am saying: for the formula to be

acceptable qua implication.

但是在另一方面,我强调,我们所牵涉到的,是某件给予我们有某种的选择。在这个场合,我正在做的选

择如下:关於「我思故我在」,先将逻辑专家提出的问题搁置不论。换句话说,搁置不论所牵涉到的涵盖的

秩序。假如这仅是材料的涵盖,你们明白,我们将会引导到哪里?假如那是材料的涵盖,依照我上一次书

写在黑板上的公式,(现在黑板上已经没有空间,要不然我不介意再书写一遍。)独特的地方在於,这个

涵盖的第二个命题「我在」,将会是虚假,因为有一个「因此」指示着它,在这两个术语之间涵盖的连接会被

排斥掉。换句话说,唯一重要的事是要知道,假如「我在」是真实的,是否会造成「我思」是虚假的困难?我

是说:这个公式要被接纳作为涵盖的问题。

I think: it is me who says it. After all, it may be that I believe that I am thinking, but that I am not thinking.

This even happens every day to many people. Since implication, that is - which I repeat, in pure and

simply implication, the one that is called material implication - requires only one thing: that the

conclusion should be true.

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我思想:那是我在说这句话。畢竟,我相信我正在思想,但事实上,我並没有在思想。这是许多人日常生活

中,甚至会发生的事情,因为涵盖,我再重复一遍,纯净而简单的涵盖,所谓「材料的涵盖」,它只要求一

件事:结论应该是真实。

In other words, logic including a reference to the functions of truth, in establishing the table in a certain

number of matrices, can only define - in order to remain consistent with itself - can only define certain

operations as implications, by admitting them as functions which would be still better named:

consequences. Consequences only meaning by that the following: the breadth of the field in which, in a

signifying chain, we can put the connotation of truth. We can put the connotation of truth on the liaison of

a false first of all, subsequently of a true and not the inverse.

换句话说,逻辑以某些矩阵建立表格时,会包括到引述真理的功用。逻辑只能够定义(为了保持本身的一

致性),只能够定义某些的运作,作为涵盖,承认这些涵盖,当着是美其名为「结果」的功用。
「结果」的意

思仅是如下:在某个领域的范围里在意符的锁链里,我们能够提出真理的内涵。我们能够将真理的内涵,

放置在起初是虚假,结果是真实的连接上,但是结果若是虚假,起初未必会是真实。

This, of course - it is certain -leaves us far from the order of what has to be said about the Cartesian

cogito as such, in its proper order, which no doubt implies, involves, the constitution of the subject as

such. Namely, complicates what is involved in writing qua regulating the functioning of the logical

operation, goes beyond it precisely in the fact that this writing itself, no doubt, here only represents a

more primordial functioning of something which, from this point of view, deserves indeed for us to be

posited as a function of writing, in as far as it is on it that there depends the veritable status of the

subject and not on his intuition of being the one-who-thinks.

当然,无可置疑地,这会使我们距离笛卡尔的「我思故我在」的本题,所必须要说的内容,更加遥远。
「我思

故我在」,毫无疑问,会牵涉到人作为一个生命的主体的组成要素。换句话说,牵涉到以书写作为规范逻辑

运作的功用,然后超越它,确实是因为书写的本身,毫无疑问,在此仅是代表一种更加原始的运作。从这

个观点来看,这个原始的远作应该值得让我们跟它假定为书写的功用,因为主体的可验证的地位,依靠着

它,而不是依靠他作为「我思」的人的直觉。

An intuition justified by what, if not by something that at this moment is profoundly hidden from him.

直觉存在的理由是什麽?难道不就是,在这个时刻,它深深隐藏,自己渾然不觉?

Namely, what does he want in seeking this certainty on this terrain of progressive evacuation, of

cleaning up, of sweeping away everything that is within his reach concerning the function of knowledge.

And then, after all, what is this cogito?

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换句话说,他去追寻这个确定性,在逐渐撤离的这个平台,在清理乾净的这个平台,在横扫一切知识的功

用所能掌握的东西,他到底「想要」什麽? 畢竟,这个「我思」是什麽?

Ago: I push, (as I was speaking about it earlier - my sheep: this forms part of my work when I am here, it

is not necessarily the same when I am all alone nor when I am in (16) my analyst's chair).

「我」:我向前推,(我的绵羊,我早先已经提到过:这个形成我在这里的工作的一部分,跟我在独处时,

或我正在跟病患做心理治疗时的我,未必是同一个人。)

Cogo: I push together.

「聚精会神」:我一起向前推。

Cogito: all that is being stirred up!

「思想」:正在激动起来。

When all is said and done, if there were not this desire of Descartes which orients this cogitation in such

decisive fashion, we could translate the cogito, as one can translate it after all, wherever cogitating goes

on, one could translate it as I am fiddling!..

假如没有笛卡尔的这个欲望,将这个思想的位置,定义得如此斩钉截铁,当我们说了一切,做了一切,我

们能够翻译这个「思想」,如同只要思想在运作当中,我们能够翻译它。即使我正在嘻戏时,我也能够翻译

它!

Why cogito and not puto, for example, which has also a sense in Latin. This even means: to prune:

which, for us analysts, has little resonances ... anyway, puto ergo sum would have perhaps a different

core, a different style, perhaps different consequences. We do not know if he had begun by pruning -

really in the sense of pruning – he would perhaps, at the end, have pruned God! While with cogito it is

something different.

例如,为什麽「我思想」,而不是「使我思想」,它们在拉丁文,各有不同含义。这甚至意味着:修剪:对於

我们精神分析师而言,会有一些共鸣。无论如何,「使我思想,故我在」,可能会有一种不同的核心,一种

不同的风格,可能还会有不同的结果。我们不知道,是否他已经开始修剪,真的是实质上的修剪。可能到最

后,连对於上帝的信仰也要修剪!另一方面,「我思想」则是不同的事情。

And, moreover, cogito ... cogito is written, first of all, if we have noticed that cogito could be written with

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respect to the total formula: Cogito: "ergo sum", it is here indeed that we can grasp again the intuition

and have it grasped that some ... content, this liquid which fills, which derives from ...- properly: from

structure - from the apparatus of language.

而且,「我思想」、、、
「我思想」首先被书写,假如我们已经注意到,「我思想」能够被书写,跟随这个完整的

公式:我思想:「我存在」。的确,从这里,我们再一次理解到直觉,然后,使它被我理解。有些内容,填进

去的液体,适当地说,从结构,从语言的结构里演变而来。

雄伯译

springherohsiung@gmail.com