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Principals of Vacuum

Definitions of vacuum
Emptiness of Space
A space partially exhausted (as to the highest
degree possible) by artificial means (as an air
pump).
Any pressure less than atmospheric pressure
(14.7 PSI absolute or 29.9 inches of mercury
absolute) measured at sea level
A VACUUM IS VERY
DIFFICULT TO ACHIEVE
AND DIFFICULT TO
MAINTAIN IN NATURE.
Measuring a vacuum

Low levels of vacuum are


often measured in inches of
Mercury.
High levels of vacuum are
measured using much
smaller units
Measuring a vacuum

High Vacuum
Units of Measurement
Absolute pressure
1 Standard Atmosphere = 29.92 Inches = 760 MM = 1.013 Kpa
1 Millimeter = 1 Torr = 1000 Microns
1Micron = 10 Torr = .001 Millimeter
Measuring a vacuum
Compound gauges measure both pressure and
vacuum.
Pressure will be expressed as PSI and vacuum
will be expressed as inches of Mercury.
Note that standard and metric
measurements of vacuum are scaled in
opposite directions.
For example a full vacuum measured with the
standard scale would be 29.92 inches of
Mercury. Using the metric scale it would be 0
millimeters of Mercury or 0 Torr.
Barometers For Vacuum
Measurements
Examples Of Barometers
Full
Full
Vacuum
Vacuum
Height
29.92 inches
Height
Open To
or
33.4 Feet
Atmosphere
760 MM

Mercury Water
Example Of A Compound
Gauge

Compound
Gauge

100 PSI

30Hg
Barometer Measuring full
Vacuum

Full
Vacuum
Hose To
Transformer
Barometer
Tank
29.92 Inches
Open To Under Full Vacuum
or
Atmosphere 0 MM

Mercury
Barometer Measuring No
Vacuum

No
Vacuum
Hose To
Transformer
Barometer
Tank
0 Inches
Under No Vacuum
Open To or

Atmosphere 760 MM

Mercury
USE OF VACUUM IN
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Vacuum is used to remove moisture
from breakers and transformers.
Vacuum removes all gases from
breakers so the the SF6 gas will remain
pure.
Vacuum removes all air from
transformers so that trapped air pockets
will not prevent the oil from
encapsulating the entire winding.
WHAT A VACUUM DOES NOT
DO
A vacuum does not suck the water out
of electrical equipment.
What it does do is lower the boiling
point so that the water boils out of the
insulation into a vapor and is removed
along with the other gasses.
Boiling Points For Water

Inches Vacuum Temp. Gauge pressure Temp.

29 71F 5Lbs. 227F

25 133F 10Lbs. 240F

20 161F 15Lbs. 250F

15 179F 25Lbs. 267F

10 192F 35Lbs. 281F

5 203F 50Lbs. 298F

0 212F 75Lbs. 320F


REMOVING MOISTURE BY
VACUUM
From the chart on boiling points of water
it becomes crystal clear that heat is a
critical element in removing moisture by
vacuum.
Vacuum filling of transformers in hot
weather is much more effective than in
winter.
In winter supplemental heat is
necessary to obtain effective drying.
QUESTIONS?